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The New Software Engineering

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... Both of these views of application development focus on application functionality, as opposed to other aspects of the application such as its operational environment, its usability, or its social context. Some authors consider SDLC and prototyping as methodologies (e.g., Avison & Fitzgerald, 2006), while others view them as skeletal guidelines within which methodologies operate (Conger, 1994). The latter view is taken by this research. ...
... Managers also are less attentive to application development than needed to ensure their success (Sumner, 2000). The role of a project manager traditionally has been as the most senior technical person who also has managerial duties for the project (Conger, 1994). For instance, the project manager and key technical staff decide the methodology, the life cycle, the tools, and the resources needed for the project. ...
... In addition, the project manager is the official communicator of project status, problems, and work. Thus, the role has many gate-keeping functions that provide for filtering information (Keil, 1995), gaining commitment of other managers and user management (Sumner, 2000), and hiring Boehm, 2006, p. 16) or firing employees from a project (Conger, 1994;Sumner, 2000). ...
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Information Systems as a discipline has generated thousands of research papers, yet the practice still suffers from poor-quality applications. This paper evaluates the current state of application development, finding practice wanting in a number of areas. Changes recommended to fix historical shortcomings include improved management attention to risk management, testing, and detailed work practices. In addition, for industry's move to services orientation, recommended changes include development of usable interfaces and a view of applications as embedded in the larger business services in which they function. These business services relate to both services provided to parent-organization customers as well as services provided by the information technology organization to its constituents. Because of this shift toward service orientation, more emphasis on usability, applications, testing, and improvement of underlying process quality are needed. The shift to services can be facilitated by adopting tenets of IT service management and user-centered design and by attending to service delivery during application development.
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This chapter describes two perspectives on the identification and externalisation of tacit knowledge, that is expertise that is difficult to verbalise, within long-living and continuously evolving systems. During the design time of a software system, heuristics and machine learning classifiers can be used to identify and externalise tacit knowledge. For instance, externalised tacit security knowledge supports requirement engineers to understand security-related requirements. During the run time of a software system, tacit knowledge about a system’s usability can be captured through monitoring user interactions. The identification and extraction of tacit usage knowledge can improve usability-related aspects and even trigger new functional requirement requests.
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An algorithm-based on smoker's analytical equation-suitable for the development of computer programs, for the determination of some design parameters of a binary distillation column was presented. A sample problem was modified, with respect to constant relative volatility, and solved using the algorithm. We compared the solution obtained using the algorithm to that using McCabe-Thiele method. The deviation of 4.25% observed can be explained based on the assumption of constant relative volatility. This deviation is not only acceptable in comparison to a deviation of about 23.25% that could exist between solutions obtained using McMabe-Thiele and Fenske's method at total reflux, but also safe since it does not reduce but adds to the number of theoretical plates, thus ensuring that operational targets of purity in the product are met. Apart from suitability under normal conditions, the algorithm was designed for use when concentration of more volatile component of either product is very low or relative volatility is low, conditions under which the McCabe-Thiele method is impracticable.
Article
Software product line engineering is a discipline that facilitates a systematic reuse-based approach by formally representing commonalities and variabilities between the applications of a target domain. As one of the main artifacts of the software product line, a feature model represents the possible configuration space and can be customized based on the stakeholders' needs. Considering the complexity of the variabilities represented by feature models and the diversity of the stakeholders' expectations, the configuration process can be viewed as a complex optimization problem. In previous research, researchers have bridged the gap between requirement and product line engineering by integrating feature models and goal models. In this paper, we propose an approach for the configuration process that seeks to satisfy the stakeholders' requirements as well as the feature models' structural and integrity constraints. We model stakeholders' functional and nonfunctional needs and their preferences using requirement engineering goal models. We formalize the structure of the feature model, the stakeholders' objectives, and their preferences in the form of an integer linear program to conduct a semi-automated feature model configuration process. Our experimental results show that the proposed configuration framework is scalable when considering both functional and nonfunctional requirements of stakeholders.
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Requirements elicitation techniques are methods used by analysts to determine the needs of customers and users, so that systems can be built with a high probability of satisfying those needs. Analysts with extensive experience seem to be more successful than less experienced analysts in uncovering the user needs. This chapter reports on the results of in-depth interviews with some of the world's most experienced analysts and careful analyses of the most recently published requirements books. These results demonstrate how expert analysts select elicitation techniques based on a variety of situational assessments. Requirements elicitation is an iterative process. At any moment, conditions cause the analyst to perform a specific step using a specific elicitation technique. Elicitation can be performed in a wide variety of ways, e.g., interviewing, collaborative workshops, prototyping, modeling, and observation. The chapter deals with the relationship between detailed characteristics of situations and elicitation technique selection.
Article
Explores the drivers behind successful business process re‐engineering (BPR). Examines Caterpillar Inc, located in Peoria, Illinois, USA, using data collected over a four‐year period, beginning in 1992. Reveals positive outcomes which can be directly tied to the deployment of the business process simplification and improvement (BSP/I) methodology. BPS/I provides a systematic methodology for analysis, design and implementation of re‐engineering principles. In addition, it provides the environment to help its people generate creative solutions to critical business problems. Examines the link between the steps of BPS/I and the theoretical phases of the problem‐solving process. Also explores the link between BPS/I and Couger’s variant model of creative problem solving. Notes creative opportunities available to Caterpillar as a result of the identification of this link.
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Stimulated by the growth of multimedia, the World Wide Web, and the convergence of communication and information technologies, the nature and potential of digital learning materials are rapidly changing. Design and development methods have to adapt to the new situation. In this chapter an overview of traditional design and development methodologies used for the realization of digital learning material is given, as well as problems and issues associated with their application. From these problems and issues a new direction for design and development is advocated, based on context responsiveness. An example of such an approach, called the 3-Space Design Strategy, is described.
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The efficiency in the software development can only be keept by quantification of the software development components (of the software product and the software process itself). The quantification as software measurement needs a unified strategy, methodology or approach to guarantee the goals of quality assurance, improvement and controlled software management. Presently, plenty of methods such as measurement frameworks, maturity models, goal-directed paradigms, process languages etc. exist to support this idea. This paper gives an overview about the measurement framework methodologies and describes an object-oriented approach of a software measurement framework. The presented framework was applied to the object-oriented software metrics area and leads to really object-oriented software metrics. The usability of this approach was described in some object-oriented software development examples.
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In Object Oriented Analysis by Coad and Yourdon the concept of ‘object’ is considered to have identity, state, behaviour and properties and can be characterised by a set of operations that can be performed on it or by it and its possible states. It is not explained in terms of any meta-level model of human sense-making. That is objects are not defined rather they are described. This paper critically evaluates Coad and Yourdon’s Object Oriented Analysis (1990), using the NIMSAD framework, with an emphasis on the criteria used to identify objects.
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