Article

The limited potential of ecotourism to contribute to wildlife conservation

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Abstract

Ecotourism has been proposed as a viable economic activity that can minimize negative human impacts on wildlife habitat and provide an incentive to preserve natural areas. The potential of ecotourism as a wildlife conservation strategy is limited by its inability to insure the long-term protection of environmental assets and by its tendency to contribute directly to environmental degradation. Ecotourism is a proxy market designed to align consumers' preferences for recreation with the protection of environmental assets. Because it does not necessarily address the direct protection of those assets, it is prone to market failure. Pressures on governments and firms involved in providing ecotourism services will impair their ability to minimize detrimental effects of human economic behavior. Ethical appeals to minimize harmful practices face serious obstacles. Promoting ecotourism may actually distract from more appropriate means of environmental protection.

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... This recent increase has been caused by the economic growth in some countries, accompanied by the development of technology and transportation. This has also led to improved accessibility of remote areas that were previously inaccessible to most people [6,7]. On the other hand, there has also been an increase in environmental awareness and many countries have recognized the potential of wildlife viewing as a better option, in the long run, when compared to more destructive or consumptive tourism [6,8]. ...
... This has also led to improved accessibility of remote areas that were previously inaccessible to most people [6,7]. On the other hand, there has also been an increase in environmental awareness and many countries have recognized the potential of wildlife viewing as a better option, in the long run, when compared to more destructive or consumptive tourism [6,8]. This was, for example, the case of Kenya, where the government banned sport hunting and trophy trade in the 1970s, while encouraging ecotourism [9]. ...
... For example, Galápagos National Park contains eight endangered or critically endangered bird species whose persistence clearly depends on the protected status of this area [113]. Ecotourism revenue has also motivated the preservation of elephant habitat in Thailand [6]. Similarly, income from mountain gorilla tourism has been used in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda to conserve habitat and establish anti-poaching measures, which are essential for the protection of this species [11]. ...
Chapter
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Terrestrial animal tourism has become increasingly popular. Wildlife tourism is typically perceived as a relatively innocuous activity, but studies show that it may negatively impact wildlife and both the communities and ecosystems in which they live. We will describe some of the main negative effects of terrestrial animal tourism and the management actions to mitigate them. Some negative impacts, such as animal-vehicle collisions or disease transmission from humans, lead to direct mortalities and are evident to tourists. However, there are other, less perceptible, impacts that nevertheless may negatively impact populations. These entail disruptions of animals’ normal behavior, physiology, and distribution, as well as the habitat degradation that may be associated with tourism. These negative effects must, however, be traded-off against the important positive impacts of wildlife tourism. These include the creation of protected areas, the support of conservation programs, the sustainable development of local communities, and the promotion of pro-environmental attitudes. By being aware of the negative impacts and potential mitigation measures, we hope to encourage better practices in the future that ensure the long-term coexistence between wildlife and tourism.
... Eighty-four percent of National park superintendents in the United States believe that visitors have negative impacts on native species (Wang and Miko 1997). Tourists potentially disrupt animal behavior and promote reliance on being fed by humans (Isaacs 2000). Waste disposal systems in Kaikoura, New Zealand were found inadequate by Weinberg et al. (2002) to deal with the increasing number of ecotourist visitors, resulting in negative impacts on the local environment. ...
... Waste disposal systems in Kaikoura, New Zealand were found inadequate by Weinberg et al. (2002) to deal with the increasing number of ecotourist visitors, resulting in negative impacts on the local environment. Other authors have warned of the threat to ecosystem integrity by inadequate waste disposal options (Isaacs 2000) as well as the multiple threats to wildlife and habitats from infrastructure development (UNEP 2001). ...
... Multiple authors (Place 2001, Isaacs 2000 warn of what Weinberg et al. (2002) calls the "ecotourism treadmill", where small community-based ecotourism evolves into extra-local ecotourism. In a typical scenario, locals initially capitalize on a domestic tourist market. ...
... At the local level, ecotourism has become a source of conflict over control of land, resources, and tourism profits. [11,12,16,17,18] In this case, ecotourism has harmed the environment and local people, and has led to conflicts over profit distribution. In a perfect world more efforts would be made towards educating tourists of the environmental and social effects of their travels. ...
... Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for local communities. [11,12,16,17,18] Mismanagement: While governments are typically entrusted with the administration and enforcement of environmental protection, they often lack the commitment or capability to manage ecotourism sites effectively. The regulations for environmental protection may be vaguely defined, costly to implement, hard to enforce, and uncertain in effectiveness. ...
... These invasions often include deforestation, disruption of ecological life systems and various forms of pollution, all of which contribute to environmental degradation. [11,17,18] The number of motor vehicles crossing the park increases as tour drivers search for rare species. The number of roads has disrupted the grass cover which has serious effects on plant and animal species. ...
... At the local level, ecotourism has become a source of conflict over control of land, resources, and tourism profits. [11,12,16,17,18] In this case, ecotourism has harmed the environment and local people, and has led to conflicts over profit distribution. In a perfect world more efforts would be made towards educating tourists of the environmental and social effects of their travels. ...
... Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for local communities. [11,12,16,17,18] Mismanagement: While governments are typically entrusted with the administration and enforcement of environmental protection, they often lack the commitment or capability to manage ecotourism sites effectively. The regulations for environmental protection may be vaguely defined, costly to implement, hard to enforce, and uncertain in effectiveness. ...
... These invasions often include deforestation, disruption of ecological life systems and various forms of pollution, all of which contribute to environmental degradation. [11,17,18] The number of motor vehicles crossing the park increases as tour drivers search for rare species. The number of roads has disrupted the grass cover which has serious effects on plant and animal species. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tourism management and ecotourism, the relationship between the level of marketing organizing and program orientation of a tourist enterprise. Strategic or institutional management is the conduct of drafting, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decision making that will enable an organization to achieve its long-term objectives. It is the process of specifying the organization's mission, vision and objectives, developing policies and plans, often in terms of projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these objectives and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projects and programs. A balanced scorecard is often used to evaluate the overall performance of the business and its progress towards objectives.
... As discussed in the introduction, debates in environmental tourism literature often focus on the interplay between tourist providers, tourists and their effects on the local economy, native residents and environmental sustainability (Lindberg, 1991;Shackley, 1996;Isaacs, 2000;Newsome et al, 2001). Possibly due to growing concern of the effects of tourism on animals (Isaacs, 2000), Newsome et al. argue that a "shift", particularly in the domestic environmental tourism industry, has occurred amongst wildlife consumers who now hold a preference for viewing animals in the wild as opposed to captivity (2005:9). ...
... As discussed in the introduction, debates in environmental tourism literature often focus on the interplay between tourist providers, tourists and their effects on the local economy, native residents and environmental sustainability (Lindberg, 1991;Shackley, 1996;Isaacs, 2000;Newsome et al, 2001). Possibly due to growing concern of the effects of tourism on animals (Isaacs, 2000), Newsome et al. argue that a "shift", particularly in the domestic environmental tourism industry, has occurred amongst wildlife consumers who now hold a preference for viewing animals in the wild as opposed to captivity (2005:9). Curtin & Wilkes have also noted a movement in wildlife tourism in recent decades; the industry is moving from a "highly specialised market" for avid nature fans towards a "more general market" for those with a "general interest" in wildlife (2005: 475). ...
... The unique and strong contextual factors that often form the appeal of specific nature and wildlife tourist destinations has often led to the environmental tourism business model being referred to as "monopolistic" (Isaacs, 2000;Lindberg, 1991). However, as Cloke argues (1993) environmental tourist operators, in a bid to increase consumers, are engaging in the "society of the spectacle" (1993: 63). ...
Article
This paper explores the engagement of ethnic minorities with environmental conservation destinations in the East Midlands. Ethnic minorities have been noted, particularly by the media, as being largely absent from engaging with tourist destinations centred on the English countryside (Countryfile, 2009; Prasad, 2004; Jeffries, 2005; John, 2004; John, 2005). Such reports initiated an investigation to explore why such environmental destinations appeared to be failing to engage successfully with this specific profile of consumer. The literature review found that the industry perspective to date has been largely unexplored. In turn, this study provides a key stakeholder perspective on the issue of ethnic minorities as consumers to environmental tourist destinations, through the use of ten in-depth interviews. Consequently, a thematic analysis approach was taken to the data to identify trends and themes. For tourist providers who seek to expand their consumer base and market to ethnic minorities, it is argued that further profile segmentation should also be strongly considered by providers to gain a greater understanding of the issue. When considering the barriers hindering ethnic minority engagement, many of the deterrents are most severe when considering an additional profile feature; that of residing in an ‘urban deprived’ location. In addition, many of the barriers seen as deterring ethnic minorities are also simultaneously applicable to the wider under- represented group of the ‘urban deprived’, regardless of ethnicity. Furthermore, considering the incentives for tourist providers, this study judges that engaging with the most under-represented groups in society is best suited to environmental conservation destinations based in more urban areas.
... Assim, considerando que nos últimos anos o uso de comedouros no Brasil se popularizou, agravado pelo isolamento social imposto pela Covid19 (ver Alexandrino et al. no prelo 1 , JaneLives 2 , BROCK et al., 2021), uma pressão popular pelo uso destas estruturas em empreendimentos ecoturísticos é esperada (ver OLMOS, 2017). Se estas localidades executarem o uso de comedouros de forma demasiada, pautado apenas pela atração de turistas, interesses comerciais e pouca atenção a possíveis efeitos negativos no ambiente, consequências negativas à natureza e ao próprio segmento turístico poderão surgir no futuro (ISAACS, 2000;GIESE, 2004). Assim, para direcionar tomadas de decisões sensatas quanto ao uso destas estruturas, é importante compreender a percepção dos brasileiros em relação ao uso dela em empreendimentos ecoturísticos. ...
... Nesse cenário, argumentar que um elemento que facilita a observação de aves pode também causar um impacto negativo soa como um polêmico contrassenso (e.g., OLMOS, 2017) e a falta de estudos que comprovem impactos negativos de comedouros no contexto brasileiro contribui para tal desconfiança. Entretanto, pode ser um grande retrocesso se os planejadores de uma atividade de ecoturismo, que em sua concepção propõe ser sustentável e evitar impactos negativos no ambiente (SCHLINDWEIN, 2011;SPAOLONSE;MARTINS, 2016), ignorarem alertas sobre possíveis impactos gerados por comedouros, mesmo que as evidências científicas sejam provenientes do exterior (ISAACS, 2000). Uma atitude destas poderia ferir o princípio da precaução a impactos ambientais (FORTUNATO; NETO, 2012). ...
... Vale destacar que a alimentação suplementar planejada apenas com finalidades turísticas tende a criar atitudes que resultam em impactos negativos à avifauna, uma vez que os objetivos econômicos muitas vezes prevalecem nas tomadas de decisões (ISAACS, 2000;GIESE, 2004;MURRAY et al., 2016). Logo, sabendo que comedouros podem ter um papel socioambiental no Brasil muito além do que foi acessado no presente estudo, e enquanto estudos sobre os impactos de comedouros ainda forem escassos no país, recomenda-se extrema cautela entre os gestores de áreas protegidas e demais promotores do turismo de observação de aves. ...
Article
A prática de observar aves cresce constantemente no Brasil, favorecendo o turismo de observação de aves, um segmento consolidado do ecoturismo no país. Nos últimos anos, o uso de comedouros para aves de vida livre tem sido visado por empreendimentos ecoturísticos para atrair o público observador de aves já que estas estruturas elevam as chances de visualização de diferentes espécies. No entanto, o uso de comedouros ainda gera discussões entre os brasileiros, pois todo conhecimento sobre impactos negativos é proveniente do exterior, enquanto que alguns brasileiros defendem que impactos sociais positivos são potenciais. Assim, este estudo acessou a percepção de diferentes brasileiros entusiastas por aves de vida livre quanto ao uso de comedouros. Para isso, um questionário semiestruturado contendo perguntas abertas e fechadas, foi aplicado a diferentes cidadãos entre julho de 2020 e janeiro de 2021 (público alvo - residente na região Sul, Sudeste e Nordeste). Ao todo 416 cidadãos responderam ao questionário, sendo 41,5% considerado ‘admirador de aves/leigo – perfil 1’, 45,6% ‘familiarizado com aves, mas sem preparo prévio em bases ornitológicas/ecológicas - perfil 2’ e 12.7% como ‘familiarizado com aves, mas com preparo prévio em bases ornitológicas/ecológicas - perfil 3’. Ainda, 58,4% indicaram possuir comedouros próprios e 41,5% não possuíam. Os resultados apontaram que, independentemente do perfil, a maior parte dos entrevistados possuíram maior facilidade em perceber os potenciais impactos positivos causados pelo uso de comedouros (educação ambiental e possível benefício na manutenção de serviços dispersão de sementes e manutenção florestal), enquanto potenciais impactos negativos ainda não são facilmente reconhecidos (proliferar patógenos e atrair outros animais). A maior parte dos entrevistados também apontou preferência por comedouros feitos com materiais naturais ao invés de industrializados. O público do perfil 1 apresentou propensão em pagar valores mais baixos a um guia de observação de aves quando comparado com o público dos perfis 2 e 3, enquanto todos os perfis pagariam valores semelhantes (até R$50,00) ao proprietário de um local que oferecesse a atividade de observação de aves apoiada ao uso de comedouros. Este estudo traz dados que poderão ajudar tomadas de decisões no planejamento do turismo de observação de aves em empreendimentos ecoturísticos, em especial dentro da região que compreende o bioma da Mata Atlântica. ARTIGO COMPLETO DISPONÍVEL EM: https://periodicos.unifesp.br/index.php/ecoturismo/article/view/13611
... Ecotourism has attracted increasing attention in recent years not only as an alternative to mass tourism, but has a means of economic development and environmental conservation . It accounts for a large share of some countries' gross domestic product, and so contributes to livelihood of many people, as in Kenya, Madagascar, Nepal, Thailand and Malaysia (Isaacs, 2000). It is often perceived as a mechanism for sustainable tourism development especially in countries with great ecotourism potentials (Weaver, 2001). ...
... According to (UNWTO), the number of outbound tourists from Egypt is expected to increase in 2020. For instances; the total number of Egyptian outbound tourists is estimated at about 1.1 million in 2000and 1 .854 million in 2013(OECD, 2016. Furthermore, the Egyptian tourism expenditure in other countries increased from 1,382 million US dollars in 1996 to 3,636 million US dollars in 2015(UNWTO).This means there is an increasing trend of this market. ...
Article
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Today, airport profitability and passenger satisfaction largely relies on airport concessions. This study investigates the attitude and satisfaction of international tourists toward the airport F&B and duty-free concessions. The attitude formation theory (cognitive-affective-conative model) is used to measure the attitude factors influencing tourists’ satisfaction and their behavioral intentions. The area sampling method and the judgmental sampling method were used. The target respondents were the international tourists who had experienced services offered in F&B and duty-free concessions in the Cairo, Luxor, and Borg-El-Arab airports in Egypt. 320 self-administrated questionnaires were distributed. The data were analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. The results concluded that cognitive and affective evaluations are two interdependent psychological dimensions of F&B and duty-free experience. These two-dimensions together play a critical role in generating a positive satisfaction, which in turn lead to positive behavioral intentions, such as recommending the store to others and revisiting the store. The study has key theoretical and managerial implications.
... Around the world, ecotourism has been hailed as a panacea that is a way to fund conservation and scientific research, protect fragile and pristine ecosystems, benefit rural communities, promote development in poor countries, enhance ecological and cultural sensitivity, instill environmental awareness and a social conscience in the travel industry, satisfy and educate the discriminating tourists, and, some claim, build world peace (Ashley and Hussein, 2000). Additionally, Ashley (2000) and Isaacs (2002) suggests that ecotourism can be differentiated from nature tourism by its emphasis on conservation, education, traveler responsibility and active community participation. Ecotourism encompasses the following key aspects that include the primary attraction which is the natural environment; but sociocultural attractions within the destination area also play an important role. ...
... Ecotourism encompasses the following key aspects that include the primary attraction which is the natural environment; but sociocultural attractions within the destination area also play an important role. Secondly, ecotourism strives towards (proactively) addressing the three dimensions of sustainable development which include ecological, socio-cultural and socio-economic sustainability (Eadington and Smith, 1992;Li., 2004;Isaacs, 2002). It is therefore aimed at minimizing the impact on the natural and cultural environment and at the same time providing benefits to host communities. ...
Article
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Globally land use activities have had a profound impact on the ecosystem services, ecosystems as well as their functioning activities. Many ecosystems are exposed to the effects of man, activities and land use in different measures. Land-use change and related habitat loss and fragmentation have long been recognized as important drivers of past and present ecosystem change. High population density, high poverty and dependence on natural resources especially in and around Volcanoes National Park are major threats for the conservation of the protected area. Ecotourism as one of the main economic activity has also been promoted by government to eradicate poverty as well as empower the local communities around the park. Not only, that ecotourism as one of ecosystem services derived by the local community, needs to be sustained for the wellbeing of the local community but it has a multiplier effect in a destination. The main aim was to determine how the local community and ecotourism activities impact on ecosystem and ecosystem services in and around Volcanoes national park. The area of study was Volcanoes National Park in northern part of Rwanda. The research design was descriptive and included both qualitative and quantitative data that comprised of statistical or measurable variables. These were obtained through use of primary and secondary data. Purposive random sampling was utilized and data collection was through questionnaires and oral interviews. Analysis of data was be done by use of ANOVA, correlation coefficients, frequencies plus percentages by SPSS software. Critical results indicated that human activities such as deforestation, population density, agriculture and encroachment had a significant impact on the ecosystems. It was concluded that human activities had significant influence on the ecosystems and thus services derived. It was also recommended that for sustainable purposes, all stake holders should be involved in conservation.
... Isaacs glaubt, dass der ÖT nicht in der Lage ist, langfristige Einnahmen zu generieren (vgl. Isaacs, 2000). Die ...
... Isaacs betont, dass die Aufgabe, das natürliche und lokale Erbe mit ÖT zu schützen, negative externe Effekte verstärken kann (vgl. Isaacs, 2000). Es kann als umweltschädlich angesehen werden, wenn der wirtschaftliche Gewinn die einzige Erwägung bei der Erhaltung des natürlichen Lebensraums ist (vgl. ...
Research Proposal
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Die Frage des ÖT kommt vor allem auf das Verhalten jedes Einzelnen, auf sein Umweltbewusstsein und auf die Umsetzung einer Alternative zum MT durch die verschiedenen Akteure wie Staaten und Institutionen. Diese Entwicklung muss sich nicht nur auf die Umwelt konzentrieren, sondern auch unter sozioökonomischen Gesichtspunkten nachhaltig sein und den aktuellen Kontext berücksichtigen. Wie kann der ÖT zu einer nachhaltigen Alternative zum MT in Europa werden? Was sind die Herausforderungen? Wie kann man Touristen auf diese Praxis aufmerksam machen?
... Shannon et al. [108] highlight the potential environmental impacts of ecotourism development, such as habitat degradation due to the establishment of infrastructure, human waste and litter, and chemical, light, and noise pollution. It may happen when the managers ignore or miscalculate the external cost of the damage to living resources [109]. Managers tend to increase income by over-exploitation, and neglect of animal welfare rules may happen due to the lack of commitment, understanding, and supervision. ...
... Infrastructure such as jungle tracking, observation points, security checkpoints, and survey land cameras need to be provided and developed to improve visitor safety and reduce human disturbances of natural resources and wildlife. The government, as the legitimate provider, needs to administer and provide clear regulations and technical guides to ecotourism managers [109]. ...
Article
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This paper aimed to provide a narrative review of the current conditions of orangutan ecotourism on Sumatra Island, problems in the current management systems, and some recommendations for further development. Orangutan conservation centers have been developed on Sumatra Island since 1973. The Bukit Lawang Conservation Station is one of the orangutan conservation centers that have practiced ecotourism to overcome ecological and socio-economic issues. Even though the Bukit Lawang Conservation Station has operated for decades, this station has faced several issues, in particular a monetary crisis in 1997, a flash flood in 2003, and the COVID-19 pandemic. We identified that orangutan conservation centers on Sumatra Island have the potential to support orangutan ecotourism. These conservation centers have ecological support, available facilities, and rich local wisdom that can provide added value for orangutan ecotourism. Therefore, we propose that the development of orangutan ecotourism on Sumatra Island should accommodate surrounding communities through community-based wildlife ecotourism. We also recommend the following strategies to develop orangutan ecotourism on Sumatra Island: (1) mapping the location and distribution of wild orangutans in their natural habitats; (2) managing captive and semi-captive orangutans in conservation centers; (3) provision of tour packages; (4) community empowerment; (5) institutional strengthening of community-based ecotourism management (CBEM); (6) developing ecotourism through a benefit-sharing model; (7) anticipating and minimizing the negative impacts of ecotourism on orangutans; and (8) integrating orangutan tourism with local wisdom.
... Tourism is an activity carried out for one's physical and spiritual refreshment. Ecotourism is a type of tourism that is environmentally friendly with activities of seeing, watching, studying, admiring nature, flora and fauna, socio-cultural local ethnicity, and tourists who do so contribute to the preservation of the surrounding natural environment by involving local residents [1]. Ecotourism focuses on three main things namely; natural or ecological sustainability, providing economic benefits, and psychologically acceptable in social life [2]. ...
Article
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Ecotourism is an environmentally activities of seeing, watching, studying, admiring nature, flora and fauna, socio-cultural local ethnic,take responsibility for the preservation of the surrounding environment by involving local residents. Rokan Hulu is a regency in Riau Province, with population livelihoods in agriculture 52.42%, industry 11.49%, trade 7.14% and other sectors 28.95%. Ecotourism is not yet the economic backbone of this area. But this area has potential in that direction. This study aimed to analyse the prospect of some natural ecotourism objects located within reach of the iconic Great Mosque Islamic Centre (GMIC) Rokan Hulu. Using the survey method, the respondents were selected through a purposive sampling method. Respondents were local community, tourists, tourism businesses and other stakeholders. The data obtained was associated with the concept of 4A (attraction, amenity, accessibility, and ancillary service). Followed by a SWOT analysis, WTA (willing to accept) and WTP (willing to pay), and a descriptive analysis of economic potential. At least there were 3 ecotourism objects within the reach of GMIC of Rokan Hulu, namely Sipogas Lake Ecotourism, Hapanasan Hot Spring and Huta Sikapir Cave Ecotourism. Based on SWOT, WTA and WTP analysis, it was concluded that the objects have the economic potential to be developed as a natural ecotourism. It is recommended that the GMIC be the main icon tourism in this regency and while some other supporting tourism objects will naturally be developed.
... This result shows that although people participate in ecotourism mainly to see wild animals, there is also high demand for other entertainment facilities. While this can lead to the development of other ecotourism attractions, it does not necessarily address the direct protection of those assets, as it is prone to market failure [50]. ...
Article
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In this study, we use the choice experiment method to evaluate the value of wild animals in the surrounding areas of the Changqing National Nature Reserve in China. For areas focused on biodiversity conservation, the results of wild animal value evaluation can provide a basis for the formulation of local ecological compensation standards. We identified wild animals, natural landscape features, infrastructure and facilities, and ticket price as major attributes determining the utility and value of the reserve area. The results of our field survey suggest that the cultural value of wild animals is significantly higher than the value of the infrastructure and other natural landscapes. Tourists indicated a willingness-to-pay of 31.4 Yuan to see wild animals in captivity, compared to 71.9 Yuan to see wild animals in the field. Moreover, tourists with different characteristics have different preferences for the cultural value of wildlife. Female tourists have a higher willingness-to-pay than male tourists. In addition, as age, education, and income level increase, tourists’ willingness-to-pay also increases. These conclusions can provide a reference for local government to formulate wildlife protection compensation and ecotourism ticket pricing.
... ducks and geese) around the wetlands poses a great threat to the wetland ecology and birds. The HNWs, a Ramsar site and an IBA holds an avenue for bird watching and other recreational activities which have shown to aid in wildlife conservation "ecotourism" (Isaacs, 2000). Ecotourism when successfully conducted will serve as alternative form of economic development such as hunting, No. ...
Article
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he Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands is a Ramsar site and an Important Bird Area in the Sahelian part of Nigeria. The habitat types in the wetlands consists of mosaic, permanent water bodies, floodplains, and upland wooded areas that provides important habitats for both resident and migratory bird species. Using data from the existing studies, we presented for the first time a checklist of the birds inhabiting the wetlands. A total of 191 bird species belonging to 21 orders and 54 families were identified. These include resident species, e.g. Spur-winged Geese (Plectropterus gambensis) and Black heron (Egretta ardesiaca), Intra-African migrant, e.g. Abdim's stork (Ciconia abdimii) and African openbill stork (Anastomus lamelligerus) and Palearctic visitor, e.g. Kittlitz's plover (Charadrius pecuarius) and Wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola). Two species categorized as globally threatened species under IUCN Redlist (2017) were also identified, the Vulnerable European turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) and the Near threatened Pallid harrier (Circus macrourus). The diverse array of bird species in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands highlights its significance for birds conservation, hence the need for its management and conservation. More studies on bird diversity are recommended to provide a complete checklist of the wetland bird community.
... Activities such as wildlife photography are widely considered as a means to increase the public awareness of wildlife conservation and natural history by revealing images and videos of animals and their behaviour 3,6 . However, there are concerns that increasing human presence and activity may incur negative effects on wildlife and their native habitats 1,[7][8][9][10] . Wildlife tourism (e.g. ...
Article
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The Endangered Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) is one of the most culturally iconic and sought-after species by wildlife tourists. Here we investigate how the presence of tourists influence the vigilance behaviour of cranes foraging in Suaeda salsa salt marshes and S. salsa/Phragmites australis mosaic habitat in the Yellow River Delta, China. We found that both the frequency and duration of crane vigilance significantly increased in the presence of wildlife tourists. Increased frequency in crane vigilance only occurred in the much taller S. salsa/P. australis mosaic vegetation whereas the duration of vigilance showed no significant difference between the two habitats. Crane vigilance declined with increasing distance from wildlife tourists in the two habitats, with a minimum distance of disturbance triggering a high degree of vigilance by cranes identified at 300 m. The presence of wildlife tourists may represent a form of disturbance to foraging cranes but is habitat dependent. Taller P. australis vegetation serves primarily as a visual obstruction for cranes, causing them to increase the frequency of vigilance behaviour. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of the migratory red-crowned crane population that winters in the Yellow River Delta and can help inform visitor management.
... Activities such as wildlife photography are widely considered as a means to increase the public awareness of wildlife conservation and natural history by revealing images and videos of animals and their behaviour 3,6 . However, there are concerns that increasing human presence and activity may incur negative effects on wildlife and their native habitats 1,[7][8][9][10] . Wildlife tourism (e.g. ...
... Activities such as wildlife photography are widely considered as a means to increase the public awareness of wildlife conservation and natural history by revealing images and videos of animals and their behaviour 3,6 . However, there are concerns that increasing human presence and activity may incur negative effects on wildlife and their native habitats 1,[7][8][9][10] . Wildlife tourism (e.g. ...
... The significance of linking wildlife and non-wildlife tourist attractions under the ecotourism conceptualization includes hiking, canoeing, camping and photography and how wildlife observation can contribute to the overall tourism performance in Zimbabwe (Isaacs, 2000;Kabote et al., 2019). Zimbabwe's potential for developing its wildlife tourism marketing activities could be leveraged by other attractions that will provide complementary and incidental experiences to both local and foreign tourists (George, 2017;Kabote et al., 2019). ...
... To be attractive to rural people, wildlife conservation must generate tangible net benefits, include them in resource ownership and management decisions, provide a clear link between the benefits gained from wildlife and the need to conserve it and, in terms of large carnivores specifically, provide equitable benefits (Sillero-Zubiri & Laurenson 2001, Scanlon & Kull 2009). An honest accounting by the wildlife tourism industry should exist to determine its negative impacts on people and environments (Isaacs 2000) and should address factors that inhibit the tourism industry from fulfilling its conservation goals. The Namibian conservancy model is proving increasingly successful in providing a mutually beneficial coexistence between farmers and large carnivores. ...
Article
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1. Large carnivores are a critical component of Africa’s biodiversity, and their conservation requires a clear understanding of interactions between large carnivores and people. 2. By reviewing existing literature, we identify 14 key factors that influence large African carnivore conservation, including ecological (biodiversity conservation, interspecific competition, ranging behaviour, ecological resilience, prey availability, livestock predation, disease and population viability), socio-economic (people’s attitudes and behaviours and human costs and benefits of coexistence with large carnivores) and political (conservation policy development and implementation, conservation strategies and land use zoning) factors. 3. We present these key factors in a model illustrating the levels of impact on large African carnivore conservation. 4. We identify the key principle that underpins each factor and its implications for both large carnivore conservation and human–carnivore conflict. 5. We provide a synthesis of the key factors and related principles in large African carnivore conservation and highlight the importance of the site-specific and species-specific context in conservation policy and implementation, formulated through an interdisciplinary and adaptive approach.
... All of the ecotourism research themes and questions raised above are important for establishing truly successful ecotourism industries with a view to providing equitable and sustainable benefits in regional contexts. This is particularly important for ecotourism, given the evidence that ecotourism operations that operate without regard for the welfare of marine life or local residents can lead to outcomes including net negative impacts on ecosystems, poor relations with local communities, and negative perceptions of ecosystems and wild animals by tourists (Archer et al. 2012, Isaacs 2000, Higginbottom and Scott 2016. The first step in designing strategies for sustainable ecotourism establishment is therefore to identify existing conditions and challenges, including available information to inform new policies that are suitable for local environmental and socioeconomic conditions. ...
Article
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Achieving equitable and sustainable ecotourism requires a wide range of multidisciplinary and cross-scale information, particularly given the growing scale of ecotourism operations and continuing governance and climate challenges. Ecosystems in Mexico’s Gulf of California and Baja California Peninsula support a thriving ecotourism industry that has quickly expanded over the last few decades, potentially outpacing research into current performance and future sustainable development opportunities. We develop and apply a formal literature review approach to characterize academic marine ecotourism literature, highlight key insights and identify research strengths and gaps, and thus analyse almost 50 publications for the region from 1994 to 2014. There has been a significant increase in the number of various types of publications; most (68%) focus on ecological themes, 25% on economics, and 7% on social aspects of human wellbeing. There are also trends towards research on specific species (e.g. mammals, fish and sharks) and in specific areas. A common theme in publication conclusions is the need for collaboration from all stakeholder groups. We discuss these findings, and address potential limitations of our method, with a view to informing sound policies to ensure that ecotourism can provide equitable benefits to local communities while incentivizing sustainable practices and nature conservation.
... Based on the ecotourism definition, there are three principles to describe ecotourism: reduce the impacts at the visited areas, provide ecological education to the visitors and the involvement of the local communities (Wunder, 1999). According to Isaacs (2000), ecotourism can help in conservation by creating public awareness towards the environment, alert the tourists on the significance of nature and its processes and to lessen the negative impacts of human activities at the natural areas. Thus, ecotourism in the natural forests can help to promote the protection of the forest which plays an important role in the ecosystem such as carbon storage, watershed protection, erosion and home to numerous flora and fauna including bees. ...
... This diversity of approaches toward concession allocation illustrates both the value and harm regulatory intervention creates within ecotourism development. While there is still an oversight role for government and industry stakeholders in this space, both to restrict Protected Area access and monitor ongoing behaviour, it is increasingly recognised that tourism operators have an ethical obligation to behave responsibly within these natural locales (Isaacs 2000). ...
Chapter
Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility (CSR) refers to organisational behaviours dedicated to the responsible use of natural resources, sensitivity to social capital or host culture and the sustainable distribution of economic wealth. These behaviours create social value and are in the interest of wider society. Organisations, including those who operate within the tourism industry, have been under longstanding social pressure to exhibit CSR behaviours. This social pressure has ultimately contributed to the emergence of sustainable tourism forms such as ecotourism. However, as this chapter recounts, there is no guarantee that the sustainability premise on which ecotourism has been founded will equate to actual responsible business behaviours. This chapter identifies that social and environmental failings observed within ecotourism may be a result of poor community consultation, ineffective ecotourism management and ‘inauthentic’ entrepreneurial motivations. It argues that should these failings be addressed, ecotourism does hold some potential to positively contribute to the tourism industries’ engagement with both sustainable and responsible behaviour. In part, this potential is dependent upon an ability to attract ‘altruistically motivated’ entrepreneurs to ecotourism business start-up, as these entrepreneurial types may represent a more reliable exponent of sustainable business behaviours. This proposition would be further supported where altruistic motivation is coupled with responsive ecotourism development, management and consultation. There is a role then for government and other tourism industry stakeholders to develop and offer support and management mechanisms for altruistically motivated ecotourism developments.
... Recent developments in nature-based tourism have demonstrated the potential for attracting markets to rural areas, thereby helping to reduce poverty in areas with special environmental amenities. Ecotourism is ostensibly founded on the value of a natural landscape and this type of market generally has a positive effect on ecological protection, especially in nature reserves and biodiversity-rich areas [100], although negative examples are certainly known for sensitive areas [133,134]. However, it is hoped that nature-based tourism will not transform the way farmers use natural resources, as well as promote the sustainable use of resources and increase incomes for farmers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, increasingly sophisticated studies have investigated the relationship between agrarian livelihoods and the environment, as well as rural–urban interactions in developing countries. The policies developed to respond to these dynamics can constrain livelihood options or provide additional opportunities. In the present study, using a modified version of the telecoupled sustainable livelihood framework to generalize dynamic livelihood strategies in the context of rural–urban transformation and by focusing on recent research in China, we review important factors that shape rural livelihood strategies as well as the types of strategies that typically intersect with livelihood and environmental dynamics. We then examine telecoupled rural–urban linkages given that the dynamics of the livelihood strategies of farmers can cause flows of labor, capital, ecosystem services, and other processes between rural and urban areas, thereby placing livelihood strategies in a dynamic context, which has not been considered widely in previous research. We show that most previous studies focused on the reduction of environmental impacts via livelihood diversification and rural–urban migration. We propose several areas for future policy development and research.
... Wildlife viewing and other recreational activities can present a threat to wildlife (Bentz et al., 2016;Isaacs, 2000;Müllner et al., 2004;Storch, 2013) through various negative impacts such as altering diel activity and foraging behaviors (Corcoran et al., 2013;Dunn et al., 2010), affecting immune responses (French et al., 2010), lowering body mass of young (Almasi et al., 2015), or by decreasing recruitment (Broekhuis, 2018). Wildlife tourists often desire close encounters with nature, incentivizing tour operators to meet these expectations regardless of consequences to wildlife or the environment (Macdonald et al., 2017;Nortje et al., 2012;Reynolds & Braithwaite, 2001). ...
Article
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Social media platforms allow people to share experiences, thoughts, and actions through words and images, including human interactions with both domestic and wild animals. Human-wildlife interactions have been documented to have negative effects on wildlife. We use social media and a content analysis framework to identify general locations of a specific human-endangered wildlife interaction: human activity at painted dog den sites. Two hundred twenty images and captions relating to den visits were collected from four social media platforms, and then general locations mapped. Results indicate that den visits by humans occurred in seven of 14 countries where painted dogs are known to be present. This information provides a starting point for further investigation into the impacts of this activity on painted dogs, which is valuable to the effective management of human-caused disturbances (e.g., reducing potential anthropogenic Allee effects) for this species.
... Institutions and societies pay higher attention to the increasing destruction of habitats and the diminishing number of species. This comes along with a more scientific approach to conservation and the sustainable utilization of wildlife resources, such as eco-tourism (Isaacs 2000), trophy hunting (Loveridge et al. 2006;Lindsey et al. 2007) or game ranching (Lindsey et al. 2009). For the survival of endangered species it becomes increasingly important to not only protect them and their environment in situ, but to look for alternative ways such as the intensive breeding for research, reintroduction or even production (Hudson et al. 1989). ...
Article
The conservation and utilization of wild animals in China often raises public concerns. Thus, the Chinese government is increasingly exploring sustainable development of wildlife resources, and has implemented a series of measures, such as the modification of the Wildlife Protection Law (WPL), implementation of captive breeding licenses, an animal marking system, forest certification, and other actions to regulate captive breeding and utilization of wildlife. At the same time, the government tries to meet the Chinese traditional demand for wildlife products. We first introduce wildlife utilization as an internationally accepted conservation tool, and describe market-based wildlife farming as a legal substitute for wild-hunted animals. Second, we highlight the importance of wildlife products in Chinese culture and economy and review some successful examples of wildlife utilization in China, showing that the supply-side approach is a viable alternative to classical conservation. Subsequently, we outline benefits of, and drawbacks to, China's 'conservation through utilization' approach, resulting in the implementation of China's new, revised WPL. We discuss merits and shortcomings of China's revised WPL and respond to recent national and international criticism on China's supply-side approach to conservation. We strongly propose that captive breeding is a feasible approach to China's wildlife conservation-utilization dilemma, and much work is needed to promote the progress, such as legislation restructure, government attention, duties clarification, and so on. © 2019 The Wildlife Society.
... The new fastgrowing market opportunities were not backed up by rigorous implementation standards, certification and control, often resulting in voluntary or involuntary unsustainable ecotourism practices [26,27]. Several cases reported in the literature argued that travel in natural areas represented new pressure and potential damage to delicate ecosystems [26,[28][29][30][31]. Furthermore, conflicts on who should manage ecotourism projects and benefit (economically) from them [32][33][34][35][36][37], the deliberate use of the "eco" label to attract clients and cover current unsustainable activities ("greenwashing") [23,38,39], social impacts such as the commodification of indigenous people and culture [39,40], were also observed. ...
Article
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Ecotourism is considered to be an effective means of promoting nature conservation and sustainable development in less developed regions. However, its widespread adoption may be the result of a misunderstanding due to confusion about definitions and interpretations. Using web map browsers, we assessed the distribution pattern of ecotourism sites in both number and density in the 31 provinces of mainland China, and found that it positively correlated with gross domestic products (GDP) and population size, showing spatial dynamics similar to the general tourism model. However, negative-weak or no correlation at all was found with the presence and size of nature variables such as protected areas. These results support previous suspicions that the term ecotourism and its associated concept may be misused in China and that the regions that could benefit the most from this form of tourism have yet to properly develop it. Although this pattern could reflect a huge demand for genuine ecotourism, we recommend that China, to achieve its ambitious sustainable development goals, adapt ecotourism policies in its environmental and socio-cultural context, manage them with a trans-disciplinary expert board, and regulate its market by introducing a rigorous admittance system with continuous monitoring and evaluation.
... Ecotourism if appropriately developed will raise opportunity cost of land and result in reduced loss in natural areas (Jack, 2000), its presents a high potential for a site to realize the benefits for the sustainable use of its components and the conservation of biological diversity. However, in order to realize this potential, the people need to minimize the culture and negative impact upon the environment, while maximizing the returns of the local economy, through compromising with all forms of ecotourism activities. ...
Conference Paper
Mangrove ecosystem provides significant socioeconomic benefits to human being, both directly and indirectly. One of its important contributions is for ecotourism development. The mangrove ecosystem in Kota Marudu, Sabah has great potential for community-based ecotourism despite its less developed districts in Sabah. Community-based ecotourism would be one way of creating employment opportunities for local community to improve their standard of living. Its success could be archived by three ways, i.e., support and participation of local people, provides economic benefits and protect local cultural identity and the natural environment. Survey was conducted to 346 persons of local respondents and 252 persons of non-local respondents using random sampling technique. This paper discusses the perception of local community and non-residence population of Kota Marudu about the potential ecotourism site development as ecotourism destination. The results revealed that the respondents interviewed (83.3%) would be willing to visit Kota Marudu after they were informed and shown on the information and pamphlet of mangrove and coastal resources of Kota Marudu. The local community would also be willing to participate in ecotourism activities such as river and bay cruises, homestay, recreational fishing, cultural and small business. The majority of the non-residence respondents were interested in ecotourism activities and stay in Kota Marudu for two days as well as would be willing to pay for ecotourism activities. However, only few respondents (11.11%) have prior knowledge about the potential of mangrove or Marudu Bay. The study also found that lack of promotion and package tour in ecotourism activities could be significant factors in ecotourism development of Kota Marudu (25.40%). Community-based ecotourism in Kota Marudu can be promoted through active participation of local community and support from both the government and private sectors. Hence, more effective promotion of Kota Marudu as an ecotourism destination should be pursued to make this area well-known and appear in tourism map of Sabah and Malaysia. ekopelancongan sebagai destinasi ekopelancongan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa responden yang ditemuramah (83.3%) bersedia untuk melawat Kota Marudu selepas mereka diberitahu dan ditunjukkan maklumat dan risalah mengenai sumber bakau dan persisiran pantai bagi Kota Marudu. Komuniti tempatan juga bersedia untuk mengambil bahagian dalam aktiviti ekopelancongan seperti pelayaran sungai dan teluk, homestay, rekreasi memancing, kebudayaan dan perniagaan kecil. Majoriti responden bukan tempatan berminat dalam aktiviti ekopelancongan dan tinggal di Kota Marudu selama dua hari serta bersedia untuk membayar bagi aktiviti ekopelancongan. Walau bagaimanapun, hanya beberapa responden bukan tempatan (11.11%) yang mempunyai pengetahuan mengenai potensi bakau atau Teluk Marudu. Kajian ini juga mendapati bahawa kekurangan promosi dan pakej pelancongan dalam aktiviti ekopelancongan boleh menjadi faktor penting dalam pembangunan ekopelancongan di Kota Marudu (25.40%). Ekopelancongan berasaskan komuniti di Kota Marudu boleh dipromosikan melalui penyertaan aktif komuniti tempatan dan sokongan daripada kedua-dua sektor kerajaan dan swasta. Oleh itu, promosi yang lebih berkesan bagi Kota Marudu sebagai destinasi ekopelancongan perlu diteruskan untuk menjadikan kawasan ini menjadi terkenal dan muncul dalam peta pelancongan di Sabah dan Malaysia. Katakunci: Pelancongan berasaskan komuniti, potensi ekopelancongan
... There is considerable debate over the potential of ecotourism to promote conservation and development, with some considering it to be a panacea (Gössling, 1999;Mbaiwa, 2015), whereas some authors argue that any tourism always opens up a Pandora's box (Isaacs, 2000;Wall, 1997). This debate is further intensified due to a lack of consensus among researchers and organizations regarding the definition of ecotourism (Bjork, 2000;Boo, 1989;Goodwin, 1996). ...
Article
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The current study examines ecotourism as practiced in India by conducting a descriptive literature review of studies published between 1990 and 2019, focusing on ecotourism’s conservation and development goals. The findings of the study have been categorized on the basis of Honey’s classification of ecotourism to provide a better understanding of current ecotourism practices in India. The paper concludes that the Indian ecotourism industry, with apparent conservation and commercial bias, might become unsustainable in the long run. The study highlights the need to revise ecotourism planning and management to ensure a long-term sustainable tourism model. This review adds to the existing body of literature in ecotourism by highlighting the progress and the shortcomings of the niche industry.
... Some countries have exploited this potential for attracting large numbers of visitors including national and foreigners. Malaysia, Nepal, Kenya and Thailand are among the countries, and ecotourism contributes to a considerable share in gross domestic product and sustainable livelihood of these countries (Isaacs 2000). In addition to sustainable livelihood to the local people, ecotourism also provides a funding source for natural resource management (Eagles et al. 2002). ...
Article
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The present study estimated the economic value of Kallar Kahar Lake in Pakistan. This is among the first-ever studies considering the impact of the visitors’ perception on the number of visits to the lake in South Asia. Individual travel cost method was employed. Variables on the perception of the visitors were significantly related to the number of visits to the recreational site. Results implied that improving environmental quality and other conditions of Kallar Kahar Lake could increase the number of visits made to the lake. Consumer surplus was US$18.76 per person per visit, and the total annual value of consumer surplus reached US$5.3 million. Low elasticity of demand for recreational site implied the feasibility of imposing the entrance fee. This study contributes its part by providing economic valuation of the benefits provided by Kallar Kahar to be useful for the policymakers and local authorities for efficient management.
... Besides, it requires low-investment and it is locally internalised. Both bird watching and bird ringing activities are considered within this context (Boo, 1990;Goodwin, 1996;King and Stewart, 1996;Isaacs, 2000). ...
... Besides, it requires low-investment and it is locally internalised. Both bird watching and bird ringing activities are considered within this context (Boo, 1990;Goodwin, 1996;King and Stewart, 1996;Isaacs, 2000). ...
... Some guides may strive to reinforce the 7 m distance rule, whereas other guides may be hesitant to interfere with or upset the tourists. The complexities of economic disparities and inequities in the wildlife tourism industry have been deeply explored elsewhere [e.g., (52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59)(60)(61)], but the bottom line is that as gorilla tourism continues to expand, enforcement of the 7 m rule remains problematic in long-habituated as well as newly habituated gorilla groups at BINP. ...
Article
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Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are an endangered primate species, with ∼43% of the 1,059 individuals that remain on the planet today residing in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP) in southwestern Uganda. These primates are at the heart of a growing tourism industry that has incentivized their continued protection, but close proximity between humans and gorillas during such encounters presents well-documented risks for disease transmission. The Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) has developed rules to help protect the health of the gorillas, limiting each habituated gorilla group to a single 60 min visit each day by a group of no more than 8 tourists, and emphasizing that humans maintain a >7 m distance from gorillas at all times. A number of studies have documented that not all tour groups respect these rules. This project assesses rule-adherence during gorilla tourism encounters at BINP using both observational and survey-based data collected during the tourism high season between May and August, 2014. Observational data from 53 treks reveal that groups of 1-11 tourists engaged in gorilla viewing encounters between 46 and 98 min in duration. Although 96% of pre-trek briefings conducted by park rangers emphasized the need to maintain >7 m human-gorilla spacing, the 7 m distance rule was violated in over 98% (52 out of 53) of the tours examined in this study. Observational data were collected at 2 min intervals during gorilla-viewing encounters, documenting the nearest distance between any tourist and a gorilla (n = 1,604), of which 1,094 observations (68.2%) took place at a distance less than or equal to 7 m. Importantly, the 7 m rule was violated in visits to all of the gorilla groups habituated during the time of the study. In 224 observations (∼14%, per 1,604 total), human-gorilla spacing was 3 m or less. Survey data (n = 243) revealed promising opportunities to improve tourist understanding of and adherence to park rules, with 73.6% of respondents indicating that they would be willing to utilize a precautionary measure of wearing a face-mask during encounters to protect gorilla health.
... For coastal villages in regions rich in biodiversity, such as the Coral Triangle, CBET can be an equitable and sustainable conduit for the blue economy at a community level. However, ecotourism does not always bring the environmental and social benefits envisioned (Ballantyne & Pickering, 2012;Isaacs, 2000;Kr€ uger, 2005). Therefore, this study also points out that the success of the symbiotic relationship between CBET and conservation of natural and cultural heritage requires adequate support from all stakeholders. ...
Article
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This paper examines the role of community-based ecotourism within the developing market dynamics of the blue economy. The blue economy has become synonymous with generating wealth from ocean-related activities while protecting and supporting marine ecosystems. For remote coastal communities and Small Island Developing States, local economic development is a challenging balance between protecting marine biodiversity and maintaining sustainable and direct access to ecosystem services. In this paper, we present results of a study in the coastal region of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia in the Coral Triangle. The paper illustrates that community-based ecotourism supports sustainable use of marine resources and offers an entry point for low-resource coastal communities to take part in the blue economy. Complementary livelihood pathways that enhance primary income and support ecosystem services play a key role. Study findings show that three key areas where multilateral support is most needed for communities with ecotourism aspirations are: waste management, hospitality skills, and market access. From these findings, we present a model for community-based ecotourism in the blue economy. The model demonstrates important interactions between community, the local economy, and coastal ecosystems, and the important role community-based ecotourism plays in creating effective mechanisms for preserving natural and cultural heritage.
... Ecotourism is one of the fastest expanding tourism markets receiving much attention in developing countries and economically poor regions around the world (TIES, 2016). Ecotourism accounts for a large share of some countries gross domestic product, and contributes to livelihoods of many people in the country like Nepal (Isaacs, 2000). Some of the economic benefits which local communities can derive from ecotourism are employment opportunities, development associated with infrastructures and ecotourism businesses. ...
Article
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Wetlands cover 5% area of Nepal. There are many natural and artificial wetlands in Nepal. Out of them, Jagadishpur is the largest artificial lake and important wetland, located in Kapilvastu district. Despite the high potential for tourism development and close proximity to the Lumbini World Heritage site, this lake is less known to national and international visitors. Thus, this study was carried out to assess the possibilities of eco-tourism around this lake. Household survey, key informant survey and focus group discussion were carried out to know the people's perception, issues and challenges for tourism development. Collected data were analyzed qualitatively. Jagadishpur along with the other nearby historical places like Sagarhawa, Tilaurakot, Gotihaw, Niglihawa, etc. have a high potential for eco-tourism development. Bird watching was found to be most feasible, followed by the Jeep Safari and boating. Other ecotourism activities like Tharu culture, homestay can also be developed. However, poor tourism infrastructure development, marketing capacity of local people on visitor management, etc. have been addressed as the issues in the study area. However, people and stakeholders are willing to sort out this problem and willing to involve in ecotourism activities. It is recommended that awareness programs by providing various skill development programs and workshops related to tourism, the information center and involvement of the private sector in the promotion of ecotourism in and around the site.
... Human presence around birds' nests increased nest abandonment and eggs loss due to nest predators. [34]. Many birdwatchers play calls of secretive species to lure them out of their hiding places and, during the breeding period, this may stress birds, as well as leave nests exposed to predators. ...
... Recent developments in nature-based tourism have demonstrated the potential for attracting markets to rural areas, thereby helping to reduce poverty in areas with special environmental amenities. Ecotourism is ostensibly founded on the value of a natural landscape and this type of market generally has a positive effect on ecological protection, especially in nature reserves and biodiversity-rich areas [100], although negative examples are certainly known for sensitive areas [133,134]. However, it is hoped that nature-based tourism will not transform the way farmers use natural resources, as well as promote the sustainable use of resources and increase incomes for farmers. ...
... These large profits will improve the incentive to preserve the resources and to reduce the destructive externalities related to tourism. Finally, other sites, observing the accomplishment of the present firm, will come into the market, offering similar tours (Isaacs, 2000). Further, he stated that some customers would be drawn to competing sites. ...
Article
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The Effect of Green Practices on Tourists’ Behavioral Intention: A Study of Hoteliers in Central Province of Sri Lanka Abstract The tourism industry has experienced a rapid growth in the recent past. Among number of alternative forms of tourism eco-tourism has become one of the most attractive niche forms as it carries less harm to the natural environment. As Sri Lanka is rich with natural and social variety it can possibly build up the eco-tourism concept for the advantage of the Sri Lankan economy. The researcher became interested in eco concept and conducted a research to understand the effect of green practices on tourists’ behavioral intention. The findings of the study shows that green practices of hoteliers strongly affect to the behavioral intention of tourists. Based on the managerial implication of these findings, hoteliers should pay more attention to the effect created by green practices on tourists. The finding of this study can be applied to improve the eco-tourism concept in Sri Lanka. Key words: Eco tourism, Green practices, Tourists’ satisfaction, Tourists’ behavioral intention
Article
In managing the recreational resources in a coastal zone of the Crimean peninsula it is necessary to consider geomorphological natural risks that become visible in so-called adverse and dangerous natural processes. Among all types of adverse and dangerous natural processes in a coastal zone of Crimea the geological and geomorphological types are the greatest threat for the recreational natural-use. They are the object of studying in this article, and their impact on recreational human activity is a subject. This research is aimed at identifying the geomorphological adverse and dangerous natural processes, the characteristics of a coastal zone of the Southern Crimea, and developing the recommendations for managing the recreational natural-use. The authors assess the risks on that side using the town of Solnechnogorskoye and its surroundings, the typical tourist center of eastern part of the Southern Crimean coast, as a key area of the recreational activity. The slope and abrasion processes are the greatest threat here. Abrasion in general is characterized by the average level of intensity, the slope processes are mostly shown as a linear erosion and a landslide activity. A considerable part of this territory represents the modern and ancient landslides that in certain cases are activated by the human impact. The forecast for the coast dynamics indicates the necessity of shore protection works for a long-term vision to protect the engineering objects located next to the sea coast. It is necessary to avoid capital construction within the landslide bodies and next to the sea coast without bank protection con- structions. Protective measures should be applied to the available engineering constructions that are affected by the landslides and the linear erosion. It willallow reducing financial losses and the probability of human losses (that will inevitably lead to a sudden outflow of recreants from the region) when using the territory for tourism. The chosen area is characterized by adverse and dangerous natural processes typical for Crimea and other seaside territories with a mountainous terrain. Thus, the gained experience can be used for other coastal areas in Crimea and beyond.
Chapter
In 1972, The Limits to Growth predicted that by mid-twenty-first century, humans would face a critical resource and pollution crisis. Subsequent updates support the initial contention; however, when pushed to enact global environmental protections, we have only succeeded by decreasing CFC emissions, and thankfully, the ozone hole is now shrinking to its pre-1970s size. We are running out of oil, and when we do, what happens to medical necessary plastic tubes or petroleum for domestic travel and/or artificial fertilizers that allow us to feed the current human population? Are we facing the “Inconvenient Truth” or a “Long Emergency”?
Chapter
Tourism has emerged as one of the world’s largest industries and a fast growing economic sector. The Asian region attracts a growing number of quality-conscious tourists as it is endowed with a rich bio-cultural/heritage diversity. However, the diversity and integrity of many Asian tourist destinations have been severely eroded or irreversibly damaged due to ill-conceived, poorly planned, and under-regulated mass tourism and other human activities, increasing the conflicts between conservation and local livelihoods. Fortunately, the newly emerging community-based eco-cultural heritage tourism (CBECHT) can be effectively used in the region for achieving the objectives of sustainable development by integrating pro-poor tourism approaches. Such approaches are strongly promoted and supported by several international organizations as well as Local Agenda 21. This article provides a broad conceptual framework for this approach and evaluates the potentials and constraints for evolving and implementing such strategies in the region with their policy/planning implications.
Article
Nowadays, the business of ecotourism and rural tourism is a very important activity for many inland areas, enabling them to both produce important income and sustain the rural economy. Moreover, sustainable tourism is included in the UN 17th Sustainable Development Goal, which is to be achieved by 2030 (SDG 8.9 and SDG 12). Recent progress in digital tourism promises to deliver important changes to this activity, but most of this progress is addressed at well-known tourist destinations, so not dealing with the challenge of inland, rural and ecotourism. It is within this framework that this paper attempts to demonstrate that a new type of geoSpatial Decision Support System (S-DSS), developed on a Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure (GCI) and with a substantial interdisciplinary core, could provide a valuable web-based operational tool which may be offered to both ecotourism and rural tourism end-users, planners and policy makers, so that they might better plan and manage this type of sustainable tourism. The S-DSS platform has also been designed to encourage use by the multi-user community (farmers, tourism enterprises, associations and public bodies). The methodology is linked to the creation of a GCI platform (www.landsupport.eu) that supports the acquisition, management, processing and analysis of both static (e.g. soil, geology) and dynamic data (e.g. environmental and daily climatic data), together with data visualization and computer on-the-fly applications, in order to perform modelling, all of which is potentially accessible via the Web. The S-DSS tool known as EcoSmarTour is demonstrated through a case study of the Campania region (South Italy) and, by connecting database and modelling, it aims to deliver a large amount of information that will improve knowledge of the territory, manage scenario analysis, produce maps and evaluate potential ecotourism footpaths or areas of interest, thus enabling the provision of better information on the entire ecotourism sector. The tool will also be demonstrated through reference to a short selection of additional use cases from elsewhere in Europe. Most importantly, the approach adopted is highly transferable because it relies on very general algorithms that can be easily applied wherever the necessary data are available.
Article
Since rural community‐based tourism (RCBT) emerged, it has been widely considered to be an effective means of promoting development and conserving natural resources. Through a political ecology approach, this article explores the potential of RCBT to foster long‐term stewardship and transformations in ecological consciousness among campesino communities in unprotected areas. Using Cocachimba as a case study, the article reveals that while RCBT can increase environmental consciousness, stewardship and conservation practices, it also reshapes human‐environmental relations, changing both the value and the meaning of environment, as well as altering societal structures and changing relationships within communities. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 2018 DOI:10.1111/blar.12749
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Kafta Sheraro National Park is endowed with richest biodiversity and physical resources. These resources have a great potential contribution to the development of ecotourism. However, so far there have been no well-identified and mapped potential ecotourism sites. This study is aimed to identify potential ecotourism sites using a combination of Geographic Information System and Analysis Hierarchy Process method. In this paper, an integrated geospatial baseline data, such as biophysical features, wildlife, topography, climate, culture, and accessibility, were considered as main independent factors. Eleven criteria were designed based on 22 discussions with experts, as well as literatures, intensive field surveys, satellite imageries, and exiting thematic maps. The overall analysis result indicates that 27.63% of the area was highly suitable, 35.49% moderately suitable, 26.22% marginally suitable, and 10.66% not suitable. Most of the highly suitable areas lie in the western, north western, and some parts of the south eastern of the park. But, the moderately suitable areas are found in the central and southern parts of the park. Model area under the curve in the training data is 86.15%. Therefore, the output of this study can use as a basis for evaluating the suitability ecotourism development by governmental policy makers.
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This study was conducted in Okomu National Park, Edo State, Nigeria to investigate the value the tourists placed on Okomu National Park using travel cost method. The sample size was 100 respondents selected based on their willingness to participate on the study. Data were analysed descriptively while multiple regression was used to determine the factors that influenced visitation to the park. The study revealed that 51.0% and 49.0% of the respondents were female and male respectively while the highest age group was 11-20 years (48.0%). Majority ofthe tourists visit the park for recreational purposes (67.0%). A total of 102 visits per annum for the tourist were recorded at the cost of 530,460, with an average sum of 341,432 per visit. Total travel cost was found to be the major factor through which visitation rate to the park can be explained and predicted.
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This study investigated the potential of revenue sharing to act as an incentive to conserve biological diversity using Nyungwe National Park (NNP) and its neighboring communities, the extent of local community involvement in tourism development and conservation activities in western province of Rwanda. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect data from local residents, while face-to-face interviews were conducted with key informants from Rwanda National Tourism and Conservation Agency and local government officials as means to obtain deeper insights. The findings established that there is little active involvement of local communities in NNP. There is lack of empowerment to participate in decision making especially of community conservation outreach and tourism revenue sharing projects. The researcher believes that in the light of the research results, the decision making system for Nyungwe National Park tourism and conservation development plans is still highly top-down approach. It has also established that higher losses result from wildlife crop raiding as compared to benefits derived from conservation. There are some problems that people cause to NNP, the main problem is tree cutting, burning forest and hunting wild animals. People around NNP use woods, medicines, and honey as resources. It has established that tourism revenue sharing and related benefits could serve as an incentive for conserving NNP and concluded that if tourism is well managed, it can act as an incentive for conservation through stopping illegal activities. The study recommends that local communities around Nyungwe National Park should be Consulted and involved in development programmes within their villages from the start and this will ensure their participation in conservation activities.
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This book examines trade and trafficking in endangered animal species and how the trade increasingly puts large numbers of nonhuman species at risk. Focusing on illegal trafficking, the book also discusses the harmful aspects of the trade and trafficking which is taking place in concordance with laws and regulations. Drawing on the findings of empirical research from Norway and Colombia, the study discusses how this global, transnational trend is addressed, and features of the trade and the ways in which it is controlled in the two case study locations. It also explores the motives driving the trade, and the consequences in terms of animal abuse and environmental harm. The book discusses whether internationally agreed measures, such as international conventions, actually help prevent the trade. Possible ways to address the harms of wildlife trade are considered, including a total ban. The work draws on a green criminology and eco feminist theoretical framework to provide a broad perspective on concepts such as harm, animal rights, species justice and speciesism.
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This paper explores the long-term impact of a short-term study abroad program on alumni of the program years after having taken the course. Through using a mixed measure survey, the data reveals that short-term study abroad programs can have a significant and direct impact on the lives of alumni. The specific program considered has impacted alumni choices of international tourist destinations, activities alumni participate in while traveling abroad, as well as the choices alumni make concerning lodging while traveling abroad. In short, after participating in a short-term study abroad program, alumni have developed a global citizenship identity.
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The Canadian Arctic is defined and described and the numbers of tourists for the various regions estimated. The impact of adventure tourism on wildlife is documented, such as polar bear hunting and polar bear viewing, and the management approaches to conserve this iconic species are outlined; the possible spread of Giardia by tourists is discussed; and the impact of tourism on marine mammals and their management is described for beluga, narwhal and seals. There are impacts on birds too and on terrestrial vegetation in the tundra. Examples of aboriginal tourism are documented, including the development of the world-class Carcross mountain bike trails. Pleasure craft and cruise tourism have impacts, and the management approaches to minimise these are discussed. Finally the maintenance of the rich and diverse archaeological and historical sites in the face of tourist impacts is discussed.
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Nature-based tourism (NBT), alternatively known as ecotourism, is a rapidly expanding area in the tourism travel sector. States such as Louisiana with a well established urban-based tourism industry may have expansion opportunities through development of complementary nature-based tourism. This study analyzes the decision to participate in NBT among Louisiana tourists.
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The Thai economy is booming, but much of the rapid economic growth is being fueled by unsustainable use of natural resources (often subsidized by government policies), resulting in a loss of biodiversity. Based on the premise that conservation would be most successful if it were to be promoted by economic incentives, studies were carried out in the fields of forestry, protected areas, marine fisheries, mangroves, and nature tourism. New incentives were defined for each sector, along with changes in government policies to be included in Thailand's Seventh Five-Year-Plan. -Authors
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Expansion of nature tourism markets may be limited because of restrictions on visitor numbers at specific sites. Hence, factors affecting visitor expenditures are critical. This study of nature tourists in Arizona indicates that bird-watchers spend more money than other visitors to natural sites. Communities that target nature visitors from areas more than a few hours' drive away and encourage visits to multiple sites can increase visitor expenditures.
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Balance between the economic benefits of increased tourism and its environmental impact is difficult to achieve. But through a carefully thought-out and aggressive governmental plan, Tunisia seeks to reach such a balance. Tunisia's strategies might well be a model for other nations of any size with similar problems and goals.
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Introduction, 351. — I. The conditions of market efficiency, 353. — II. Neoclassical external economies: a digression, 356. — III. Statical externalities: an ordering, 363. — IV. Comments, 371. — V. Efficiency, markets and choice of institutions, 377.
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Ecotourism is currently a growing segment of tourism. This study reports results of a mail survey concerning moti vational and demographic characteristics of nature tourists who had recently traveled in North Carolina. While the majority of studies have focused on general tourist characteristics, few have tried to identify characteristics of nature-based travelers. This study confirmed previous findings regarding demographic characteristics of ecotourists: that ecotourists tend to be middle age with higher education and income lev els than general travelers and the general population. It also identified general and specific activity preferences of ecotourists. The top five general activity preferences were observing wildlife; visiting state parks, national wildlife refuges, and historic sites; and hiking wetland trails. The top five specific travel attractions were First Colony and Revolutionary War sites, Native American centers, camping and hiking tours, cultural tours to archaeological centers, and flora and fauna tours. Information source preferences of ecotourists were also examined.
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This article attempts to quantify the economic benefits of ecotourism resources. The contingent valuation method was employed to measure the economic value of ecotourism resources for recreational use at Mt. Minju in South Korea using a dichotomous choice questionnaire. The empirical results show that the economic value of ecotourism resources per recreationist was estimated at 20, 792 won (approximately U.S.$24) and 23,307 won (approximately U.S.$27) using the parametric and nonparametric approaches, re spectively, under the hypothetical market scenario. The total economic benefits then were estimated by multiplying the per capita economic benefit by the number of visitors. The findings are sufficient to demonstrate that ecotourism resources as nonmarket goods have their own economic value and have considerable economic benefits. This implies that significant economic benefits will be lost as a result of the development of a ski resort with golf courses in an environmentally sensitive area.
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A. Dobson et al. ([1][1]) provide a description of the geographic distribution of endangered species in the United States. They also examine the associations between the density of endangered species and the intensity of human economic activities, with the use of the annual statistical survey of the
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Wildlife conservation is incompatible with global markets or private ownership. What is needed is a 'tribal' system of management such as that in North America that creates both wealth and jobs while sustaining resources.
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Certain commodities of a pure individual-consumption variety also possess characteristics of a pure collective-consumption good, 471. — In certain cases when individual-consumption goods cannot be provided profitably by private enterprise, it may serve the social welfare to subsidize their production, 474. — Conclusion, 476.
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The potential Pareto improvement criterion and other measures of economic efficiency do not pass the test of consistency and coherence within economic theory, nor do such measures accord with what public decision makers seek in policy advice from economists. Such efficiency measures are, nonetheless, durable components of the ideology of economics in general, and benefit-cost analysis in particular. The objectivity of the policy scientist has been confused with the objectivity of the science. While economic efficiency has no claim to objectivity, the policy scientist can be an objective analyst of policy choices.
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This study analyzes the effects of right-wing extremism on the well-being of immigrants based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1984 to 2006 merged with state-level information on election outcomes. The results show that the life satisfaction of immigrants is significantly reduced if right-wing extremism in the native population increases. Moreover ; the life satisfaction of highly educated immigrants is affected more strongly than that of low-skilled immigrants. This supports the view that policies aimed at making immigration more attractive to the high-skilled have to include measures that reduce xenophobic attitudes in the native population. --
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In this paper I construct and analyze a simple mathematical model for the commercial exploitation of a natural animal population. The model takes into account the response of the population to harvesting pressure, the increasing harvesting costs associated with decreasing population levels, and the preference of the harvesters for present over future revenues. The principal conclusion of the analysis is that, depending on certain easily stated biological and economic conditions, extermination of the entire population may appear as the most attractive policy, even to an individual resource owner.
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This paper is the Presidential Address to the Sixteenth Annual Convention of the Eastern Economic Association. It offers some reflections on the role that economics has, and can, play in the determination of environmental policy. These reflections address the choice of policy instruments for pollution control and the locus of regulatory authority. A review of economic instruments suggests that effluent fees may offer more protection against costly errors than does a system of transferable emission permits. Compelling arguments exist for greater decentralization of some environmental measures; environmental federalism can allow for measures that are tailored more closely to "local" conditions.
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Valuing is usually regarded as a process of compressing information about attributes into a single metric. Armed with this reduced form of compact information, the consumer can consider a particular object, with a particular price attached (or implied), and make an "informed" decision. But the process of valuing is less straightforward than we ordinarily suppose. When environmental goods and services become the object of information compaction, it is possible that important information is lost. We comment on the choice problem germane to environmental goods and services and challenge the presumption that environmental choices made without explicit pricing are inferior to those in which hypothetical valuation studies are undertaken.
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