Article

HPLC Levels of Adenosine in Awheto—Indigenous New Zealand Cordyceps robertsii Hooker (Ascomycetes)

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Cordyceps spp. (Clavicipitaceae) are well-known medicinal mushrooms used traditionally by indigenous and local communities throughout the world for the treatment of various ailments. Cordyceps robertsii has been used (as a part of awheto) by the Maori people as food and in traditional Maori tattoo, or ta-moko; and there is some evidence of traditional rongoa (medicinal) use. There is only limited scientific evidence of their bioactivity and potential for use in this area. This research aims to identify and quantify adenosine and cordycepin in C. robertsii from New Zealand by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We can report the presence of adenosine and that the level of this nucleoside in C. robertsii is at least comparable to that found in C. sinensis. The research also demonstrates that the presence of adenosine in C. robertsii varies, depending on factors including environment, climate, host organism, and nutrition. We can also report the absence of cordycepin in C. robertsii.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Cordyceps sinensis, a parasitic fungus in the alpine regions, is highly valued in the traditional medicinal system of China, Nepal and India. The cost of one kg of wild collected fungus in the market varies from 30,000 to 60,000 Nepali Rupees in Nepal, and about Rs 1 lakh in India. This study explores the collection, trade route, market price at various stages of trade, and linkages in the region. Market price, trade and channels of Cordyceps collection are not transparent in the Indian subcontinent. Collection from wild habitats is a new income-generation opportunity in the remote locations of the Central Himalayan region. Among the stakeholders, conservation and sustainable harvest is the issue of debate. There is need for scientific exploration and research on biological screening of the Indian strains of this fungus, status in natural habitats, and artificial cultivation to harvest timely the prospects. Highlighting this species as a Chinese herb and its substances as anti-aging, pro-sexual, anti-cancer and immune boosting, now Cordyceps and its products are present in the market of the Western countries as over-the-counter medicine/tonic; however, the primary source is Tibet. For the past few years, there has been large-scale harvesting of the wild material from Nepal and India. This study highlights the importance of the fungus as medicine, a case study of collection and trade in the Central Himalayan region, and research needs in the Indian context.
Article
Full-text available
Cordyceps sinensis is a medicinal fungus of Traditional Chinese Medicine. While there are a wide range of reported uses of Cordyceps sinensis in the literature, the reports that extracts of this fungus may alter apoptotic homeostasis are most intriguing. However, there are significant challenges regarding research surrounding Cordyceps sinensis, such as the difficulty identifying the various species of Cordyceps and the many conflicting reports of pharmacological function in the literature. In this review we outline what is known about the ability of Cordyceps sinensis to alter apoptotic homeostasis, attempt to reconcile the differences in reported function, identify the challenges surrounding future Cordyceps sinensis research, and delineate options for overcoming these critical hurdles.
Article
Full-text available
We sought to identify lifestyle behaviours which influence risk of impaired glucose metabolism, IGM (newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glycemia [IFG]) or insulin resistance (IR) in a predominantly Maori community, and applied the McAuley formula to determine whether it predicts high risk individuals amongst this community. Three hundred and seventy one participants completed a lifestyle and dietary behaviour questionnaire and oral glucose tolerance test. Clinical variables, microalbuminuria, fasting glucose, insulin and lipids were measured. Diabetes, IFG and IGT were defined according to WHO criteria. IR was defined using the McAuley formula. Those with IGM and those with IR showed similar risk factor attributes. Odds ratios (95% CI) for development of IGM and IR were 0.43 (0.21-0.88) and 0.51 (0.33-0.80), respectively, for regular physical activity, and 0.55 (0.26-1.15) and 0.59 (0.37-0.96), respectively, for two or more dietary behaviours characterized by a high intake of fibre. Regular physical activity and a diet characterized by a high intake of dietary fibre were found to reduce risk of newly diagnosed IGM or IR. The McAuley formula appears to predict high-risk individuals in a predominantly Maori population as it does in European populations.
Article
A simple and rapid pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative determination of nucleosides, bases and their analogues in natural and cultured Cordyceps. The samples were extracted using PLE. The separation was achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column with gradient elution of methanol and 5 mM aqueous ammonium acetate as mobile phase. Target compounds were identified by characterizing their product ions, precursor ions and retention times. Quantitative analysis of investigated compounds were performed using time programmed selective ion monitoring (SIM) or selective reaction monitoring (SRM) with 10 segments in positive (negative for uridine) ion mode. The results showed that 43 bases, nucleosides and their analogues were detected in Cordyceps, of these 16 compounds were identified. The simultaneous determination of seven nucleosides and six bases in Cordyceps was achieved using PLE and HPLC–ESI–MS/MS method described above, which afforded good linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, short analysis time as well as LOD and LOQ in the ng/ml range.
Article
The Chinese herbal drug DongChongXiaCao, a medicinal and edible mushroom originating from the fungus Cordyceps sp., has been developed into health foods. Counterfeit and mimic types are frequently found in markets. Mycelial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, via submerged fermentation, have been commercialized and also named DongChongXiaCao. This investigation endeavours to characterize the proximate composition, amino acid profiles, and contents of the bioactive ingredients, including adenosine and cordycepin. The total levels of amino acids were significantly different, ranging from 4 to 17%. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the two main amino acids in all samples tested; however, there was a third major amino acid. The level of total amino acids in the mycelium was only half that in the natural DongChongXiaCao. The bioactive ingredients adenosine and cordycepin did not exist in the counterfeit and mimic types. Adenosine was abundant in the fruiting body, amounting to considerably more than in the corpus of the natural DongChongXiaCao and the mycelium of C. sinensis. Trace levels of cordycepin were found in all the Cordyceps preparations. These findings suggest that adenosine and cordycepin might be used as indexing ingredients for differentiating Cordyceps from the counterfeit and the mimic.
Article
summary: Cordyceps sinensis is a potentially ergogenic herb that gained popularity after the Chinese women's team credited it for their world-record performances at the 1993 World Track and Field Championships. Since then, a few peer-reviewed investigations have been published, but results of these investigations have been equivocal, with two human studies claiming an ergogenic effect and three human studies failing to find an effect. At this time, it is premature to conclude that Cordyceps sinensis does or does not possess ergogenic properties. (C) 2006 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Sixteen strains of fungi from 15 different genera were isolated from natural habitats in Thailand to study their biopolymers. Polymer production, chemical composition, and physical and biological properties related to their potential as wound dressing materials were investigated. All polymers were shown to be composed of polysaccharides except those produced from Fusarium coccophilum BCC2415 which was a protein–polysaccharide complex. Molecular weights of the polymers ranged from 2.8×103–1.2×107 Da. Apart from the polymers from Fusarium coccophilum BCC2415 and Cordyceps dipterigena BCC2073 that were only water soluble, those from other fungi were soluble in both water and DMSO. Different biological assays including cytotoxicity tests were conducted to investigate their biocompatibility. To evaluate the potential of these polymers as wound dressing material, the level of interleukin (IL)-8 produced by normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHF) cells exposed to the polymers were determined. Our results indicated that polymers produced by Akanthomyces pistillariiformis BCC2694, Cordyceps dipterigena BCC2073, Paecilomyces tenuipes BCC2656, and Phytocordyceps sp. BCC2744 were biocompatible and inducers of high levels of IL-8.
Article
Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link (Clavicipitaceae), northern Cordyceps, is currently available in Taiwan for use in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional foods. The nonvolatile components in the form of fruit bodies and mycelia were studied. Both fruit bodies and mycelia were high in contents of carbohydrate, crude fiber and crude protein. Content of total sugars and polyols were 260.64 and 189.82 mg/g for fruit bodies and mycelia, respectively. Mannitol content was the highest in both fruit bodies and mycelia (117.66 and 112.55 mg/g, respectively). Contents of total free amino acids in fruit bodies and mycelia were 48.15 and 67.63 mg/g, respectively. The content of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like components in fruit bodies (10.60 mg/g) was higher than that in mycelia (2.70 mg/g). The contents of total and flavor 5′-nucleotides were high in mycelia (26.27 and 9.34 mg/g, respectively). Equivalent umami concentrations of fruit bodies and mycelia were similar, and equivalent to the umami intensity given by 6.08 and 6.22 g of MSG, respectively. Overall, both fruit bodies and mycelia of northern Cordyceps possessed highly intense umami taste.
Article
A simple method is described for the simultaneous determination of ergosterol, nucleosides and their bases in Cordyceps. The samples were extracted by using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of experimental variables, such as solvent, temperature, static extraction time and cycles, on PLE efficiency have been studied. The results showed a strong influence of the solvent and temperature on extraction efficiency of PLE. The determination was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Zorbax NH2 analytical column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with diode-array detector (DAD). The automated preparation of the sample permits a very fast analysis which is an important goal for routine purpose.
Article
Adenosine has potent effects on both the cardiovascular and immune systems. Exposure of tissues to adenosine results in increased vascular permeability and extravasation of serum proteins. The mechanism by which adenosine brings about these physiological changes is poorly defined. Using mice deficient in the A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR), we show that increases in cutaneous vascular permeability observed after treatment with adenosine or its principal metabolite inosine are mediated through the A(3)AR. Adenosine fails to increase vascular permeability in mast cell-deficient mice, suggesting that this tissue response to adenosine is mast cell-dependent. Furthermore, this response is independent of activation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonR1) by antigen, as adenosine is equally effective in mediating these changes in FcepsilonR1 beta-chain-deficient mice. Together these results support a model in which adenosine and inosine induce changes in vascular permeability indirectly by activating mast cells, which in turn release vasoactive substances. The demonstration in vivo that adenosine, acting through a specific receptor, can provoke degranulation of this important tissue-based effector cell, independent of antigen activation of the high-affinity IgE receptor, supports an important role for this nucleoside in modifying the inflammatory response.
Article
Cordyceps, one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicines, consists of the dried fungus Cordyceps sinensis growing on the larva of the caterpillar. It is commonly used for the replenishment of body health. One of the known pharmacological effects is its anti-oxidation activity. However, there is a great variation of the quality in different sources of Cordyceps. Here, the water extracts of various sources of natural C. sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia were analyzed for their anti-oxidation activity by using three different assay methods such as the xanthine oxidase assay, the induction of hemolysis assay and the lipid peroxidation assay. The results showed that Cordyceps, in general, possesses a strong anti-oxidation activity in all assays tested. However, both natural and cultured Cordyceps showed the lowest inhibition in the lipid peroxidation when compared with the other two assay methods. The cultured Cordyceps mycelia had equally strong anti-oxidation activity as compared to the natural Cordyceps. Besides, the anti-oxidation activities were increased to 10-30 folds in the partially purified polysaccharide fractions from the cultured Cordyceps mycelia, which suggested that the activity could be derived partly from Cordyceps polysaccharides.
Article
Cordyceps (summer-grass, winter-worm), one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines, is used commonly for the replenishment of body health. It consists of the dried fungus Cordyceps sinensis growing on caterpillar larvae. For medication, the fruiting body (fungus) and the worm (caterpillar) are used together. However, the pharmacological efficiency and the main constituents of the individual parts have not been determined. In the present study the water extracts from the fruiting body and worm of natural Cordyceps were analyzed for their content of nucleosides and polysaccharides; the results showed that the worm had chemical composition similar to the fruiting body. In addition, both the fruiting body and worm of Cordyceps showed similar potency in their anti-oxidation activities in the xanthine oxidase assay, the induction of hemolysis assay and the lipid-peroxidation assay. These results suggest that the function of the worm in Cordyceps is to provide a growth medium for the fruiting body, and that eventually, the worm is totally invaded by C. sinensis mycelia.
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effect of the hot-water fraction (HW) from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in a 5 l fermenter. The composition of HW was mainly carbohydrate (83.9%) and protein (11.8%) on a dry basis, and the carbohydrate of HW consisted of glucose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose in the molecular ratio of 1.0 : 0.8 : 0.5 : 0.1, respectively. In mice fed a cholesterol-free diet and those fed a cholesterol-enriched diet, body and liver weights were not significantly different from those of the controls. The serum total cholesterol (TC) of all mice groups administered HW (150 and 300 mg/kg/d, respectively) with the cholesterol-enriched diet decreased more than in the control group. Among the mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet, HW also increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, but decreased the very low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL) cholesterol level. The changes in HDL- and VLDL+LDL-cholesterol levels consequently decreased the atherogenic value. The results indicate that HW in rats administered a cholesterol-enriched diet decreased the plasma cholesterol level. The 300 mg/kg dose had a significant effect on the serum TC level.
Article
Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, possesses activities in anti-tumour, anti-oxidation and stimulating the immune system; however, the identity of active component(s) is not determined. By using anti-oxidation activity-guided fractionation, a polysaccharide of molecular weight approximately 210 kDa was isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia by ion-exchange and sizing chromatography. The isolated polysaccharide, having strong anti-oxidation activity, contains glucose, mannose and galactose in a ratio of 1 : 0.6 : 0.75. The pre-treatment of isolated polysaccharide on the cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells shows strong protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced insult. Treatment of the cells with the isolated polysaccharide at 100 microg/ml prior to H(2)O(2) exposure significantly elevated the survival of PC12 cells in culture by over 60%. In parallel, the H(2)O(2)-induced production of malondialdehyde in cultured cells was markedly reduced by the polysaccharide treatment. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the isolated polysaccharide significantly attenuated the changes of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in H(2)O(2)-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first report in identifying a polysaccharide from Cordyceps, which protects against the free radical-induced neuronal cell toxicity.
Article
A simple and rapid isocratic LC/MS coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) method for simultaneous separation and determination of adenine, hypoxanthine, adenosine and cordycepin in Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) and its substitutes was developed. 2-Chloroadenosine was used as internal standard for this assay. The optimum separation for these analytes was achieved using the mixture of water, methanol and formic acid (85:14:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase and a 2.0 x 150 mm Shimadzu VP-ODS column. Selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode ([M+H]+ at m/z 136, 137, 268, 252 and 302) was used for quantitative analysis of above four active components. The regression equations were liner in the range of 1.4-140.0 microg ml(-1) for adenine, 0.6-117.5 microg ml(-1) for hypoxanthine, 0.5-128.5 microg ml(-1) for adenosine and 0.5-131.5 microg ml(-1) for cordycepin. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) and detection (LOD) were, respectively 1.4 and 0.5 microg ml(-1) for adenine, 0.6 and 0.2 microg ml(-1) for hypoxanthine, 0.5 and 0.1 microg ml(-1) for adenosine and cordycepin. The recoveries of four constituents were from 93.5 to 107.0%. The nucleoside contents of various types of natural Cs and its substitutes were determined and compared with this developed method.
Article
Little scientific evidence exists to support the numerous herbs used to improve diabetes-related metabolic disorders. Cordyceps, a Chinese herbal medicine with fruiting body and carcass, has been proposed to have multiple medicinal activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fruiting body and carcass of Cordyceps on hyperglycemia. Male Wistar rats administered with placebo (STZ group), 1 g of fruiting body (FB group), 1 g of carcass (CC group), or 1g of fruiting body plus carcass (CF group) of Cordyceps for four weeks (d1 to d28) were injected with nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) on d15. Animals fed with placebo and injected with saline acted as the controls (CON group). The results showed that water intake (d15 to d29), changes in fasting blood glucose concentration (d15 to d26), and serum concentrations of fructosamine (d29) were significantly greater in the STZ, CC and CF groups than in the CON and FB groups (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). The diabetic rats had significantly lower weight gain and higher blood glucose response in oral glucose tolerance test than the control rats; and these changes were significantly reduced by administrating the fruiting body of Cordyceps. Our results revealed that fruiting body, not carcass, of Cordyceps attenuated the diabetes-induced weight loss, polydipsia and hyperglycemia, and these improvements suggest that fruiting body of Cordyceps has a potential to be the functional food for diabetes.
Article
We examined the effects of a commercially marketed herbal-based formula purported to increase endurance on oxygen consumption (VO2) in 17 competitive category III/IV amateur cyclists [mean (SEM) age: 31.1 (1.8) yr; height: 178.5 (1.8) cm; weight: 77.1 (1.6) kg]. Each cyclist participated in two (pre/post) cycling tests progressing 25 W.4 min(-1) starting at 100 W administered in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind fashion. The second trial was performed 14 d after the ingestion of a manufacturer recommended loading phase (4 d x 6 caps.d(-1)) and a maintenance phase (11 d x 3 caps.d(-1)). Three treatment capsules contained 1000 mg of Cordyceps sinensis (CS-4) and 300 mg Rhodiola rosea root extract as the primary ingredients; 800 mg of other ingredients included calcium pyruvate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, ribose, and adenosine and 200 mcg of chromium. Using a 2 x 2 ANOVA, we observed no significant treatment effect for any between or within group variables including peak VO2 [treatment 4.14 (0.2) L.min(-1); placebo 4.10 (0.2) L.min(-1)], time to exhaustion [treatment 38.47 (1.7) min; placebo 36.95 (1.8) min], peak power output (PO) [treatment 300.00 (12.1) W; placebo 290.63 (12.9) W], or peak heart rate. We also observed no differences for any subpeak exercise variable including the PO eliciting 2 mmol.L(-1) blood lactate (BLa) [treatment 201.00 (18.1) W; placebo 167.50 (19.2) W] and 4 mmol.L(-1) BLa [treatment 235.88 (15.8) W; placebo 244.78 (14.9) W], ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, or Vo2 L.min(-1) gross efficiency at each stage. A 2-wk ingestion schema of a commercial herbal-based formula is insufficient to elicit positive changes in cycling performance.
Article
A new acid deoxyribonuclease (DNase) was purified from the cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, and designated CSDNase. CSDNase was purified by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, Sephacryl S-100 HR gel filtration, weak anion-exchange HPLC, and gel filtration HPLC. The protein was single-chained, with an apparent molecular mass of ca. 34 kDa, as revealed by SDS-PAGE, and an isoelectric point of 7.05, as estimated by isoelectric focusing. CSDNase acted on both double-stranded (ds) and single- stranded (ss) DNA, but preferentially on dsDNA. The optimum pH of CSDNase was pH 5.5 and its optimum temperature 55. The activity of CSDNase was not dependent on divalent cations, but its enzymic activity was inhibited by high concentration of the cation: MgCl(2) above 150 mM, MnCl(2) above 200 mM, ZnCl(2) above 150 mM, CaCl(2) above 200 mM, NaCl above 300 mM, and KCl above 300 mM. CSDNase was found to hydrolyze DNA, and to generate 3-phosphate and 5-OH termini. These results indicate that the nucleolytic properties of CSDNase are essentially the same as those of other well-characterized acid DNases, and that CSDNase is a member of the acid DNase family. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an acid DNase in a fungus.
Article
A simple method is described for simultaneous determination of six main nucleosides and bases including adenine, uracil, adenosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine in Cordyceps by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Chemometric optimization based on central composite design was employed to find the optimum resolution. The optimum factor space was defined by three parameters: buffer concentration, pH and concentration of acetonitrile as organic modifier. Resolution (Rs) was employed to evaluate the response function. A running buffer composed of 500 mM boric acid, adjusted pH to 8.6 with sodium hydroxide and 12.2% acetonitrile as modifier was found to be the most appropriate for the separation. The contents of the six components were determined by using adenosine monophosphate as an internal standard. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis based on characteristics of 32 peaks in CE profiles from the tested 12 samples showed that natural and cultured Cordyceps were in different clusters. Adenosine and inosine were extracted as markers for discrimination of natural Cordyceps. The result of clustering based on the two peaks characteristics was in excellent agreement with that based on 32 peaks'. Thus, adenosine and inosine could be used as markers for quality control of natural and cultured Cordyceps.
Article
The effect of supplementation with Phellinus linteus (P. linteus), Paecilomyces tenuipes (P. tenuipes), and Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mushroom water extracts on the insulin secretion and insulin resistance of 90% pancreatectomized (Px) male Sprague Dawley rats was investigated. Px rats were daily administered 0.5 g of P. linteus, P. tenuipes, and C. militaris aqueous extracts or a placebo per 1 kg body weight with a 40% fat diet for 8 weeks. Fasting serum glucose levels were lower in rats receiving C. militaris than in the control group. Insulin secretion at the elevated serum glucose levels was lowest in rats that consumed P. tenuipes in hyperglycemic clamp. Whole body glucose disposal rates increased in C. militaris but decreased in P. tenuipes compared to those in the control group in euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The GLUT4 content and fraction velocity of glycogen synthase in the soleus and quadriceps muscles increased in the rats treated with C. militaris, but P. tenuipes decreased both. In sum, a water extract of C. militaris ameliorates insulin resistance by enhancing glucose utilization in skeletal muscles.
Article
Four polysaccharides from the water extract of cultured Cordyceps militaris were isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weights were determined using gel-filtration chromatography. Among the four isolated polysaccharides, the structures of two of them (CPS-2 and CPS-3) were elucidated by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, IR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy.
Article
Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a prokaryotic protein under development as a topical anti-HIV microbicide, an urgent and necessary approach to prevent HIV transmission in at-risk populations worldwide. We have expressed recombinant CV-N as inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. A purification scheme has been developed that exploits the physicochemical properties of this protein, in particular its stability in a harsh inclusion body purification scheme. Under the conditions developed, this system yields 140 mg of highly purified CV-N per liter of high-density cell culture, which represents a 14-fold increase over the best recombinant CV-N yield reported to date. This purification scheme results in monomeric CV-N as analyzed by SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, and reverse phase- and size exclusion-HPLC. This recombinantly expressed and refolded CV-N binds to gp120 with nanomolar affinity and retains its potent anti-HIV activities in cell-based assays. The expression and purification system described herein provides a better means for the mass production of CV-N for further microbicide development.
Article
Combining nutritional supplements to achieve synergistic benefit is a common practice in the nutraceutical industry. However, establishing added health benefit from a combination of natural ingredients is often assumed, untested and without regard to the principle of metabolic competition between the active components. Here, we report on the combination of a cat's claw water extract (C-Med-100, carboxy alkyl esters = active ingredients) + medicinal mushroom extracts (Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola blazei, Grifolafrondosa, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum, polysaccharides = active ingredients) + nicotinamide + zinc into a formulation designed to optimize different modes of immunostimulatory action, and yet that would avoid metabolic antioxidant competition yielding less than expected efficacious effects. Isobole curve analyses of these two active classes of ingredients determined by growth inhibition of HL-60 human leukemic cells in vitro confirmed they were indeed synergistic when in combination, and not metabolically competitive. Furthermore, an in vivo study showed significant health benefit for 14 subjects treated for 4 weeks with the unique C-Med-100/mushroom extract formulation in that they had reduced pain, reduced fatigue, weight loss and a reduced presence of DNA damage in peripheral blood assessed by (8-OH) guanine DNA adducts and elevation in serum protein thiols. Because this broad-based panel of clinical parameters indicating clinical efficacy has never been demonstrated before for either of the active ingredients evaluated alone in humans, these data were taken as strong evidence that the combination of C-Med-100 + mushroom extracts + nicotinamide + zinc gave additive or synergistic effects to health benefit, and thus supported no efficacious limits from metabolic competition regarding this particular formulation.
Article
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used to separate cordycepin and adenosine, and determine their concentration in stroma of Cordyceps sp. These two active components of natural and cultured Cordyceps kyushuensis were quantitatively analyzed and compared with those of cultured Cordyceps militaris. The results showed that the CZE method is a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the measurement of cordycepin and adenosine with good repeatability.