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The principles of psychology: Volume 1

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... Self-esteem, an important component of the self-concept, also known as the general selfconcept [25], has been of interest to communication research scholars. It appeared earlier in the studies of foreign scholars. ...
... It appeared earlier in the studies of foreign scholars. James, a pioneer of functionalist psychology in the United States, first proposed the formula of self-esteem: self-esteem = success/ambition [25]. He argued that self-esteem is conditioned by the level of success and ambition, and that greater success and lower ambition are both conducive to increasing self-esteem. ...
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Along with the rise of online social networking, social media is reshaping people's lives. The influence of TikTok, as a representative of short-video social media, on the different groups of people cannot be ignored. This paper aims to investigate the behavioral performance of college students' active and passive use of TikTok and the psychological impact brought by different use behaviors from the perspective of media society theory. This paper chooses college students as the research object and adopts questionnaire survey method. The results show that, on the one hand, college students' active and passive use of TikTok was positively correlated with self-esteem, but the correlation with subjective well-being was not yet significant; there was also a significant positive correlation between active and passive use. On the other hand, gender, household income, active use, and subjective well-being can positively predict self-esteem, with active use and subjective well-being having the strongest predictive power. This study can help to improve the research on the impact of social media use on users, as well as provide a new basis for improving college students' self-esteem level from a media perspective.
... It is worth noting the convergence of the theory I am proposing here with the «classic» intuitions of the psychologist James (1890), recently re-proposed by three philosophers of the mind as part of a «constructivist and realist» vision of the Self, which they consider to be close to attachment theory and object relation theory. Di Francesco et al. (2016) [47,48] distinguish between two aspects of the Self: the «process of the Self» (in James' terminology, the «I») and the product of this process, which is the «representation of the Self» (in James' terminology, the «Me»). The «Me» is constantly updated by the «process of the Self» and is firstly bodily; the highest point of development of this construction process is the «narrative Self». ...
... What they outline is a constructivist and developmental vision of the Self, distinguishing between the Self as an interminable process of «objectification» (the «I») and the Self as the multidimensional representation continually updated by this process (the «Me»). Di Francesco et al. [47] retrace subjectivity to self-consciousness, identifying one with the other totally, from the simplest forms to the most evolved, linguistic, cultural and narrative ones. The «missing link» in this stimulating treatment is undoubtedly unconscious subjectivity which is at the base of the psychoanalytical approach, as much as regards the drive perspective as the relational one. ...
... Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts (1943), attempted to demonstrate how the brain can work using electrical circuitry whereby a summation over-weighted inputs and the activated output using this input. By 1951, Marvin Minsky, developed the first ANN [8][9][10]. This is an abstraction of the human brain functionality. ...
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This paper presents the prediction of a singly reinforced concrete beam tension reinforcement design requirements using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The method was adopted for cost optimization of the tension reinforcement in the structural element and compared with the requirements of Eurocode 2 design. The code provisions for the design of a singly reinforced beam can vary from place to place. The use of a system immune from the code variation is an excellent means of predicting the reinforcement’s need of a rectangular concrete beam. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) is employed to forecast the reinforcement of such a beam. Artificial neural network has the potential to simulate the data that are hard to produce in arithmetical analysis. The scheme was established using the MATLAB tool kit. The design variables were the depth of the beam, the width of the beam, and the moments. A forward pass supervised backward propagation training. The regression analysis of the results is one to one match. The predicted and target values are completely in accord.
... Psikoloji zihinsel hayatın olgularını ve şartlarını inceleyen bilim olarak tanımlamaktadır (James, 1890). Psikoloji bilimi, başlarda çaresizlik, başarısızlık ve tükenmişlik gibi birey davranışlarının sorun odaklı yönlerini araştırırken, pozitif psikoloji hareketi ile bireyin güçlü yönlerine ve iyilik haline (wellness) önem veren yaklaşımlara bırakmıştır (Caprara ve Cervore, 2003). ...
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koruyucu rehabilitasyon
... This phenomenon is called emotional temporal distortion (Lake et al., 2016). As early as 1890, James (1890) noted that our perception of time changed with different mental moods. Later, some studies found that emotions affected time perception (e.g., Falk & Bindra, 1954;Gulliksen, 1927;Hare, 1963;Langer et al., 1961;Rosenzweig & Koht, 1933;Thayer & Schiff, 1975). ...
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Anecdotal experiences show that the human perception of time is subjective, and changes with one's emotional state. Over the past 25 years, increasing empirical evidence has demonstrated that emotions distort time perception and usually result in overestimation. Yet, some inconsistencies deserve clarification. Specifically, it remains controversial how valence (positive/negative), arousal (high/low), stimulus type (scenic picture/facial expression/word/sound), and temporal paradigm (reproduction/estimation/discrimination) modulate the effect of emotion on time perception. Thus, the current study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify evidence for these moderators. After searching the Web of Science, SpiScholar, and Google Scholar, 95 effect sizes from 31 empirical studies were calculated using Hedges'g. The included studies involved 3,776 participants. The results a highlighted significant moderating effect of valence, arousal, stimulus type, and temporal paradigm. Specifically, negative valence tends to result in overestimation relative to positive valence; the increasing arousal leads to increasing temporal dilating; scenic picture, facial picture, and sound are more effective in inducing distortions than word; the overestimation can be better observed by discrimination and estimation paradigms relative to reproduction paradigms, and estimation paradigm is likely to be the most effective. These results suggest that the effect of emotion on time perception is influenced by valence, arousal, stimulus type, and temporal paradigm. These mitigating factors should be considered by scientists when studying time perception.
... In what follows, we will outline some important characteristics of metacognitive feelings. To begin with, a central characteristic of metacognitive feelings is that -although they often reside in the fringe of consciousness (James 1890, Mangan 1993, 2001Reber et al 2002: Norman et al. 2010) and may sometimes be considered "background feelings" (Colombetti 2011(Colombetti , 2014)-they are conscious states (Koriat 2000;Koriat and Levy-Sadot 2000). Furthermore, metacognitive feelings concern the subject's own mental or cognitive capacities and processes. ...
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Metacognitive feelings are affective experiences that concern the subject’s mental processes and ca-pacities. Paradigmatic examples include the feeling of familiarity, the feeling of confidence, or the tip-of-the-tongue experience. In the present paper, we advance an account of metacognitive feelings based on the Predictive Processing framework. The core tenet of Predictive Processing is that the brain is a hierarchical hypothesis-testing mechanism, predicting sensory input based on prior experience and updating predictions based on incoming prediction error. According to the proposed account, metacog-nitive feelings arise out of a process in which visceral changes serve as cues to predict the error dy-namics relating to a particular mental process. The expected rate of error reduction corresponds to the valence at the core of the emerging metacognitive feeling. Metacognitive feelings employ prediction dynamics to model the agent’s situation in a way that is both descriptive and directive. Thus, metacog-nitive feelings are not only an appraisal of ongoing cognitive performance but also a set of action poli-cies. These action policies span predictive trajectories across bodily action, mental action, and intero-ceptive changes, which together transform the epistemic landscape within which metacognitive feelings unfold.
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Pedagogical anthropology bases its teaching methodology on the nature of man. The creator of this pedagogical approach was Giuseppe Sergi, a universal scientist, famous throughout the world in his time. In this contribution, pedagogical anthropology is illustrated through an overview of his life and work. The scientific method is also analyzed as the foundation of pedagogical anthropology. Finally, suggestions are given in order to address the problems that modern times pose to pedagogy. SOMMARIO. L'antropologia pedagogica fonda la sua metodologia di insegnamento sulla natura dell'uomo. L'ideatore di questo approccio pedagogico fu Giuseppe Sergi, scienziato universale, famoso in tutto il mondo dei suoi tempi. In questo contributo, l'antropologia pedagogica è illustrata attraverso una panoramica della sua vita e del suo lavoro. Verrà anche analizzato il metodo scientifico, mostrando come l'antropologia pedagogica si basi proprio su di esso. Infine, verranno forniti dei suggerimenti per affrontare i problemi che i tempi moderni pongono alla pedagogia. 1. Introduzione Elaborata più di un secolo fa, l'antropologia pedagogica fonda la sua metodologia di insegnamento sulla natura dell'uomo. Essa considera le caratteristiche biologiche, di ap-prendimento e l'ambiente sociale di chi apprende. L'ideatore dell'antropologia pedagogica fu Giuseppe Sergi, antropologo messinese, famoso in tutto il mondo dei suoi tempi. In questo articolo, l'antropologia pedagogica viene discussa attraverso una panoramica della vita e del lavoro di Giuseppe Sergi. In particolare, viene dibattuta l'importanza delle idee del Sergi sulla psiche come fenomeno concreto biologico soggetto a processi evolutivi, sia nell'individuo che nella società. L'antropologia pedagogica si proponeva di agire in ambedue i contesti attraverso l'educazione per portare ad un miglior uso delle facoltà più alte dell'intelletto umano. Considerando il positivismo di Giuseppe Sergi, il metodo scientifico non poteva che costituire un punto chiave della sua pedagogia. Questo viene qui discusso ampiamente, illustrando i principi metafisici di astrazione e di uniformità spazio-temporale necessari
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The recently published Springer Brief in cultural psychology presents theoretical and empirical advances on inner speech. The editor Pablo Fossa suggests viewing inner speech as a private area to remember, play and dream, rather than a mere psychological function connected to problem solving. Along the lines of this suggestion, I adopt a playful approach in order to review the volume. Rather than delivering results of an analysis, I invite us to use the academic journal platform to take part in a dialogical encounter. In the first part of this essay, I offer a transparent step-by-step process of researcher's positioning, based on remembering and playing. In the second part, I dream of research methodologies, which would allow us to explore inner speech as dynamic movements experienced by whole and dialogical beings. This experiment, in which I enact my inner speech on the academic stage, eventually lets three key-moments of Fossa's book come forward as gamechangers for future inquiries: 1. The importance of hearing one's voice in audio-diary based research, 2. the shift of attention towards experiential contexts of inner speech (such as bodily sensations or felt knowledge), and 3. the notion of thirdness as a meta-position, pointing at the mutual permeability of reflective and pre-reflective realms of inner speech. This performing review is inspired by a theatre-based practice called Dialogical Acting with the Inner Partners and represents an original contribution to researcher's self-reflexive positioning practices, as well as to inner speech qualitative research methodologies.
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Neo-institutional analysis, and in particular that of Douglass North, has attempted to return to the micro foundations of institutions. The analytical developments proposed by North and his colleagues focus on the role of mental models. However, they follow the cognitivist turn of the social sciences and let aside emotions. The article examines the contributions of John Dewey’s philosophical thought to an institutionalist conception that integrates the dynamics of emotions to enrich the conception of action and the analysis of the link between institutions and the individual.
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Meritocracy continues to dominate conventional thinking in the postmodern West. Yet, recently, an increasing number of critics have highlighted how meritocracy has gone wrong. One such critic is Daniel Markovits, author of The Meritocracy Trap . In this article, we highlight the major themes of Markovits’s book, identify how the ideology of meritocracy has infiltrated kinesiology and sport, and then propose how to reconceptualize and redirect kinesiology toward a more humane and morally sound discipline, which can avoid the pitfalls of the meritocracy trap. Most notably, we propose that kinesiology should (a) recognize the frailty and temporality of humans, (b) embrace the wide middle of human skill performance capabilities, (c) value mid-level jobs and occupations such as physical education teaching and YMCA and/or city recreation department positions, and (d) redefine what counts as success.
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This Element introduces a biological approach to cognition, which highlights the significance of allostatic regulation and the navigation of challenges and opportunities. It argues that cognition is best understood as a juggling act, which reflects numerous ongoing attempts to minimize disruptions while prioritizing the sources of information that are necessary to satisfy social and biological needs; and it provides a characterization of the architectural constraints, neurotransmitters, and affective states that shape visual perception, as well as the regulatory capacities that sustain flexible patterns of thought and behavior.
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Based on the work of Alfred Schutz, this article develops a theory of intersubjectivity—one of the basic building blocks of social experience—and shows how such a theory can be empirically leveraged in sociological work. Complementing the interactionist and ethnomethodological emphasis on the situated production of intersubjectivity, this paper revisits the basic theoretical assumptions undergirding this theory. Schutz tied intersubjectivity to the way people experience the world of everyday life: a world that he held as distinct from other provinces of meaning, such as religious experience, humor, or scientific reasoning. However, as this article shows, such neat distinctions are problematic for both empirical and theoretical reasons: The cognitive styles that define different provinces of meaning often bleed into one another; people often inhabit multiple provinces of meaning simultaneously. Intersubjectivity may thus be simultaneously anchored in multiple worlds, opening a host of empirical research questions: not only about how intersubjectivity is done in interaction, but about how different kinds of intersubjective experiences are constructed, how multi-layered they are, as well as opening up questions about possible asymmetries in the experiences of intersubjectivity.
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This chapter examines the idea of inclusiveness from the perspective of Black males, with a special emphasis on the strategies they use to stand out while fitting in (SOFI) at school. Relative to ethnic and gender groups in the United States, Black males receive more disciplinary referrals and are thus more likely to be subjected to exclusionary practices that prohibit their full participation in scholastic activities in the school environment. Using the critical race theory methodology of counter-storytelling, we outline themes emerging from focus groups that are designed to understand the ways in which Black males go about addressing their social desires for uniqueness and similarity to peers. The voices and perspectives of Black males in this chapter provide a roadmap for educators seeking to honor and affirm the intersectional identities of these students in a manner that is culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate.
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Consumption plays a principal role in many aspects, such as subsistence, creativity, and improvement and realization of oneself. The act of consumption began in humankind’s history and has existed since the prehistoric ages; however, its purpose and form have changed.
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This chapter describes how attention systems are studied and modeled through a combination of lesion-deficit, behavioral, and brain imaging data. We briefly introduce the logic of lesion-deficit, behavioral, and brain imaging approaches and how they are used in examining brain function. This logic has led to the identification of three network models within the larger attention system which are hypothesized to be responsible for alerting, orienting, and executive control. These network models have served as the basis for fruitful study of brain development and disorders of brain function for the past quarter century.
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Aim of this dissertation was to gain new and extensive insights about younger and older adults‘ language production by clarifying in how far particular visual and conceptual factors affect the choice of a grammatical structure and utterance planning. More specifically, it was investigated in what way a visual attention orienting towards the patient as well as patient animacy and the position of the patient affect the description of a transitive event scenario. The value of the doctoral thesis is that, as far as these research questions are concerned, younger and older adults‘ language production have never been contrasted so far, neither in German-speaking regions nor internationally. Due to demographic changes, obtaining new knowledge about younger and older adults` sentence production and sentence planning mechanisms is increasingly gaining importance. For this purpose, five picture description experiments were conducted with younger and older German-speaking adults. In summary, the analysis revealed similarities and differences between younger and older adults‘ utterance production and utterance planning mechanisms. Besides the augmentation of scientific knowledge, this study provides diverse implications regarding the design of future psycholinguistic picture description experiments and typical psycholinguistic fields of application such as speech therapy and language teaching as well as marketing.
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The ability to learn and flexibly apply sophisticated concepts is thought by many to be what differentiates humans from all other animals. A basic assumption underlying this belief is that some “lower-order” associative learning mechanisms link perceptual events to specific reactions, whereas the kinds of verbalizable concepts that humans form depend on “higher-order” cognitive processes that rely less on perception and more on rational thought. Evidence in support of this interpretation comes largely from experiments in which animals either fail to learn or generalize concepts that humans readily learn, or learn them with great difficulty. Here, we argue that the formation of generalizable relational concepts may depend more on an individual’s capacity to shift attention than on the possession of representational processes that are unique to humans. Studies of relational concept learning in non-human animals show that they can learn generalizable concepts when conditions are favorable. In particular, repetition of similar training experiences appears to facilitate attentional redirection, thereby enabling animals to flexibly reenact past events and to judge the similarity of items within stimulus sets. The conditions that promote concept learning in humans may differ substantially from those experienced by most other animals. This does not imply, however, that either (1) conceptual learning mechanisms differ qualitatively from other learning mechanisms, or (2) that the processes that lead to concept formation in humans differ significantly from those present in other species.
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The primary goal of this paper is to provide substantial motivation for exploring an Acquaintance account of phenomenal consciousness, on which what fundamentally explains phenomenal consciousness is the relation of acquaintance. Its secondary goal is to take a few steps towards such an account. Roughly, my argument proceeds as follows. Motivated by prioritizing naturalization, the debate about the nature of phenomenal consciousness has been almost monopolized by representational theories (first-order and meta-representational). Among them, Self-Representationalism is by far the most antecedently promising (or so I argue). However, on thorough inspection, Self-Representationalism turns out not explanatorily or theoretically better than the Acquaintance account. Indeed, the latter seems to be superior in at least some important respects. Therefore, at the very least, there are good reasons to take the Acquaintance account into serious consideration as an alternative to representational theories. The positive contribution of this paper is a sketch of an account of consciousness on which phenomenal consciousness is explained partly in representationalist terms, but where a crucial role is played by the relation of acquaintance.
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The article presents a social phenomenology of naturalism. Starting from Stefan Bargheer’s Moral entanglements (2018), it argues that to understand the transformations of naturalist practices, we have to focus both on the shifting typifications of activity and their organizational moorings, but also on the experiential affordances of practice. Drawing on the work of Schutz and Merleau-Ponty, I focus on the transformation of animals from background into figure, the peculiar province of meaning that naturalist practice entails, as well as the experience of “play” that Bargheer highlights. Doing so, I argue that the affordances of experience are a constitutive aspect of any historical account of practice: that a phenomenological approach is crucial not only for the micro-sociology of interaction and experience, but for understanding larger historical processes and transformations.
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Scientific research progresses by the dialectic dialogue between hypothesis building and the experimental testing of these hypotheses. Microbiologists as biologists in general can rely on an increasing set of sophisticated experimental methods for hypothesis testing such that many scientists maintain that progress in biology essentially comes with new experimental tools. While this is certainly true, the importance of hypothesis building in science should not be neglected. Some scientists rely on intuition for hypothesis building. However, there is also a large body of philosophical thinking on hypothesis building whose knowledge may be of use to young scientists. The present essay presents a primer into philosophical thoughts on hypothesis building and illustrates it with two hypotheses that played a major role in the history of science (the parallel axiom and the fifth element hypothesis). It continues with philosophical concepts on hypotheses as a calculus that fits observations (Copernicus), the need for plausibility (Descartes and Gilbert) and for explicatory power imposing a strong selection on theories (Darwin, James and Dewey). Galilei introduced and James and Poincaré later justified the reductionist principle in hypothesis building. Waddington stressed the feed-forward aspect of fruitful hypothesis building, while Poincaré called for a dialogue between experiment and hypothesis and distinguished false, true, fruitful and dangerous hypotheses. Theoretical biology plays a much lesser role than theoretical physics because physical thinking strives for unification principle across the universe while biology is confronted with a breathtaking diversity of life forms and its historical development on a single planet. Knowledge of the philosophical foundations on hypothesis building in science might stimulate more hypothesis-driven experimentation that simple observation-oriented "fishing expeditions" in biological research.
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Two principles inherent in our universe allow for the development of cognitive networks. As a general rule, the p concept maintains stability in human thinking and the k concept allows for cognitive change. This chapter focuses on the role of the p factor which allows for the inclusion and exclusion of environmental information in the formation of cognitive models and does not allow a cognitive model to become overwhelmed by too much information. The k factor focuses on the interconnections between informational variables and that will be discussed in the next chapter. Examples of how the p factor allows for the formation of cognitive variables are discussed in terms of common everyday activities such as driving an automobile and dangerous behavior such as safely navigating a kayak through the complex rapids of a white water river. Diagrams of the interactions in cognitive models demonstrate the limits of stability in such models and how they can quickly become chaotic and dysfunctional.KeywordsNeuronal modelsDysfunctional life formsBounded stabilityp processInclusionExclusionCognitive probabilityCognitive nodes
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This chapter forms, together with the previous chapter, the core argument of the book, by asking what institutions must be like in order to presence. It discusses the work of Antonio Damasio and Suzanne Langer to show how the new configuration we perceive in an institutional process is established through aesthetic features, in particular harmony and rhythm, and how we experience and express this dynamic form. It then discusses the role of values and emotions as central elements of this dynamic form, concluding that institutions emerge as aesthetic expressions of an intense, morally charged collective feeling that I have called “zeitgeist”.
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Many global and political conflicts involve differences in worldviews. As our world grows increasingly interconnected, and as differences in identity—and the politics of identity—play an increasingly prominent role in our cultural discourse, these differences become harder than ever to ignore. Yet worldviews remain poorly understood, and traditional methods of interest‐based negotiation are insufficient to address this dimension of conflict, which implicates core aspects of who we are, what we believe, and how we make meaning in the world. In this article, we examine what worldviews are, why they matter, and how clashes of worldviews can impede conflict resolution. We offer strategies and tactics to overcome these obstacles, drawing on scholarship in conflict management, social identity theory, relational identity theory, and moral psychology. Overcoming the clash of worldviews requires that we learn to build bridges across our respective worldviews, acknowledging each party’s relationship to their beliefs and values while emphasizing similarities to build a common identity that transcends our respective differences.
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Why would decision makers (DMs) adopt heuristics, priors, or in short “habits” that prevent them from optimally using pertinent information—even when such information is freely-available? One answer, Herbert Simon’s “procedural rationality” regards the question invalid: DMs do not, and in fact cannot, process information in an optimal fashion. For Simon, habits are the primitives, where humans are ready to replace them only when they no longer sustain a pregiven “satisficing” goal. An alternative answer, Daniel Kahneman’s “mental economy” regards the question valid: DMs make decisions based on optimization. Kahneman understands optimization not differently from the standard economist’s “bounded rationality.” This might surprise some researchers given that the early Kahneman, along with Tversky, have uncovered biases that appear to suggest that choices depart greatly from rational choices. However, once we consider cognitive cost as part of the constraints, such biases turn out to be occasional failures of habits that are otherwise optimal on average. They are optimal as they save us the cognitive cost of case-by-case deliberation. While Kahneman’s bounded rationality situates him in the neoclassical economics camp, Simon’s procedural rationality echoes Bourdieu’s “habitus” camp. To abridge the fault line of the two camps, this paper proposes a “two problem areas hypothesis.” Along the neoclassical camp, habits satisfy wellbeing, what this paper calls “substantive satisfaction.” Along the Bourdieu camp, habits satisfy belonging, love, and bonding with one’s environment, what this paper calls “transcendental satisfaction.”
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This chapter is mainly dedicated to a discussion of possible accounts of the knowledge of what things are. In fact, knowledge of this sort is largely unexplored in the philosophical literature. But possible views on the issue can be generated if we work with a traditional distinction in the epistemological literature between propositional knowledge, practical knowledge and knowledge by acquaintance. Thus one can defend a view according to which the knowledge of what things are is simple propositional knowledge (here understood as a relation between a subject and a proposition, as expressed by the formula “S knows that p”). Otherwise, one may think that the knowledge of what things are is a species of practical knowledge, or know-how. Or one can think that the knowledge of what things are is knowledge by acquaintance. In this chapter, I will present specific theses on the knowledge of what things are that may be defended by people attracted to any of these three options. May aim here is to give the reader an idea of the space of possibilities available when it comes to taking the knowledge of what things are into account.
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This chapter begins with a reflection on how the largely overlooked publishing history of James’s supernatural short stories may offer an alternative account of the plot twists, tropes, and motifs of the form that we have long taken as given. Interrogating the “psychological ghost story” genre, this chapter suggests that the Jamesian ghostly resorts to structures of repetition enacted in the stories, mainly in the idea of heredity and family curses, and in the transmission of texts across time, equating texts with testaments. It then argues that in James’s ghost stories the true ghost is always a metaliterary “ghost text” represented consistently as a lost original, an illegible or destroyed manuscript. After analyzing the narrative frames of several stories as architectural passages between fiction and reality, this chapter concludes by associating James’s construct of the “house of fiction” with the haunted house in his stories, conceptualized as the ultimate stage where ghost texts act out their “emptiness and incompletion.”
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Although the importance of the concept of immersion in game studies is indisputable, its meaning remains imprecise and ambiguous. My goal here is to develop a phenomenological clarification of this concept. I begin by clarifying how immersion has been understood in game studies. I further contend that immersion in digital games should be recognized as one modality of immersion among others. This basic realization allows one to open a dialogue between game studies and phenomenology. I develop a phenomenological conception of immersion, which relies on Alfred Schutz’s phenomenology of multiple realities and Theodor Conrad’s phenomenology of immersion. Although such an approach provides us with a general conception of immersion, it does not clarify what specific features characterize immersion in digital games. I argue that this form of immersion is a hybrid phenomenon, which shares certain features with immersion in non-digital games and other features with immersion in other types of digital media. I further demonstrate that immersion in digital games is characterized by a specific function of embodiment. With this in mind, I conclude my analysis by introducing a phenomenologically grounded distinction between actual and virtual embodiment, thereby clarifying in which sense immersion in digital games is an embodied and a disembodied experience.
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Addiction appears to contradict expected utility theory and has therefore been the subject of many re-examinations of motivation. Addiction is variously said to arise from and/or be maintained by conditioning, habit learning (as distinct from the goal-directed kind), the elicitation of counterfeit reward in the midbrain, accelerated delay discounting, hyperbolic delay discounting, and unspecified sorts of disease or compulsion that imply addiction is not motivated at all. Each of these models has some roots in observation but each has problems, particularly in accounting for addictions that do not need a neurophysiologically active agent, such as to gambling or video games. I propose that an implication of hyperbolic delay discounting-recursive self-prediction-adds necessary mechanisms for addiction within a motivational framework. An addict's "force of habit" may be motivated by what amounts to accumulated consumption capital within an endogenous reward process. In a recursive motivational model the addict's impaired responsibility is more like bankruptcy than disease.
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This article explores impact investing within the renewable energy sector. Drawing on ethical decision making and sensemaking, this article contributes to an enhanced understanding of the complex ethical sensemaking process of impact investors when facing plausible situations in a world of contested truths. Addressing the ethical tensions faced by impact investors with mixed motives, this study investigates the way decision makers use context-specific reasons to make sense of and shape the renewable energy investment (REI) process. This represents an initial attempt to understand ethical sensemaking in impact investing made within the renewable energy (RE) sector using a multi-stakeholder approach. Our findings show that prosocial, personal, reputational, and economic motives are the main drivers of REI, with prosocial and personal motives being value-based, and reputational and economic motives being evidence-based. We find three different modes of ethical sensemaking (pragmatic, retrospective, and forecasting), allowing for the construction of the four motives noted above. These motives are based on the context-specific reasons of impact investing decision makers in the RE sector. This article contributes to the academic discourse on ethical sensemaking with some key processes involved in ethical decision making, and a better understanding of the underlying motivations of impact investing in the RE sector.
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The brain-as-computer metaphor has anchored the professed computational nature of mind, wresting it down from the intangible logic of Platonic philosophy to a material basis for empirical science. However, as with many long-lasting metaphors in science, the computer metaphor has been explored and stretched long enough to reveal its boundaries. These boundaries highlight widening gaps in our understanding of the brain’s role in an organism’s goal-directed, intelligent behaviors and thoughts. In search of a more appropriate metaphor that reflects the potentially noncomputable functions of mind and brain, eight author groups answer the following questions: (1) What do we understand by the computer metaphor of the brain and cognition? (2) What are some of the limitations of this computer metaphor? (3) What metaphor should replace the computational metaphor? (4) What findings support alternative metaphors? Despite agreeing about feeling the strain of the strictures of computer metaphors, the authors suggest an exciting diversity of possible metaphoric options for future research into the mind and brain.
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Humans constantly search for and use information to solve a wide range of problems related to survival, social interactions, and learning. While it is clear that curiosity and the drive for knowledge occupies a central role in defining what being human means to ourselves, where does this desire to know the unknown come from? What is its purpose? And how does it operate? These are some of the core questions this book seeks to answer by showcasing new and exciting research on human information-seeking. The volume brings together perspectives from leading researchers at the cutting edge of the cognitive sciences, working on human brains and behavior within psychology, computer science, and neuroscience. These vital connections between disciplines will continue to lead to further breakthroughs in our understanding of human cognition.
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Educational psychology is a field that straddles two large domains: education and psychology. Reaching far back into antiquity, the field was borne from philosophies and theories that weaved back and forth between each domain all with the intent of understanding the way learners learn, teachers teach, and educational settings should be effectively designed. This chapter tells the story of educational psychology – its evolution, its characteristics, and the insights it provides for understanding it as a field of study, teaching it at the tertiary level of education, and leveraging its findings in the classroom. The chapter begins with a rationale for a curriculum of educational psychology, tracing its core teaching and learning objectives. It describes the topics that are core to the field, as well as the theory-based and evidence-based strategies and approaches for teaching it effectively. It discusses the basic principles of effective teaching, including problem-based learning, inquiry-based learning, and small-group and service-based learning, among others. Finally, it addresses technology in learning, open-university teaching and learning, and closes with a discussion of the best approaches – both theory-based and evidence-based – for assessing the core competencies of the field.
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Revisions are proposed to the taxonomic model of human motivation of Forbes (Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 85-98, 2011) in order to incorporate a heretofore missing fourth life domain, the spiritual. The growing literature on spiritual motives is systematically reviewed in accordance with literature review standards for theory development (Templier & Paré, 2018) focusing on the objective of identifying comprehensive theoretical systems that explicitly incorporate the spiritual domain as one of a limited set of human life domains. The structure of the Forbes model is contrasted with thirteen theoretical systems that explicitly incorporate the spiritual as a fourth life domain. Consistent with the Forbes model, the spiritual domain is proposed to consist of three modes of existence (Being, Doing, Having) represented as justice motivation, moral motivation, and transcendental motivation, respectively, as well as both promotion and prevention goals within each of the three motives. Empirical evidence is reviewed in support of a revised heuristic device wherein the Spiritual domain is closely linked with the Intrapsychic and Interpersonal domains, but not the Instrumental domain, resulting in a pyramidal structure and corresponding set of testable hypotheses.
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Transportation has been recently recognized as a key element in the study of individual Quality of Life (QoL). However, relatively little is known about the interconnectedness between various transport dimensions and wellbeing measures. In scoping the existing literature, the chapter identifies studies reporting on a link between one of the seven transport indicators (mobility, affordability, accessibility, connectivity, externality, travel needs, and attitudes) and QoL. Based on the scoping review, a conceptual framework (TRAWEL) was deductively developed to understand wellbeing measures in five broader dimensions of transportation: transportation infrastructure, the built environment, and transport externalities at a societal level, travel and time use, and travel satisfaction at the individual level. Furthermore, the data requirements for accurate quantification and the possible study groups of interest are also discussed. The chapter concludes by summarizing the key points of the framework and by highlighting policy implications and areas for future research.
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Sleep is critical for a healthy, engaged and satisfying life. A large proportion of our lives is spent asleep, and a large proportion of our housing, resources, expenditure, and attention are dedicated to it. Good sleep strongly predicts better outcomes across a very broad range of life-long health, social, and industrial indices. Poor sleep has very significant and costly impacts upon physical and mental health (including metabolic health, depression, and anxiety), learning and education outcomes, and work-related outcomes (including stress, absenteeism, safety and performance). The social importance of good sleep can be seen in robust associations between sleep and loneliness, isolation, perceived social support, family and interpersonal relationships, and broader community participation and engagement. The availability and power of new sleep tracking devices mean that access and opportunity for satisfactory, satisfying, and sufficient sleep could be greatly increased. In this Chapter, we discuss the importance of sleep for quality of life and the limitations of existing monitoring technologies. We then introduce new tracking technologies and consider their benefits as well as potential pitfalls.
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This chapter will discuss the usage of more objective and unobtrusive ways technology can be used to assess leisure activities. It is well known that leisure activities are positively correlated with measures of quality of life and subjective well-being. How we spend our free time has a great deal of influence on how we subjectively assess the quality of our lives. One aspect of our leisure time, which is gaining more and more interest, is the use of smartphones and wearables. According to global statistics, almost half of the global population spends more than 5 h a day using their smartphones. The use of technology has a profound effect on the way we spend our lives, socialize and entertain. Because our use of technology leaves a massive amount of digital data, we are now able to search for patterns of digital behaviour and use them as proxies or predictors for real life behaviours, bypassing or complementing self-reports and subjective measures. Our discussion revolves around several aspects of technology and leisure time. First, how technology use relates to leisure activities and what alternative unobtrusive measures could be developed to measure or predict leisure activities. Second, we will discuss the positive and negative aspects of technology use.
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