Article

The Medicinal Benefits of Lentinan (?-1, 3-D glucan) from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer (Shiitake Mushroom) Through Oral Administration

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Abstract

Lentinan is a purified β-glucan isolated from Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom). Past studies have shown that lentinan possesses strong inhibitory effects on tumors induced in mice via intravenous and intraperitoneal injection. The antitumor and immunomodulation effects of lentinan through oral administration were investigated in our study, and the results obtained proved its efficacy. The results showed that prefeeding of the mice for 7 days at an optimum dose of 3 mg/mouse was most effective against tumor induction, achieving a tumor inhibition rate (TIR) of 94.44%. Four key cytokines involved in the inhibition of tumor development-namely, interleukin-1α, interleukin-2, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α-were induced significantly in the blood of the lentinan-fed mice. This also indicated the immunomodulating effect of lentinan. Further investigation showed that lentinan is capable of activating the lymphocytes of the host. Three types of immunodeficient mice-namely, nude mice (athymic mice), B-cell-deficient mice, and SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice-were used to demonstrate the protective capability of the activated lymphocytes. Normal AKR mice fed with lentinan for 7 days were sacrificed, and lymphocytes were isolated from their spleens. Adoptive transfer of these lymphocytes was done by inoculation via the immunodeficient mice tails. The sizes of the developed tumors (induced using the human colon carcinoma cells) were scored after 1 month. Large tumors were observed to be present in those immunodeficient mice that received lymphocytes from buffer solution-fed mice, whereas very small tumors or no tumors were observed in mice that received lymphocytes from lentinan-fed mice. The passively transferred lentinan-primed lymphocytes were able to restrict tumor development in these immunodeficient mice.

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... The fruiting body accumulates minerals (mg/100 g dw) including K (42.73 to 3216 ), Na (24.46 to 69.9), P (220 to 5700), S (170 to 509. 45 14,17,28,30 These elements are not synthesized in the human body and hence must be acquired from food. 39,40 Generally mushrooms are of low energy value and hence constitute the low-calorie diet. ...
... 41,42 Polysaccharides such as β-(1→3)-glucans, (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucans, (1→6)-β-glucans, (1→4)(1→6)-α-glucans, and α-(1→3)-, (1→6)-β-glucans characterized in various medicinal mushrooms exhibit immune enhancing and antitumor activities. [43][44][45][46] Among Astraeus species, only A. hygrometricus fruiting body has been studied for polysaccharide composition; it contained the natural sugars glucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, and fucose. 19,47 Hot-water soluble polysaccharide with 98.7% total sugar content was isolated. ...
... Keto-amide derivatives 44-52 of 10 were subjected for antimalarial assay against Plasmodium falci parum and cytotoxic activities against KB, NCI-H187, MCF7 and Vero cell lines. 59 Compounds 44,45,46,48,50,51 and 52 exhibited strong antimalarial activity. Compounds 46 and 48 showed moderate cytotoxicity against NCI-H187 and demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity against KB, MCF-7, NCI-H187, and Vero cell lines. ...
Article
The Astraeus genus (Diplocystaceae) of ectomycorrhizal edible mushrooms is represented by nine species: A. asiaticus, A. hygrometricus, A. koreanus, A. morganii, A. odoratus, A. pteridis, A. sirindhorniae, A. smithii, and A. telleriae. Astraeus mushrooms, because of their characteristic delicacy and aroma, are marketed in several countries. Chemical examinations of these mushrooms have revealed their nutritional properties and bioactive constituents. Here, the proximate nutritional composition of A. hygrometricus and A. odoratus, and chemistry and biological activity of A. asiaticus, A. hygrometricus, A. odoratus, and A. pteridis were reviewed. Several mycochemicals, including polysaccharides, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and heterocyclic compounds, have been characterized in their fruiting body. Various biological activities of these compounds are also discussed.
... In traditional Orient medicine it is used to promote good health and vitality and to increase the body's adaptive capabilities (Mizuno, 1995;Chang et al., 1999;Yap and Ng, 2005). It also has anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, blood pressure and cholesterol level regulating, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective and sexual function improving applications (Chang et al., 1999;Wasser and Weis, 1999;Stamets, 2002). ...
... Most studies of active substances, incl. polysaccharides, are performed to investigate immune system modulating, antioxidative, antimutagenic and cholesterol reducing effects in various biological systems in vivo and in vitro (Chihara et al., 1970;Hobbs, 2000;Yap and Ng, 2005;Lee et al., 2009 b). In comparison with other effects, there is little information of the influence of shiitake on animal reproduction and development (Cozens et al., 1981a;Cozens et al., 1981b;Cozens et al., 1981c;Zorenko et al., 2003). ...
... With this procedure it is possible to obtain different types of biologically active polysaccharides, such as non-protein bound b-glucans, including lentinan, heteropolysaccharides and protein-bound polysaccharides (Chihara et al., 1970;Zhang, et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2009a). Mushroom polysaccharides are well known as immunomodulators (Smith et al., 2002;Yap andNg, 2005, Lee et al., 2009b). Host defense triggering by b-glucans has been described in vertebrates and in invertebrates (Vetvicka, Sima, 2004;Novack, Vetvicka, 2009). ...
Article
Influence of shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes on reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster Shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes is an edible basidiomycete cultivated worldwide, with high nutritious value and diverse biological activity. There has been an increase in its use as food supplement. Influence of shiitake mushroom extract on the reproductive function and development in an object fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is described in this research. Fruit flies were maintained on banana medium with or without supplementation of shiitake mushroom's extract, standardized per amount of crude polysaccharides. Shiitake extract supplement, 0.030% and 0.015% crude polysaccharides per volume, induced a statistically significant increase in total number of pupae and flies, and promoted pupae viability. Adult drosophilae males, which received shiitake extract supplement for seven days, had a statistically significant reduction in copulation latency, while thirty day exposure to extract promoted a statistically higher rate of mated flies. Females showed an increase in number of mated flies and reduction in copulation latency post seven day feeding period and had no significant effect on mating ability and fertility post thirty days. Further studies are planned to identify the biologically active components of shiitake mushroom hot water extract and to characterize their effects on reproductive function.
... Similar gene expression patterns but different fold induction values were found for ␤-glucans derived from the same origin but obtained after different extraction procedure, for instance, barley ␤-glucan and commercial BG, and for shiitake ␤-glucan and lentinan. A similar finding was also observed in an in vivo study, which found that IFN-␥, TNF-␣, IL-1␣ and IL-2 cytokine levels were higher in blood from mice fed with pure lentinan as compared to those fed with crude shiitake extract, while the secretion kinetics remained the same [32]. Slightly different gene expression patterns were found between barley and oat ␤-glucan extracts, although they possess, basically, a similar ␤-glucan structure. ...
... Our THP-1 macrophage in vitro studies suggest that all tested ␤-glucans mildly induced pro-inflammatory genes (IL-1␤, IL-8 and NF-B) in the short period of time, approximately 3 h after stimulation. Similar findings were observed in ex vivo and in vivo studies, which reported that the expression of inflammatory cytokine secretion peaked between 4 and 5 h after ␤-glucan challenge [32,37]. This is in concordance to general observations that cytokine secretion is delayed approximately an hour after expression of their corresponding genes [26]. ...
... (1-3)-• -D-glucan (Chihara et al., 1969;Hobbs, 2000;Zheng et al., 2005;Zhou et al., 2009;Yap and Ng, 2005) Antimicrobial Lentinamicin (Komemushi et al., 1996) Antiviral Lentinan, LEM, JLS-18, EP3, EPS4 (Wasser and Weiss, 1999;Sarkar, 1993;Yamamoto, 1977;Hanafusa et al., 1990) Antibacterial LEM, Lenthionine , chloroform and ethylacetate extracts (Yasumoto et al., 1971;Yamamoto, 1977;Hanafusa et al., 1990) Antifungal Lentin (Ngai and Ng, 2003) Cardiovascular and Hypolipidemic Eritadenine, lentinacin, lentysine (Wasser and Weiss, 1999;Chibata et al., 1969;Kamiya et al., 1969;Enman et al., 2008; Hepatoprotective Lentinan, LEM, hot-water extraction and ethanol extraction (Zhu, 1985;Akamatsu et al., 2004) Hemagglutinating Lectin (Wang et al., 1999;Tsivileva et al., 2000;Vetchinkina et al., 2008) Antioxidant methanol and water extracts, polyphenolic compounds (Xu et al., 2008; ...
... It was concluded that lentinan has prophylactic potential for the treatment of malaria . The immunomodulation effects of lentinan through oral administration were investigated (Yap and Ng, 2005) and the results obtained proved its efficacy, that prefeeding of the mice for 7 days at an optimum dose of 3 mg/mouse was most effective against tumor induction, achieving a tumor inhibition rate (TIR) of 94.44%. Possible immune system regulating actions of lentinan were summarized (Chihara et al., 1987) and are depicted in Figure 9. ...
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Research
The production of mushrooms worldwide is increasing at an annual rate of about 10%. Mushroom cultivation has a special relevance to India, because sawdust and other materials are abundantly available to our farmers. Climatic condition in different part of India, are very conductive for cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) throughout the year. The results obtained from this study could be used to identify optimal culture conditions for better productivity and quality control of the mycelial biomass and both type of polysaccharide of this mushroom. Lentinus edodes mushroom is one of the important mushrooms due to its high nutritional values, high medicinal values, chemical composition and safety of its biomass for human consumption. The objectives of this study were to optimize solid and submerged fermentation technology of L. edodes production in term of biomass and metabolic production in addition to enhance the higher yield and adaptation on variable climate in the subtropical region of Madhya Pradesh at Gwalior. Four different substrates, Tectona grandis (Teak), Mangifora indica (Mango), Acacia spp. (Babul), and Shorea robusta (Sal) were evaluated for the cultivation of the L. edodes mushroom in the present investigations. L. edodes showed maximum mycelia growth rate (6.73 mm/day) was observed in MEAB media followed by SDA (5.45mm/day) and PDA media (5.40), and lowest mycelial growth rate (4.78mm/day) was observed in CDA media. Wheat grains were found to be the most suitable for spawn preparation because full mycelia growth occurred within 12.66 days. In case of other grains i.e. oat and gram, it took 14.33, 16.66 days for full mycelia growth. Wheat grains were the most suitable for spawn preparation as compared to other grain spawn. Sawdust and rice bran proved better substrate for cultivation compare to other substrate because of better percent yield viz. 82.70 ± 1.259 and 77.68 ± 1.256. The maximum mycelial growth rate (MGR) was observed on substrate 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). The lowest (0.20 cm/day) mycelial running rate was observed in substrate 7 (78% saw dust (Babul) + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). The mycelium running completed earlier on substrate 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) in 27.66 days. The maximum 52.66 days to complete mycelium running was recorded on substrate 7 (78% saw dust (Babul) + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). Maximum 72 days was required for bump formation on substrates 7 (78% saw dust (Babul) + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) and minimum 48.00 days was required on substrate 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). The data for the effect of substrates on the pinhead formation by the strains of the L. edodes showed that took minimum time (62.00 days) on substrate 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) and maximum time 81.66 days was taken on substrate 7 (78% saw dust (Babul) + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). Fruiting bodies formation is the last stages during cultivation of L. edodes mushroom. Maximum time taken 93.66 days for fruiting bodies formation on substrate 7 (78% saw dust (Babul) + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). Minimum time taken 70.00 days for fruiting bodies formation on substrates 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). The maximum length of stalk and diameter of stalk were recorded on substrate 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) and substrate 3 (78% saw dust saw dust (Sal) + 20%wheat bran + 1.5%CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) with 4.90 and 1.30 cm respectively. The maximum diameter of pileus was observed in mushroom grown on substrate 6 (78% saw dust (Mango) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) (6.60 cm) and the maximum thickness of pileus (1.20 cm) was observed on substrate 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3). The maximum yield was recorded on substrate 2 (78% saw dust teak + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) with 82.70 g/kg. Lowest yield was obtained from substrates 3 (78% saw dust (Sal) + 20% wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) 35.04g/kg. The maximum biological efficiency was recorded in substrate 2 (78% saw dust (Teak) + 20% rice bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) 55.83%. The lowest BE was observed in substrates 3 (78% saw dust (Sal) + 20%wheat bran + 1.5% CaSO4 + 0.5% CaCO3) 24.46%. From the result, it may be concluded that teak sawdust and 20% rice bran supplementation is most suitable substrate in comparison with the other substrates for production of shiitake mushroom. The use of this substrate affected positively completion of mycelium running; bump formation, pinheads initiation and harvest required minimum days. Therefore, it is important to use the proper combination of substrate formulations for the commercial production of L. edodes. Among the different liquid media examined, relatively high level mycelial biomass, intracellular and extracellular polysaccharide were achieved in olive oil medium during submerged fermentation. The maximum growth and intracellular polysaccharide of the mushroom (25ºC) and extracellular polysaccharide production (15°C) was recorded on 16th day of the incubation. The pH greatly influenced the mycelial biomass and intracellular polysaccharide (pH 5) and extracellular polysaccharide production (pH 6). Maximum mycelial biomass, intracellular and extracellular polysaccharide production was observed with dextrose as carbon source. Maximum mycelial biomass and intracellular polysaccharide was observed with malt extract as nitrogen source with poor response of nitrate salts in the medium. Results of study on micro elements show significant effect on the production of mycelial biomass and polysaccharide by L. edodes. Maximum mycelial biomass and intracellular polysaccharide production was obtained by using MgSO4.7H2O and extracellular polysaccharide production (FeSO4.7H2O). The liquid media containing olive oil produced maximum mycelial biomass, intracellular and extracellular polysaccharide as compared to other plant oil. Sugars were fractionated and detected by TLC detected and identified by using various analytical tools viz FTIR and mass spectroscopy In order to determine the chemical composition of the compound isolated and molecular model was determined. The molecule(s) was tentatively identified as lentinan as per recorded analysis. Immunomodulatory activity of the identified intracellular polysaccharide was investigated by administering in animal mice model by analyzing, immunomodulatory role of Interleukin (IL-2), tumour-necrosis factor-• (TNF-•) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ).
... Similar gene expression patterns but different fold induction values were found for ␤-glucans derived from the same origin but obtained after different extraction procedure, for instance, barley ␤-glucan and commercial BG, and for shiitake ␤-glucan and lentinan. A similar finding was also observed in an in vivo study, which found that IFN-␥, TNF-␣, IL-1␣ and IL-2 cytokine levels were higher in blood from mice fed with pure lentinan as compared to those fed with crude shiitake extract, while the secretion kinetics remained the same [32]. Slightly different gene expression patterns were found between barley and oat ␤-glucan extracts, although they possess, basically, a similar ␤-glucan structure. ...
... Our THP-1 macrophage in vitro studies suggest that all tested ␤-glucans mildly induced pro-inflammatory genes (IL-1␤, IL-8 and NF-B) in the short period of time, approximately 3 h after stimulation. Similar findings were observed in ex vivo and in vivo studies, which reported that the expression of inflammatory cytokine secretion peaked between 4 and 5 h after ␤-glucan challenge [32,37]. This is in concordance to general observations that cytokine secretion is delayed approximately an hour after expression of their corresponding genes [26]. ...
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Article
We aimed to examine different immunological aspects of β-glucans derived from different food sources (oat, barley and shiitake) on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Commercially purified barley β-glucan (commercial BG) and lentinan were included to compare β-glucans from the same origin but different degree of purity and processing. Chemical composition and molecular weight distribution of β-glucan samples were determined. Inflammation-related gene expression kinetics (IL-1β, IL-8, nuclear factor kappa B [NF-κB] and IL-10) after 3, 6 and 24 h of stimulation with 100 μg/mL β-glucan were investigated. All tested β-glucans mildly upregulated the observed inflammation-related genes with differential gene expression patterns. Similar gene expression kinetics, but different fold induction values, was found for the crude β-glucan extracts and their corresponding commercial forms. Pre-incubation of THP-1 macrophages with β-glucans prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure decreased the induction of inflammation-related genes compared to LPS treatment. No production of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was detected in β-glucan stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Phagocytic activity was not different after stimulation by β-glucan samples. Based on these in vitro analyses, it can be concluded that the analysed β-glucans have varying levels of immunomodulating properties, which are likely related to structure, molecular weight and compositional characteristic of β-glucan.
... Similar gene expression patterns but different fold induction values were found for ␤-glucans derived from the same origin but obtained after different extraction procedure, for instance, barley ␤-glucan and commercial BG, and for shiitake ␤-glucan and lentinan. A similar finding was also observed in an in vivo study, which found that IFN-␥, TNF-␣, IL-1␣ and IL-2 cytokine levels were higher in blood from mice fed with pure lentinan as compared to those fed with crude shiitake extract, while the secretion kinetics remained the same [32]. Slightly different gene expression patterns were found between barley and oat ␤-glucan extracts, although they possess, basically, a similar ␤-glucan structure. ...
... Our THP-1 macrophage in vitro studies suggest that all tested ␤-glucans mildly induced pro-inflammatory genes (IL-1␤, IL-8 and NF-B) in the short period of time, approximately 3 h after stimulation. Similar findings were observed in ex vivo and in vivo studies, which reported that the expression of inflammatory cytokine secretion peaked between 4 and 5 h after ␤-glucan challenge [32,37]. This is in concordance to general observations that cytokine secretion is delayed approximately an hour after expression of their corresponding genes [26]. ...
Article
SCOPE: We aimed to examine different immunological aspects of β-glucans derived from different food sources (oat, barley and shiitake) on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Commercially purified barley β-glucan (commercial BG) and lentinan were included to compare β-glucans from the same origin but different degree of purity and processing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chemical composition and molecular weight distribution of β-glucan samples were determined. Inflammation-related gene expression kinetics (IL-1β, IL-8, nuclear factor kappa B [NF-κB] and IL-10) after 3, 6 and 24 h of stimulation with 100 μg/mL β-glucan were investigated. All tested β-glucans mildly upregulated the observed inflammation-related genes with differential gene expression patterns. Similar gene expression kinetics, but different fold induction values, was found for the crude β-glucan extracts and their corresponding commercial forms. Pre-incubation of THP-1 macrophages with β-glucans prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure decreased the induction of inflammation-related genes compared to LPS treatment. No production of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) was detected in β-glucan stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Phagocytic activity was not different after stimulation by β-glucan samples. CONCLUSION: Based on these in vitro analyses, it can be concluded that the analysed β-glucans have varying levels of immunomodulating properties, which are likely related to structure, molecular weight and compositional characteristic of β-glucan.
... 17,18 Activation of these immune components ultimately enhances the formation of antibodies and promotes cell-mediated immunity. 19 Lentinan restricts tumor development 20 ; thus, L. edodes also has antitumor properties. 21 l-ergothioneine is the compound in L. edodes that has antioxidant properties. ...
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Article
Lentinus edodes is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has an established history of use in Asian therapies. The mushroom offers well-documented beneficial health effects such as antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and antibacterial activities. In this study, dried powder of L. edodes fruiting bodies was used to evaluate immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. Albino rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups: the control (CON) group, the hypercholesterolemia-only group (HCG), and the L. edodes group (LEG). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats in the HCG and LEG by feeding cholesterol and cholic acid in a chow maintenance diet (CMD) for 24 days. The CON group was fed the CMD throughout the experiment. The HCG continued on the high-cholesterol diet without any L. edodes supplement. The LEG was fed the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L. edodes for an additional 42 days. Various biological health biomarkers, such as total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, arylesterase, paraoxonase activity, and liver enzymes in serum were studied to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective responses. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in each group through a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. The total oxidant status decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after administration of L. edodes in the diet. The cell-mediated immune response significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in the LEG. The significant decrease in liver enzymes supports the hepatoprotective effect of L. edodes. In conclusion, the results show the immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of L. edodes supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats.
... It can be concluded and confirms our findings in cell-lines that different structures of b-glucan determine the type and mode of action on regulating immune responses via co-stimulation via extracellular TLRs (Goodridge et al., 2011;Yokota et al., 2001). This corroborates the in vivo findings of Yap and Ng (2005), who reported that TNF-a, IL-8 and IL-6 levels were higher in blood from mice fed with particulate bglucan than those fed with soluble b-glucan. Notably however, THP-1 macrophages express in addition to TLRs also other regulatory receptors along with TLR2, 4 and 5 and it can therefore not be excluded that other receptors are responsible as well for the increased cytokine production (Diebold, 2009). ...
... The immunomodulating, antitumor, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antigenotoxic, reproductive, as well as others effects of L. edodes extracts have been extensively studied during last decades [15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. Special attention was devoted to its polysaccharides [22] [23][24][25][26]. Therefore, it was decided to try to use remaining part of lignocellulose for the cultivation of this medicinal mushroom. ...
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One of the most important topics of modern biotechnology is linked with the problem of obtaining of bioethanol and other valuable compounds from the renewable resources. Latvian scientists developed completely new unique technology of simultaneous production of furfural and bioethanol from hardwood. This technology is based on new way for the obtaining of furfural which does not damage irreversibly lignocellulose. Based on the results of theoretical studies, for the first time in the world industrial practice, the problem of the simultaneous production of bioethanol and furfural from hardwood was successfully realized at industrial scale.
Chapter
The health benefits of mushrooms find their place in the ancient texts of Greek, Roman, Chinese, and in Ayurveda. Exploration and validation of the history and ethnic knowledge of the use of mushrooms have been a basis for a number of novel bioactive agents which may serve as leads for drug discovery. Mushrooms are significantly nutritious since they are low in fat and calories, whereas they are rich in protein including essential amino acids and dietary fiber. They are also a good source of various vitamins and trace elements. Mushrooms are documented for their health-promoting and pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulating, anti-allergic, anticholesterolemic, cardiovascular protector, and hepatoprotective effects and antimicrobial benefits such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic. This chapter includes medicinal and health-promoting effects of different mushrooms.
Chapter
Mushrooms are important in human nutrition with high protein, minerals, vitamins, low fat content, and low energy levels. They provide an alternative source of protein to people who cannot consume animal foods for different reasons. They are also considered to be a good dietary product with low fat content and energy levels. Mushrooms are consumed for medical purposes as well as for their use as food. There are many mushroom species used in the world for all these purposes. Some of these mushroom species can be cultured, some cannot, and non-cultivable species can only be used by collecting from nature. This chapter provides information on the nutritional value, medical significance, consumption, and extending shelf life of some mushroom species: Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm, Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst, Morels (Morchella), some edible species of Tricholoma, Boletus edulis Bull: Fr, and Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler.
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Lentinus edodes is the first medicinal macrofungus to enter the realm of modern biotechnology. It is the second most popular edible mushroom in the global market which is attributed not only to its nutritional value but also to possible potential for therapeutic applications. Lentinus edodes is used medicinally for diseases involving depressed immune function (including AIDS), cancer, environmental allergies, fungal infection, frequent flu and colds, bronchial inflammation, heart disease, hyperlipidemia (including high blood cholesterol), hypertension, infectious disease, diabetes, hepatitis and regulating urinary inconsistencies. It is the source of several well-studied preparations with proven pharmacological properties, especially the polysaccharide lentinan, eritadenine, shiitake mushroom mycelium, and culture media extracts (LEM, LAP and KS-2). Antibiotic, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral compounds have been isolated intracellularly (fruiting body and mycelia) and extracellularly (culture media). Some of these substances were lentinan, lectins and eritadenine. The aim of this review is to discuss the therapeutic applications of this macrofungus. The potential of this macrofungus is unquestionable in the most important areas of applied biotechnology.
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The medicinal use of mushrooms, so-called higher fungi, has a very long tradition in the Asian countries, whereas their use in the Western hemisphere has been slightly increasing only since the last decades. The paper gives an overview about the most important medicinal mushrooms and summarizes the actual knowledge about chemistry and pharmacology of Lentinula edo-des (Shiitake, Golden Oak Mushroom), Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi, Ling Zhi), Agaricus brasiliensis (Royal sun agaricus), Grifola frondosa (Maitake, Hen-of-the-Woods) and Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake, Lion's Man, Monkey's Head).
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Lymphocyte subpopulations of the spleen were assayed in 26 patients with gastric cancer and 5 patients with benign disease using two-color flow cytometric analysis. The ratio of Leu 2a+.Leu 15+ cells, or suppressor T cells, in the gastric cancer patients was about 6 per cent, being higher than that in the patients with benign disease (p less than 0.05). There were fewer Leu 7+.Leu 11- cells, or natural killer-NK-cells, in the gastric cancer patients in stage III or IV than in those with stages I or II (p less than 0.05). The ratio of Leu 3a+.Leu 8- cells, or helper T cells, in the stage IV patients accounted for about 15 per cent of the splenic lymphocytes, which was less than that seen in the patients in stages I or II (p less than 0.05). The ratio of Leu 2a+.Leu 15- cells, or cytotoxic T cells, was approximately twice that of suppressor T cells. The pre-operative administration of lentinan plus OK-432 increased the ratio of Leu 4+.HLA-DR+ cells, or activated T cells, and cytotoxic T cells (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively). The above results suggest that lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen may have more immunosuppressive potential in proportion with the stage of gastric cancer, but that this reduced immune state may be altered when lentinan and OK-432 are given to these patients.
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The effect of oral lentinan, a biological response modifier, on the control of systemic immune function was studied in six-week-old male Wistar-Imamichi specific-pathogen free rats. In the lentinan-treated group, 1 mg of lentinan dissolved in 1 ml of physiological saline was administered forcibly into the stomach twice weekly for four or eight weeks. Physiological saline alone was administered in a similar fashion to the control group. Leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were made and lymphocyte subsets measured using monoclonal antibodies W3/13, W3/25, and OX8, and a laser flow cytometry system. The T-cell level, the helper/inducer T-cell level, and the suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell level were measured. The peripheral leukocyte and lymphocyte counts did not change significantly in either group during treatment. After four weeks of treatment, however, the lentinan group had a significantly higher T-cell level, helper-cell level, and helper-suppressor ratio, and a significantly lower suppressor-cell level than did the control group. No significant between-group differences in the lymphocyte subsets or the helper-suppressor ratio were noted after eight weeks of treatment. Oral administration of lentinan appears to modulate the systemic immune function through stimulation of T cells, especially helper cells. Continued administration produced less effect, possibly due to a tolerance to the effect of lentinan.
Article
The powdered fruit bodies of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) showed antitumor activity when given orally to mice. The growth of tumors, both syngeneic and allogeneic, was inhibited by 57.9 to 78.6% in shiitake-fed mice. The degree of inhibition was proportional to the consumption of the experimental diet (L-feed) and was evident even when the administration was started from the 7th day after tumor implantation. The inhibition of tumor growth was mainly due to a glucan contained in the fruit bodies, but the lipid fracton also had inhibitory effects, although mild. Feeding of the fruit bodies to mice in the diet was found to augment both the ability of macrophages to phagocytose latex particles and the spreading activity of the macrophages.
Article
The immunopotentiating activity and acting mechanisms of Lentinan were investigated in the human system, resulting in clarification of the following characteristics. (a) Augmentation of DNA synthesis of peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) occurred both in vitro and in vivo by adding or injecting Lentinan, for which the coexistence of T cells, B cells and adherent cells (mainly monocytes) was essential. (b) No additional mitogenic effect of Lentinan was observed when PMNC were incubated with both Lentinan and other mitogens. (c) In vitro production of immunoglobulin by PMNC induced with pokeweed mitogen was enhanced through the inhibition of suppressor T cell activity by Lentinan.
Article
Fate of lentinan, which is one of antitumor polysaccharides, was investigated with 3H-lentinan. 3H-lentinan was prepared by Wilzbach 3H gas exposure labeling, then purified by the gel filtration chromatography. 1) After a single intravenous injection of 3H-lentinan, radioactivity in plasma declined in a biphasic process. 2) There were urinary and fecal excretion, but expiratory excretion was a small proportion. 3) The radioactivity was predominantly incorporated into the liver and spleen, indicating selective retention of the lentinan in reticuloendothelial system cells. On the other hand the level of radioactivity in the lung and kidneys was dropped rapidly. 4) We can not find the selective incorporation of radioactivity into the tumor. 5) There was no species difference on the distribution of lentinan among mouse, rat and dog. 6) These results obtained were similar to other polysaccharides and immunologic antitumor agents.
Article
We examined the ability of epidermal Langerhans cells and splenic dendritic cells to present tumor-associated antigens (Ag) to immune T cells. Methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced subcutaneous fibrosarcomas derived from C57BL/6 mice were used as tumor models. Our data demonstrate that both murine Langerhans cells and splenic dendritic cells have the capacity to present tumor-associated Ag to primed T cells. We found that variously treated tumor preparations (irradiated viable tumor cells, irradiated frozen-stored tumor cells, mitomycin C-treated viable tumor cells, and snap freeze-thawed tumor cell lysates) can be utilized for tumor Ag-pulsing. Primed CD4+ T cells demonstrated in vitro specificity towards their respective tumors and did not cross-react to other syngeneic MCA-induced or non-MCA-induced tumors. The T cell proliferative response critically depended on the presence of immune CD4+ T cells. We discuss the implications of these findings for the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using immune CD4+ T cells.
Article
This study was carried out to assess the safety and efficacy of a combination of lentinan, an immune modulator, and didanosine (ddI) in a controlled study in HIV positive patients with CD4 levels of 200-500 cells/mm3. Didanosine was administered to HIV patients at doses of 400 mg/day (po) for six weeks (bid), then 2 mg of lentinan i.v. was added per week for 24-80 weeks. A control group (20%) received ddI only. A total of 107 patients were enrolled at three sites, and 88 patients started the ddI/lentinan phase. The combination caused significant increases in CD4 levels up to 38 weeks, whereas ddI alone was significant at the 5% level at 14 weeks. Based on these data, lentinan qualifies as a participant in future multi-drug studies in HIV.
Article
We investigated the effects of oral and intravenous application of lentinan, a branched beta-glucan, on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo. Oral administration of lentinan (200 mg/kg) enhanced the induction of LTP evoked by sub-threshold tetanic stimulation (20 pulses at 60 Hz) of the perforant pathway without affecting normal synaptic potentials. Intravenous injection of the compound (0.2-10.0 mg/kg) also enhanced the induction of LTP in a bell-shaped manner, whereas it had no effect on LTP evoked by supra-threshold tetanic stimulation (100 pulses at 100 Hz). Structurally related beta-glucans did not mimic the lentinan-triggered enhancement of LTP. These results suggest that peripherally applied lentinan facilitates the synaptic efficacy of the dentate gyrus neurons in vivo.