Article

The High Price of Materialism

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... There is widespread evidence that materialism increases the perception of loneliness (Bauer et al, 2012;Kasser, 2003;Kilbourne et al., 2005;Lane, 2000;Larsen et al., 1999;Pieters, 2013;Schwartz, 1992). Furthermore, materialism has a strong bi-directional relationship with loneliness (Pieters, 2013) that strengthens with time. ...
... It may be farther away from the real diagnosis of the situation. Furthermore, many researchers found that materialism negatively impacts happiness (Bauer et al., 2012;Caldas, 2010;Hsee, Yang, Li, & Shen, 2009;Kasser, 2003;Kasser & Ryan, 2001;Richins & Dawson, 1992;Soscia, 2007;Tatzel, 2003;Tybout & Artz, 1994). Where, happiness is a combination of several aspects such as being extrovert and materialistic, positivistic self-esteem, and life roles at any point in time. ...
... It can damage social and psychological relationships or impact their quality, can cause anxiety (Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002), and enhance the time spent unhappy and in depression (Richins & Dawson, 1992). Materialism plays with the connective ability of the individual (Kasser, 2003;Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002), disturbing the quality of the social relationships (Lane, 2000). This results in crowding out of relationships due to indulgence in such consumption patterns that blocks-in the consumer in a spiral consumption (Bauer et al., 2012;Kasser, 2003;Pieters, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Materialism and its predominant socio-cultural impacts are widely researched as the emerging social issues of the modern era. The two very prominent fallouts of materialism are loneliness and the inability to indulge in happiness over a continuous spectrum of time. The theory of materialism-loneliness-happiness (MLH) trap (Khalid & Qadeer, 2017) had identified loneliness as the mediating variable that gives the trap its characteristic cyclical shape. If the trap is cyclical, that means it is a never-ending process. Once trapped, the consumer will not be able to break free from it. However, this study argues that the consumer can stop themself from entangling in the trap by bringing conscious changes in the purchase process. In other words, a consumer can prepare against the trap. This paper attempts to empirically test the mitigation prospect to the MLH trap with the help of an extensive experiment spanned over 14 weeks of experimental manipulation of purchase training. The experiment followed a double randomization design for making the two successive interventions (materialism intervention and loneliness intervention). We found that materialism can be curbed in the shorter run by conscious efforts and training of the consumer. There was an overall decree of about 44% in materialism, a 56% decrease in perceived loneliness, and about a 27% increase in overall happiness scores from the start of the experiment (t1) till the end (t3). This shows that both materialism and loneliness can be handled by conscious efforts of the consumer, controlling the purchase mechanism. We also discuss the implications and provide future research directions.
... One of the reasons why people develop materialistic attitudes is a desire to compensate for economic deprivation (Dittmar, 2008;Kasser, 2002). Although the purchasing power of all consumers is restricted to some extent, the poor are particularly exposed to deprivation of their material needs . ...
... The research presented in this article investigated the relationship between financial status (both objective, as measured by income, and subjective, as measured by selfassessment) and materialism (including its three separate components: centrality, success, and happiness). Given that a lower income and inability to meet various material needs seems to make material goods particularly important to people (Dittmar, 2008;Kasser, 2002) the following hypothesis was advanced: H1: Financial status (both objective and subjective) is negatively related to people's level of materialism. ...
... Studies of adults show that material goods are a means of dealing with insecurity and low selfesteem (Chang & Arkin, 2002;Kasser, 2002;Solberg et al., 2004), and studies conducted in various countries show that self-esteem correlates negatively with materialism (e.g., Gupta & Singh, 2019;Zhang & Hawk, 2019). Also, research on children and adolescents by Chaplin and John (2007) showed lower self-esteem to be associated with higher materialism among 8 to 17 year-olds, and that differences in materialism were related to developmental changes in self-esteem during adolescence. ...
Article
Objective: One of the reasons why people develop a materialistic attitude may be their desire to compensate for economic deprivation. Poor people experience negative emotions as a result of deprivation, and this translates into low self-esteem. It is argued that, as a means of dealing with low self-esteem, people often use material goods, and thus become more materialistic. However, this idea has only previously been tested in studies of adolescents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between financial status (both objective and subjective), self-esteem and materialism. Method: The study was conducted using a representative sample of Polish working adults (N = 1138) recruited from an online panel. Data were analysed through correlation, regression and mediation analyses. Results: The study found no significant relationship between financial status and general materialism. However, relationships between both measures of financial status and two separate dimensions of materialism were observed (positive correlations with centrality, and negative correlations with happiness). Moreover, the study showed self-esteem to be a mediator of the relationship between financial status and the happiness dimension of materialism, and that self-esteem acts as a suppressor of the relationship between financial status and the centrality dimension of materialism. Conclusion: These results show that particular dimensions of materialism may be related to financial status in completely different ways. While poorer people more closely associate material goods with their happiness, richer people consider ownership to be more central in their lives. KEY POINTS What is already known about the topic: • Previous theoretical considerations indicated that low financial status can promote materialism. • Children and teenagers belonging to poorer families exhibit higher levels of materialism than their peers belonging to richer families. • Previous research on children and adolescents found that lower affluence was associated with greater materialism, and that this was explained by lower self-esteem among the poorer participants. What this topic adds: • Among adults, financial status (both objective and subjective) does not correlate with general materialism but is significantly related to two of the three dimensions of materialism (happiness and centrality). • Financial status (both objective and subjective) correlates negatively with happiness dimension of materialism and positively with centrality dimension of materialism. • Self-esteem is a mediator of the relationship between financial status and the happiness dimension of materialism, and a suppressor of the relationship between financial status and the centrality dimension of materialism.
... Based on the psychological insecurity hypothesis (Kasser, 2002), poor circumstances that frustrate adolescents' needs may make them feel insecure, which leads them to compensate for psychological insecurity by materialistic strivings and pursuing tangible and immediate outcomes (Dittmar et al., 2014). Therefore, adolescents living in poor family circumstances such as poor parental acceptance are more likely to pursue materialistic goals to meet their security needs. ...
... For the first part of the mediation process, adolescents perceiving poor parental acceptance were more likely to pursue materialistic goals. This result was consistent with the psychological insecurity hypothesis (Kasser, 2002), which infers that poor and unsafe family circumstances may trigger a value system focusing on materialistic pursuits. Our study is the first to reveal the negative correlation between perceived parental acceptance and materialism, which is consistent with previous studies supporting the influence of unsupportive parental behaviors on materialism (Fu et al., 2015). ...
... Our study is the first to reveal the negative correlation between perceived parental acceptance and materialism, which is consistent with previous studies supporting the influence of unsupportive parental behaviors on materialism (Fu et al., 2015). When adolescents fail to perceive parental acceptance, their security needs could not be satisfied; thus, they may tend to seek approval from external sources and adopt a value system emphasizing wealth and possessions to feel better about themselves (Kasser, 2002). ...
Article
Cyberbullying perpetration (CP) is a common and devastating network deviation behavior. Some parenting factors for CP have been identified, but few studies have examined the correlation between perceived maternal/paternal acceptance (PMA/PPA) and CP, and the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation are also largely unknown. Thus, by using a cross-sectional designed questionnaire survey of 4,206 adolescents ( M = 16.41 years, SD = 0.77), the current study examined the relationship between PMA/PPA and CP, as well as the mediating effect of materialism and the moderating effects of father/mother–child attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in this relation. The results showed that PMA/PPA was protective factors of CP. The moderated mediation models showed that materialism played a partial mediation role in the relationship between PMA/PPA and CP. Moreover, the direct association of PMA/PPA with CP was exacerbated by stronger father/mother–child attachment anxiety, in contrast, it was weakened by stronger father/mother–child attachment avoidance. Besides, both father/mother–child attachment anxiety and father/mother–child attachment avoidance strengthened the direct relationship between materialism and CP, and further strengthened the indirect association of PMA/PPA with CP. This study highlighted the importance of uncovering the link between perceived parental acceptance and adolescents’ CP and emphasized the underlying mechanisms, which are of great significance for the prevention and intervention of adolescents’ CP.
... Self-determination theory (SDT) assumes that the pursuit of extrinsic goals is problematic only when they are considered more important than intrinsic goals. In line with this approach, in this paper, materialism is understood as an orientation toward materialistic goals, i.e., financial success, popularity, and physical appearance, at the cost of neglecting non-materialistic goals, i.e., self-acceptance, affiliation, and community feeling; (Relative Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Value Orientation, REIVO) (Kasser, 2002; also see Kasser et al., 2014). ...
... One of the main sources of the materialism of teens is social modeling, and there are various role models (parents, peers, and media) that can shape the materialism of teens (Kasser et al., 1995;Flouri, 1999;Goldberg et al., 2003;Chaplin and John, 2010;Zawadzka and Dykalska-Bieck, 2013;Zawadzka et al., 2017Zawadzka et al., , 2021Chaplin et al., 2019). As a result of materialism social modeling, the individual becomes oriented toward pursuing materialistic goals (Kasser, 2002). ...
... Self-esteem is understood in this paper as positive global self-evaluation and a feeling of general happiness and satisfaction (Harter, 1999). According to self-determination theory, selfesteem occurs as the effect of satisfying basic psychological needs (i.e., affiliation, autonomy, and competence) and pursuing intrinsic, non-materialistic, goals (i.e., self-acceptance, affiliation, and community feeling; Ryan and Deci, 2000;Kasser, 2002). Materialistic goals are in opposition to intrinsic, nonmaterialistic, goals -the pursuit of the former occurs with neglect of the latter. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to examine the role of self-esteem in resisting the influence of materialistic goals of four social role models (mother, father, peers, and media) in adolescents (aged 13-16). Previous studies showed a negative correlation between the psychological health of teens and striving for materialistic goals, one of the main sources is the social modeling of materialism. Two studies were carried out. The first, correlational study, was conducted on target teens and their mothers, fathers, and peers of their choice. It examined if self-esteem is a moderator of the relationship between the materialism of social role models (mothers, fathers, peers, and media) and the materialism of teens. The second, experimental study, was conducted on target teens only. It examined how boosting the self-esteem of teens and activating materialism of social role models (mothers, fathers, peers, and media) may affect the materialism of teens. Study 1 showed a significant interaction effect of self-esteem and the materialism of peers on the materialism of teens. The interaction effects of self-esteem and other role models (parents and media) were not significant. Study 2 showed that elevated self-esteem lowered the influence of the materialism of peers on the materialism of teens. The results were not significant when other role models (parents and media) were analyzed. The results obtained in the presented studies indicate that the self-esteem of teens may have an important role in resisting the influence of materialism role models of peers. Practical implications of the studies for the psychological health of teens are also discussed.
... Beyond the field of compulsive buying, the study of goals has a well-established history and its association with well-being has led to an important number of empirical studies [28][29][30]. Initially, Kasser and Ryan [31,32] from the self-determination theory framework [33,34], have classified the goals, on the basis of their content, as intrinsic and extrinsic. ...
... Despite the robustness of the finding that the people whose system of goals is strongly focused on the pursuit of extrinsic goals have low levels of well-being, and even, that in some cases, these low levels are connected to indicators of ill-being [29,43], the scarcity of studies analysing life aspirations in young adults with compulsive buying is surprising. The exception, to our knowledge, is the research conducted by Roberts and Pirog [44], who confirm a positive association between compulsive buying and the extrinsic goals of financial success and attractive appearance and a negative association with the intrinsic goals of self-acceptance and community feeling. ...
... Ultimately, our pattern of results with respect to compulsive buying in university students seems to agree with the evidence available as to the beneficial effects of generativity and intrinsic goals on psychological health and life satisfaction [24,29]; and it also confirms that attributing importance to extrinsic goals and hedonism leads to an increased risk of engaging in this behavioural problem. These findings are, in our view, important arguments to encourage the design preventive and intervention policies for compulsive buying that include goals and generativity as targets for action when working with young adult samples. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study of goal-oriented behaviour, because of its undeniable repercussions on physical and mental health, is one of the target topics of contemporary research. However, the content of life aspirations, emphasised from the self-determination theory, has received little attention from the field of compulsive buying although it plays an important role in the regulation of behaviour and well-being. Generativity, the personal construct that captures the intentions and/or the need to contribute (leave a legacy) to others, has never been analysed with respect to compulsive buying although it has been the source of interest of related fields (responsible consumption). Accordingly, this study seeks to shed light on the role of both constructs (life aspirations and generativity) in compulsive buying among university students. The sample consisted of 1093 Spanish university students classified either as non-compulsive buyers or compulsive buyers. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.9%. The results of Student’s test confirm that, besides gender (women report greater propensity to the phenomenon), compulsive buyers score higher and show statistically significant differences with respect to non-compulsive buyers in all extrinsic goals (financial success, image, popularity and conformity) and hedonism. Non-compulsive buyers show significantly higher scores for the intrinsic goals of self-acceptance, affiliation and community feeling and also report a higher generative concern. The logistic regression analysis confirms that being female and the life aspirations of image, popularity and hedonism act as risk factors in compulsive buying in university students while generativity and the importance granted to the intrinsic goals of self-acceptance and affiliation are protective factors. Potential lines of action for this worrying phenomenon are discussed in the light of the findings.
... U mnohých adolescentov je identita čiastočne konštruovaná cez interakciu s populárnymi médiami, v ktorých je práve celebritám venovaný veľký priestor (Engle, Kasser, 2005). Aj prostredníctvom médií je podporovaný materializmus, t. j. keď sa na popredné miesto v rebríčku hodnôt dajú peniaze, popularita, majetok (Šramová, 2014, Schor, 1998, Kasser, 2002. To nahráva marketingu celebrít, keď je nákupný proces podporovaný vlastnením produktov a objektov, ktoré sú spájané s obdivovanou celebritou (napr. ...
... Toto všetko generuje celebritám zisk, a preto má marketing záujem o celebrity, ponúka im prepracované marketingové stratégie. Celebritný idol sa pre cieľové publikum stáva skôr objektom s trhovou cenou ako reálnou osobou (Kasser, 2002). ...
Book
Full-text available
Monografia vznikla ako výstup z rozsiahleho výskumu, ktorý sme realizovali vrámci projektu VEGA 1/0216/15 Celebrity v sociálnej reklame a ich preferencia u adolescentov. Ústrednou myšlienkou publikácie je zodpovednosť zy budúcnosť spoločnosti prostredníctvom formovania hodnotového systému mládeže. V monografii sme priniesli rôzne aspekty uvedenej problematiky ako sú definícia sociálnej reklamy, sociálneho marketingu, CSR, príslušnej generácie a ich vzájomnych vzťahov. Pokuázali sme na dôležitú úlohu celebrít v sociálnej reklame ako nositeľov deklarovanej socjálnej zodpovednosti s ohľadom na ich vplyv na mladšie generácie.
... To be or not to be happy? that is the question of consumption in social behaviors Kasser, 2002). Therefore, materialistic consumers that are eager to want more possessions and focus on consumption as a mission of their lives are unhappy due to not having all the things they really wanted to have. ...
... 2) argumentam que os materialistas desconhecem a quantidade de dinheiro que pagam por um bem devido ao alto nível de satisfação que podem ter ao adquirir um produto novo. Esses autores acreditam que esse tipo de consumidor compra produtos para ter respostas sociais, ou seja, outras pessoas podem admirá-los pelo alto padrão de qualidade que possuem.Kasser (2002) descreve que esses consumidores apresentam baixos níveis de autoestima. Na verdade, essa é a razão pela qual compram certos produtos para preencher uma lacuna sentimental. Da mesma forma,Dittmar e Pepper (1994) definem o materialismo como o comportamento pessoal e social de um indivíduo e a evidência de que os materialistas usam 451 Bra ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo do estudo: Examinar e avaliar as funções moderadoras dos comportamentos sociais e do consumo na felicidade.Metodologia/abordagem: Foi realizada uma pesquisa do tipo survey com 197 consumidores reais. Foram utilizadas, para as análises dos dados, análise fatorial confirmatória e modelo de regressão linear com moderação incluindo a técnica de Johnson-Neyman.Principais resultados: O hedonismo amplifica a relação positiva entre felicidade e frugalidade; a ansiedade social amplifica a relação negativa entre felicidade e materialismo; a conspicuidade enfraquece a relação positiva entre felicidade e aceitação social.Contribuições teóricas: O estudo adiciona à literatura de felicidade, sob a perspectiva de um país emergente, a elucidação dos papéis moderadores da ansiedade social, hedonismo e conspicuidade no relacionamento entre materialismo, aceitação social, frugalidade e felicidade, os quais ainda há inconsistências na academia.Relevância/originalidade: Até o presente momento, não há pesquisas sobre os efeitos simultâneos da felicidade no consumo e nos comportamentos sociais. O estudo testou os papéis moderadores da ansiedade social, hedonismo e conspicuidade na relação entre consumo, comportamentos sociais e felicidade.Implicações para a gestão ou sociais: As empresas podem garantir que os consumidores reajam a diferentes níveis desses comportamentos sociais, pois, enquanto consomem marcas ou produtos, podem, ao mesmo tempo, (1) realizar esforços para criar laços sociais com os envolvidos; (2) permitir que os consumidores experienciem felicidade e (3) atrair novos clientes.
... As stated above, the most commonly accepted definition of materialism is provided by Richins and Dawson (1992, p. 308), in which materialism refers to "a set of centrally held beliefs about the importance of possessions in one's life." According to Kasser (2002), materialism is uniquely identified with consumption that leads to happiness, which can be enhanced through possessions. Numerous research studies (Burroughs and Rindfleisch, 2002;Christopher et al., , 2009Kasser et al., 2014;Dittmar et al., 2014;Shrum et al., 2014) prove the negative link between subjective well-being and consumer materialism. ...
... Higher emotional intelligence also relates to a better capability to cope with stress, enhanced interpersonal relationships and greater social support of surrounding people Subjective well-being (Zeidner et al., 2012) and is considered to be a factor reducing unfounded consumer spending (Maddi et al., 2013). Meanwhile, materialistic values are associated instead with anti-social and self-centred consumer decisions, when others are treated as tools for the achievement of further materialistic goals (Kasser, 2002). ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the relationship between emotional intelligence and materialism by exploring how subjective well-being mediates this link. Design/methodology/approach: Data was collected from surveying 1,000 Lithuanians within random sampling, and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques using SmartPLS were used to analyze the data. Findings: The results show that emotional intelligence not only has a negative indirect effect on materialism but also a positive impact on both dimensions of subjective well-being (satisfaction with life and affect balance). In addition, the findings indicate that both satisfaction with life and affect balance predict a decrease in materialism. Finally, the SEM analyzes show that the path between emotional intelligence and materialism is partially mediated by both satisfaction with life and affect balance. Social implications: The results of this study expand the understanding to what extent and how emotional intelligence is able to assist in adjusting materialistic attitudes, which have become more prevalent with the respective growth of consumerism and consumer culture worldwide. In the light of unsustainable consumption patterns threatening the survival of humankind and nature, the opportunities that could reverse this trend are presented for marketers and policy makers. This study gives insight into the potential pathways for diminishing consumer materialism, which is considered detrimental to subjective well-being and mental health. Originality/value: The relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being has been well documented, as has the link between materialism and subjective well-being. However, the simultaneous examination of the relationship between emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and materialism is lacking. The current study adds to the understanding of materialism not only by examining the effect of under-researched antecedent such as emotional intelligence but also by explaining the underlying mechanism of subjective well-being by which emotional intelligence connects to materialism.
... A love of money and healthy relationships often cannot co-exist because materialism "crowds out" other pursuits in one's life, as time and resources are spent on obtaining material things while relationships are neglected (Kasser, 2002). Other possible explanations include that materialistic individuals simply devalue their relationships with others, so they do not invest in those relationships, or that materialistic values translate into one's relationships with others, Weddings,Materialism,and Marital Satisfaction 4 causing the materialistic individual to be difficult to please as he is unsatisfied with whatever intimacy or connection he is afforded within the relationship (Kasser, 2002). ...
... A love of money and healthy relationships often cannot co-exist because materialism "crowds out" other pursuits in one's life, as time and resources are spent on obtaining material things while relationships are neglected (Kasser, 2002). Other possible explanations include that materialistic individuals simply devalue their relationships with others, so they do not invest in those relationships, or that materialistic values translate into one's relationships with others, Weddings,Materialism,and Marital Satisfaction 4 causing the materialistic individual to be difficult to please as he is unsatisfied with whatever intimacy or connection he is afforded within the relationship (Kasser, 2002). ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/91806/1/burcham.pdf
... Benlik saygısı negatif yönde (Deci ve Ryan, 1995;Kasser, 2002 Handa ve Khare, 2013), kişilik (Sharpe ve Ramanaiah, 1999) ile arasında anlamlı ilişki bulunmuştur. ...
... Odabaşı (2003) (Ponchio vd., 2008), daha fazla para harcarlar (Watson, 2003) ve yüksek seviyede para kazanma istekleri vardır (Kasser, 2002). ...
... In the literature, suggestions have been made that individuals holding strong materialistic values might be less likely to experience flow. 41 When we say that someone holds strong materialistic values we mean that they place a large emphasis on the acquisition of money and consumer goods, believing that their ownership will lead to happiness and greater social status. 12 Hence, it is reasonable to conjecture that the values promoted by consumer cultures work to hinder our ability to achieve sustainable wellbeing through flow experiences. ...
... For example, a preoccupation with material rewards and public image could prevent an individual from fully engaging with an activity for reasons of enjoyment only. 41 Studies 2-4 tested this proposed negative effect of materialistic values on flow experiences empirically. 22 First, in study 2, we examined the strength of people's materialistic values and asked them how often they experience the characteristics of a flow state in their daily lives in a survey. ...
Article
Full-text available
Materialistic values and lifestyles have been associated with detrimental effects on both personal and planetary health. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify activities and lifestyles that both promote human wellbeing and protect ecological wellbeing. In this Personal View, we explore the dynamics of a psychological state known as flow, in which people are shown to experience high levels of wellbeing through involvement in challenging activities that require some level of skill, and can often involve less materially intensive activities. By synthesising the results of a series of experience sampling, survey, and experimental studies, we identify optimal activities that are shown to have low environmental costs and high levels of human wellbeing. We also confirm that materialistic values tend to undermine people's ability to experience a flow state. In seeking to understand the reasons for this negative association between materialism and flow experiences, we are drawn towards a key role for what psychologists call self-regulation. We show, in particular, that the tendency to experience a flow state can be limited when self-regulatory strength is low and when people evade rather than confront negative or undesirable thoughts and situations. We reflect on the implications of these findings for the prospect of sustainable and fulfilling lifestyles.
... Instead of adopting an environmentally sustainable lifestyle, most people continue with consumerism as usual (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010). Instead of saving lives by donating to effective charities, too many people waste money on things they don't need (Kasser, 2002). Instead of having a meaningful career and working hard toward making the world a better place, most people in developed countries choose jobs that they (often rightfully) find meaningless (Graeber & Cerutti, 2018;Rastogi et al., 2018). ...
... Subsequent work derived more realistic norms that respect those bounds (Lieder, 2018;Lieder & Griffiths, 2020 Research in positive psychology and motivation science has empirically investigated how different motives and pursuits affect people's well-being (I.1, I.7). From our perspective, a few of the most important findings are that well-doing promotes well-being (Aknin et al., 2018;Klein, 2017;Snippe et al., 2018; I.7) whereas striving for materialistic goals like having great wealth, being attractive, and wielding social power decreases well-being and contributes to ill-being in the form of stress, anxiety, and depression (Kasser, 2002;Martela, Bradshaw, & Ryan, 2019;Niemiec et al., 2009). Furthermore, people's well-being greatly benefits when they pursue their goals for intrinsic reasons (e.g., as an expression of their personal identity or because they are convinced that something is important) rather than for extrinsic reasons (e.g., because somebody else asked them to do it, because they feel that it is expected of them, or because they would feel guilty if they did not pursue it) or without any significant motivation (Sheldon, 2014;Sheldon & Elliot, 1999 There are many psychological obstacles that stand in the way of effective well-doing (Caviola, Schubert, & Greene, in press; II.6). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
People's intentional pursuit of prosocial goals and values (i.e., well-doing) is critical to the flourishing of humanity in the long run. But some of the most socially beneficial pursuits are neglected because they are unintuitive. To choose such pursuits people have to apply critical thinking and far-sighted decision-making in the service of the long-term flourishing of humanity. We refer to using reason and evidence to do more good in better ways as effective well-doing. To promote effective well-doing, we need to better understand its determinants and psychological mechanisms, as well as the barriers to effective well-doing and how they can be overcome. In this article, we introduce a taxonomy of different forms of well-doing and introduce a conceptual model of the cognitive mechanisms of effective well-doing. We view effective well-doing as the upper end of a moral continuing whose lower half comprises behaviors that are harmful to humanity (ill-doing), and we argue that the capacity for effective well-doing has to be developed through personal growth. Research on these phenomena has so far been scattered across numerous disconnected literatures from multiple disciplines. To bring these communities together, we call for the establishment of a transdisciplinary research field focussed on understanding and promoting effective well-doing and personal growth and understanding and reducing ill-doing. We define this research field in terms of its goals and questions. We review what is already known about these questions in different disciplines and argue that laying the scientific foundation for promoting effective well-doing is one of the most valuable contributions that the behavioral sciences can make in the 21st century.
... Through mentioned mechanisms, TMT provides explanations for behaviors, such as consumption behaviors which result from death reminders (Maheswaran and Agrawal, 2004;Rindfleisch and Burroughs, 2009;Das et al., 2014). For instance, it has been shown that MS not only causes an increase in the quantity of the purchased products (Atalay and Türe, 2009;Mandel and Smeesters, 2008), but also leads to changes in consumption behavior and creates higher preference for materialism and excessive expenditures (Kasser andSheldon, 2000, Mandel andHeine, 1999). Mentioned findings specifically clarify that facing existential concerns increases the preference for status consumption (Mandel and Heine, 1999). ...
... Looking at previous findings, on one hand, elderly is discussed as a group of individuals who has difficulties to maintain a high level of self-esteem (Maxfield et al., 2010), because of aging and its consequences (such as retirement, physical declines, loss of social roles, feeling of loneliness; Singh and Misra, 2009). On the other hand, materialism and status consumption are discussed as the type of consumption which is negatively related to self-esteem (Rose et al., 1998, Souiden et al., 2011, Kasser 2002, meaning that lower self-esteem results in higher preference for status consumption. Moreover, and regardless of the effect of MS, the level of status consumption is significantly different based on generational cohort (Eastman and Liu, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Over the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the effect of the awareness of the inevitability of death on consumption behaviours. However, the literature has shed little light on the effect of mortality salience (MS) on elderly individuals. The present research specifically aims to challenge the effect of MS on status consumption among elderly individuals. Design/methodology/approach Two experiments were conducted among individuals over 50. The experiments manipulated MS to test its effect on status consumption. Findings The results demonstrate that MS positively influences the preference for status products among elderly individuals (experiment 1) and that this effect is less pronounced as elderly individuals age (experiment 2). Subjective age bias, defined as the potential gap between chronological age and subjective age, negatively moderates this effect (experiment 2). Practical implications Luxury marketers need to pay attention to generational cohorts rather than other demographic variables in the segmentation of their market. Moreover, subjective age may be a better segmentation variable for marketers than objective variables such as chronological age. Originality/value This research provides insights that support a better understanding of status consumption among elderly individuals and the role of subjective ageing in this process.
... On the bright side, materialism motivates individuals to work hard for material achievements (Joseph Sirgy et al. 2013). However, materialism is more commonly known for its association with negative psychological factors including lower self-esteem (Kasser 2002), depression (Mueller et al. 2011), loneliness (Pieters 2013), and dissatisfaction with life (Tsang et al. 2014). Evidence suggests that materialists seek to account for such psychological deficiencies through material acquisition (Reeves, Baker, and Truluck 2012). ...
Article
Despite the ubiquity of social media influencers (SMIs) and the clear value they hold for marketers, little is understood about the sociopsychological motives that drive consumers to follow them. The current research identified unique consumer motivations for following SMIs on Instagram and examined its association with important consumer behaviour outcomes (i.e. trust towards SMIs’ brand-related posts and frequency of purchasing SMI-recommended brands) as well as materialism. Based on survey data, findings revealed four motivations for following influencers on Instagram – authenticity, consumerism, creative inspiration, and envy – which had varying effects on trust and purchase frequency. Additionally, materialism was a significant individual difference variable that was strongly associated with the four motives, some of which served as key mediators underlying materialism’s impact on purchase behaviour. Managerial and theoretical implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed as well as suggestions for future research in this burgeoning area.
... Specifically, we propose materialism as an important driver of consumers' purchase intent and engagement with a sponsored content, given that prior research has suggested that consumers' materialistic values play an important role in consumer behavior and psychology (Belk, 2010;Richins, 2017). For example, Janssens et al. (2011) have shown that materialism is strongly linked to conspicuous consumption, signaling one's wealth and status, and Kasser (2002) has argued that materialism serves as a means to maintain and enhance positive self-image through consumption. We also propose hedonic enjoyment as a mechanism for explaining the positive effect of materialism on the aforementioned focal-dependent variables. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have mainly demonstrated negative consequences for content labeled as sponsored. Despite this, recent industry findings indicate a growing trend for sponsored content on social media. In addition, an increasing number of users suggest that such paid content would increase their likelihood of purchasing items from social media. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to what drives consumers’ purchase intention and engagement with sponsored content with a clear disclaimer such as “Paid Partnership.” Therefore, the present research seeks to provide insights into what drives consumer engagement and purchase intention with sponsored content and when and why such effects are observed. Conducted with an online survey, the results showed that individuals with high materialism showed greater purchase intent and higher engagement with sponsored content through hedonic enjoyment. The results also showed that the mediating role of hedonic engagement for the positive effect of materialism on purchase intent was only significant under high influencer trust. Furthermore, the mediating role of hedonic enjoyment was amplified when the need to belong was high.
... These external forces diminish the person's autonomy, and even positive forces such as the use of rewards can diminish autonomy (see Figure 1; Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999). This is because the person places priority on the reward, effectively losing sight of their values and needs, with studies showing less reported autonomy, less happiness, and lower quality of relationships in such instances (Kasser, 2002). Thus, with my program of studies focusing on how people are supported socially, a topic which has consistently been shown to be a good predictor of mental health (e.g., Chu, Saucier, & Hafner, 2010;Kessler & McLeod, 1985), I focus on autonomy support as a framework for quality social interactions. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Autonomy involves a sense that one’s behaviour is authentic, volitional and aligned with inner beliefs. Though extant literature describes the importance of both autonomy satisfaction and autonomy support from others with whom one interacts, little work has been conducted to understand what specific qualities comprise autonomy satisfaction and its support. In other words, we know little of how and why autonomy matters for individuals’ well-being. In two empirical chapters, I describe an understudied aspect of autonomy satisfaction: whether self-expression is congruent (autonomy satisfying) or incongruent (autonomy-thwarting) with the self. Therefore, in a first empirical chapter (Chapter 3), I investigated two types of self-expression: authentic self-expression (that supports autonomy) and inauthentic self-expression (that may undermine autonomy). I developed a new scale to assess these constructs and show they are distinct from, but closely linked with, the internal experience of feeling authentic and that they foster feelings of agency. In Chapter 4, I further examined what happens when people think of in-group others’ undermined self-expression. Specifically, I tested whether vicariously undermining autonomous self-expression can elicit a reactive response to reassert one’s own autonomy through self-expression. In two final empirical chapters, I studied autonomy support from close others within samples of individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB; with transgender and related communities, LGBT+). Disadvantaged individuals, such as those who are LGBT+, are known to have worse well-being than the general population and may benefit more from autonomy support. Therefore, understanding autonomy support for this minority group is an important step in rectifying health disparities. Chapter 5 uses a large pre-existing dataset to analyse the importance of specific components of autonomy support within close relationships in an LGB sample, whilst Chapter 6 further explored the components of autonomy support and their relation to well-being in LGBT+ individuals.
... CSE denotes that people judge themselves based on others' assessments (DiBello et al. 2015). Kasser (2002) noted that CSE occurs when people's sense of worth depends on meeting particular external standards (49). As people must act according to the expectations of other individuals, their self-esteem is evaluated based on how good they perform and stand in the eyes of essential others (Roberts, Manolis, and Pullig 2014). ...
Article
This research examines the impact of contingent self-esteem on compulsive usage of social media application WeChat in China. The authors attempt to identify the channels based on self-verification and self-determination theory and propose that fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of missing out (FoMO) transfer the impact of contingent self-esteem (CSE) to compulsive WeChat usage (CWU). Additionally, these relationships were tested with frustration about unavailability (FaU) as a moderator in the framework to explain the phenomenon. By employing a convenience method, 396 samples of Chinese students were analyzed. The analyses indicate that CSE contributes to CWU directly and indirectly through FNE and FoMO. Furthermore, FNE mediates the link between CSE and FoMO, ultimately transferring the effect of CSE to CWU in series. These results can enhance our knowledge of how CSE affects CWU, a growing problem among young people today. Our results may guide psychologists to prepare a counselling programme for compulsive social media users and help them overcome social interaction fears in the real world.
... Es una crítica de los estilos de vida basados en los mantras de trabajar más, ganar más, vender más y comprar más.El "sentido de la vida" como fuente del decrecimiento también se basa en los hallazgos de la literatura sobre la economía de la felicidad. La desconexión entre el aumento del ingreso y la satisfacción vital a lo largo del tiempo, un fenómeno conocido como la paradojade Easterlin (1974), así como la asociación entre la importancia de las ganancias materiales y los trastornos emocionales(Kasser, 2002), son dos referencias importantes.El movimiento por la simplicidad voluntaria, que reduce el consumo individual y ve la vida simple como liberadora y profunda, en lugar de restrictiva limitante, es una visión importante dentro de esta fuente.Trabajos de referencia son "Walden o vida en los bosques" de Henry David Thoreau, "La sobriedad feliz" de Pierre Rabhi, "La simhttps://www.rosalux.org.ec/ ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Al mismo tiempo que la centralidad de los cuidados en las familias y en la sociedad fue dramáticamente expuesta por la crisis sanitaria actual, se desnudó las desigualdades en el acceso a los cuidados y, consecuentemente, la mayor vulnerabilidad de gran parte de la población en América Latina. Wanderley argumenta que un cambio prioritario en la construcción de la nueva normalidad pos-COVID-19 es la ampliación de las políticas de cuidado en el centro de una nueva generación de políticas sociales y económicas. El capítulo presenta el debate sobre el concepto de trabajo de cuidado que fundamentó las luchas feministas y los avances normativos relacionados al cuidado como un derecho social en la región latinoamericana. Finalmente se lineamientos de políticas de cuidado como un bien común.
... Research ties individualistic consumption and materialism to the dissolution of ethical attitudes, higher rates of physical and mental illness, including obesity and addiction, and anti-social characteristics (Assadourian 2010;Chowdhury and Fernando 2013;Kasser 2003;Mullainathan and Shafir 2013;Reith 2004). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marketing systems are a burgeoning area of study that focuses on the pervasive systems of exchange that characterise modernity. These systems are both central to development but also consistently implicated in the production and reproduction of troubling reductionism in the ‘overarching systems of meaning-making that to a substantial extent inform how humans interpret, enact, and co-create reality’ in both praxis and research. This paper argues that we need corrective metatheories which counter inappropriate oversimplification and reductionism while searching for unity in the subjective, intersubjective, interobjective and objective domains of being, providing a regulative function for discourse and research. In response to this problem, the paper offers an integrative approach based on the critical realism and philosophy of Roy Bhaskar. The work of Bhaskar and the subsequent intertwinement of systemic approaches focuses on encompassing the complexity of our socio-ecological existence and providing a basis for a critique of pathology, injustice and ineffectiveness to help us redress the spectrum of crisis.
... The norm of material self-interest poses not only a serious challenge to the sustainability of human society but it also adversely affects human psychological and even physical health. The growing body of empirical studies indicates that strong materialistic value orientations are associated with low personal well-being (Belk 1985;Kasser and Ryan 1993); dissatisfaction with one's life (Richins and Dawson 1992;Ryan and Dziurawiec 2001); neuroticism (Flouri 1999); higher substance use like tobacco, alcohol, and drugs (Vansteenkiste et al. 2006): low levels of happiness, vitality, self-actualization but higher levels of depression, anxiety, and distress (Kasser and Ahuvia 2002;Kasser and Ryan 1996): and mental disorders like narcissism, paranoia, obsessive and anti-social behavior (see Kasser 2002 for a meta-review and extensive discussion). ...
... Therefore there is a significant difference between fulfilment of basic physical needs and going way beyond that by piling up expensive products-wants (example: a need of a glass of clean drinkable water could save a life and a want of a brand new dress would not do that). The processes of MVO development are explained by Kasser's theory of materialistic values (7). It suggests that there are two main paths to higher levels of material MVOone is exposure to models of materialistic values, the other one is living through events that prompt feeling of insecurities and of course, there is the third option of having both combines. ...
Article
Full-text available
Materialistic orientation has long been related to various aspects of personality development and subjective wellbeing. Literature and research overview provides evidence that a higher level of materialistic orientation is related to increased external motivation (lack of internalization of goals), extrinsic aspirations (such as possessions, power and image), overall lower levels of subjective wellbeing and physical health. Materialistic orientation also prevents the future exposure to different situations where a person could fulfill basic psychological needs as defined by Ryan and Deci-autonomy, capability and connectedness. People with higher materialistic orientation are easier influenced by advertisement and media, which in itself leads to strengthening of their materialistic orientation. Research in different countries conducted by T. Kasser and Sheldon and colleagues indicates that the materialistic orientation's influence is not limited only to people in developed countries and it could be far worse in developing and underdeveloped countries as the capitalistic models spread throughout the world through the processes of globalization. The current article presents the data from an experiment conducted in Bulgaria applying the protocols from Tim Kasser and Ken Sheldon's experiments in 2001 in the USA. The levels of insecurity of the participants in the experiment group are manipulated by asking them to think and write about their own death. Then all participants are asked to solve a social case by choosing between their own financial benefits and security (greed and fear) or do what is best for the group and others including the environmental sustainability (social interest). The results from the experiment concur with all previous data collected in the USA.
... La felicidad, en términos filosóficos puede ser de dos tipos: eudemónica y hedonista (Kasser, 2002). Esta última es perniciosa para la calidad ambiental, pues se asocia a la obtención de objetos materiales y a la vivencia de experiencias placenteras. ...
... p < .001). These results are consistent with previous findings, indicating that people's general well-being and life satisfaction improve as they orientate their lives toward more intrinsic goals and values (e.g., improving personal relationships), and decrease as people turn to more materialistic ones (e.g., seeking financial success) (Brown et al., 2009;Kasser, 2002;Kasser et al., 2014;Twenge et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim and Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate how different types of goals may affect the satisfaction in life of Brazilian emerging adults in different developmental stages and, what characteristics they associate with adulthood. Method: Participants were 970 Brazilian youth aged from 18 to 30 years old (M = 22.8; SD = 3.4). The instruments we used were a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Aspiration Index and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis to elicit the characteristics related with becoming an adult, as well as ANOVAs to test if there was a difference between the endorsement of intrinsic or extrinsic goals based on sociodemographic characteristics; and if there was a difference, did it affect their satisfaction with life. Results: Results showed that the most important characteristic to be considered an adult was to be financially independent and to be responsible for oneself, while the least important were to be married and to have children. There was a significant difference in the importance participants gave to intrinsic goals based on sex and age. Consistently with previous research, we found that giving greater importance to intrinsic goals had a positive and significant effect on life satisfaction. However, different sets of goals were deemed important according to the developmental stage youth were in, and these changes had in turn a significant effect on life satisfaction. Conclusions: Finally, we found that prioritizing intrinsic goals contributes to greater life satisfaction in general. This study acknowledges that there are individual and contextual factors that may propel youth to choose their goals in order to attend these demands, regardless of their impact on life satisfaction.
... Although the relation between parent and child values is not always a strong one (Roest et al., 2009), because children may rebel or other role models offset parental influence, strong parentchild value similarities are typically noted when the parental values are consistent with societal norms (Chan & Tam, 2016), which is arguably the case for materialism in consumer cultures. Materialism in children can also develop indirectly through exposure to social role models that espouse materialistic values (Kasser, 2002). Children may infer the importance of materialistic values from observing their parent's striving for higher standards of living and external success (Chaplin & John, 2010), and internalize those values (Bandura, 1977). ...
Article
Research has shown that television viewing cultivates a materialistic worldview in children. However, other socialization factors may also influence children’s materialism. The current research tests two socialization pathways of parental influence: (a) an indirect path in which parents pass on their own materialism to their children, and the parent’s materialism is at least partly the result of a parent cultivation effect (parent cultivation); (b) an indirect path in which parents pass on their television viewing behavior to their children, which in turn positively predicts the children’s level of materialism (child cultivation). The results of two studies (initial study plus direct replication, N = 818) of U.S. parent–child dyads with 14- to 17-year-old children support the first path but not the second: The relation between parent TV viewing and child materialism is mediated through parent materialism. Child TV viewing is positively correlated with child materialism, but is nonsignificant when parent materialism is controlled.
... Having: Capitalism is based on the dogma that people cannot and must not ever be satisfied. In a sense, the tenet holds true, because a life guided by material wants and oriented to excessive having is bound to be a dissatisfied one (e.g., Kashdan and Breen 2007;Kasser 2002;Solberg et al. 2004). By contrast, fulfilling one's needs of existential Having can be as well meaningful as pleasurable. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current ecological crisis attests that the price of the human pursuit of well-being has been too high and that the conception of well-being behind this pursuit has been flawed. Building on research on sustainable well-being, well-being research in sociology, social policy, psychology, and philosophy; need theories, degrowth research, and ecopsychology, this article investigates what kind of narrative and conception of well-being could contribute to the transformation toward sustainability. The article first delves into the current popularity of the discourse on well-being, discussing both its pitfalls and promises, and explaining why well-being is a significant concept for the sustainability transformation, when appropriately defined and free of an economic bias. A relational, and therefore sustainable, approach to well-being, namely the Having-Loving-Doing-Being framework (shortened HDLB), is then presented and elaborated. Going deeper into the topic of relationality, the article then examines the tug-of-war between the notions of objective vs. subjective and hedonic vs. eudaimonic well-being, and clarifies the HDLB framework’s position on these issues, elucidating why a radically relational and nature-inclusive – and in the last resort, non-dualist – approach, offers an exit from the polarity of these dichotomies.
... It is furthermore in line with a large body of research that shows there seems to be a threshold for basic needs: only in low income/developing countries, economic status is related to subjective well-being, but not in high income/developed countries (Howell & Howell, 2008;Cummins, 2000b;Easterlin, 1995). Moreover, studies typically show that the pursuit of extrinsic or material goals, such as money and wealth, are less important for well-being in general and might even be detrimental for both adults and adolescents Easterbrook et al., 2014;Kasser, 2002;Massey et al., 2008). Those studies suggest that striving for a sense of self-worth via external rewards reflects a lack of personal/inner self-worth (Massey et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
A recent offender rehabilitation theory, the ‘Good Lives Model’ (GLM), states that effective interventions should not only focus on risk factors, but also on improving well-being by meeting a universal set of human needs, such as relatedness with friends and family, inner peace and excellence in agency, called ‘primary goods’. Little empirical research however exists examining the GLM's underlying etiological assumptions, especially for youngsters. Due to their developmental phase, adolescents may have different needs or they may prioritize them differently compared to adults. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the existing literature on adolescent well-being. A multi-level meta-analysis was conducted to assess the extent to which the 11 GLM primary goods are related to overall subjective well-being in adolescents. We systematically searched databases for terms related to well-being and adolescence, resulting in 139 publications included in the meta-analysis. Almost all of the GLM primary goods were related to subjective well-being in adolescents. Some goods however may be more salient or manifest themselves differently in this particular development phase. Offender rehabilitation interventions should carefully assess which primary goods are important for the youngster, how they (try to) achieve them and in which way the goods are related to their delinquent behavior.
... Former studies indeed have provided indirect evidence for a connection between self-esteem instability and heightened materialism. Self-understanding (Schroeder & Dugal, 1995), self-clarity (Gil et al., 2012), and insecurity (Kasser, 2002), all of which reflect states of (in) stability in self-identity, predict materialistic values. Narcissism, a form of unstable and high self-esteem, is positively related with materialistic values and the purchasing of prestige products (Sedikides et al., 2007;Velov et al., 2014). ...
Article
In three studies, the current research examined how the presence of descriptive social norms about materialism moderated the relationship between perceived self-esteem stability and materialistic values. In Study 1, a two-wave longitudinal design across five weeks showed that initial self-esteem stability negatively predicted later materialistic values when participants perceived higher social norms about materialism. In Studies 2 and 3, we measured self-esteem stability and experimentally manipulated social norms about materialism. Similar to Study 1, results indicated a negative association between self-esteem stability and materialistic values when social norms about materialism were high, but not when they were low. This research suggests that both individuals' trait self-esteem stability and the materialistic contexts in which people are embedded contribute to the adoption of materialistic values, supporting a person-environment interaction view of materialism.
... Ancak materyalist bireyler her ne olursa olsun ürünlerin sahipliğine daha fazla önem vermektedir (Wallendorf ve Arnould, 1988: 532). Literatürdeki birçok çalışmada (Shafer, 2000;Roberts, 2000;Kasser, 2002;Heaney vd., 2005 (Cristopher vd., 2004: 114). Literatürdeki yer alan pek çok çalışmada (Shafer, 2000;Tatzel, 2002Tatzel, , 2003Durvasula ve Lysonski, 2007;Lemrova vd. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Toplumların sürekli değişim ve gelişim göstermesiyle farklı liderlik türleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Örgütlerde insan faktörünün önemli bir konumda olmasından ve etik değerlerin örgütsel verimlilik, devamlılık ve etkinlik üzerindeki katkısından dolayı etik liderlik yaklaşımı önem kazanmıştır. Etik liderlik, yöneticilik yapmadaki liderlik yeteneği ile etik ilkelerin dengesi olarak belirtilmiştir. Etik liderlik, çalışanların kişilik yapılarına karşı önyargısız bir şekilde onların şahsi farklılıklarını ve inançlarını kabul etmektir. Etik liderlik, etik karar verme, etik değerlerin yönetime katılması ve bu düzeni oluşturma yeteneğidir. Günümüz şartlarında örgütlerdeki sürekli değişim ve gelişim sonucu farklı liderlik türleri ortaya çıkmaktadır. Etik liderlik ise bu türlerden biri olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Etik liderlik, örgütte etik ilkeler doğrultusunda davranışlar sergilemek, çalışanların farklılıklarını kabul etmek, örgüt ve çalışan arasındaki dengeyi adil, dürüst bir şekilde sağlamaktır. Etik liderliğin amacı örgütte etik bir kültür ortamının oluşturularak örgütsel kalite, verimlilik, devamlılık ve başarının sağlanmasıdır. Güven; tüm beşeri ilişkilerde, ilişkinin yürütülebilmesi için olmazsa olmaz bir kavramdır. Örgütsel açıdan bakıldığında ise güven, çalışanların kendi içlerinde duyulması gereken önemli bir duygudur. Güvenin tam olarak varlığının söylenemediği durumlarda, örgüt içinde çeşitli sorunlar meydana gelmekte ve beraberinde bazı olumsuz tutumları getirmektedir. Çalışmanın amacı ise, yöneticilerin etik liderlik davranışlarının örgütsel güven üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Araştırmada veri toplama yöntemi olarak anket formu tekniğinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma yapılırken Balıkesir’in İvrindi ilçesindeki perakende sektörü örneklem olarak seçilmiş ve 111 kişi anket doldurarak araştırmaya katılmıştır. Ankette etik liderlikle ilgili 10, örgütsel güvenle ilgili 12 olmak üzere 22 soru bulunmaktadır ve likert ölçeği kullanılan anket verileri toplanıp analizleri bir paket programı yardımı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu araştırmanın amacı yöneticilerin etik liderlik davranışlarının örgütsel güven üzerindeki etkisini belirlemektir. Bu doğrultuda, öncelikle etik liderlik davranışı kavramı ve örgütsel güven kavramı arasındaki ilişki incelenerek kavramsal çerçeve oluşturulmuştur. Daha sonra araştırmanın teorik çerçevesi ve hipotezleri oluşturulmuş olup, çalışmanın araştırma bölümünde Balıkesir’in İvrindi ilçesindeki perakende sektörü çalışanlarından toplanan veriler istatistiki analizlere tabi tutulmuştur. Elde edilen verilerle güvenilirlik analizi, frekans analizi, normallik testi, basit regresyon analizi ve korelasyon analizi yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda; etik liderlik davranışlarının örgütsel güven üzerinde etkisi olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmanın bir diğer sonucu olarak etik liderlik ile örgütsel güven arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu görülmüştür. İleride yapılacak çalışmalar için tavsiyelerde bulunulmuştur. Çalışmanın literatüre ve diğer araştırmacılara önemli katkılar sağlayacağı görülmüştür.
... Lo anterior evidencia que si bien los medios (por ejemplo, el ingreso) son importantes para la consecución del bses, lo son sólo hasta cierto punto. Los recursos materiales funcionan bien para proveer seguridad al individuo, sin embargo la evidencia indica que este tipo de riqueza no mejora el bienestar más allá de cierto punto (Kasser, 2002). Helliwell & Putnam, (2004), distinguen las autopercepciones de felicidad, interpretando los resultados como «valoraciones de corto plazo que dependen del estado de ánimo del individuo», de las autopercepciones de satisfacción con la vida, «las que parecerían reflejar una valoración más estable y a largo plazo», pero añaden que «ambas producen hallazgos ampliamente consistentes como, de hecho, confirmamos en nuestra propia investigación» (Ibid.: 1435), de la cual informan que «nuestros resultados centrales no dependen de la elección de indicadores del bienserestar subjetivo» [se refieren a felicidad o a satisfacción con la vida]. ...
Article
Publicado en Revista Anthropos, 256, 84–136. En este artículo se ofrece un panorama de las principales conceptualizaciones que se han hecho sobre el bienserestar (neologismo que el texto explica). Se exponen y discuten sus principales elementos e implicaciones al reflexionar sobre sus elementos constitutivos. Se abordan dos grandes vertientes: bienserestar objetivo y bienserestar subjetivo. En el primero se expone la evolución de su concepción, que va desde su asociación a las condiciones materiales asociadas a la sobrevivencia, hasta el encumbramiento de la noción de bienserestar equiparada al ingreso real o la opulencia, noción criticable al no tener una relación directa con el bienserestar asociado a la satisfacción de las necesidades humanas, por lo que se exponen tres enfoques que ofrecen una visión más completa: el de satisfacción de necesidades, el de capabilities-functionings de Sen y el de florecimiento humano de Boltvinik. En el caso del bienserestar subjetivo, asociado al tema de la felicidad, se exponen sus elementos fundamentales, sus virtudes y los problemas del enfoque, destacando las dificultades para la medición y la adaptación sicológica. El artículo concluye con una reflexión acerca de la potencial compatibilidad o incompatibilidad en la integración de ambas vertientes y su deseabilidad.
... first place, and it is a lot easier than changing behavioural lock-in around their adoption and use. At a deeper level, it also means addressing the drivers of unsustainable consumption in value systems 136 , social inequalities 137 and the prevalence of advertising in advanced economies. Groundbreaking multiscalar work in this regard includes studies examining justice and solar commodity chains 79 , microgeneration technologies 138 and embodied energy injustices with coal 139 . ...
Article
The world must ambitiously curtail greenhouse gas emissions to achieve climate stability. The literature often supposes that a low-carbon future will depend on a mix of technological innovation—improving the performance of new technologies and systems—as well as more sustainable behaviours such as travelling less or reducing waste. To what extent are low-carbon technologies, and their associated behaviours, currently equitable, and what are potential policy and research implications moving forward? In this Review, we examine how four innovations in technology and behaviour—improved cookstoves and heating, battery electric vehicles, household solar panels and food-sharing—create complications and force trade-offs on different equity dimensions. We draw from these cases to discuss a typology of inequity cutting across demographic (for example, gender, race and class), spatial (for example, urban and rural divides), interspecies (for example, human and non-human) and temporal (for example, future generations) vulnerabilities. Ultimately, the risk of inequity abounds in decarbonization pathways. Moreover, low-carbon innovations are not automatically just, equitable or even green. We show how such technologies and behaviours can both introduce new inequalities and reaffirm existing ones. We then discuss potential policy insights and leverage points to make future interventions more equitable and propose an integrated research agenda to supplement these policy efforts. Low-carbon innovations in technology and behaviour are increasingly prevalent, but they are not always equitable. This Review examines how such innovations can introduce and perpetrate inequalities, and discusses ways to ensure that a low-carbon future is both sustainable and equitable.
... Konsum als Sinngebung und Identität Eine differenziertere Kritik an der Voluntary Simplicity ergibt sich aus den Konsumtheorien, die feststellen, dass Güter in unserem Leben eine Rolle spielen, die weit über ihre materielle Funktionalität hinausgeht (siehe Miller 2008). Diesen Theorien zufolge haben Güter auch eine symbolische Funktion als soziale Artefakte, mittels derer Menschen ihre Identität schaffen und ausdrücken und in denen sie nicht nur Befriedigung, sondern auch Sinngebung und soziale Akzeptanz suchen (Dittmar 1992 (Kasser 2002;Kasser/Kanner 2003;Alexander 2012). Darüber hinaus haben antikonsumistische Bewegungen in ihren verschiedenen Ausprägungen nie für einen Sinnverzicht plädiert, sondern waren im Gegenteil immer bestrebt, durch den Widerstand gegen die gängigen Konsumgewohnheiten Sinn zu schaffen und zu vertiefen (Cherrier 2009: 181;Iyer/Muncy 2009). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Minimalismus prägt den Alltag von immer mehr Menschen. Für jüngere Generationen erscheint Minimalismus als neues Phänomen, das - häufig vermischt mit einer ökologischen Lebensweise - die Kultur in Deutschland verändert. Dass diese Diskussion über Wohlstand, Besitz und menschliche Grundbedürfnisse eine lange Tradition besitzt, ist bisher im populären Diskurs nicht sichtbar. Der Minimalismus-Reader eröffnet erstmals die Vielschichtigkeit des Phänomens durch verschiedene wissenschaftliche Perspektiven aus der Kulturanthropologie, Soziologie, Ethnologie, Kulturpsychologie, Katholischen Theologie, Ostasiatischen Kunstgeschichte und Designgeschichte.
... In addition, due to shifted time, attention, and energy to extrinsic values/goals from intrinsic ones, materialism may result in low levels of subjective wellbeing [13,28]. Numerous studies using the values-conflict framework have shown that materialism is negatively linked to various aspects of one's wellbeing, including fewer positive affect experiences [29], lower life satisfaction [30], and poorer physical health [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on people’s wellbeing. Here, we proposed that an individual characteristic might be associated with wellbeing; that is, materialism. Specifically, we conducted three studies (total N = 3219) to examine whether people with high levels of materialism would experience poorer wellbeing (i.e., anxiety and depression, in the current case). The results showed that materialism was positively associated with depression (Studies 1A, 1B and 2) and anxiety (Study 2). Moreover, such a relationship was mediated by people’s perceived threat of COVID-19 (Study 2). These findings were observed in both Chinese and American people. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical contributions.
... Inequalities, psychological distress, anxiety, depression, narcissism, reduction of empathy, and other mental disorders are on the rise in modern societies (Friedli 2009;Botezat et al. 2017;Carod-Artal 2017;Macintyre et al. 2018). Growing inequalities have a negative bearing on personal and collective health outcomes, while greater equality affects many dimensions of wellbeing, from child development to life expectancy, from declining violence to improved social cohesion and interpersonal trust (Kasser 2003;Wilkinson and Pickett 2011). Care-based and trust-based activities, often voluntary, have a fundamental impact on societal wellbeing (Helliwell and Putnam 2004), and high levels of social capital are linked to collective action and more resilient societies. ...
Book
Full-text available
This report continues the science-based approach of linking concrete changes in lifestyles to measurable impacts on climate change in order to keep with the 1.5-degree aspirational target of the Paris Agreement on climate change. The 1.5-degree lifestyles approach examines GHG emissions and reduction potentials using consumption-based accounting, which covers both direct emissions in a country and embodied emissions of imported goods while excluding emissions embodied in exported goods. It analyses lifestyle carbon footprints of ten sample countries, representing high-, middle-, and low-income countries, and identifies hotspots, or consumption domains with the highest impact on the environment. The report also fills the knowledge gap arising from most prevailing climate scenarios that underplay the potential contributions of lifestyle changes to climate change mitigation and focus entirely or mainly on developing new technologies and on changes in production. For each country in the report, the footprint gap between current and sustainable target levels are determined for the years 2030, 2040, and 2050. To bridge these gaps, options for reducing footprints in each country are introduced, estimating potential impacts from various adoption rates in each country. Finally, two scenarios are developed for each country, one focused on systems change and another on behaviour change, showing indicative pathways for achieving the 2030 target.
... This pursuit might begin through identification, but the subjective and psychological wellbeing payoffs are strongest in the latter stages of internalization. The second is that selfconcordant goals involve "intrinsic pursuits" like personal growth, affiliation, and community rather than "extrinsic pursuits" contingent to activities themselves, like financial success, image, and popularity (Kasser, 2003;Sheldon et al., 2004a). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper integrates Valerie Tiberius’ theory of wellbeing as value-fulfillment with a range of complementary theories from psychology, especially the psychology of the self. These theories include self-discrepancy theory, self-determination theory, self-verification theory, theories of multiple selves from developmental psychology, and the notion of contingencies of self-worth. Tiberius argues that wellbeing consists in the fulfillment of “appropriate” values, which are those values that are “emotionally, motivationally, and cognitively suited to a person.” The psychological theories and empirical results integrated herein provide a great deal of depth regarding how emotions, motivations, and cognitions fit together to guide processes of goal achievements and self-actualization, which is how psychologists speak of value-fulfillment. This depth allows Tiberius’ theory to respond more forcefully to a range of critiques, and also to explain the process by which appropriate values are identified, refined, and affirmed.
... Vertical cultural orientations seem to endorse cultural values and practices that are at odds with true self beliefs and TSAG lay theories. For instance, both VI and VC cultural contexts emphasize hierarchy and inequality that are inevitably pursued with extrinsic aspirations (e.g., social rewards, financial success, appearance), and thereby individuals are disengaged with intrinsic aspirations and self-concordant values that lead to understanding one's authentic self (Kasser, 2002). With respect to lay theories for decision-making, vertical cultural orientations are more likely to urge individuals to follow external standards (e.g., norm) or introjected criteria (e.g., social respect) when making personally important decisions rather than listening to what their true self may call for. ...
Article
Full-text available
widespread lay theory in the United States suggests that the best way to make decisions is to follow who you “really are”, referred to as the “true-self-as-guide” (TSAG) lay theory of decision making. In this paper, we explore whether people from four less-WEIRD (i.e., Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) countries also explicitly endorse the TSAG lay theory, whether individual differences in horizontal/vertical individualist/collectivist mindsets correlate with TSAG endorsement, and whether TSAG endorsement predicts wellbeing. Participants were recruited from US, China, India, Singapore, and South Korea (total N = 654). Results revealed TSAG lay theories was high across all countries, that horizontal mindsets were more relevant to TSAG endorsement than individualism/collectivism, and that TSAG endorsement predicted well-being in a non US-context.
... Es una crítica de los estilos de vida basados en los mantras de trabajar más, ganar más, vender más y comprar más.El "sentido de la vida" como fuente del decrecimiento también se basa en los hallazgos de la literatura sobre la economía de la felicidad. La desconexión entre el aumento del ingreso y la satisfacción vital a lo largo del tiempo, un fenómeno conocido como la paradojade Easterlin (1974), así como la asociación entre la importancia de las ganancias materiales y los trastornos emocionales(Kasser, 2002), son dos referencias importantes.El movimiento por la simplicidad voluntaria, que reduce el consumo individual y ve la vida simple como liberadora y profunda, en lugar de restrictiva limitante, es una visión importante dentro de esta fuente.Trabajos de referencia son "Walden o vida en los bosques" de Henry David Thoreau, "La sobriedad feliz" de Pierre Rabhi, "La simhttps://www.rosalux.org.ec/ ...
Book
Full-text available
Este texto, retoma el tema del posdesarrollo en América Latina que desde los años noventa del siglo anterior generó un debate amplio y creciente sobre la crítica del desarrollo económico como discurso ideológico de la dominación del capitalismo norteamericano sobre el mundo, en particular sobre el Sur profundo de África, Asia y Améri�ca Latina. La fecha en que irrumpe el debate sobre posdesarrollo en América Latina y en el mundo obedece a la reestructuración que expe- 9 rimenta la economía mundial luego del problema de la deuda externa, los programas de ajuste estructural dictados por el Fondo Monetario Internacional y el Banco Mundial, el desmantelamiento de las estrate�gias y políticas de desarrollo económico nacional y los impactos de dos décadas perdidas de crecimiento económico, bienestar y creciente eco�cidio y violencias en la región y todo el Sur. Posterior al surgimiento de la categoría de posdesarrollo en los años noventa del siglo anterior, del 2000 al 2015 hay una importante producción editorial que reto�ma el tema en el contexto del auge de los commodities y el diseño de políticas desarrollistas en algunos países de América Latina. Entre los muchos textos destacan los aportes de Escobar (2012), Acosta (2012, 2013, 2017), el Grupo Permanente de Trabajo sobre Alternativas al Desarrollo (2012), Koldo (2009, 2015), Gudynas (2017), en los cuales se analizan las limitaciones del enfoque del desarrollo como discurso ideológico de dominación global luego de 70 años de aplicación y la emergencia de nuevas propuestas resultado de la movilización popu�lar, los aprendizajes y reflexiones colectivas acumuladas durante siete décadas sobre los problemas y construcción de futuros en América La�tina y la recuperación de importantes experiencias centenarias de los pueblos originarios sobre el bien común, la reciprocidad y la relación armónica entre la sociedad y la naturaleza.
... Engagement in conspicuous consumption, along with the associated individualism, materialism and sensitivity to the opinions of others (Paulose, 2016;Roy Chaudhuri et al., 2011), seems to perfectly reflect the values and climate of consumer culture (cf. Baudrillard, 1998;Dittmar, 2007;Kasser, 2002, Kasser, Ryan, Couchman & Sheldon, 2003. The last few decades, which have been the heyday of conspicuous consumption, have seen numerous analyses and studies of various aspects and manifestations of this concept, including status consumption (cf. ...
Article
We propose a new definition of inconspicuous consumption (IC) as an individual disposition and present an instrument for measuring this variable. The article describes the successive stages of the construction of the Inconspicuous Consumption Scale (ICS). The results of a preliminary selection of items and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have led to the development of an instrument which measures four factors that make up the global ICS: Knowledge, Services, Experiences, and Subtle Brand Signals. Reliability and validity studies carried out in a sample of 1,330 respondents show that the ICS has satisfactory psychometric properties.
... There are, however, three materialistic characters: first, materialists have a propensity for possessions to be happy. Second, they choose to chase after happiness by gaining possessions; and lastly, they judge people's success with their possessions' quality and quantity (Kasser, 2002). However, researchers criticized materialism as the reason for corruption, injustice, crime, greed, inequality, poverty, and other forms of social vices (Richins & Dawson 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fraud is rampant in a nation like Nigeria, reflecting virtually all national areas. Hence, organizational behavior researchers are attracted to reducing this fraudulent behavior. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of frugality and materialism on employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. Moreover, it plans to reduce employees' favorable disposition towards fraudulent behaviors in Nigeria, mainly within Lagos and Oyo States. This paper adopted a survey research design. The analysis exposed that frugality, materialism, and demographic variables significantly affect employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within Nigeria's work organizations. The current study also indicates that frugality significantly negatively affects employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. In contrast, materialism significantly positively affects employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. The current findings also revealed that gender, age, marital status, and work experience contribute significantly to employees' attitudes towards fraudulent behaviors within the work organization in Lagos and Oyo States of Nigeria. Therefore, the leadership and management of work organizations should promote rewarding constrained behaviors; and train and mentor employees about the benefits of practicing self-restraint in the use of money and possessions and the value they place on them.
... The most commonly accepted definition of materialism is a "set of centrally held beliefs about the importance of possessions in one's life" (Richins & Dawson, 1992, p. 308). Basing on Kasser (2002), materialism is uniquely identified with consumption that leads to happiness that can be enhanced through possessions. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to investigate the effects of personal characteristics such as gender, income, education and age on consumer materialism. Research hypotheses are based on both existing marketing literature and an additional integration of gender studies literature in order to further the study of materialism. By using random sampling and surveying 1000 respondents living across different regions in Lithuania, the results show significant differences along gender, age, self-perceived relative income and education in terms of consumers’ materialistic dispositions. The study confirms that younger consumers are more inclined to materialistic values than older ones. Women differ from men on materialism centrality, as well as happiness and success measures. Regarding consumers’ self-perceived relative income, Lithuanians with low income are more prone to aspire to material possessions. Furthermore, research indicates higher rates of consumer materialism to appear among less educated individuals. This is one of the first representative studies in Lithuania revealing what effects different demographic consumer characteristics have on materialistic behaviour. Our findings have some practical implications; for example, they show that vulnerable segments of the population are more susceptible to materialism, necessitating educational policies to reduce such behavior and encourage a more responsible approach. As a result, these educational programs should be tailored to these individuals, with a greater emphasis on the risks associated with overconsumption. Keywords: Consumer Materialism; Age; Gender; Income; Education.
... Medical research has demonstrated that the quality of human relations and the living environment is a fundamental determinant of a person's health (Bowler et al., 2010;Keniger et al., 2013;Ulrich, 1984). Social epidemiologists have shown that growing inequalities have a negative bearing on personal and collective health outcomes, while greater equality seems to improve most objective measures of wellbeing, from child development to life expectancy, from declining violence to improved social cohesion and interpersonal trust (Kasser, 2002;Wilkinson and Pickett, 2009). Sociological research has also indicated that care-based and trust-based activities, especially those of a voluntary nature (thus falling outside the market proper and not counting towards growth), have a fundamental impact on societal wellbeing (Helliwell and Putnam, 2004), while high levels of social capital are critical to counter external shocks, as demonstrated by the countries that dealt better with the COVID-19 pandemic . ...
Article
The concept of ‘wellbeing economy’ (WE), that is, an economy that pursues human and ecological wellbeing instead of material growth, is gaining support amongst policymakers, business, and civil society. Over the past couple of years, several national governments have adopted the WE as their guiding framework to design development policies and assess social and economic progress. While it shares a number of basic principles with various post-growth conceptualisations, the WE's language and concepts tend to be more adaptable to different social and economic contexts, thus penetrating into policy processes and connecting to a variety of cultural traits, not only in advanced economies but also in less industrialised nations. In this paper, we describe the key features of the WE, including its approach to key concepts like work, productivity and technology and several examples of its policy impact. We conclude by positing that the WE framework may be one of the most effective bases to mainstream post-growth policies at the national and global level.
... Végezetül az Aspirációs kérdőív intrinzik életcéljairól -így a jelen tanulmány eredményei közül kiemelt Egészség aspirációról is -a következők állíthatók: számos vizsgálati eredmény szerint a pénzügyi teljesítmények és sikerek ádáz hajszolása sokkal rosszabb lelki egészséggel jár, mint a közösség iránti elköteleződés. Bár a pénzügyi eredmények elérése is lehet pozitív hatású, de ez "csak" akkor következik be, ha az ennek elérése iránti vágy önmeghatározott, azaz az értékesítő magának az eredménynek az elérését -és nem az érte kapott anyagi javakat -tartja élvezetesnek (Kasser, 2002;Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Carver & Baird, 1998in Carver & Scheier, 2006. Kasser (2002, pp. ...
Article
Full-text available
A pénzügyi, biztosítási tevékenység nemzetgazdasági ág területén minden a pénzről szól, a szó szoros és annak átvitt értelmében is. Felvetődik a kérdés: léteznek-e, a vizsgálatban használt kérdőívek – az S-CPI kérdőív, a Super-féle munkaérték kérdőív és az Aspirációs kérdőív – által meghatározott 43 személyiségjellemző közül olyan tulajdonságok, melyek a pénzügyi, biztosítási tevékenység nemzetgazdasági ágban dolgozó értékesítők esetében előre jelezhetik az üzletkötők anyagi sikerességét? Az 1000 fős mintán elvégzett kétváltozós logisztikus regresszióelemzés eredményei alapján – ha nem is számottevően, de – javítható az egyes üzletkötők jövedelem szerinti kategorizálása a következő öt személyiségdimenzió figyelembevételével: Dominancia, Státus elérésére való képesség, Önelfogadás, Függetlenség és Egészség. Azaz e személyiségdimenziókban elért magasabb értékek utalhatnak arra, hogy az adott üzletkötő jobban keres, illetve jobban fog keresni a jövőben.
... Burroughs and Rindfleisch (2002) find that materialism correlates negatively with declared well-being. Furthermore, happiness is not correlated with the accumulation of goods (Kasser, 2002;Norris and Larsen, 2011;Shrum et al., 2013), nor does luxury demand lessen after more acquisitions. Accordingly, pursuing materialistic goals may lead consumers to experience more guilt: ...
Article
Purpose For as long as luxury has existed, it has been criticized, by philosophers and moralists, who condemn self-indulgence, hedonism and vanity. Yet these concerns have not prevented the remarkable expansion of the luxury sector, evidence that most buyers revel in unashamed luxury. Modern economists point out the link between the development of the luxury market and the growth of social inequality. This study aims to assess how much guilt consumers feel during luxury purchases and identify its levers. Design/methodology/approach Based on 3,162 real luxury buyers from 6 countries, both Asian and western, emerging and mature luxury markets, a partial least squares-structural equation models (PLS-SEM) analysis assesses the level of guilt experienced during luxury purchases and identifies which drivers most impact guilt. Findings This study assesses the presence of a little guilt among a significant portion of luxury buyers across countries. Two countries present extreme scores: the USA (55.6%) and Japan (32%). Overall, the main driver of guilt is that luxury makes economic inequality highly visible; interestingly the pursuit of hedonism reduces the feelings of guilt. Research limitations/implications These findings have notable implications for luxury companies as the long-term success of this sector would be questionable if it attracts social criticism and induces distressing feelings among clients. Practical implications Luxury brands need to implement guilt reducing communication strategies. Social implications The luxury sector as a whole should redefine its purpose and mission. Originality/value This level of guilt experienced during purchases rarely has been investigated in prior luxury research. Yet luxury addresses larger targets, from the happy few to the happy many. Thanks to PLS-SEM modelization, the same hierarchy of guilt driving factors is revealed across countries.
Chapter
Full-text available
Geopolitics is politics and relations shaped by geographical factors which attempts to explain international politics in terms of geography—that is, the location, size, and resources of places. It tries to describe the relationships between geographic space, resources, and foreign policy and was coined by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellan. He defined it as the theory of the state as a geographical organism or phenomena in space. The concept of a state, according to Kjellan, presupposes some kind of territorial, geographically existing entity and geographical location of a state should, to a substantial extent, determine its security policy and strategy. Geopolitics is now being decided in decisions that are made about energy systems, and how climate is going to be tackled in coming decades, whether explicitly in accordance with the Paris Agreement process or through other policy initiatives. Climate change is periodic transformation of earth climate due to changes in the Atmosphere as well as interactions between atmosphere and various other geological, chemical biological and geographical factors within earth system. In many parts of the earth, the rich and powerful parts of humanity are increasingly shaping the future configuration provides the changing context for cooperation or rivalry among states and other actors which could very well have serious consequences for international security. This paper aims to explain how geopolitics affect climate change
Article
The research was conducted with the aim of analyzing the influence of emotions, materialism, financial literacy, risk perception and financial experience on propensity to indebtedness. Primary data was obtained through distributing 100 questionnaires to Kredit Plus Kendari customers then processed with the SPSS 25.0 software application. The results of the research that have been done state that there is an effect of emotion, financial literacy and experience on propensity to indebtedness which has a negative significant effect, the effect of materialism on propensity to indebtedness has a positive significant effect, while the risk perception of propensity to indebtedness has no significant effect.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics determination of arm strength (push-ups , handstand on walled ) and motivation on the floor exercise for gymnastics skills at student Sampel used were 75 students perform physical tests sleeves and gymnastic skills tests on the floor exercise as much as 11 basic movements gymnastics floor ( roll , balance , handspring , etc. ) . After applying the regression analysis model , shows that the best model is obtained only with 28.4% of determination influence of arm strength and motivation to thegymnastics floor exercise skills in students , while 71.6 % of other factors that affect the outside research .
Article
Bugünün tüketicileri, daha önce olduğundan daha fazla ürün ve hizmet seçeneğine sahip olmalarına rağmen memnuniyet düzeylerinde aynı oranda bir artış görülmemektedir. Bu durum tüketici satın alma davranışıyla ilgili görüşleri de değiştirmektedir. Böylelikle tüketicilerin, ürünleri yalnızca fayda sağlayan somut özellikleri için değil (faydacı alışveriş); haz ve mutluluk sağladıkları (hedonik alışveriş) için de satın aldıkları düşünülmektedir. Materyalistler çoğunlukla maddi nesnelerin kendilerini mutluluğa, yaşam doyumuna ve genel bir refaha ulaştıracağını düşünmektedir. Bu kapsamda çalışmanın amacı, materyalist değerler ile hedonik ve faydacı alışveriş arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya çıkarmak ve bu ilişkinin yaşam doyumuna etkisini incelemektir. Araştırma kapsamında Trakya, Kırklareli ve Namık Kemal Üniversitelerinde görevli olan 517 akademisyene ulaşılmış olup anket yoluyla veriler elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın amacı doğrultusunda Açıklayıcı Faktör Analizi ve Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi uygulanarak ölçeklerin Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli’ne (YEM) uygunluğu test edilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda materyalist değerlerin alt boyutu olan merkeziyet ile hedonik alışveriş arasında; materyalist değerlerin alt boyutları olan merkeziyet ve mutluluk ile faydacı alışveriş arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca hedonik ve faydacı alışveriş ile yaşam doyumu arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Son olarak materyalist değerler ile yaşam doyumu arasında hedonik ve faydacı alışverişin aracılık etkisi ile dolaylı bir ilişki olduğu bulunmuştur.
Article
Full-text available
Bugünün tüketicileri, daha önce olduğundan daha fazla ürün ve hizmet seçeneğine sahip olmalarına rağmen memnuniyet düzeylerinde aynı oranda bir artış görülmemektedir. Bu durum tüketici satın alma davranışıyla ilgili görüşleri de değiştirmektedir. Böylelikle tüketicilerin, ürünleri yalnızca fayda sağlayan somut özellikleri için değil (faydacı alışveriş); haz ve mutluluk sağladıkları (hedonik alışveriş) için de satın aldıkları düşünülmektedir. Materyalistler çoğunlukla maddi nesnelerin kendilerini mutluluğa, yaşam doyumuna ve genel bir refaha ulaştıracağını düşünmektedir. Bu kapsamda çalışmanın amacı, materyalist değerler ile hedonik ve faydacı alışveriş arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya çıkarmak ve bu ilişkinin yaşam doyumuna etkisini incelemektir. Araştırma kapsamında Trakya, Kırklareli ve Namık Kemal Üniversitelerinde görevli olan 517 akademisyene ulaşılmış olup anket yoluyla veriler elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın amacı doğrultusunda Açıklayıcı Faktör Analizi ve Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi uygulanarak ölçeklerin Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli’ne (YEM) uygunluğu test edilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda materyalist değerlerin alt boyutu olan merkeziyet ile hedonik alışveriş arasında; materyalist değerlerin alt boyutları olan merkeziyet ve mutluluk ile faydacı alışveriş arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca hedonik ve faydacı alışveriş ile yaşam doyumu arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Son olarak materyalist değerler ile yaşam doyumu arasında hedonik ve faydacı alışverişin aracılık etkisi ile dolaylı bir ilişki olduğu bulunmuştur.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies investigated relations of value priorities to measures of subjective well-being. Samples of students and adults, from Israel and former East and West Germany (N=1261), participated in Part I. Hypothesized direct relations of nine types of values to well-being, based on ‘healthy’ values from the psychotherapy literature, relations of values to needs, self-determination theory, and the emotional resources needed to pursue various values were tested in each sample. Achievement, self-direction, stimulation, tradition, conformity and security values correlated with affective well-being, as predicted, but not with cognitive well-being. Part II tested the hypothesis that well-being depends upon congruence between personal values and the prevailing value environment. Results largely supported specific hypotheses regarding the values conducive to positive and negative well-being among students of business administration (n=40) and psychology (n=42). Hypotheses were derived from the social sanctions, environmental affordances for value attainment, and internal value conflicts likely to be experienced in each department. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
Guided by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), two studies examined adolescents' risk behaviors as a function of their extrinsic aspirations for wealth, fame, and image relative to their intrinsic aspirations for growth, relationships, and community; and as a function of their perceptions of their parents' autonomy support. In the first study, adolescents who reported using cigarettes had significantly stronger relative extrinsic aspirations than did adolescents who reported not smoking. In the second study, a composite risk behavior index for adolescents' use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, and their having had sexual intercourse was significantly predicted by their relative extrinsic life goals, and both students' health-compromising behaviors and their relative extrinsic goals were significantly negatively predicted by their perceptions of their parents' autonomy support.
Article
Full-text available
Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
Article
Aspirations for intrinsic (e.g.,self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling)versus extrinsic (e.g., financial success, appearance,social recognition) goals were examined in German andU.S. college students. The structure of studentsgoal-systems in terms of goal content was remarkablysimilar in the two cultures, as evidenced byexamination of the ordering of goals. Also, as inpast work in the U.S., German college students whowere especially focused on intrinsic goals had highwell-being, whereas the reverse was true for a focuson extrinsic goals. Some differences between thecultures in terms of specific goals are alsodiscussed.