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The phenomenon of social representations

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Moscovici, S. (1984). The phenomenon of social representations. In R. Farr & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Social representations (pp. 3-69). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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... Giriş Moscovici (1984) tarafından ortaya atılan sosyal temsil olgusu toplumların deneyimlerine dayanarak ürettikleri ortak bilgi, görüş ve kuramları ifade etmektedir (Cirhinlioğlu vd., 2006). Toplum içinde oluşturulan, kullanılan ve yaygınlaştırılan sosyal temsiller bir kişi, grup ya da nesneye karşı tutumu belirlemektedir. ...
... Ardından nesneleştirme sürecinde kavram ya da düşünce bir sembol halinde yeniden inşa edilir. Sosyal etkileşimler sonucu yaratılan ve değiştirilen sosyal temsiller sayesinde bilgi popüler bir hal alır, basitleşir ve halkın anlayacağı bir hale dönüşür (Moscovici, 1984). Sosyal psikolojinin önemli çalışma alanlarından biri olan sosyal temsil araştırmaları sadece bireylerle değil bireylerin ürettikleri bilim, sanat, edebiyat, medya ve sinema ile de yürütülmektedir. ...
... Afterward, in the objectifying process, the concept or thought is reconstructed as a symbol. Owing to the social representations created and changed as a result of social interactions, information becomes popular, simplified, and understandable to the public (Moscovici, 1984). Social representation research, one of the important research areas of social psychology, is conducted not only with individuals but also with the science, art, literature, media, and cinema produced by individuals. ...
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Introduction: The mass media tools, which affect all areas of life, also influence the perceptions of gifted individuals. The perception of the gifted individual drawn by these tools shapes the perspective on gifted individuals and special abilities. Films, among these tools, take an important place in terms of their power to reach socioeconomic audiences of all ages and all levels. The objective of this study is to reveal how gifted characters are presented in films about gifted individuals.Method: The characteristics of characters in demographic and different developmental domains (cognitive, personality, social-emotional, and language) were evaluated by examining 36 films about gifted individuals. Films with a gifted individual in the lead role were included in the study. The 36 films reached by meeting this criterion constitute the research objects of the study. The data of the study, designed with the case study method, were collected by document analysis and analyzed by the descriptive analysis method. A checklist including demographic characteristics and cognitive, social-emotional, language, and personality development characteristics of gifted individuals prepared by the researchers based on the literature was used to analyze the films reached. The characteristics of gifted characters were examined by considering the checklist.Findings: According to the research findings, gifted characters were usually depicted as males in the examined films, and some characters had various diagnoses accompanying their special abilities. Concerning developmental domains, the following dimensions were observed to come to the forefront: strong memory in the domain of cognitive development, self-awareness in the domain of social-emotional development, using the language correctly and fluently in the domain of language development, and self-discipline in the domain of personality development.Conclusion: It is observed that the characteristics of gifted characters are usually reflected in films in a way overlapping with the literature. In this context, it can be recommended that films about gifted individuals should be shot in Turkey by taking the opinions of experts working in the field of gifted education.
... 2014). Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( /20081984) korostaa, että sosiaaliset repre sentaatiot eivät ole yksilöllisen mielen tuotoksia, vaan ne rakennetaan sosiaalisessa vuorovaikutuksessa. Tämän vuoksi sosiaaliset representaatiot voidaan ymmärtää mielen ja yhteisön väliseksi sillaksi (Sakki ym. ...
... 2017). Sosiaaliset representaatiot vaikuttavat ihmisten käsityksiin sosiaalisen maailman ilmöistä, toisista ihmisistä ja itsestään (Moscovici 1984). Toimiessaan merkityksen muodostamisen resursseina ne samalla vaikuttavat siihen, miten kohtaamme toiset ihmiset ja suhtaudumme heihin. ...
... Sosiaaliset representaatiot eivät ole pysyviä ja muuttumattomia arkiteorioita, vaan niitä muokataan ja rakennetaan uudelleen vuorovaikutuksessa (Marková 2003;Moscovici 1961Moscovici /20081984). Sosiaalisten representaatioiden "liikkuvuutta" lisää myös se, että yhteisöillä ja yksilöillä on käytössään useampia sosiaalisia representaatioita saman ilmiön merkityksellistämiseen. ...
Article
Collaboration between health and social care managers – A social representations approach This small-scale study explores collaboration between managers drawing on the theory of social representations. The data were produced using visual methods: middle managers (n=25) working in the field of health and social care and education reflected on collaboration in group discussions. The data were analyzed by content analysis. The study shows that emphasizing one’s status and superiority was perceived negatively in the context of collaboration. Deconstructing hierarchies and the myth of individual strong manager seems central when promoting collaboration between managers.
... Finora, la ricerca sulle rappresentazioni sociali del cambiamento climatico e di altre questioni ambientali ha dimostrato l'efficacia di questo approccio teorico nel rendere conto dei modi in cui le persone negoziano i significati e si posizionano rispetto a tali fenomeni sensibili. Studiare le rappresentazioni sociali, dunque, ci permette di catturare le forme simboliche del pensiero in modo organizzato e integrato (Moscovici, 1984), cogliendo come le nozioni scientifiche vengono integrate nella vita quotidiana e nel pensiero comune. Si valorizza dunque la conoscenza pratica della persona ordinaria anziché la conoscenza tecnica della persona esperta, o quantomeno si dà priorità a come la prima rielabora la seconda (Walmsley, 2004). ...
... Anche durante le attività etnografiche sono state davvero marginali le situazioni in cui sono emersi posizionamenti contrastanti rispetto a specifiche vertenze, a riprova della tenuta associativa ed esegetica della sequenza cause/effetti/risposte. Tutt'al più, durante una assemblea (online, 09/11/2020) abbiamo assistito a una situazione meritevole, seppur circoscritta, di "polifasia cognitiva" (Moscovici, 1984;Bauer e Gaskell, 1999;Wagner e Hayes, 2005;Wagner, 2007). Si discuteva criticamente della destinazione dei fondi del Recovery Fund alla costruzione di nuove autostrade e [G25f] disse: «è un mezzo che collega periferie e centri, quindi perché [...] siamo contrarə?». ...
... Né durante le attività etnografiche né durante i focus group abbiamo rilevato contrasti di sense-making che ci indicassero componenti strutturali capaci di diversificare la percezione del cambiamento climatico dal punto di vista giovanile. Tuttavia, un caso di "polifasia cognitiva" (Moscovici, 1984;Bauer e Gaskell, 1999;Wagner e Hayes, 2005;Wagner, 2007) è emerso durante il workshop del "Gruppo Scuola" (10/07/2020), quando si è attivata una discussione circa la digitalizzazione dei libri. [Z19m] proponeva di abbandonare il cartaceo e promuovere la distribuzione di libri di testo online, onde ridurre la produzione di carta (ergo la deforestazione) che incide sul riscaldamento globale. ...
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Il libro affronta il tema dell’attivismo climatico giovanile a partire dall’esperienza deə attivistə di FridaysForFuture, analizzandone le rappresentazioni sociali del cambiamento climatico e le pratiche d’uso dei social media. Esso dà conto dei risultati di una ricerca qualitativa condotta con/su il gruppo romano del movimento, adottando una postura epistemica solidale che invita a una riflessione su pratiche di lotta e di ricerca. Attingendo alla teoria delle rappresentazioni sociali, le autrici analizzano il modo in cui ə “Fridays” percepiscono il cambiamento climatico: come una crisi socio-ecologica che viene da lontano e ha effetti sul futuro, che riguarda tutto e tuttə; ma anche come un problema generazionale i cui costi ambientali, sociali ed economici saranno pagati soprattutto daə giovani. Inoltre, guidate dalla letteratura sull’attivismo digitale, le autrici esplorano il modo in cui ə attivistə abitano i social media: come ambienti costitutivi dell’attivismo, in cui prassi politiche e mediali si definiscono a vicenda; ma anche come ambienti propri deə giovani, caratterizzati da stili comunicativi differenziati per età. Le due esperienze legate al cambiamento climatico e agli usi politici dei social media influiscono l’una sull’altra dando vita a un movimento giovanile per il clima inedito, che ci racconta delle trasformazioni in corso nell’attivismo giovanile, ambientale e digitale.
... Our research goes further and explores the representation of feminism among young women and men. Drawing on Social Representation Theory (Moscovici, 1984(Moscovici, , 1988, we use an innovative technique based on the Grid Elaboration Method (GEM), used previously to analyze social representations (Joffe & Elsey, 2014), to understand and contextualize how young Spanish students understand feminism today (as explained further below). We asked the students to explain their views and understandings of feminism in their own words and systematically analyzed these as shared social representations (i.e., shared ideas, discourses, and emotions) rather than individual beliefs. ...
... To address the research aims, we draw on social representations theory to investigate how the term "feminist" is understood and represented by young people in their daily lives (Moscovici, 1984(Moscovici, , 1988. According to social representations theory, social representations are systems of values, ideas, and practices with two functions. ...
... According to social representations theory, social representations are systems of values, ideas, and practices with two functions. First, they establish an order that allows people to orient themselves and master the world in which they live, and second, they enable communication between members of a community (Moscovici, 1984). This theory allows us to explore how young people understand feminism based on both their knowledge and their daily social discourse concerning this issue (Duveen & Lloyd, 1990). ...
Article
The present study uses Social Representation Theory to explore students' representations of feminism with a view to informing principles for developing feminist pedagogies that can help foster egalitarian values among college students. The aim is to identify how Spanish students (n = 366) represent feminism and how these representations are shaped by participants' gender, identification with feminism, or by studying feminized or masculinized disciplines. Students from Education (n = 192), a feminized qualification, and Engineering (n = 174), a masculinized qualification, completed a free association task using the Grid Elaboration Method to collect representations of feminism. A lexical analysis was conducted using the Reinert method. The results showed that a positive representation of feminism was the broadest (75.8%), with feminist-identified students defining feminism as a struggle for freedom. Feminist women emphasized the
... The daily experience of the world is essentially an experience of the relevance of representations of the world. From its initial formulation, in asking why representations are created, Moscovici (1984b) proposed a theory of SRs emphasizing the continuity between the represented and the real world. He suggested the hypothesis of imbalance, that is all ideologies, all concepts of the world, are means of solving psychic or emotional tensions due to a failure or a lack of social integration. ...
... By putting SRs in tension, it marks the move from "cold" to "hot" knowledge (Wagner et al., 1996, p. 344). This proposal supports Moscovici's hypothesis on tension as a driver of SRs (Moscovici, 1984b(Moscovici, , 1988 relationships as a single unit of knowledge and communication, we want to promote a socioconstructivist as well as a discursive orientation. ...
... It is probably because human beings have emotions and can talk to others about them that they develop more and more efficient knowledge about the world, which enables them to deal with increasingly complex situations. Through the social sharing of emotion, each emotional experience can thus potentially contribute to the construction of social reality under a cognitive process largely conditioned, both by existing representations and by culture (Moscovici, 1984b). In our view, the social sharing of emotion constitutes a specific situation in and through which SRs are produced and actualized. ...
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One of the main focuses of the theory of Social Representations (SRs) consists of examining its sensitivity to context immediacy. Arising from everyday life, emotions could be particularly relevant to this aim as they could constitute modalities through which SRs can emerge, be reinforced, or be transformed. The inherently unstable nature of reality requires a signaling system of this variability. The general assumption is that emotions provide, at an individual level, a signaling function of the relevance of SRs in the social integration of reality. Triggering this signal function, the role of tension lies at the heart of the process. With the emotion-driven tension, we approach SRs as cognitive-emotional processes of construction, conservation, and transformation of social knowledge. We, therefore, situate the study of the relationships between SRs and emotions in a conceptual approach to the dynamics of stability and change. Considering SRs as dynamic objects of social change, this article proposes to conceptualize SRs as cognitive-emotional processes by promoting an integrative model grounded on a socio-constructivist as well as a discursive perspective. In this model, emotions are addressed as individual dispositions at the service of the sociogenesis of SRs. Occurring from individual experience, they contribute through their sharing to the construction of social knowledge. Implications of this conceptual proposal for SR theory are discussed.
... Esta lacuna é tanto mais surpreendente quanto se sabe, na linha do proposto por Moscovici, (1961;1984) que as representações acerca de um dado objeto são importantes indicadores na previsão de atitudes e comportamentos face ao mesmo (Lo Monaco e Guimelli, 2008; Reddya e van Damb, 2020; Soares da . Neste sentido a análise das representações dos vários intervenientes nas dinâmicas e processos de abastecimento e consumo alimentar de produtos agroalimentares de proveniência rural, pode efetivamente contribuir para prever as suas atitudes e comportamentos face aos produtos, aos locais de 213 proveniência e aos modos de produção. ...
... Hafacree, 1995;. Segundo Moscovici (1984), as representações sociais podem definir-se como um conhecimento/teorias do senso comum sobre um dado objeto mais abstrato, configurando-se em sistemas de valores, crenças, ideias e práticas organizadas e capazes de orientar os indivíduos num dado universo material e simbólico, tornando assim possíveis as interações sociais, a compreensão do mundo e a comunicação. Em termos operacionais, a dificuldade de definição ou circunscrição dos elementos em questão, mantem-se. ...
... Assim, como demonstrado, entre outros autores, por Halfacree (1995) e por Soares da -e na linha do argumentado por Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( , 1984 sobre a relevância das representações sociais na (re)construção dos objetos sobre os quais incidem -as representações sociais podem atribuir entendimentos e significados diferentes ao rural e contribuir para traçar a direção dos seus processos de reconfiguração de várias formas. Neste sentido, não apenas as representações sociais sobre o rural se transformaram à medida que este espaço se modificou, como influenciam a própria direção das transformações dos territórios rurais. ...
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O presente livro apresenta um conjunto de resultados obtidos no âmbito do projeto STRINGS. Importa referir que alguns dos resultados aqui divulgados foram já objeto de análise e discussão em conferências internacionais e nacionais sobre temáticas relacionadas com as várias dimensões estudadas no projeto. É igualmente importante referir que alguns dos resultados aqui apresentados foram também já apresentados em artigos científicos publicados em revistas internacionais e em capítulos de livros. Assim, esta obra pretende essencialmente divulgar aqueles resultados em língua Portuguesa, não apenas junto das entidades, agentes e indivíduos que colaboraram de perto com o projeto STRINGS, mas também junto de investigadores, professores e estudantes interessados por estas temáticas, agentes de desenvolvimento rural e do público nacional em geral. Para além disso, tendo em conta que uma parte relevante do material empírico recolhido no âmbito do projeto foi obtido durante alguns períodos de fortes constrangimentos às atividades de comercialização e consumo de produtos alimentares, devido às medidas restritivas de combate à Covid-19 (e.g. confinamentos mais ou menos prolongados e subsequentes limitações de horários do comércio alimentar, assim como o fecho de lojas em alguns períodos), o presente livro constitui-se, em certa medida, como um documento com alguma importância histórica. Isto porque retrata, até certo ponto, a forma como produtores, distribuidores, retalhistas e consumidores foram impelidos a reconfigurar algumas das suas práticas para enfrentar os efeitos socioeconómicos decorrentes da pandemia. Atendendo aos objetivos do projeto e às dimensões analisadas no âmbito do mesmo, anteriormente elencados, este volume estrutura-se em sete partes que integram treze capítulos. A primeira parte, constituída pelo presente capítulo, enquadra a relevância da temática geral do projeto STRINGS no contexto nacional, assim como apresenta os seus objetivos e os procedimentos metodológicos adotados, refletindo sobre a relevância do estudo dos percursos e papeis dos produtos agroalimentares de proveniência rural a partir das lojas urbanas especializadas na sua comercialização. A segunda parte integra três capítulos que analisam e refletem sobre a importância do comércio dos produtos agroalimentares de proveniência rural nas cidades, apresentando uma proposta de tipologia das lojas urbanas especializadas (Capítulo 2), a sua evolução e ligações com os territórios rurais com base numa análise espacial (Capítulo 3) e a caracterização dos proprietários daquelas lojas, em termos das suas motivações, mas também dos desafios que enfrentam e das suas representações, quer do papel que estas lojas podem desempenhar na valorização daqueles produtos, quer no desenvolvimento agrícola e rural do país. A terceira parte deste volume é dedicada à apresentação e discussão das estratégias de promoção e marketing utilizadas pelas lojas relativamente aos produtos agroalimentares de proveniência rural. Partindo da análise dos materiais promocionais criados e/ ou utilizados pelas lojas, procura-se assim, no Capítulo 5, discutir a forma como é realizada a promoção dos próprios produtos e dos seus territórios de origem, sem esquecer a das próprias lojas e dos seus clientes (Capítulo 6). Nesta terceira parte, com base nos dados obtidos a partir das 31 entrevistas semiestruturadas conduzidas junto dos proprietários e/ ou gerentes das lojas especializadas, analisam-se as suas montras como veículos privilegiados de divulgação e promoção de territórios e produtos. Os Capítulos 8 e 9 constituem a quarta parte desta obra, versando sobre a dimensão do consumo dos produtos agroalimentares de proveniência rural. Num primeiro momento, e a partir dos resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 1553 clientes das lojas analisadas, discutem-se as motivações, preferências e práticas dos consumidores deste tipo de produtos, analisando igualmente as inter-relações das mesmas com as ligações aos territórios rurais e as representações sobre os mesmos. Num segundo momento, debate-se o modo como o consumo dos produtos agroalimentares de proveniência rural contribui para a atratividade turística dos territórios de origem, determinando a sua procura. A quinta parte debruça-se sobre a produção e a distribuição dos produtos agroalimentares aqui analisados, caracterizando os seus produtores e distribuidores, as suas motivações, desafios e perceções (Capítulo 10), com base nos resultados obtidos a partir do inquérito por questionário, dirigido respetivamente a 104 produtores e 40 distribuidores. Também neste capítulo se procura procura traçar muito brevemente os percursos dos produtos entre os campos e as cidades, ou seja, desde os locais de produção até aos locais de comercialização e consumo. As representações sobre os produtos, os territórios de origem e a atividade agrícola são objeto de análise e debate na quarta parte deste livro e no Capítulo 11, a partir dos resultados obtidos junto de consumidores, produtores, distribuidores e, com menor ênfase, de retalhistas dos produtos agroalimentares rurais. Neste Capítulo discutem-se concretamente as diferenças entre os vários agentes e atores, o seu conteúdo e a forma como podem moldar diferentes motivações, práticas e imagens. Finalmente, a sétima e última parte é dedicada à sistematização e integração dos principais resultados discutidos nos capítulos anteriores, sendo igualmente apresentadas algumas linhas orientadoras que poderão informar políticas públicas destinadas à valorização dos produtos agroalimentares nacionais, assim como aos processos de produção e comercialização dos mesmos. Concretamente discute-se, no último capítulo desta obra (Capítulo 12) o papel que estes produtos têm no desenvolvimento agrícola e rural em Portugal, assim como na promoção de novas ou renovadas relações entre os campos e as cidades. Os coordenadores esperam que os capítulos reunidos neste volume possam fornecer uma visão oportuna e sustentada sobre estes aspetos em Portugal, numa época em que crescentemente se têm discutido questões a eles relacionadas, como a soberania e segurança alimentar, a produção nacional e os circuitos curtos de abastecimento alimentar, assim como a sustentabilidade agrícola e das comunidades rurais. Esperamos, assim, que o livro que agora editamos possa fornecer um contributo relevante para estes debates.
... Dicho de otro modo, el marco de conocimientos a partir del cual los sujetos pertenecientes a un grupo social determinado interpretan la realidad. Estos últimos son considerados un producto de los intercambios cotidianos y no están determinados por la claridad de las percepciones o la exactitud de inferencias racionales sino por el significado que los sujetos les confieren a las cosas (Moscovici, 2001;Moscovici & Hewstone, 1985). ...
... Uno de los propósitos centrales del trabajo de Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( , 2001 fue poner de pie al sentido común, para que deje de ser considerado como un sesgo a eliminar en pos de un pensamiento más objetivo. Por el contrario, para la teoría de las RS, el sujeto no se desarrolla desde un punto de vista ingenuo de la realidad a uno científico, de una forma de pensamiento pre-lógica a formas lógicas, sino que distintos tipos de conocimientos coexisten en una polifasia cognitiva (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, , 2001. ...
... Uno de los propósitos centrales del trabajo de Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( , 2001 fue poner de pie al sentido común, para que deje de ser considerado como un sesgo a eliminar en pos de un pensamiento más objetivo. Por el contrario, para la teoría de las RS, el sujeto no se desarrolla desde un punto de vista ingenuo de la realidad a uno científico, de una forma de pensamiento pre-lógica a formas lógicas, sino que distintos tipos de conocimientos coexisten en una polifasia cognitiva (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, , 2001. En este sentido, Moscovici (2001) rechazó explícitamente el postulado de la reductibilidad, característico del proyecto intelectual de la modernidad según el cual el desarrollo cognitivo tiende a eliminar las creencias del sentido común dirigiéndose hacia los saberes científicos. ...
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RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones entre la teoría de las representaciones sociales y el trabajo sociológico de Pierre Bourdieu a partir del análisis de los hallazgos de un estudio empírico sobre el modo en el que los agentes educativos de las zonas rurales y peri-urbanas de la Provincia de Misiones (Argentina), piensan la Asignación Universal por Hijo. La metodología se centró en la etnografía educativa como en entrevistas y grupos de discusión para la recolección de datos empíricos. En dicho estudio, se intentó respetar el corpus teórico y las tradiciones metodológicas de cada uno de las teorías mencionada. Específicamente, se presenta como eje de análisis algunos conceptos: doxa y sentido común, representación social y habitus, y espacio de los puntos de vista y posicionamiento social. Se espera que las conclusiones contribuyan al desarrollo de investigaciones conjuntas para el abordaje de los fenómenos educativos.
... Dicho de otro modo, el marco de conocimientos a partir del cual los sujetos pertenecientes a un grupo social determinado interpretan la realidad. Estos últimos son considerados un producto de los intercambios cotidianos y no están determinados por la claridad de las percepciones o la exactitud de inferencias racionales sino por el significado que los sujetos les confieren a las cosas (Moscovici, 2001;Moscovici & Hewstone, 1985). ...
... Uno de los propósitos centrales del trabajo de Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( , 2001 fue poner de pie al sentido común, para que deje de ser considerado como un sesgo a eliminar en pos de un pensamiento más objetivo. Por el contrario, para la teoría de las RS, el sujeto no se desarrolla desde un punto de vista ingenuo de la realidad a uno científico, de una forma de pensamiento pre-lógica a formas lógicas, sino que distintos tipos de conocimientos coexisten en una polifasia cognitiva (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, , 2001. ...
... Uno de los propósitos centrales del trabajo de Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( , 2001 fue poner de pie al sentido común, para que deje de ser considerado como un sesgo a eliminar en pos de un pensamiento más objetivo. Por el contrario, para la teoría de las RS, el sujeto no se desarrolla desde un punto de vista ingenuo de la realidad a uno científico, de una forma de pensamiento pre-lógica a formas lógicas, sino que distintos tipos de conocimientos coexisten en una polifasia cognitiva (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, , 2001. En este sentido, Moscovici (2001) rechazó explícitamente el postulado de la reductibilidad, característico del proyecto intelectual de la modernidad según el cual el desarrollo cognitivo tiende a eliminar las creencias del sentido común dirigiéndose hacia los saberes científicos. ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones entre la teoría de las representaciones sociales y el trabajo sociológico de Pierre Bourdieu a partir del análisis de los hallazgos de un estudio empírico sobre el modo en el que los agentes educativos de las zonas rurales y peri-urbanas de la Provincia de Misiones (Argentina), piensan la Asignación Universal por Hijo. La metodología se centró en la etnografía educativa como en entrevistas y grupos de
... Both measures trace fluctuations in the stability of anchors within an article over time in order to gauge variations in the meaning of an article. Changes in anchors are a good proxy for variations in the meaning of an article because anchors are sense-giving devices; they are used to familiarize unfamiliar phenomena by positioning them in familiar and relevant conceptual categories (Simon, 1996;Moscovici, 2000;Gal & Berente, 2008). For example, in its early stage, the unfamiliar phenomenon of HIV/AIDS (before acquiring this name) was anchored in terms of a "gay plague" or "gay cancer" (Farr, 1993). ...
... Therefore, they are not easily interpretable and are likely to be perceived as equivocal black boxes (Weick, 1993). Accordingly, there is an extended period of time during which people continue to engage in making sense of them (Weick, 1993;Swanson & Ramiller, 1997;Moscovici, 2000;Davidson et al., 2015). ...
... As noted above, we make sense of unfamiliar phenomena by anchoring them in phenomena that we already know and that we deem to be relevant to the newly encountered phenomena (Weick, 1993;Simon, 1996;Moscovici, 2000). Therefore, more than a trivial structural component of discourse, anchors are conceptual metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) that are indicative of the manner in which each of the technologies that we examined was rendered meaningful. ...
Article
The technology lifecycle model is extensively used to study technology evolution and innovation. However, this model was developed for industrial-age material technologies and does not address digital technologies with nonmaterial elements. Therefore, a question emerges as to whether the level of technological materiality is implicated in different dynamics of innovation, as reflected in the technology lifecycle. Digital technologies evolve through discourse that involves interactions among multiple stakeholders that shape the evolutionary trajectory of the technology. Therefore, we set out to examine whether discourse about digital technologies that vary in their level of materiality manifests in different ways throughout these technologies’ lifecycles. To do so, we conducted a study comparing the discourse around 10 digital technologies—five highly material and five highly nonmaterial—at different stages of their technology lifecycles. We identified three characteristics of discourse—volume, volatility, and diversity—and examined them for the 10 digital technologies by analyzing their corresponding Wikipedia articles. Our findings show that the discourse around technologies with different levels of materiality is similar in the initial era of the lifecycle but diverges in the two subsequent eras. In addition, we found that the discourse around highly nonmaterial technologies remains elevated for longer time periods, compared to highly material technologies. Based on these results, we put forth propositions that challenge and extend existing research on the relationships between the technological level of materiality, discourse, and trajectories of technology evolution.
... Derginin yayıncı şirketinin web sitesinde yer alan bilgiye göre eğitimli, sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel anlamda kentli üst sınıftan insanlar dergilerin okur grubunu oluşturmaktadır (www.mayailetisim.com/tr/womens-health ve www.mayailetisim.com/tr/mens-health). (Moscovici, 1984;1988). Çeşitli alanlardaki bilimsel bilgi ya da uzman bilgisi medya içerikleri olarak sıradan insana ulaşmakta; popülerleşerek sosyal olarak paylaşılan zihinsel temsiller halinde günlük hayatımızın parçası olmaktadır. ...
... Öte yandan uzman bilgileri toplumun genelinde aynı şekilde anlamlandırılmaz. Kişi veya grupların özelliklerine veya içinde bulundukları bağlama göre söz konusu bilgiler farklı duygu, düşünce, imaj veya çağrışımlara yol açar; farklı temsiller etrafında anlam kazanır ve naif uzmanlar yaratır (Moscovici, 1984;1988). Diğer bir ifadeyle medya, bilimsel ve yarıbilimsel program ve haber içerikleri, kişiye koruyucu, geliştirici yönde kendine müdahale imkânı vermekte; adeta bir tür naif uzman olma hakkı tanımaktadır. ...
... These models emerge as team members interact to make sense of their surroundings and cultivate mutual beliefs about members' common goals [16]. In a sense, most of these studies are variations and expansions of McDougal's [17] concept of group mind [18] and advances of previous conceptualizations made by other seminal authors (e.g., [19][20][21][22]). ...
... [52]) that people construct as they visualize the world and develop working models of it in their mind [51]. Individuals use mental models to explain a perceived phenomenon [53], and their primary function is to transform the originally perceived into conceived [21]. ...
Article
In recent years an innovative sociocognitive perspective for exploring teamwork effectiveness has been advocated by numerous researchers. This perspective examines ways by which team members develop mutual understanding. The general idea is that team effectiveness will improve if team members hold adequately shared cognitive representations, often termed as team mental models. Although this theory has significant potential for explaining teamwork effectiveness, there are several conceptual inconsistencies that impede its developmental potency. The purpose of the current article is to review and integrate the accumulated knowledge, thus facilitating future theoretical and empirical work. The paper reviews interdisciplinary groundwork relating to team mental models, analyzes recent empirical findings, and develops a conceptual framework from which conclusions for future research are drawn.
... The interest with this paradigm, according to Joffe (2002), is not whether a response is right or wrong, but the 'why' and 'how', and the new common sense that evolves. For Moscovici (1984), the images, ideas and languages shared by a group always seem to dictate the initial direction in which it attempts to come to terms with the unfamiliar. Moscovici (1976Moscovici ( /2008 studied psychoanalysis, an unfamiliar science in 1950s France, as a cultural phenomenon, exploring how it penetrated the lifeworld of different social groups and created social representations. ...
... Moscovici also identified the coexistence of different modalities of knowledge in the same individual or group, a phenomenon he described as 'cognitive polyphasia'. In this coexistence, Moscovici (1984) argues, one knowledge learns from the other (assimilation), as one (common sense) moves up and the other (science) moves down. Jovchelovitch and Priego-Hernandez (2015) suggested three varieties of cognitive polyphasia, each defined by a specific modality of coexistence and cognitive outcomes: selective prevalence, hybridisation and displacement. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic severely affected everyday life in Africa, a continent that is known for its high levels of religious belief. Using a corpus of news articles and the social representations research paradigm, this study examines African understandings of the pandemic. It uses installation theory, the wind rose model and the accommodation hypothesis to explore the coexistence between science and belief. The accommodation hypothesis demonstrates that the representations were hierarchical, to elevate God above science. Faith leaders also used the pandemic to enhance faith by blaming sin and urging repentance or blaming science by espousing conspiracy theories about the pandemic being a grand design to draw believers away from God. This paper highlights the great disparity in experience between Africa and the West, initially fuelling conspiracy theories. The findings also reinforce two key conceptual approaches: installation theory on the influence of rules imposed by society on behaviour, and the wind rose model in which representations change over time and in response to social interactions.
... To reach the aim the following conceptual approaches and research have been used: theory of social notions (Moscovici, 1984); the definition of the organisational image as a belief about peculiarities which essentially characterise an organisation (Gioia, Thomas, 1996;Scott, Lane, 2000); the clarification of the organisational image, its sense and significance regarding the aspect of competitiveness/ rivalry (Dutton, Dukerich,Harquail, 1994;Scott, Lane, 2000); factors that determine the importance of the organisational image (Cable, Graham, 2000;Greening, Turban, 2000;Carmeli, Freund, 2002;Starr-Glass, 2004). ...
... The aim of each notion is to reveal the unknown and the new so that it becomes the well-known and the familiartherefore social notions are the existing values, ideas and the holinesss of collective thinking as well as judgemental forms in practice that allows the humans understand, construct and communicate on global developments. (Moscovici, 1984). The Organisational image is often defined as a belief in the features which essentially characterise the organisation, which are relatively stable and make a difference (Gioia, Thomas, 1996;Scott, Lane, 2000). ...
... When people interact through gossip, argue, discuss different issues, read newspapers, watch TV, they are constructing shared pictures of the world. In this sense, social representations are intrinsic to everyday conversation (Moscovici, 1984). ...
... We believe that the representation of the association between vaccine and autism has been built, among other sources, starting from the exposure to newspaper articles and the way those issues are framed in the press. The press is at the same time the producer and user of representations, as once created during communication and interaction, representations have a life of their own, circulate and can constitute a social environment where they are shared by individuals (Moscovici, 1984). We expect that the public representation of the association between vaccine and autism would be influenced by the increasing voices of anti-vaccination movements and the promulgation of court sentences grounded in the (allegedly) causal role of the MMR vaccine in developing ASD in children. ...
Article
Over the past few years, there has been a great deal of concern regarding the potential links between childhood vaccinations and the development of ASD, possibly leading to vaccine hesitancy. This study aims to explore the representational field related to the vaccine-autism link in a mainstream Italian newspaper. We analyzed newspaper articles published on La Repubblica, from January 2009 untill January 2017 (N = 168 newspaper articles), via T-Lab software. The analysis produced four clusters: a) Trust and sense of belonging; b) Judgment dimension; c) Catastrophic narratives; d) Organization of the public healthcare system. The need to monitor media coverage on key healthcare topics was considered of paramount importance.
... Social representations are defined as an organized set of opinions, attitudes, beliefs, and information about an object or situation. They are determined by individuals' personal history and experiences, by the social and ideological system, and by the way individuals relate with the social and ideological system (Abric, 1989;Moscovici, 1984). As for other contested societal issues, such as basic human rights (Doise et al., 1999), terrorism (Smyrnaios & Ratinaud, 2017), gender and national identities (Lorenzi-Cioldi, 2002;Marchand & Ratinaud, 2012), social order (Staerklé, 2013;Staerklé et al., 2007), and welfare attitudes (Dupoirier, Demarque, et al., 2022;Staerklé et al., 2012), a socio-dynamic approach to social representations is particularly suited as an epistemological ground to study citizenship representations (Chryssochoou, 2003;Howarth et al., 2014). ...
... To complete our analysis, we used anchoring factors to identify groups of individuals who support certain social representations and oppose others. Anchoring is a typical process in the socio-dynamic approach, whereby representations of a new social phenomenon are incorporated into existing worldviews (Clémence & Doise, 1995;Moscovici, 1984). ...
Article
Naturalization policies prescribe the conditions immigrants must fulfil to be legally recognized as national citizens in a receiving country. When changes in naturalization policies are publicly debated, divergent opinions on national boundary making reveal social representations of citizenship as spaces of political contention. This research offers a socio‐dynamic analysis of citizenship representations in the context of a recent referendum on a simplified naturalization procedure for third‐generation immigrants in Switzerland. Automatic lexicometric techniques enriched with reflexive thematic analysis were performed on a post‐vote survey (VOTO, N = 998), to examine how voters grounded their voting decisions via different citizenship representations. The results showed that ascribed criteria based on natural birthrights and cultural assimilation were mobilized in favour of more permissive access to nationality. Conversely, allegedly achievable criteria based on citizenship deservingness were mobilized against. These findings provide new evidence about citizenship deservingness as a neoliberal strategy legitimizing exclusive national boundary making.
... "Yes, there are trends," responds a product manager from IFS. "One season we will get orders for viscose [fabric], viscose, viscose… next season poly, poly… shell buttons, shell beads…" Trends are nothing if not the intersection of social representations and collective behavior (Blumer 1969a, Davis 1992b, Lieberson 2000, Moscovici 1984), but the "internal movement" of fashion can be overemphasized. It is not as if economics and institutional authority are absent from the market. ...
... Although Schulz takes her point of departure from reference group theory(Shibutani 1955), I have supplanted this in favor of the aesthetic and popular potential of social representations(Durkheim 1912, Moscovici 1984. ...
Article
The interdisciplinary paradigm of global value chains gives us a baseline understanding of how the $1.3 trillion apparel market is organized. Brands are believed to be largely responsible for industry organization. While there are many case studies of industries like apparel or electronics, they are rarely carried out with an ethnographic sensibility that digs into the interactions of conflict, coordination, and execution. My dissertation takes us inside apparel factories, buying agencies, and textile mills in India. I use organizational theory, economic sociology, and social psychology to gain an intimate understanding of how fashionable objects are anticipated, designed, sourced, planned, constructed, and tested. The chief substantive contribution of the work is the integration of multiple levels of analysis, from the transnational coordination of forecasting down to the micro analysis of assembly lines. Additional findings, like the existence of brokerage networks that mediate design from the global semi-periphery, counter 125 years of academic and political skepticism. At the brand level, again in contrast to existing evidence, I find that differences between luxury and discount brands extend throughout dozens of decisions and quality parameters. Different assessments are partially explained by occupational positioning. Our self-presentations are cut from global cloth.
... This paper emphasizes the significance of avatars in the virtual world and investigates shared opinions of PWD on how they want to construct their identity in the virtual world with avatars based on social representations theory (SRT). The SRT explains that shared social representations between a group have a decisive influence on whether members of a group accept the social object (Moscovici, 1984). Therefore, this study gives direction for an inclusive virtual world for PWD by identifying their opinions on disability representations with avatars, the starting point of the virtual world. ...
... SRT indicates that one reconstructs a shared understanding of a social object among members with similarities in social and historical contexts (Doise et al., 1993). The theory explains that social representations of objects guide people's social practices because each individual is a community member at their root (Moscovici, 1984). ...
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In the virtual world, people can reconstruct their identity the way they want with avatars. Many expect the high degree of freedom in avatar customization will give new chances to socially marginalized people experiencing discrimination against their physical traits. Accordingly, research on a virtual embodiment of marginalized people has been steady with increased interest in equity and inclusion. However, even discourse alienates people with disabilities. In addition, there are few studies on the virtual representations of people with disabilities. Therefore, this paper explores the shared perception of avatar-based disability representations among people with disability to help understand how they want to construct their disability with avatars. The study also gives direction for a barrier-free virtual world. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with people with physical impairments who used virtual world services and performed a core-periphery analysis of social representations. This study expands the range of academic adoption of the social representations theory and provides insights for stakeholders such as service providers to design an inclusive virtual world.
... Social representations are the product of group-based meaning-making practices whereby groups socially construct common knowledge on topics of social relevance (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /1976(Moscovici, , 1984Clémence, 2001). Abstract concepts are made concrete by their transformation into elements that are easier for people to engage with and discuss, such as integrating the concept into images or examples with relevance to everyday life (Clémence, 2001). ...
... This will have an emotional impact on the children. If both a sense of safety and of danger are held simultaneously, this may lead to what Moscovici (1984) terms 'cognitive polyphasia': representations may be plural and even contradictory, activated depending on the social context. For example, post-disaster children may simultaneously represent the school as a place of safety when among supportive peers and adults, and danger when witnessing infrastructural damage. ...
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Disasters incurred by natural hazards affect young people most. Schools play a vital role in safeguarding the wellbeing of their pupils. Consideration of schools’ psychosocial influence on children may be vital to resilience-building efforts in disaster-vulnerable settings. This paper presents an evidence-based conceptualization of how schools are psychosocially meaningful for children and youth in disaster settings. Drawing on Social Representations and Place Attachment Theories, we explore the nature of group-based meaning-making practices and the meanings that emerge concerning school environments in disaster settings. We contribute a novel understanding of how schools may mitigate psychosocial risk for young people by considering how schools are conceptualised at four levels: (1) as physical environment, (2) as social arena, (3) as a place with individual and (4) group-based significance. In each of these domains schools can foster disaster resilience in young people. This paper highlights the evidence concerning the functions of schools beyond their capacity as educational institutions, critically considering their social and physical functions in their communities. This evidence can inform stakeholders involved in disaster resilience building.
... More specifically, it explores how these representations of English circulate amongst the members of English teaching and learning communities. In fact, Moscovici stressed the social aspect of these representations, noting how representations are shaped, discussed, accepted, rejected and revised through interaction within communities (Moscovici, 1988;Moscovici, 1984). ...
... Moscovici acknowledged that attitudes are similar to social representations, but he counters those are simply one part of social representations. He contends that notions of neutrality are absent when representations take a positive or negative stance towards an object, concept, or idea (Moscovici, 1984;Moscovici, 1988). By inferring that this notion of attitudes is embedded in the term values, this study then operationalizes attitudes as values. ...
Thesis
This study explores how English is represented in the education of students in Chilean vulnerable schools. Using the Comparative Case Study (CCS) approach, it examines this question at three different levels: transnational, national, and local. Previous scholars have analyzed how English is represented as a tool for specific social outcomes, such as social mobility or as a social barrier. Other scholars have examined how English is represented in classroom materials. However, the literature shows how these representations have often been in conflict with one another. Moreover, these studies have not shown how teachers and students interpret these representations and to what degree they are accepted, rejected, or adapted. Finally, the literature has not shown how these representations have been considered within “vulnerable” school contexts where arguments regarding social mobility are particularly germane. This study, which focuses on Chile, examines this important intersection between English language teaching and vulnerable schools, a term the Chilean government uses to denote when high levels of poverty are present. This study draws upon two key ideas, Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles of English (1985) and Moscovici’s Theory of Social Representations (1984), and then applies them as frameworks. They are used to examine the values, practices, and ideas embedded within the three levels of CCS as well as to examine the power dynamics that are often associated with the English language. Data were collected for all three levels. At the transnational level, a 2005 policy document from the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation was analyzed. At the national level, another policy document and four core curricular documents were examined: the Bases Curriculares for elementary and secondary school levels, and two grade level plans from the Programas de Estudio (quinto año and segundo medio). Additionally, the corresponding grade-level textbooks distributed throughout Chile were analyzed. Finally, at the local level, interviews with six Chilean teachers of English, all working in Chilean vulnerable schools were conducted. The findings showed that across all three levels, two predominant representations emerged: English as a tool for personal development and English as a tool for making global connections. These two representations were also shown to evince neoliberal values and characteristics. Evidence of marketing, consumerism, and individual responsibility was found. Working within the confines of the national curriculum, the teachers made efforts to adapt classroom materials to make English more accessible and relatable for their students. However, these efforts often also mirrored neoliberal ideology by emphasizing the use of technology for primarily entertainment purposes. Additionally, the findings demonstrated that the practices at the national and local levels largely focused on lower-level cognitive skills. Finally, in general, these representations did not reflect vulnerable contexts, often portraying a much higher socio-economic lifestyle than students in vulnerable schools would likely have access. This failure to acknowledge inequalities raises significant questions as to how English could be used as a tool for social equality when pertinent inequalities in Chilean vulnerable contexts are rarely addressed. Based on these findings, the implications for new representations included within English language classroom materials are discussed.
... Por su parte, las representaciones sociales corresponden a diversas formas de conocimiento construidas al interior de grupos, que concurren en prácticas sociales en común, que poseen una inserción en la estructura social, por tanto, la representación social se asocia directamente al lenguaje, y a las prácticas sociales grupos culturales (Jodelet, 1986;Moscovici, 1984). En este sentido las representaciones sociales permitirán orientar la comunicación social al interior de los grupos y las percepciones para actuar en el mundo en situaciones específicas, por lo que sería posible considerarlo como marco referencial para interpretar la realidad, interviniendo en la forma que llevamos a cabo nuestras acciones (Abric, 2001). ...
... A razón de lo anterior, es pertinente considerar que la representación social es elaborada considerando las características individuales y de los diversos grupos de interacción del individuo, por ende, la representación posee características asociadas a la pertenencia social de los sujetos, pero permite mantener entre los individuos elementos diferenciadores. Lo anterior significa que la representación nos hablaría más del grupo que realiza la representación que del objeto representado, así, lo esencial de una representación social, sería la constitución de un núcleo común de significados, lo que indicaría la posición en una estructura social, los valores, creencias y las actitudes de quienes poseen una determinada representación (Moscovici, 1984). ...
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Resumen: En el mes de octubre del año 2019 las protestas lideradas por estudiantes secundarios en Santiago de Chile en reclamo por una educación de calidad y no sexista, desencadenaron en el mayor estallido social del periodo de la postdictadura. Este estudio exploró las representaciones sociales sobre el Estallido Social, con un proceso de asociación libre de palabras en una muestra de 455 jóvenes chilenos (M = 20.82 y DT = 3.25). Para el análisis se construyeron diccionarios de palabras separados para los participantes, quienes se auto identificaron en el espectro político izquierda-derecha. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos y multivariantes, para representar gráficamente las dimensiones que subyacen a sus respectivas representaciones. Se evidencia que, si bien la representación del estallido social contiene nociones asociadas a un sentimiento de justicia, para los jóvenes de izquierda posee connotaciones de carácter reivindicativas y para los de derecha se asocia a comportamientos de índole delictual. Abstract: In October 2019, protests led by high school students in Santiago de Chile demanding quality and non-sexist education unleashed the largest social outbreak of the post-dictatorship period. This study explored the social representations about the Social Outbreak, with a free word association process in a sample of 455 young Chileans (M = 20.82 and DT = 3.25). For the analysis, separate word dictionaries were constructed for the participants, who self-identified in the left-right political spectrum. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyzes were performed to graphically represent the dimensions that underlie their respective representations. It is evident that, although the representation of the social outbreak contains notions associated with a feeling of justice, for young people on the left it has connotations of a vindictive nature and for those on the right it is associated with criminal behavior.
... This leads to different social representations depending on an individual's group membership (e.g., people reading feminist literature might have other social representations about gender than people who do not consume such literature). Hence, social representations indicate how different groups think about and which common perception they have about specific phenomena (i.e., individuals, events, objects, etc.; Moscovici, 1981Moscovici, , 1984Moscovici, , 2001. ...
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Introduction Previous research often examined gender stereotypes in leadership with ratings on predetermined gendered characteristics concerning leaders’ agency and communality (i.e., explicit measures). The aim of the present study was to broaden the understanding of gender stereotypes in leadership by taking more subtle approaches, that focus on what men and women actually ascribe to typical, male, and female leaders and how they implicitly evaluate them. Methods An online survey collected (a) free associations which reflect social representations (e.g., dominant, empathic), (b) evaluations of the given associations as negative, neutral, or positive, and (c) ratings on Peabody’s semantic differential combining non-gendered adjective pairs to an evaluative component of a typical leader, a male leader, and a female leader. Results Using the approach of social representations by analyzing 2,842 free associations from 194 participants shows the predominant gender stereotypes. Ratings of the free associations revealed that women evaluate characteristics associated with female leaders more negatively than those associated with typical leaders and male leaders. By contrast, using the evaluative component of non-gendered adjective pairs shows that typical and female leaders were often rated more positively than male leaders and that women were more likely to devalue male leaders. Discussion Directly asking about leaders (i.e., associations) might retrieve participants’ gender stereotypes, whereas when using non-direct questions (i.e., evaluation component of adjective pairs) gender stereotypes might be less prominent. Thus, when evaluating leaders, practitioners and researchers should consider whether these evaluations were obtained explicitly or implicitly to assess potential influences of gender stereotypes.
... Como ejemplo, en Estados Unidos, el ejecutivo mejor pagado gana 350,000 veces el salario mínimo legal (Felber, 2012). Dado que las representaciones sociales son formas de conocimiento insertas en la sociedad (Moscovici, 1984;Chamba et al., 2021) y que esta brecha salarial no puede respaldarse en la eficiencia laboral, la sociedad pierde su confianza en la justicia del sistema. ...
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presente trabajo se centra en perspectivas de los modelos económicos que no han recibido la misma importancia en la literatura como el discurso capitalista predominante, o su “alternativa radical” comunista. Dentro del actual momento histórico globalizante, se están generalizando igualmente modelos de gestión económica que se contraponen a las tendencias capitalistas más agresivas. Uno de los modelos más completos y utilizados y que se erige como el más viable para el cambio social es la economía popular y solidaria. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar la economía desde una perspectiva psicológica, para lo cual se asumió una investigación descriptiva tipo revisión bibliográfica con enfoque cualitativo; fundamentada en los métodos hermenéutico, revisión documental y analítico-sintético, así como en la técnica de análisis de contenido. Se concluye que este modelo se ha implementado en diversas experiencias e iniciativas y se ha revelado como una herramienta esencial para revolucionar el sistema actual, especialmente en Latinoamérica. Este paradigma organizacional, que va más allá de lo económico, comienza a instaurarse en instituciones, tanto gubernamentales como no-gubernamentales, que lo fomentan, difunden y apoyan. El resultado de esta propuesta es una sociedad más democrática, justa y progresista
... The media instigate the construction of new SRs, or the consolidation of those already being processed in social thought (Clémence et al., 2011). SRs are produced through discourses, narratives (Moscovici, 1984), texts, cultural artifacts, and images (Jodelet, 1989;Zittoun & Gillespie, 2015) all of which are disseminated by the media. ...
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Brazil has recently been experiencing a phenomenon of political polarization: a conflict involving political views and social identities. Considering the extent to which this socially constructed conflict has been partially fueled by the media, we propose to use the Social Representations Theory. The present study explores how discourses in the mainstream media construct the political polarization taking place in Brazil. The topics covered in 82 texts published between January 2015 and August 2019 in Brazilian mainstream press, Folha da S. Paulo and Estado de S. Paulo, were examined using content analysis and Reinert’s method with IRaMuTeQ software. A descending hierarchical analysis divided the corpus into four classes, and content analysis showed that both daily newspapers strongly criticized the political polarization underway, which was anchored to and objectified through episodes of violence, and they supported the valorization of democracy.
... Reise 2015) in the recent years and created a critical assessment among the group of the interview partners. Importantly though, the present communication about the implementation of NbS is now and again rendered against the SR of past ways of doing coastal protection which displays a 'peculiar power and clarity of [social] (Moscovici 1984). This so-called process of cultivating an issue or topic, as based on a backward reasoning, can be seen in the fact that references to the history of diking on the North Frisian islands pervade the interviews conducted and contribute to setting a conceptual background against which the current issue of NbS is assessed: the long-lasting ways of doing coastal protection is often depicted as the right and apparently successful way while a change of doing it in terms of NbS is in many cases experienced as challenging or even difficult within the current social, scientific, political and institutional rationale. ...
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Coastal protection comprises shoreline preservation and stabilisation as well as flood protection. Besides these technical aspects, coastal protection also represents a genuine social endeavour. Within this interplay of technical and social dimensions, planning and acting for the safety of people and assets along the coastline has become increasingly difficult for the responsible authorities. Within this context, Nature-based Solutions (NbS) for coastal protection offer a promising addition to and adaptation for existing protection measures such as dikes, sea walls or groynes. They bear the potential to adapt to shifting boundary conditions caused by climate change and cater the growing social call for sustainable solutions that benefit water, nature and people alike. This paper analyses, how NbS can fit into the entangled and historically grown system of coastal protection. As a paradigmatic example, the German islands of Amrum and Föhr were chosen. To contextualise the topic, a brief recap of the formation of these North Frisian Islands and their social history regarding coastal protection is given. This will be followed by a review of the relevant literature on the development of coastal protection on the two islands including its historical development. Using the theory of Social Representations (SRs), these historical insights are analytically contrasted with a synchronic snapshot gained from stakeholder interviews about the assessment of protective measures, and their anticipated future development with regard to the possible feasibility and implementation of NbS. This analysis reveals that, historically and synchronically seen, coastal protection on both islands is rather characterised by a dynamic rationale and the constant testing of and experimenting with different measures and concepts. However, well-established measures like diking or the construction of brushwood groynes for foreland creation are not being questioned while new approaches running against this rationale such as NbS are in many cases initially met with scepticism and doubt. Out of this follows that past and present dynamics in coastal protection play a vital role in planning. Hence, the implementation of NbS as signposts for the future requires an integrated and balanced interdisciplinary approach that considers the socio-technical dimensions of coastal protection for future coastal adaptation.
... " We decided to use this method because it enables us to capture the spontaneous emergence of words elicited by the cue assigned. Traditionally, this technique is designed to illuminate the consensual meaning (i.e., the most frequent words and rankings) regarding a social object (Abric & Tafani, 2009;Moscovici, 1984;Wagner et al., 1999). The free association method, through its projective character, offers the advantage of bringing out the latent and implicit dimensions of the knowledge and opinions on a specific object (Bellelli, 1990), giving access to the figurative core of its social representations (Moscovici, 1961). ...
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Mainly, the scholarly debate on Alexa has focused on sexist/anti-woman gender representations in the everyday life of many families, on a cluster of themes such as privacy, insecurity, and trust, and on the world of education and health. This paper takes another stance and explores via online survey methodology how university student respondents in two countries (the United States, n = 333; and Italy, n = 322) perceive Alexa’s image and gender, what they expect from this voice-based assistant, and how they would like Alexa to be. Results of a free association exercise showed that Alexa’s image was scarcely embodied or explicitly gendered. Rather, Alexa was associated with a distinct category of being—the VBA, virtual assistant, or digital helper—with which one talks, and which possesses praiseworthy technical and social traits. Expectations of Alexa and desires regarding Alexa’s ideal performance are presented and compared across the two country samples.
... Grounded in the discipline of social psychology, social representations theory is a framework that explains how a community makes sense of new or unfamiliar concepts (Moscovici 1984(Moscovici , 2000Washer & Joffe 2006). Social representations are a useful theoretical tool used to explore public understanding of risks and to understand how people make sense of new threats (Joffe 2003). ...
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To combat the OneHealth threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the use of antibiotics in agriculture is subject to significant governance-led initiatives to change food system behaviours, including promoting more responsible use of antibiotics on farms through market-level interventions. To combat knowledge gaps about how consumers perceive risks associated with antibiotic use and AMR in farming, the current study carried out an in-depth qualitative focus group study incorporating a risk information exposure exercise with food consumers on the island of Ireland (n = 36). Using a theoretical lens of social representation theory, a thematic analysis of the collected data identified how participants made sense of, often new, information on agricultural antibiotic use and AMR. Participants displayed high awareness and concern for AMR but low understanding and misconceptions around AMR transmission from the agri-food sector. Social representations about antibiotics and food and farming systems shaped preferences for a movement away from antibiotics in farming, and in particular, prophylactic use. However, participants acknowledged the role of antibiotics to protect animal health and the integrity of the food supply chain. They debated the lack of a simple fix to antibiotics in the agri-food system and revealed preferences for preventive actions at farm level and supporting actions at market level. The study highlights the need to first tackle low levels of public understanding through effective risk communication including strategies such as targeted message framing and proactive, cross-sector OneHealth awareness campaigns, followed by the introduction of a trusted antibiotic use food labelling system.
... he decision to retell our stories in the context of our shared professional history in ACE functioned, in this sense, as the "group therapist" who forced us to speak out and to listen to each other and renegotiate our relations and understandings. he tellings required exposing and clarifying our taken-forgranted "reality" (Moscovici, 1984;Tuval & Orr, 2009) in order to allow new spaces of activity and interpretation to open (Barak, Gidron & Turniansky, 2010). his is how our collaborative research project was born. ...
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... SRT is a theory of social knowledge that examines how the formation of representations of a given issue (e.g., energy) shape the behaviours of individuals and of communities to which they belong [57][58][59]. Considering that beliefs, practices, and behavioural outcomes are affected by shared meanings of people involved in ECs, SRT is useful to study the success of ECs in delivering demand-side solutions. ...
Article
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Energy communities (ECs) are widely recognised for their potential to generate renewable energy. By contrast, the capacity of ECs to reduce energy demand and foster flexibility has attracted little attention to date, despite their theoretical potential to do so. To address this gap, we apply three perspectives-social representations theory, actor-network theory, and business models-to the analysis of nine case studies based in six European countries (Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Sweden, Netherlands, and United Kingdom). The core of the article comprises analysis of the nine cases from each perspective. Our results highlight the (un)intended effects of ECs on the energy representations of members; the configurational work required by focal actors to assemble new socio-technical configurations; and the value creation and capture opportunities open to ECs in the creation of novel business models; These factors in turn impact whether and how ECs achieve demand reduction and flexibility. We summarise and discuss these results in a process of meta-theoretical triangulation to produce a multifaceted and relational account of the potential of ECs to develop demand-side solutions. This leads us to conclude that ECs have a distinct capacity to develop demand-side solutions, rooted in the creation of innovative socio-technical configurations; and that this distinct capacity of ECs has the potential to complement and extend the contemporary focus on the use of market mechanisms to achieve demand reduction and increase flexibility.
... Gizarte Irudikapenen Teoriak (GIT) jendeak beraien eguneroko bizitzan fenomeno berriak nola ulertzen dituen deskribatzen du (Moscovici, 1984). Hau da, gizarte irudikapenak, pertsonek ezagutzen duten mundua antolatzeko eta ulertzeko erabiltzen dituzten uste, esanahi, jarrera eta irudi sistemak dira. ...
... The subjective category, such as an attitude to life, includes a person's attitude to the past, present and future, is an obligatory component of the meaning of life. Experiencing the meaning of life is the highest value of the relationship and the indicator of persons' responsibility for their own life [18]. ...
Article
Введение: статья посвящена изучению осмысленности жизни у осужденных, которые отбывают длительные сроки наказания в местах лишения свободы. Отношение к жизни следует рассматривать в качестве универсального субъектного образования, которое обеспечивает самоорганизацию человеческой активности в процессе жизнедеятельности. Цель: определить особенности осмысленности жизни у осужденных с длительными сроками наказания, дать рекомендации по коррекционно-воспитательной работе с данной категорией лиц. Методы: теоретический анализ литературы; методы синтеза и обобщения; тест смысложизненных ориентаций (методика СЖО) Д. А. Леонтьева. Результаты: осужденные, находящиеся в социальной изоляции более десяти лет, демонстрируют низкий интерес к жизни, ее меньшую эмоциональную насыщенность, недостаточность жизненных целей, отсутствие временной перспективы (целей на будущее). Жизнь ими воспринимается недостаточно интересной, не наполненной смыслом. Прожитый отрезок не в полной мере осмыслен испытуемыми, отмечаются недостаточность самореализации, ощущение неуправляемости жизни. Выявленные особенности необходимо принимать во внимание при организации коррекционно-воспитательной работы с осужденными к длительным срокам лишения свободы. Выводы: при определении направления коррекционно-воспитательной работы с осужденными данной категории важно учитывать особенности их отношения к жизни, ориентировать их на исправление, осознание вины, сосредоточение на духовных и нравственных проблемах, предупреждать агрессию с их стороны. Introduction: the article describes features of meaningfulness of life of convicts serving long-term sentences in places of deprivation of liberty. An attitude to life should be considered as a universal subjective formation that ensures selforganization of human activity in the process of their life. Purpose: to determine features of meaningfulness of life of convicts serving long-term sentences, give recommendations on correctional and educational work with this category of offenders. Methods: theoretical analysis of literature; methods of synthesis and generalization; life orientations test by D.A. Leont’ev. Results: convicts who have been in social isolation for more than 10 years demonstrate a lower interest in life and less emotional intensity and lack life aspirations and goals; the time perspective is not indicated. They perceive life as uninteresting and insufficiently filled with meaning. At the same time, the time passed is not fully comprehended, they cannot realize themselves, they are dissatisfied with their life and do not feel that they can manage it. The revealed features of meaningfulness of life of convicts serving long-term sentences supplement characteristics of persons in this category and this should be taken into account when organizing correctional and educational work with them in places of deprivation of liberty. Conclusions: when determining the direction of correctional and educational work with convicts of this category, it is important to take into account the specifics of their attitude to life and direct them to correction, preventing aggression in their behavior. At the same time, it is important for convicts to realize their guilt, focus on their own spiritual and moral problems, and develop a desire to compensate for the harm they have caused. To do this, it is necessary to establish cooperation with convicts based on the in-depth study of life, personality and needs.
... SRT investigates how ideological concepts become common knowledge in everyday life (Passini & Emiliani 2009). Further SRT theorises lay knowledge concerning cultural, historical, and social context (Moscovici, 1984) and addresses how people make meaning in their daily lives by producing, negotiating, and maintaining shared knowledge within groups through social interaction and communication (Jovchelovitch, 2007;Marková, 2003). A subset of social representations is professional representations (Piaser & Bataille, 2011) relating to phenomena in a specific professional environment and shared by people in the same profession. ...
Article
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A quarter of all preschool children in Sweden have migrant backgrounds. This article explores preschool principals’ views on how societal and cultural changes have affected the demands on staff in multicultural preschools. In the study, twelve principals were interviewed in focus groups where they identified tensions and contradictions for teachers and parents. These are explored through “Dilemmatic spaces”, a conceptual framework that makes it possible to analyse teachers’ everyday practice in relation to societal changes. This article presents the dilemmatic axes that were identified, including preschool teachers’ efforts to show respect for other cultures, versus upholding Swedish culture; and to consider immigrant parents’ expectations versus communicating Swedish values, policies and routines.
... Tais interpretações, por serem forjadas por distintos grupos sociais, são diversas. Isto é, um mesmo objeto pode ser compreendido de várias formas, as quais influenciam comportamentos e formas de comunicação (MOSCOVICI, 2000). As representações possuem duas características fundamentais: exercem funções no cotidiano e estão de acordo com o contexto no qual são criadas (JODELET, 2001). ...
Article
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O monocultivo de árvores para finalidades industriais gera controvérsias em vários países. Um dos pontos mais recorrentes de discussão é seu impacto sobre a disponibilidade hídrica. No Brasil, a indústria de celulose e papel promoveu o estabelecimento e a expansão de grandes áreas de plantios de eucalipto em locais como o Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo. Conduzido em três municípios da região, Caçapava, Santa Branca e Cunha, esse estudo analisou como a representação da relação eucalipto e água é construída em territórios rurais. Para tanto, noventa entrevistas semiestruturadas foram realizadas e analisadas em diálogo com a teoria das representações sociais. Resultados revelaram que predomina na região o entendimento de que os plantios de eucalipto prejudicam a disponibilidade hídrica e concepções contrárias evidenciam a diversidade de conhecimentos e transformações na representação social do tema. O estudo indica que conhecimentos locais podem esclarecer aspectos das dinâmicas territoriais em contextos de escassez hídrica e vulnerabilidade social.
... Tais interpretações, por serem forjadas por distintos grupos sociais, são diversas. Isto é, um mesmo objeto pode ser compreendido de várias formas, as quais influenciam comportamentos e formas de comunicação (MOSCOVICI, 2000). As representações possuem duas características fundamentais: exercem funções no cotidiano e estão de acordo com o contexto no qual são criadas (JODELET, 2001). ...
Article
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Os anos de 2008 e 2011 marcaram o Brasil com a ocorrência de desastres de grande porte nos Estados de Santa Catarina e Rio de Janeiro. A afetação de idoso nesses eventos ainda é pouco estudada na literatura nacional, em especial acerca dos desdobramentos na saúde mental. O presente artigo busca compreender, por meio da análise de internações hospitalares e óbitos, os efeitos à saúde mental de idosos residentes em municípios afetados por desastres relacionados à água, confrontando com relatos de gestores públicos. Dentre os principais resultados, está a desconexão entre o cenário relatado e as estatísticas ofciais. As análises dos registros não indicaram correlação estatisticamente signifcativa com a crise aguda do desastre. Os relatos de gestores municipais, por outro lado, apontam um cenário alarmante e silenciado sobre a piora da saúde mental dos idosos.
... While variations are observed, explanations are absent as to how the process of importation works. With few exceptions (Doise and Mugny 1984;Moscovici 1984;Vygotsky 1978), psychologists have left aside just how crucial conversation is to internalizing cultural practices, and interactive processes are undermined. Finally, casting social factors aside has led psychologists to forget that people do not rely on personal cognitions to act but on socially shared meanings. ...
Book
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Why does the mind matter for joint action? Contentious Minds is a comparative study of how cognitive and relational processes allow activists to sustain their commitment. With survey data and narratives of activists engaged in three commitment communities, the minds of activists involved in contentious politics are compared with those devoted to institutional and volunteering action. The book’s main argument is that activists of one commitment community have synchronized minds concerning the aim and means of their activism as they perceive common good (aim) and politics (means) through similar cognitive lenses. The book shows the importance of direct conversational contact with individuals in bringing about this synchronization. Assessing the synchronization within communities as well as the variation between them constitutes a major purpose of this book. It shows that activists construct and enact community-specific democratic cultures, thereby entering the public sphere through collective action. The book makes three major contributions. First, it emphasizes the necessity to return the study of the mind to research on activism, Second, it calls for an integrated relational perspective that rests on the structural, instrumental, and interpretative dimensions of social networks. Finally, it advocates a substantial integration of culture in the study of social movements by effectively valuing the role of culture in shaping a person’s mind.
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This study used a framework grounded in social representations theory to investigate cross-cultural variation and consistency in the discursive construction of the COVID-19 pandemic by the mass media, in the week following WHO’s declaration of a global pandemic in March 2020. News reports from media outlets in the United Kingdom and China were sourced, with articles from the most popular media sources selected for analysis. Four discourses were identified to be the most prominent representations present throughout these accounts: war; other illnesses; a general emergency; an unknown situation. The findings demonstrated consistency with past research, highlighting how the sociogenesis of social representations in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic followed a similar pattern to other novel infectious disease outbreaks. Consistency between UK and Chinese media accounts was identifiable throughout the construction of these discourses; however, variation was detectable regarding use of culturally relevant anchors for existing illness representations, along with Chinese media accounts constructing images of a comparatively optimistic local situation, whilst depicting the rest of the world as in the midst of a global emergency. Future research has the potential to build on these findings by going beyond media representations to explore actual lay population beliefs, attitudes, and opinions, considering how they compare to the representations portrayed in mass-mediated news reports.
Thesis
La protection de l'environnement est une problématique qui divise et mobilise plusieurs acteurs parmi lesquels les techniciens de l'environnement, les élus et les habitants. Sur la base des discours et des actions de ces acteurs, cette étude entend analyser la politique de la gestion de la nature au Gabon via le parc national de Moukalaba-Doudou. Comme telle, à travers les pratiques culturelles, la thèse se propose de réexaminer le rapport des populations locales à la nature dans un contexte écologique contemporain. Ce contexte est dominé par la confrontation des conceptions endogènes et exogènes de la nature. Nous interrogeons donc, via la « gestion procurale », la responsabilité de l’État quant à la gestion de la nature et les parcs nationaux au Gabon. D'autre part, nous examinons les avantages et les inconvénients du discours « piendupialiste » des différents acteurs (l'Etat, ANPN, techniciens de l'environnement, élus et habitants) sur la protection de la nature au Gabon. Le but de cette thèse est de montrer que l'entrée du Gabon dans la « modernité » sous le contexte colonial est à l'origine de la dégradation de la biodiversité dans le parc de Moukalaba-Doudou. Cette dégradation est liée à l'évolution des pratiques culturelles des populations basées sur l'usage de la nature à travers, l'introduction de nouvelles technologies (fusil de chasse, munitions, filet de pêche, congélateur, tronçonneuse) et l'adoption des nouvelles religions (christianisme et l'islam). L'autre perspective de ce travail est de montrer que la « gestion procurale » (les investissements financiers et matériels des bailleurs de fonds et ONG internationales sont plus élevés que ceux de l’État) ne favorise pas vraiment une protection durable de la biodiversité et n'assure pas un développement socioéconomique et culturel cohérent pour les populations locales. Enfin, la thèse présente la divergence des représentations et des intérêts des populations et des techniciens de l'environnement quant à la nature et à ses usages. Le déficit de compréhension des enjeux écologiques contemporains est au fondement des conflits (conflits Homme-Faune, braconnage, pêche illégale, etc.) et rendent difficile la gestion du parc national de Moukalaba-Doudou. Il importe donc de mutualiser les intérêts des différents acteurs pour amoindrir considérablement l'impact de l'action des populations sur la nature. Il importe aussi, de réduire l'influence notable des ONG internationales et des bailleurs de fonds sur la gestion des parcs nationaux au Gabon. Il semble important de favoriser l'intégration des connaissances endogènes et la prise en compte réelle des intérêts des populations locales pour une sauvegarde réussie de la biodiversité.
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This paper comprises part of the current research on the phenomenon of new spirituality, conducted within the sociology of religion and social communication and media sciences. It aims to analyze selected manifestations of the new spirituality entering into the religious sphere of a religiously homogeneous society based on the example of Poland. A complementary application of quantitative and qualitative methods was proposed. The subject of the analysis is the results of a representative survey in which Poles define themselves in terms of religiosity and spirituality, with examples of their search for content on a new spirituality through online resources using the assumptions of the theory of social representations. The above concept resulted in the bipartite structure of the main part of the article. It was preceded by a theoretical introduction synthetically presenting phenomena identified as key features of new spirituality and ended with a discussion of the results and conclusions. The analyses indicate that, in Polish society, the category of phenomena and processes classified as new spirituality is distinguishable but complex and diverse. In the subsequent stages of the analysis, their socio-demographic determinants were shown, and then the media representations of the new spirituality were identified, categorized, and put into typologies.
Article
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Este trabajo tiene por objeto determinar (establecer) la relación entre valores éticos y logros académico en escenarios virtuales de formación a partir de una indagación de las representaciones sociales concurrentes en el imaginario social analizando el discurso narrativo de los estudiantes de la carrera de Comunicación Social de la Universidad de Los Andes en Mérida Venezuela. Hemos orientado la investigación, transcurridos 2 años del inicio forzado de actividades en línea por la pandemia de COVID 19, al ethos de los estudiantes de pre-grado que cursan sus asignaturas a través del uso de aulas virtuales en la plataforma Moodle, dado que el paso de la presencialidad a la virtualidad de manera inesperada, aunado a las circunstancias propias de la realidad país han impactado al sector estudiantil en distintas dimensiones desde la permanencia en la carrera hasta el logro del éxito académico. Para ello, hemos empleado la metodología de investigación cualitativa, etnográfica, descriptiva, que ha tenido de base un diseño bibliográfico, aplicando un cuestionario abierto no estructurado por vía virtual, a una muestra intencional y no probabilística de la población de estudiantes pertenecientes a la Carrera de Comunicación Social de la Escuela de Medios Audiovisuales Universidad de Los Andes de 2do a 4to año, a partir del cual pudo realizarse el análisis lexicométrico (analizar, categorizar y seleccionar) del discurso, para constatar la construcción colectiva del corpus de valores que permitió proceder mediante la representación gráfica de los valores éticos al diseño de una nube de texto, en la que se identificaron los imaginario sociales como herramienta de descripción, y posteriormente estudiar los resultados y contrastarlos con las posturas teóricas generando una reflexión inherente al rol que estos valores poseen en torno al logro del éxito académico de los estudiantes de pre- grado universitario en la dinámica de relación en la educación virtual.
Book
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Este libro condensa una serie de textos teóricos y empíricos producto de una línea de investigación en el área de la Psicología Social, Cultural y Política iniciada en el año 2004, y formalizada en el año 2008 a través de proyectos de investigación financiados por la Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT),del ingreso de varios de los miembros del equipo local a la Carrera del Investigador Científico y de la obtención de becas doctorales y posdoctorales del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Es también el resultado del intercambio constante con docentes e investigadores de instituciones extranjeras, así como de la participación conjunta durante más de diez años en proyectos de investigación transculturales que se refleja en los cincuenta y dos autores de catorce países que colaboran en esta obra. El propósito, y desafío, fue compilar un conjunto de trabajos que reflejara algunas de las problemáticas actuales que interpelan a la reflexión e investigación en Psicología Social, Cultural y Política. Se pretendía ofrecer a estudiantes avanzados, docentes e investigadores del área textos que abordaran de forma reflexiva y provocadora procesos teóricos sustanciales, así como estudios aplicados que proveyeran diversidad de contextos, problemáticas, marcos y técnicas de sustento empírico. El sustrato común a los textos es la necesidad de superar las visiones individualistas de los análisis psicosociales, y de orientarlos al estudio de la construcción de significados colectivos que regulan las relaciones sociales. Por ello el apartado de procesos teóricos se inicia con la propuesta de Staerklé y Doise de una psicología social del orden social, de una psicología societal como marco que permite captar la intervención de complejos mecanismos societales de regulación social en las cogniciones, evaluaciones y decisiones individuales. Como bien indican los autores, la investigación en psicología social tiene muchos componentes políticos y no es una tarea fácil establecer límites claros entre estas dos tradiciones de investigación, por lo que se sugiere que la contribución de la psicología social a la psicología política debe encontrarse en un abordaje general denominado psicología societal cuyo objetivo principal es la investigación de la intervención de las formas sociales de conocimiento compartido tales como las ideologías, las normas y las representaciones sociales en el funcionamiento cognitivo individual.
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The core question of this dissertation is how conflicts between people about wildlife or nature are related to the representations they have of the natural environment. Negotiations over wolf conservation and the meaning of biodiversity are the prime cases. Conservation conflicts are often examined in light of socio-demographic segmentation or statistical variation in values and attitudes. However, previous research also points to contrasting meanings attributed to nature and antagonisms between forms of knowledge as important conflict dimensions. There is a need to clarify what these knowledge conflicts reside in and how they can be approached analytically. To this end, the empirical studies contained in this dissertation take as their point of departure Moscovici’s neo-Durkheimian theory of social representations. Based on qualitative analyses of focus group discussions and individual interviews, the empirical studies suggest that people’s position in conservation conflicts are not necessarily related to their representations of wildlife or nature in an intuitive way. As a case in point, one of the studies showed that negative attitudes to wolf conservation were not mirrored in a negative image of the animal itself. This implies, among other things, that local resistance to wolf conservation is not rooted in cultural images of the “Big Bad Wolf”. Even if the empirical investigations indicate that adversarial positions in conservation conflicts are not always accompanied by divergent representations of the subject of controversy, they do show that nature representations play other important roles in debates about nature governance. First, representations constitute powerful symbolic boundaries between groups with antagonistic views on the protection of species or landscapes. Second, they frame conservation conflicts by determining both the topics of discussion and the non-negotiable premises underlying negotiations. Identifying implicit presumptions about nature in conservation debates is important because they influence political priorities and delimit the scope of possible action. Third, social representations of nature are sometimes actively turned into rhetorical instruments for knowledge resistance, as when non-experts appropriate scientific conceptualizations of nature to increase the legitimacy of their own arguments. The empirical studies demonstrate that research on social representations, usually associated with consensus formation, can also shed light on conflict mechanisms. Applied to the study of human– nature relations, they illustrate the impact of collective cognitive phenomena on human–nature interactions. This confirms the relevancy of the theory of social representations to the study of knowledge conflicts in the area of nature and the environment. However, to strengthen the position of the Moscovici school within the sociology of knowledge, future studies of social representations need to better account for social structure and overcome the common sense–science gap inherent to this school.
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic to date, particular histories have come to serve as touchstones for the pandemic experience. The specific form this historical imagination takes can be significant as it is likely to shape people’s understandings and responses to the pandemic with consequences for official policy, community action and public behaviour. This research examines this imaginative space in Aotearoa/New Zealand’s public media during COVID-19, asking what past epidemics have been invoked and how. We conducted a content and thematic analysis of media stories in Aotearoa/NZ from February 2020 to December 2021. This analysis reveals how historical experiences are made meaningful in the context of the present crisis, and how the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted New Zealanders to look back on their histories for lessons and cautionary tales as they imagine possible futures. While the 1918 flu was the most frequent touchstone in both years, the focus of the stories changed, reflecting changes in public health policies. In 2020, the stories mirrored the major public health measures enacted by the government, namely isolation and quarantine requirements and lockdowns. They focused on anchoring the present in past experiences, collectively framing the ‘extraordinary’ as something more ‘ordinary’ and thus helping people to cope with the new crisis. In 2021, the focus on Māori populations increased, reflecting the emerging disparities in vaccination rates, as did explicit messaging encouraging vaccination. The sense of urgency grew, with the past providing impetus for present action, to bring about—or avert—particular imagined futures.
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This article explores how the ideas of race, ethnicity and religion shifted with modernity in Diu. While it concentrates on findings about Diu, the arguments it develops are more wide-ranging and have a series of architectural, urbanistic, and anthropological implications. It addresses the construction of identity by exploring the multiplicities and slippages of colonial imagery, social histories, and spatial production in the management of populations and colonial cities. We argue that the Portuguese shared ideologies rooted in race, ethnicity and religion that provide a consistent, detectable structure for a specific interpretation of spatial-morphological arrangements in Diu (the city’s buildings, architecture, urban layout, and spatial structure) in the context of the European colonial city in South Asia. We analyze the discourse with which the Portuguese created knowledge through cartography, tracing how ideologies linked to race, ethnicity and religion were historically internalized, and how they worked in conjunction with social structures and practices to produce the colonial city of Diu.
Article
The article discusses the results of the application of the projective technique "Bubbles" in the study of social representations of mental illness. The purpose of the study: to identify multidirectional social perceptions of mental illness. Research hypothesis: respondents' social perceptions of mental illness are characterized by duality. The sample consisted of Muslims – N = 111 (men – 53, women – 58 people) and Orthodox Christians – N = 114 (men – 49 people, women – 65 people), non–believers – N=113 (men – 76 people, women - 37 people), aged 18-23, 40-45, 60-65 years old, living in Moscow. Used: the author's questionnaire, which included 29 statements, the "Bubbles" technique. It was found that in both groups of respondents, the core of the JV about the mentally ill contains elements that demonstrate a positive orientation. The use of the "Bubbles" projective technique revealed the predominant negative nature of the perception of mentally ill people in three groups of respondents (the least negative perception in the group of respondents of Muslims (p<0.07). Respondents of the studied groups aged 18-23 years demonstrate the most positive representation of a mentally ill person than respondents aged 60-65 years (p<0.08). Thus, the results obtained with the help of a quantitative survey are in contradiction with the results of the qualitative method, thereby revealing the coexistence of SPS of different content, and therefore, allowing us to assert the phenomenon of cognitive polyphasia.
Article
The main objective of this study was to describe how the pro and anti-government media represented the civil rights movement of Ethiopian Muslims against religious indoctrination. Four online Media, two pro-government Media, and two opposition Media were purposefully selected to achieve this objective. The news and articles presented from April 2012 to March 2013 were rigorously analyzed using steps suggested by Johnson and Christensen (2004). The qualitative analysis resulted in three major themes and six subcategories under the major themes. The three major themes include the Aim of the Muslim civil rights movement, Government interference in religious affairs, and the Representation of Leaders of the Ethiopian Muslims Civil rights Movement. As hypothesized at the onset of the study, the two groups of online Media selected for analysis represented the Ethiopian Muslim civil rights movement in highly different ways. Generally speaking, the selected pro-government media has negatively represented the movement, whereas the opposition media exhibited positive representation.
Article
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The article examines the nature of legal realization in the context of law reality through the prism of philosophical and legal analysis. The purpose is the formation of scientifically based knowledge concerning the place and role of legal realization in law reality. The methodology is based on the complex use of post-classical methodology, which allows studying the law nature of legal realization and its significance for the development and functioning of law reality. The findings may be outlined as follows: Legal realization is considered in the article as a complex philosophical and legal category. Ontologically, legal realization may be defined as determining means of the legal impact of positive law on the consciousness and behavior of a person. Phenomenologically, it may be considered as an independent level of law reality, which is a system of actions of subjects of law aimed at implementing state prescriptions, objectified in the totality of individual legal acts. Axiologically, legal realization is the movement of law values from their mental awareness to embodiment in those possible models of legal interactions that are constructed by subjects and then, albeit partially, are reflected directly in legal relations. Conclusions: legal realization as a complex category includes a mental component (comprehension in legal consciousness of the content of legal norms of different levels and quality, practice of their realization in practice, choice of possible options for legal and (or) non-legal behavior due to rational and irrational factors, value preferences of subjects) and an activity component (legal actions that are consistent with the requirements of the norms positive law).
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