Article

Materialism and Diminished Well?Being: Experiential Avoidance as a Mediating Mechanism

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Abstract

Being preoccupied with the pursuit of money, wealth, and material possessions arguably fails as a strategy to increase pleasure and meaning in life. However, little is known about the mechanisms that explain the inverse relation between materialism and well-being. The current study tested the hypothesis that experiential avoidance mediates associations between materialistic values and diminished emotional well-being, meaning in life, self-determination, and gratitude. Results indicated that people with stronger materialistic values reported more negative emotions and less relatedness, autonomy, competence, gratitude, and meaning in life. As expected, experiential avoidance fully mediated associations between materialistic values and each dimension of well-being. Emotional disturbances such as social anxiety and depressive symptoms failed to account for these findings after accounting for shared variance with experiential avoidance. The results are discussed in the context of alternative, more fulfilling routes to well-being.

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... Se no início se tratava de aquisição, uso e descarte, mais recentemente esta condição se alterou. Para Harvey (1994), Campbell (2006) e Kashdan e Breen (2007), a acumulação do capital, a comunicação em massa, o individualismo, a realização pessoal e a autoexpressão, a busca por pertencimento coletivo, dentre outras, são características que constroem as modalidades de consumo e o estilo de vida atuais. ...
... Já em 1970, Levitt defendia que a ilusão imposta pelo cinema foi adaptada pelas agências de comunicação em seu raciocínio criativo no desenvolvimento de propagandas. Kashdan e Breen (2007), afirmam que o uso de determinados efeitos na propaganda pode levar o consumidor a observar bens e serviços de maneira diferente. Esta atuação tecnológica, segundo os autores, aumenta o desejo dos consumidores pela aquisição de mais produtos. ...
... Gengler e Reynolds (1995), advertiram para o fato de que as iniciativas publicitárias são, em sua maioria, voltadas ao apelo de venda. Kashdan e Breen (2007), argumentam que uma propaganda pode conter apelos afetivos e cognitivos, mas tende a ser mais forte o apelo utilitarista, pois o anunciante veicula comerciais e anúncios para vender, mais comumente. ...
Article
Este estudo trata do comportamento do consumidor e do consumo como representação social. Basicamente, pretende examinar como a mensagem e a expressão presentes em comerciais de empresas anunciantes diferem entre si em uma mesma data comemorativa, a partir da perspectiva da significação do consumo. Utilizou tipologia explicativa quanto aos seus fins e documental quanto aos seus meios, adotando a técnica de Análise do Discurso e preceitos de Lazović (2012) para análise de expressão e mensagem. Como resultados, tanto a mensagem quanto a maneira de se expressar se mostraram muito diferentes entre as organizações. Apesar da data comemorativa ser uma espécie de homenagem a alguém ou pela passagem de algum evento, empresas adotam a comunicação afetiva enquanto outras se utilizam do espaço para se comunicar comercialmente, sem ressignificação do consumo.
... Materialism, or the extent to which a person places high importance on the possession and acquisition of material goods as the basis for life's success (Richins & Dawson, 1992), was found to have a detrimental impact on well-being (Kashdan & Breen, 2007). It has been widely established that individuals who overly value materialistic gains and derive self-worth from social approval and material possessions are highly vulnerable to experiencing diminished well-being (Lykken & Tellegen, 1996;Kashdan & Breen, 2007). ...
... Materialism, or the extent to which a person places high importance on the possession and acquisition of material goods as the basis for life's success (Richins & Dawson, 1992), was found to have a detrimental impact on well-being (Kashdan & Breen, 2007). It has been widely established that individuals who overly value materialistic gains and derive self-worth from social approval and material possessions are highly vulnerable to experiencing diminished well-being (Lykken & Tellegen, 1996;Kashdan & Breen, 2007). For example, Kashdan and Breen (2007) demonstrated that people with strong materialistic values reported reduced sense of wellbeing and higher emotional disturbance, as indicated by more severe symptoms of depression and social anxiety. ...
... It has been widely established that individuals who overly value materialistic gains and derive self-worth from social approval and material possessions are highly vulnerable to experiencing diminished well-being (Lykken & Tellegen, 1996;Kashdan & Breen, 2007). For example, Kashdan and Breen (2007) demonstrated that people with strong materialistic values reported reduced sense of wellbeing and higher emotional disturbance, as indicated by more severe symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Having strong materialistic values could trap people in a hedonic cycle because of striving to maintain their perceived levels of success and well-being by continuously consuming material possessions (Lykken & Tellegen, 1996;Kashdan & Breen, 2007). ...
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It is believed that about 90% of the land area in the Philippines was once covered with forests. Today, Philippine forests have decreased to <20% due to deforestation and urbanization, and it is projected that the near annihilation of the forests in the country could happen within the next decades if the present rate of deforestation continues. Consequently, changes in people’s values brought about by urbanization and the national drive for economic progress were associated with surges in mental health problems and reduced well-being. Drawing from the Eco-Existential Positive Psychology Perspective and the Biophilia Hypothesis, the present study examined the mediating role of meaning in life as a mechanism that facilitates the influence of nature connectedness and materialism on well-being among persons from the Philippines. Parallel mediation models were tested using 589 participants. Results showed that both presence of meaning and search for meaning in life mediated the positive association between nature connectedness and well-being. On the other hand, presence of meaning, but not search for meaning, mediated the negative association between materialism and well-being. The results of the present study advanced our understanding of how satisfaction of one’s need to affiliate with nature and materialism contribute to well-being in the Philippine context. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Ultimately, it is stated that there is a positive relationship between materialistic tendency and consumption (Lee & Ahn, 2016). In the literature, it is stated that such consumption which is expressed with the concepts of symbolic, compulsive, and hedonic caused by happiness and centrality, which are sub-dimensions of materialism, is negatively related to the positive mood and life satisfaction of individuals (Rook & Gardner, 1993;Sirgy, 1998;Youn & Faber, 2000;Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Wang et al., 2017;Türker, 2019;Yılmaztürk et al., 2019). In this context, it can be interpreted that the individuals who turn to consumption to seek welfare and an increase in the standard of living may ultimately experience feelings such as negative mood and life dissatisfaction. ...
... In this context, it can be interpreted that the individuals who turn to consumption to seek welfare and an increase in the standard of living may ultimately experience feelings such as negative mood and life dissatisfaction. Perhaps this situation stems from the point that materialistic individuals spend their money in the wrong way and items (Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Dunn et al., 2011). ...
... According to the results of the analysis, the success dimension, one of the sub-dimensions of materialistic tendency, was found to be significantly positive (.288) effect; It was concluded that the happiness dimension had a significant negative (-.623) effect on life satisfaction. Thus this result supports all other studies that have reached the same conclusion in the literature (Rook & Gardner, 1993;Sirgy, 1998;Youn & Faber, 2000;Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Dittmar et al., 2014;Türker, 2019;Wang et al., 2017;Yılmaztürk et al., 2019). Lie et al. (2020), in their studies investigating the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic process on the materialistic tendencies and compulsive purchasing behavior patterns of individuals, concluded that there is a positive relationship between the severity of the epidemic and people's materialistic tendencies and compulsive (immediate, impulsive, etc.) purchasing behaviors. ...
Article
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Consumers with a high level of materialistic tendency believe that acquisition and consumption are necessary for their satisfaction in life, and that higher consumption levels will make them happier. This study aims to examine materialistic tendency levels in terms of their possible effect on life satisfaction levels during the COVID-19 pandemic process. In addition, it is aimed to determine whether the materialistic tendencies and life satisfaction levels of the consumers differ for X, Y and Z generations. In this study, a questionnaire was conducted with 440 participants by simple random sampling method. Quantitative research method has been used and primary research data have been collected by questionnaire technique. Exploratory factor analysis for the validity of the research model and confirmatory factor analysis for the validity of the measurement model were performed and the hypotheses were tested with the structural equation modelling techniques. In the analysis of the structural model proposed by using the construct validity variables, it was concluded that the success dimension, one of the sub-dimensions of materialistic tendency, had a significant positive effect on life satisfaction, while other happiness dimension had a significant negative effect. In addition, it was detected that there is a statistically significant difference between the materialistic tendencies and life satisfaction levels of the consumers of each generations.
... Existing research supports this notion. A number of studies indicated that depression is positively linked to people's materialism (Kashdan and Breen, 2007;Mueller et al., 2011;Ya Azibo, 2013). However, the mediating effect of depression in the relationship between SNS addiction and adolescents' materialism has not been examined. ...
... In addition, prior research indicated that relational insecurity led people to increasingly focus on materialistic strivings (Sheldon and Kasser, 2008;Dittmar et al., 2014). Besides, basic psychological need satisfaction, including relatedness, is negatively related to materialism (Kashdan and Breen, 2007;Tsang et al., 2014). Therefore, it is logical to deduce that NTB could be positively related to materialism. ...
... In the second stage of mediation (i.e., depression → materialism), our study found that depression was positively linked to adolescents' materialism. This finding is congruent with existing research showing that people high in depression are at more odds of having a higher level of materialism (Kashdan and Breen, 2007;Mueller et al., 2011; Ya Azibo, 2013). This finding is consistent with the notion suggesting that materialistic strivings can be a way of coping with feelings of psychological insecurity (Dittmar et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Recent research indicates that social networking site (SNS) addiction is positively associated with materialism. However, little attention has been paid to the potential mechanisms in this relationship. This study tested the mediating role of depression and the moderating role of need to belong (NTB) in the relationships between SNS addiction and adolescents’ materialism. This research model was tested among 733 adolescents in China (mean age = 16.79 years, SD = 0.91). The findings indicated that both SNS addiction and NTB were positively related to adolescents’ materialism. Mediation analyses showed that depression mediated the association between SNS addiction and adolescents’ materialism. Moderated mediation indicated that the effect of SNS addiction on materialism and the effect of SNS addiction on depression were exacerbated by NTB. This study can advance our understanding of how SNS could contribute to adolescents’ materialism in this digital society.
... In either case, the leverage of the person over fulfilling the urge to benefit is gradually becoming weaker. A dependence on possessions to build self-worth solidifies the vulnerability of individuals to factors such as social acceptance (Kashdan and Breen, 2007); they often become reluctant to be in touch with negatively assessed thoughts and emotions, and thereby strive to escape circumstances. Besides, materialism was inversely linked to competence and autonomy, where these two constructs are linked to feelings of power (Eisenberger et al., 1999). ...
... Besides, materialism was inversely linked to competence and autonomy, where these two constructs are linked to feelings of power (Eisenberger et al., 1999). Materialism was positively linked to negative feelings but was not linked to positive feelings (Kashdan and Breen, 2007). Hence, we can hypothesize the following: H5: Highly materialistic consumers have high perceived stress. ...
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The present research examines the metropolitan mental life of consumers of Dhaka, which is one of the most densely populated and least livable cities in the world. Though mental life encompasses a range of factors, the study considered the dynamic interplays of the most pertinent ones, such as perceived stress, the sense of control, materialistic values, and religiosity. These variables were measured and quantified by commonly used measurement tools; a recursive structural equation model was constructed to unearth the causal connections among those variables. By using a 57-item questionnaire, the study surveyed 1,068 shoppers living in 10 different zones of the city. The estimated covariance by the multivariate structural equation model indicates that perceived stress is significantly associated with the sense of control, while religiosity and materialistic value-orientation were negatively associated. However, there are no significant relationships between religiosity and sense of control, and materialism and sense of control. Perceived stress and religiosity are found to be positively associated. The estimated independent sample t-tests showed that while no significant difference is found in sense of control by gender, women were more religious, less materialistic, but perceive their lives as more stressful than the men. The findings help to interpret both the cognitive and affective responses of the consumers of urban residents.
... Psychological inflexibility refers to the tendency to down-regulate unwanted thoughts and feelings (Hayes et al., 1996;Bond et al., 2011), and becomes life constricting when it occurs across life domains and regardless of contextual circumstances that suggest its utilization is unworkable. Psychological inflexibility is a consistent predictor of daily anxiety-related symptoms and emotional distress, diminished positive life appraisals and emotions, and meaning in life (e.g., Kashdan and Breen, 2007;Machell et al., 2015), to the point that it is regarded as a transdiagnostic process (Monestès et al., 2018). ...
... First, bearing in mind that valuing happiness may lead to the avoidance of unpleasant experiences, we expected a positive relation between valuing happiness and psychological inflexibility components. As well, based on previous studies that have linked psychological inflexibility to more emotional distress and less positive life appraisals (e.g., Kashdan and Breen, 2007;Machell et al., 2015), we expected a negative relation between psychological inflexibility components and wellbeing. Consequently, we tested the mediation role of psychological inflexibility components in the negative relation between valuing happiness and psychological wellbeing. ...
Article
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Previous evidence has shown that excessive valuing happiness may relate to lower psychological wellbeing across cultures. Considering the lack of data with Spanish population, we examined the relation between tightly holding happiness emotion goals and subjective wellbeing in a sample of Spanish women, and explored the mediation role exerted by psychological inflexibility components (namely, cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance) in the relation between valuing happiness and subjective wellbeing. A female adult sample (n = 168) filled out measures of excessive valuing happiness, psychological inflexibility, positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. Valuing happiness only showed positive total effects on negative affect and strong direct effects on both cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance. Analyses revealed the mediating roles exerted by psychological inflexibility components, with experiential avoidance leading to lower pleasure; and cognitive fusion leading to greater displeasure and lower life satisfaction. Psychological inflexibility components explained between 40 and 80% of the total effect of valuing happiness on our outcome variables. Our findings highlight the need for further research on the benefits of hedonic vs. values-based approaches to happiness.
... Materialism is getting more in uential especially in rich societies, for example, in the capitalist USA, the 'totemic' American Dream strongly ties with one's nancial success (21,22); people become more materialistic in the rapidly developing China as well. According to a survey conducted by The Ipsos (23), China has been ranked as the most materialistic country among twenties and 71% of Chinese respondents agreed that success should be measured by the number of materialistic possessions, compared with 34% from other countries (24). ...
... For example, Kasser and colleagues (29) found that decreasing participants' materialism experiences could improve selfesteem. Experiential avoidance (22), personality factors such as neuroticism and narcissism (30), unrealistic expectations for evaluating the standard of living (31), frustration of basic psychological needs (27), sense of insecurity (32) are the possible explanations for such results. Therefore, our rst hypothesis (H1) is: H1: Materialism negatively associates with subjective well-being. ...
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Background: People are holding stronger materialistic belief than before, especially in some developed regions in the world. Materialism refers to beliefs that equate materialistic possessions with happiness, success, and make it central to life. Extant research has widely shown that materialism threatens people’s well-being. Nevertheless, the evidence on how materialism influences meaning in life is less well-established. Within the realm of this area, we examined the relationship between materialism and meaning in life, as well as its potential mechanisms, under the framework of Self-Determination Theory.Methods: Two cross-sectional online survey studies have been conducted to test the hypothesized serial double mediation model. In this model, we measured four constructs including people’s materialistic values, basic psychological needs satisfaction, subjective well-being, and meaning in life. In Study 1, we collected data from a Chinese sample (N=190). In Study 2, we tried to replicate the findings from Study 1 by collecting a non-Chinese different-age Prolific sample (N=767).Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 are consistent. We found that the relationship between materialistic happiness and meaning in life is serially mediated by basic psychological needs satisfaction and subjective well-being. The results confirm that materialistic happiness frustrates basic psychological needs, which threatens people’s subjective well-being then meaning in life. Nonetheless, same serial multiple mediation model is not observed from other two materialistic dimensions including materialistic centrality and materialistic success.Conclusions: Materialistic happiness threatens people’s sense of meaning in life. This relationship can be explained under the framework of Self-Determination Theory. Issues such as how different types of happiness facilitate the constitution of meaning in life, and new investigation directions on materialism and meaning in life research have been discussed.
... Both correlational and experimental studies support this reasoning. Chronically low levels of power are associated with higher levels of materialism in adults (Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Kim et al., 2017) and children (Gentina, Shrum, Lowrey, Vitell, & Rose, 2018). Experimentally manipulating power produces similar effects. ...
... One escape avenue is through consumption. At the most general level, materialism has been consistently shown to be positively correlated with loneliness and feelings of lack of belongingness (Ang et al., 2014;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Loh et al., 2021;Norris et al., 2012;Pieters, 2013;Rose & DeJesus, 2007). ...
Article
Materialism has a long history in consumer research, and the volume of research continues to expand rapidly. In this article, we review extant research on materialism, with a particular focus on research in the last 10 years. We structure the review around the antecedents and consequences of materialism. We first provide a brief review of the different conceptualizations of materialism. We then discuss antecedents in terms of interpersonal influences (socialization factors—parents, peers, and media) and intrapersonal influences (psychological factors—self‐esteem, power, belongingness, and self‐concept clarity). Next, we discuss some consequences of materialism, such as well‐being, gratitude, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future research.
... This article introduces government subsidies as a mediator and adapts sequential regression models (models 2 and 3) to examine whether government subsidies have an intermediary influence on the impact of environmental regulation on green technology innovation. Thus, according to Kashdan and Breen (2007) [52], the following models are proposed: ...
... This article introduces government subsidies as a mediator and adapts sequential regression models (models 2 and 3) to examine whether government subsidies have an intermediary influence on the impact of environmental regulation on green technology innovation. Thus, according to Kashdan and Breen (2007) [52], the following models are proposed: ...
Article
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Economic development in the “new era” will require green innovation. To encourage the growth of green technology innovation, it has become fashionable to strengthen environmental regulation. However, the impact of environmental regulation on green technology innovation, as well as the role of government subsidies, needs to be examined. Utilizing fixed-effect models and 2SLS models to explore the impact of environmental regulation on green technology innovation in China from 2003 to 2017, this research sought to examine whether environmental regulations impact green technology innovation, as well as the role of government subsidies in the above-mentioned influence path. The findings support the Porter Hypothesis by demonstrating an inverted “U” relationship between environmental regulation and green technology innovation. The impact of environmental regulation on green technology innovation varies by region. To be specific, there is an inverted “U” relationship between environmental regulation and green technology innovation in China’s central and central coast regions. In comparison, the north area, southern coast, and southwest region exhibit a “U” relationship between the two. The relationship is not significant in the Beijing-Tianjin region. Additionally, government subsidies act as an intermediate in this process, positively influencing firms to pursue green technology innovation during the earliest stages of environmental regulation strengthening. However, government subsidies above a certain level are unproductive and should be used appropriately and phased off in due course.
... The reluctance to face unbearable difficulties results in various forms of avoidance or escape behaviour, which might be harmful (Hayes et al., 1996). The propensity to avoid unpleasant thoughts and feelings stems from various psychological and social dysfunctions (Kashdan & Breen, 2007). Chapman et al. suggest that experiential avoidance possibly stems from a lack of emotional regulation skills. ...
... Studies provide empirical evidence of the link between experiential avoidance and materialism. For example, Kashdan and Breen (2007) found that strong materialistic values were positively associated with experiential avoidance, where experiential avoidance mediated an association between materialistic values and diminished emotional well-being. Based on the 'escape from self' theory (Heatherton & Baumeister, 1991), Kashdan and Breen argue that the relationship between materialism and experiential avoidance may be explained by a person's expectation of short-term benefits, which these avoidances' coping strategies may provide -namely feelings of pleasure and relief from psychological pain. ...
Article
Drawing on the escape theory, we propose that emotional intelligence is negatively linked to materialism and compulsive buying. Our research demonstrates that the ability to manage one's emotions is associated with lower levels of materialism and compulsive buying. We also show that materialism functions as the mechanism underlying the emotional intelligence – compulsive buying relationship. Similarly, the ability to understand one's emotions was found to be negatively related to compulsive buying. Contrary to expectations, the path between the understanding of one's emotions and materialism was found to be non-significant, suggesting that the link between emotional intelligence and materialism might not always be direct. As expected, materialism was positively linked to compulsive buying. Our research contributes to the relevant literature with a new antecedent of materialism, namely emotional intelligence.
... However, there is a need to balance between the pursuit of wealth and contentment. Pre-occupation with the pursuit of money, wealth and material possessions often fails as a strategy to increase pleasure, happiness and meaning in life (Froh et al., 2011;Jiang et al., 2019;Kashdan and Breen, 2007). ...
Article
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Purpose The concept of grit has been receiving increased attention in recent years. Grit is a trait that enables individuals to persevere while facing challenges and obstacles in life, sometimes “winning at any cost”. The purpose of the study is to understand how ethical views may vary among different groups of people segmented on grittiness. Our key argument is that grittier segment is more inclined towards Machiavellian factors (amorality, desire for control, desire for status, distrust of others) and materialism. Design/methodology/approach Data derived from self-administered questionnaires completed by convenience samples of Indonesians living in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY), a region commonly considered as the miniature of Indonesia. Turning to market segmentation tools ( n = 467), we first segment people based on their level of grittiness and, subsequently, investigate each segment's perception towards various Machiavellian factors (amorality, desire for control, distrust of others) and materialistic attitudes. Findings The study identified three segments of grittiness: The Least Gritty (the Good), The More Gritty (the Bad) and The Most Gritty (the Ugly). The results of this study showed the dark side of grit. Individuals with higher grit traits are more likely to behave unethically which could be referred to as “bad” and “ugly”. To help them succeed, cheating and lying are more likely considered acceptable by gritty individuals compared to less gritty “good” individuals. Practical implications Merely focussing on grit–be it grit promotion or training–may produce individuals who achieve success at all costs and disregard ethical values. An implication from the study is not to discourage developing grit in individuals but instead to add and emphasise ethical components. This implication is especially critical for educators and managers developing grit as a part of their activities. Originality/value The results of this study will have important theoretical implications and managerial implications educators balancing the consequences of teaching grit, but also for managers interested in understanding employees' level of grit within their workplaces along with ethical considerations.
... The MLQ has good reliability and validity among college students in the U.S. and Japan (Steger et al., 2006;Steger et al., 2008). In addition, the Cronbach's α values of the two subscales exceed 0.80, and the MLQ score correlates with many positive and negative (Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Steger et al., 2006;Steger & Kashdan, 2007;Strack, 2007). The Chinese version of the MLQ (C-MLQ; Wang & Dai, 2008) was used in this study. ...
Article
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The Purpose in Life test (PIL) is the best-known measure of meaning in life and has attracted widespread attention for decades. The current study aimed to determine the optimal version of the PIL and to investigate its psychometric properties in the Chinese context. This study was conducted with a Chinese college student sample (N = 986) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory (IRT). The results indicated that Morgan and Farsides’ two-factor solution (PIL-10) showed the best fit to the data among all fifteen PIL versions. In addition, the PIL-10 was demonstrated to be a cross-culturally sound measure with good reliability and validity and has high precision over most of the latent trait range. However, the findings from category response curves showed some problematic options in some items. These findings may serve as references for revision of the PIL-10.
... Study results point out that physical pleasures derived out of hedonia are not sufficient for the experience of well-being [61,62,63]. Keyes & Annas [64] pointed out the gulf between individuals with high hedonic wellbeing (48.5%) and their flourishing (18%). ...
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Background: There are hundreds of mindfulness-based interventions in the form of structured and unstructured therapies, trainings, and meditation programs, mostly utilized in a clinical rather than a well-being perspective. The number of empirical studies on positive potentials of mindfulness is comparatively less, and their known status in aca-demia is ambiguous. Hence, the current paper aimed to review the studies where mindfulness-based interventions had integrated positive psychology variables, in order to produce positive functioning. Methods: Data were obtained from the databases of PubMed, Scopus, and PsycNet and manual search in Google Scholar. From the 3831 articles, irrelevant or inaccessible studies were eliminated, reducing the number of final articles chosen for review to 21. Interventions that contribute to enhancement of eudaimonia, hedonia, and other positive variables are discussed. Results: Findings include the potential positive qualities of MBIs in producing specific positive outcomes within limited circumstances, and ascendancy of hedonia and other positive variables over eudaimonic enhancement. Conclusion: In conclusion, exigency of modifications in the existing MBIs to bring about exclusively positive outcomes was identified, and observed the necessity of novel interventions for eudaimonic enhancement and elevation of hedonia in a comprehensive manner.
... A body of research has linked materialistic values to a tendency to use self-regulatory resources in ways similar to the avoidance strategies that have been implicated in hindering flow. Kashdan and Breen (2007) reported a positive relationship between materialistic values and experiential avoidance, which involves an unwillingness to be in contact with negative thoughts, feelings, or situations. Materialistic values have also been associated with a desire not to appear vulnerable in front of others (Christopher et al., 2005), a preference for avoidant coping strategies (e.g. ...
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Aims: Research has shown that the possession of materialistic values can lead individuals to be less likely to experience flow, an important component of well-being. In this research, we test whether a lack of self-regulatory resources, and a tendency to use self-regulatory resources for avoidance purposes, can mediate this relationship. Methods: A representative sample of 2000 adults in the UK completed an online survey. Results were analysed using structural equation modelling. Results: Materialistic values were related to a heightened tendency to dedicate self-regulatory resources towards the avoidance of negative states, which in turn was linked to lower levels of self-regulatory strength. Low levels of self-regulatory strength were related to a reduced tendency to experience flow. Discussion: The findings provide new insights surrounding the factors and processes that hinder and enhance the creation of flow experiences. In doing so, they suggest suitable routes to promoting flow experiences in materialistic individuals, which in turn should improve their well-being. Conclusions: Reducing the desire to avoid negative experiences could encourage flow experiences by enhancing self-regulatory resources. Future research is needed to test the causal nature of these relationships.
... This capacity to maintain approach-related coping in the face of challenges and threats is protective of positive affect, whereas avoidance strivings tend to be debilitating for hedonic well-being (Coats et al., 1996;Elliot et al., 1997Elliot et al., , 2011. Indeed, life satisfaction tends to be buffeted by bottom-up influences (Heller et al., 2004), and at least in some cases, can be rather unstable (Fujita and Diener, 2005), perhaps due to individual differences related to defensive or avoidance goal-striving and/or experiential avoidance (Kashdan and Breen, 2007;Van Dijk et al., 2012). A joyful disposition may be protective of life satisfaction and positive affectivity, perhaps by buffering the negative impact of life events through approach-oriented coping rather than avoidant or defensive coping. ...
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In the midst of a global pandemic, psychology has a duty to identify dispositional or character traits that can be cultivated in citizens in order to create resiliency in the face of profound losses, suffering and distress. Dispositional joy holds some promise as such a trait that could be especially important for well-being during the current pandemic and its consequences. The concept of the Joyful Life may operate as bridge between positive psychology and humanistic, existential, and spiritual views of the good life, by integrating hedonic, prudential, eudaimonic and chaironic visions of the good life. Previous phenomenological research on state joy suggests that momentary states of joy may have features that overlap with happiness but go beyond mere hedonic interests, and point to the experience of a life oriented toward virtue and a sense of the transcendent or the sacred. However, qualitative research on the Joyful Life, or dispositional joy, is sorely lacking. This study utilized a dialogical phenomenological analysis to conduct a group-based analysis of 17 volunteer students, who produced 51 autobiographical narrative descriptions of the joyful life. The dialogical analyses were assisted by integration of the Imagery in Movement Method, which incorporated expressive drawing and psychodrama as an aid to explicate implicit themes in the experiences of the participants. The analyses yielded ten invariant themes found across the autobiographical narrative descriptions: Being broken, being grounded, being centered, breaking open, being uplifted, being supertemporal, being open to the mystery, being grateful, opening up and out, and being together. The descriptions of a Joyful Life were consistent with a meaning orientation to happiness, due to their emphasis on the cultivation of virtue in the service of a higher calling, the realization of which was felt to be a gift or blessing. The discussion examines implications for future research, including the current relevance of a joyful disposition during a global pandemic. Due to the joyful disposition’s tendency to transform suffering and tragedy into meaning, and its theme of an orientation to prosocial motivations, the Joyful Life may occupy a central place in the study of resiliency and personal growth in response to personal and collective trauma such as COVID-19.
... However, many theorists would argue that consumption is compensatory for different types of existential loss, may it be of meaning or identity (Soper, 2008). In fact, previous research suggests that the pursuit of material possessions fails as a strategy to increase pleasure, well-being or meaning of life (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Lee & Ahn, 2016). ...
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Previous research has shown that Western visual journalism has represented climate change through certain repetitive and stereotypical imagery mainly consisting of catastrophic images of climate change impacts, images depicting technological causes and solutions, and images of politicians and activists. This imagery has proven to be distant, abstract, and ineffective in motivating personal engagement with climate change. In this article, we claim that visual journalism's representations of climate change are rooted in the consensual frameworks of human-centredness and consumption-centredness. Leaning on Jacques Ranciére's notion of “the politics of aesthetics”, we aim to challenge these frameworks. We suggest, with examples from visual arts, four aesthetic practices which could intervene in these frameworks: 1) revealing connectedness, 2) recognising agency, 3) compromising the attractions of consumerism, and 4) illuminating alternatives. We propose that visual representations, renewed through these aesthetic practices, could have an effect on how people connect to climate issues and imagine possibilities for agency in the climate crisis. Implementing these aesthetic practices would entail shifts in the sphere of visual journalism.
... Having: Capitalism is based on the dogma that people cannot and must not ever be satisfied. In a sense, the tenet holds true, because a life guided by material wants and oriented to excessive having is bound to be a dissatisfied one (e.g., Kashdan and Breen 2007;Kasser 2002;Solberg et al. 2004). By contrast, fulfilling one's needs of existential Having can be as well meaningful as pleasurable. ...
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The current ecological crisis attests that the price of the human pursuit of well-being has been too high and that the conception of well-being behind this pursuit has been flawed. Building on research on sustainable well-being, well-being research in sociology, social policy, psychology, and philosophy; need theories, degrowth research, and ecopsychology, this article investigates what kind of narrative and conception of well-being could contribute to the transformation toward sustainability. The article first delves into the current popularity of the discourse on well-being, discussing both its pitfalls and promises, and explaining why well-being is a significant concept for the sustainability transformation, when appropriately defined and free of an economic bias. A relational, and therefore sustainable, approach to well-being, namely the Having-Loving-Doing-Being framework (shortened HDLB), is then presented and elaborated. Going deeper into the topic of relationality, the article then examines the tug-of-war between the notions of objective vs. subjective and hedonic vs. eudaimonic well-being, and clarifies the HDLB framework’s position on these issues, elucidating why a radically relational and nature-inclusive – and in the last resort, non-dualist – approach, offers an exit from the polarity of these dichotomies.
... An orientation towards the having mode of living is in line with the concept of materialism, which is "endorsement of values, goals, and associated beliefs that center on the importance of acquiring money and possessions that convey status" (Dittmar, Bond, Hurst, & Kasser, 2014, p. 880). In modern society, under the influence of materialism, the belief that material affluence determines success and happiness has been developed and encouraged (Derber, 2000;Kashdan & Breen, 2007). However, the having mode of living determined by the achievement of external rewards or social recognition can detract oneself from one's well-being (Fromm, 1976). ...
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With the belief that extrinsic success is the key to happiness, Koreans persistently strive for extrinsically successful lives to the detriment of their well-being. Nevertheless, recent concerns as to the low level of well-being in Korea have led to questions about the pursuit of success. This doctoral dissertation examined (a) the levels of extrinsic-intrinsic success beliefs and subjective and psychological well-being and (b) how extrinsic-intrinsic success beliefs and Korean and/or New Zealand identity influence well-being in two different cultures (i.e., Korea and New Zealand). In Study One, interviews and Q-sort activities conducted with 20 Koreans and European New Zealanders (Pākehā) in Korea and New Zealand showed that the cultural and personal standards of success in Korea were more extrinsically focused and less diverse than those in New Zealand. In Study Two, a new success belief measure with 12 different success indicators was developed. In Study Three, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted with a total of 3,714 Korean and Pākehā from three groups (i.e., Koreans in Korea, Koreans in New Zealand, and Pākehā in New Zealand). This study confirmed the validity of the measurement models for success, identity, and well-being with confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modelling revealed the positive impact of intrinsic success beliefs and the negative or zero impact of extrinsic success on both types of well-being across the three comparison groups. Also identified were separate models for how Korean and/or New Zealand identity and success importance factors explained variance in their well-being. This thesis shows that differences in individuals’ success beliefs are associated with differences in cultural context and that success beliefs and identity influence subjective and psychological well-being.
... Тази Его-защитна функция на материализма може да се наблюдава именно като психодинамичен процес при хора със занижено самоуважение, които в дългосрочна перспектива имат и проблеми със субективното си благополучие, моралната устойчивост и удовлетвореността си от живота си (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002;Kasser et al., 2014;Diener et al., 1995;Schimmack & Diener, 2003). Свръхангажирането с материалистични цели може да служи като динамична система от психични защити срещу негативни-те емоции, като срама, вината, угризенията на съвестта, самокритичността, тревожността и депресивната симптоматика (Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Kashdan & Breen, 2007), която обаче в дългосрочен план потиска и много от положителните емоции и социални отношения, разстройва социализацията и води до хронична неудовлетвореност от себе си и собствения живот (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2002;Christopher et al., 2007;Jiang et al., 2015). В това отношение психодинамичната теория за склонността към корупция допринася за обогатяване на знанията ни за корупционните предразположености с разкриването на факта, че нарастването на материализма няма трайно положително влияние върху самоуважението. ...
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Abstract: In clinical practice, there is a need for a search for shortened, reduced forms of methodologies that have sufficient internal consistency indicators, while not excessively aggravating the specific process of clinical psychological research. The purpose of this report is to present data from a short battery study for intelligence research in children with mental and behavioral disorders - a clinical sample. The necessity of such a methodology stems from the practical aspects of the clinical and psychological research, where a large number of the standardized methodologies prove to be unusable. The sample was formed by 489 children who passed through the Children's and Adolescent psychiatric Clinic at St. Marina-Varna Hospital for a period of nine years (2010-2018). Data on internal consistency of the scale, external validity, correlation between sub-tests are presented.
... Hedonic wellbeing instead links to self-centered valuessuch as fun and enjoymentthat lead to pleasure-oriented behaviors that are far from ethical consumption behaviors, which often require time and effort reducing personal convenience. Furthermore, other research has shown that materialism, the belief that acquisition and possession of material objects are the ultimate source of happiness and life satisfaction (Richins & Dawson, 1992), is related to hedonism (O'Shaughnessy & O'Shaughnessy, 2002;Kashdan & Breen 2007); while on the contrary, anti-consumption, as the voluntary choice to reject, reduce, or reclaim certain goods or brands for ethical reasons (Lee et al. 2011), is associated with consumer well-being (Lee & Ahn, 2016) in its eudaimonic meaning. The eudaimonic well-being may lead to higher willingness to adopt sustainable consumption practices, which concern also anti-consumeristic choices (Lee & Ahn, 2016), in order to maintain and feed this positive state of being. ...
Conference Paper
This study aims to determine which elements drive consumers' sustainable consumption practices related to fashion products (SCP-FP). To this end, we applied the Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB) framed in the consumer psychological well-being perspective. Results show that consumers with different levels of well-being develop differential paths to SCP-FP. Abstract (ITA) Questo studio mira a comprendere quali elementi sostengono pratiche di consumo sostenibile in ambito fashion. A tal fine viene applicato lo schema interpretativo fornito dal Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB), collocato all'interno della prospettiva di benessere del consumatore (psychological well-being). I risultati mostrano che consumatori con diversi livelli di benessere sviluppano percorsi differenziati verso pratiche di consumo sostenibile in ambito fashion.
... Meaningfulness predicts objective as well as subjective physical health [33] and risk of death [e.g., 34,35]. A lack of meaning, on the other hand, is experienced as highly distressing [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. Gale (2011) [45] reported that chronic pain patients with higher meaningfulness had a lower suicide risk, and the availability of reasons for living was negatively associated with suicidality. ...
Article
Objective Although considered the first-line psychological treatment of chronic pain, cognitive behavioural therapy has recently been criticized as being too limited, insufficient, and sometimes ineffective in the treatment of chronic pain patients. Moreover, important existential perspectives are sparsely or not at all integrated into CBT. We therefore propose to complement chronic pain treatment with a meaning-based intervention, the Sources of Meaning Card Method (SoMeCaM). This study tested its efficacy. Design A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 chronic pain patients, comparing an intervention group (standard care and participation in the SoMeCaM, a meaning-oriented approach) with a control group (standard care). We evaluated both groups at baseline, 1 (t1) and 2 months (t2) after the intervention. The primary outcome assessed was pain acceptance, while depression, anxiety, pain intensity, pain medication, satisfaction with life, meaningfulness, and crisis of meaning were examined as secondary outcomes. Results Comparisons within and between groups showed significant treatment effects at t1. Higher increases in pain acceptance and decreases in anxiety, depression and crisis of meaning were observed in the intervention group. Improvements in pain acceptance and anxiety persisted until t2, when pain intensity was also lower. Effect sizes at t2 were medium to large. Conclusion Our preliminary work demonstrates the importance of the existential perspective in chronic pain therapy.
... Hedonic wellbeing instead links to self-centered valuessuch as fun and enjoymentthat lead to pleasure-oriented behaviors that are far from ethical consumption behaviors, which often require time and effort reducing personal convenience. Furthermore, other research has shown that materialism, the belief that acquisition and possession of material objects are the ultimate source of happiness and life satisfaction (Richins & Dawson, 1992), is related to hedonism (O'Shaughnessy & O'Shaughnessy, 2002;Kashdan & Breen 2007); while on the contrary, anti-consumption, as the voluntary choice to reject, reduce, or reclaim certain goods or brands for ethical reasons (Lee et al. 2011), is associated with consumer well-being (Lee & Ahn, 2016) in its eudaimonic meaning. The eudaimonic well-being may lead to higher willingness to adopt sustainable consumption practices, which concern also anti-consumeristic choices (Lee & Ahn, 2016), in order to maintain and feed this positive state of being. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims to determine which elements drive consumers' sustainable consumption practices related to fashion products (SCP-FP). To this end, we applied the Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB) framed in the consumer psychological well-being perspective. Results show that consumers with different levels of well-being develop differential paths to SCP-FP. Abstract (ITA) Questo studio mira a comprendere quali elementi sostengono pratiche di consumo sostenibile in ambito fashion. A tal fine viene applicato lo schema interpretativo fornito dal Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB), collocato all'interno della prospettiva di benessere del consumatore (psychological well-being). I risultati mostrano che consumatori con diversi livelli di benessere sviluppano percorsi differenziati verso pratiche di consumo sostenibile in ambito fashion.
... A large body of research has been carried out on effects of the central factor of SOC, meaning in life. These studies suggest that meaning in life activates a variety of psychological processes that are helpful for a successful coping with stressful life events and problems, such as better selfregulation skills, higher hopefulness and optimism, as well as experiences of competence, self-determination, and social integration [76][77][78][79]. ...
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Background This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study examined associations between sense of coherence (SOC), mental well-being, and perceived preoperative hospital and surgery related stress of surgical patients with malignant, benign, and no neoplasms. The objective was to assess a putative association between SOC and preoperative stress, and to test for a statistical mediation by mental well-being. Method The sample consisted of 4918 patients from diverse surgical fields, of which 945 had malignant neoplasms, 333 benign neoplasms, and 3640 no neoplasms. For each subsample, we conducted simple mediation analyses to test an indirect effect of SOC on preoperative stress mediated by mental well-being. The models were adjusted for age, gender, and essential medical factors. Results Patient groups did not differ significantly regarding degrees of SOC and mental well-being (SOC, M [SD]: 12.31 [2.59], 12.02 [2.62], 12.18 [2.57]; mental well-being M [SD]: 59.26 [24.05], 56.89 [22.67], 57.31 [22.87], in patients with malignant, benign, and without neoplasms, respectively). Patients without neoplasms reported significantly lower stress (4.19 [2.86], M [SD]) than those with benign (5.02 [3.03], M [SD]) and malignant neoplasms (4.99 [2.93], M [SD]). In all three mediation models, SOC had significant direct effects on stress, with higher SOC being associated with lower stress (− 0.3170 [0.0407], − 0.3484 [0.0752], − 0.2919 [0.0206]; c’ [SE], p < 0.001 in patients with malignant, benign, and without neoplasms, respectively). In patients with malignant neoplasms and without neoplasms, SOC showed small indirect effects on stress that were statistically mediated by well-being. Higher SOC was related to higher well-being, which in turn was related to lower stress. In patients with benign neoplasms, however, no significant indirect effects of SOC were found. Conclusions SOC was directly associated with lower perceived hospital and surgery related stress, over and above the direct and mediation effects of mental well-being. Because the data are cross-sectional, conclusions implying causality cannot be drawn. Nevertheless, they indicate important relationships that can inform treatment approaches to reduce elevated preoperative stress by specifically addressing low SOC. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01357694. Registered 18 May 2011
... Most prominently, materialism is associated with a decrease in well-being (Dittmar et al. 2014;Kasser et al. 2014), and one reason for this negative correlation is that materialists find it hard to be grateful for what they already have (Tsang et al. 2014). Additionally, materialistic values are negatively associated with the presence of meaning in one's life (Kashdan and Breen 2007), and positively associated with feelings of loneliness (Pieters 2013), insecurity (Kasser and Sheldon 2000) and low self-esteem (Chaplin and John 2007). This can be seen when people are asleep: those high in materialism dream more about interpersonal conflicts and insecure themes (e.g. ...
Chapter
Consumerism is a socioeconomic phenomenon that has redefined societies. Values, beliefs, habits, and everyday situations have changed people and their lifestyles, thereby shaping the contemporary consumer. The importance of acquiring and possessing material objects has emerged as the main value of the consumer society, leading to the belief that possessions can make us happy. Composed of processes that makes it endure and prosper, the power of consumerism in our daily lives is best observed during sales events, such as Black Friday, when the opportunity to buy at a greater cost-benefit causes commotion and when overconsumption is common. A buying frenzy can lead to impulsive and, in the worst cases, compulsive behaviours. However, the relationship between subjective well-being and buying is dependent on different variables, such as what is being bought, and who is buying. Since consumption is filled with symbolic meaning, buying behaviour goes well beyond the tangible aspects, also incorporating the intangible aspects, thus showing the importance of experiential and green consumption. Despite the predominance of consumerism, anti-consumerism movements have emerged as a counter-culture wave of consumption, bringing more awareness of consumers’ behaviour, offering alternatives for the consumption lifestyle, and encouraging reflection on the benefits and harm of consumerism.
... Κατά τη βαθμολόγηση της κλίμακας υπολογίζεται το άθροισμα των επιμέρους απαντήσεων. Αν και προηγούμενες αναλύσεις έδειξαν καλή αξιοπιστία εσωτερικής συνέπειας (Kashdan & Breen, 2007, McCullough, Emmons & Tsang, 2002, στη παρούσα έρευνα ο δείκτης Cronbach's alpha ήταν 0,56, τιμή η οποία είναι κάτω του ορίου 0,7. Συνεπώς αφαιρέθηκαν δύο ερωτήσεις, η 3η και η 6η, οι οποίες επηρέαζαν τη παραπάνω χαμηλή τιμή με αποτέλεσμα ο συντελεστής αξιοπιστίας εσωτερικής συνέπειας της κλίμακας (Cronbach's α) να αυξηθεί στο 0,85. ...
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Περίληψη Οι επαγγελματικές διαδρομές των εφήβων δεν είναι πλέον γραμμικές. Στη σύγχρονη εποχή η επιτυχία στη σταδιοδρομία στηρίζεται –πέρα από την τεχνική γνώση–σε επιπρόσθετα θετικά χαρακτηριστικά ή δυνάμεις, τα οποία οι έφηβοι καλούνται να αναπτύξουν, προκειμένου να ανταποκριθούν στις ανάγκες που διαμορφώνονται στην αγορά εργασίας. Στο παρόν άρθρο παρουσιάζεται η σχέση των θετικών ψυχοκοινωνικών δυνάμεων (μελλοντικός οραματισμός, ψυχική ανθεκτικότητα, ευγνωμοσύνη και ψυχολογική ευεξία) με τη διερεύνηση σταδιοδρομίας. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας έδειξαν ότιοι θετικές ψυχοκοινωνικές δυνάμεις αποτελούν προβλεπτικό παράγοντα στην υποκειμενική άποψη των εφήβων σχετικά με το μέλλον και την υποκειμενική αίσθηση ευεξίας τους. Τα αποτελέσματα συζητούνται στο πλαίσιο του επαγγελματικού προσανατολισμού υποστηρίζοντας ότι οι θετικές ψυχοκοινωνικές πηγές επηρεάζουν την ικανότητα σχεδιασμού του επαγγελματικού μέλλοντος των εφήβων ενισχύοντας τη διερεύνηση της επαγγελματικής τους πορείας, με περισσότερη ικανοποίηση. Λέξεις κλειδιά:ψυχοκοινωνικές δυνάμεις, επαγγελματική ανάπτυξη, διερεύνηση σταδιοδρομίας, σχολικό περιβάλλον, επαγγελματικός προσανατολισμός Enhancing positive behaviors in adolescents' careers: the importance of psychosocial strengths for career counseling and career guidance Abstract Adolescents' careers are no longer linear. In modern times, career success is based, besides technical knowledge - on additional positive characteristics or strengths that adolescents are should develop in order to meet the needs of the labor market. This article presents the relationship between positive psychosocial strengths (future orientation, resilience, gratitude and psychological well-being) and career research. The results showed that positive psychosocial strengths are a predictor of adolescents' subjective view of their future and their subjective sense of well-being. The results are discussed in the context of career counseling arguing that positive psychosocial strengths affect the ability to plan the professional future of adolescents by enhancing the exploration of their career path.Implications for counseling interventions are also discussed. Λέξειςκλειδιά:psychosocial strengths (future orientation, resilience, gratitude and psychological well-being), career development, career counseling.
... Κατά τη βαθμολόγηση της κλίμακας υπολογίζεται το άθροισμα των επιμέρους απαντήσεων. Αν και προηγούμενες αναλύσεις έδειξαν καλή αξιοπιστία εσωτερικής συνέπειας (Kashdan & Breen, 2007, McCullough, Emmons & Tsang, 2002, στη παρούσα έρευνα ο δείκτης Cronbach's alpha ήταν 0,56, τιμή η οποία είναι κάτω του ορίου 0,7. Συνεπώς αφαιρέθηκαν δύο ερωτήσεις, η 3η και η 6η, οι οποίες επηρέαζαν τη παραπάνω χαμηλή τιμή με αποτέλεσμα ο συντελεστής αξιοπιστίας εσωτερικής συνέπειας της κλίμακας (Cronbach's α) να αυξηθεί στο 0,85. ...
Article
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Οι επαγγελματικές διαδρομές των εφήβων δεν είναι πλέον γραμμικές. Στη σύγχρονη εποχή η επιτυχία στη σταδιοδρομία στηρίζεται –πέρα από την τεχνική γνώση–σε επιπρόσθετα θετικά χαρακτηριστικά ή δυνάμεις, τα οποία οι έφηβοι/ες καλούνται να αναπτύξουν, προκειμένου να ανταποκριθούν στις ανάγκες που διαμορφώνονται στην αγορά εργασίας. Στο παρόν άρθρο παρουσιάζεται η σχέση των θετικών ψυχοκοινωνικών δυνάμεων (μελλοντικός οραματισμός, ψυχική ανθεκτικότητα, ευγνωμοσύνη και ψυχολογική ευεξία) με τη διερεύνηση σταδιοδρομίας. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας έδειξαν ότι οι θετικές ψυχοκοινωνικές δυνάμεις αποτελούν προβλεπτικό παράγοντα στην υποκειμενική άποψη των εφήβων σχετικά με το μέλλον και την υποκειμενική αίσθηση ευεξίας τους. Τα αποτελέσματα συζητούνται στο πλαίσιο του επαγγελματικού προσανατολισμού και της συμβουλευτικής σταδιοδρομίας.
... A long terme, un intérêt prépondérant pour les plaisirs hédonistes favoriserait même l'insatisfaction et la dépression (Seligman, 2003). Plus précisément, c'est lorsque la satisfaction est motivée par l'évitement à court terme d'expériences psychologiques jugées désagréables qu'elle peut conduire à une détérioration de la santé mentale (Kashdan et Breen, 2007 ;Monestès et Villatte, 2011). ...
Thesis
Contexte : La qualité de vie (QdV) des personnes autistes devrait être la cible ultime des interventions. Cette thématique de recherche reste peu développée, particulièrement chez les enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire.Objectifs : Cette étude vise à (a) développer un module adapté aux enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire destiné à être passé avec l’échelle de QdV Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0, version 2-4 ans), (b) évaluer les qualités métrologiques du PedsQLTM 4.0 (version 2-4 ans), dont la traduction française n’a pas été validée, et du module « autisme », et c) explorer les facteurs pouvant influencer la QdV des enfants autistes de ce groupe d’âge. Méthodes : Dix adultes autistes verbaux ont participé à un entretien semi-directif questionnant les critères qu’ils estimaient importants pour que leur vie soit satisfaisante lorsqu’ils étaient enfants. Une analyse de contenu thématique a fourni une première banque d’items pour le module « autisme ». Celle-ci a ensuite été évaluée par un panel d’experts et pré-testée auprès de dix parents d’enfants autistes. 279 parents d’enfants au développement typique d’âge préscolaire ont complété le PedsQLTM 4.0, et 157 parents d’enfants autistes du même âge ont rempli le PedsQLTM 4.0 ainsi que le module « autisme ». L’âge et le genre du parent participant et de leur enfant, l’état civil, le niveau d’éducation et la profession du parent, le lieu de résidence et la composition de la fratrie ont été récoltés auprès des deux échantillons. Le niveau de flexibilité psychologique des parents d’enfants autistes, ainsi que le tempérament de leur enfant ont été respectivement mesurés à l’aide du questionnaire d’acceptation et d’action (AAQ-II) et de l’outil « Émotivité, Activité et Sociabilité » (EAS).Résultats : L’analyse de contenu des entretiens a révélé quatre thèmes majeurs : intérêts, régularité de l’environnement, perception sensorielle et relations sociales. Ce dernier a été subdivisé en deux thèmes (interactions sociales et communication) et une première banque de 44 items découpés en cinq dimensions a pu être constituée. Suite à l’évaluation du panel d’experts et au pré-test, les 27 items retenus constituent le module opérationnel d’évaluation de la QdV adaptée à l’enfant autiste d’âge préscolaire perçue par le parent, et s’utilise conjointement avec le PedsQLTM 4.0 (version 2-4 ans). L’étude psychométrique (a) a montré que le PedsQLTM 4.0 pouvait être utilisé de façon fiable auprès des enfants français autistes ou ayant un développement typique, (b) a conduit à remanier la version opérationnelle du module « autisme » constitué en définitive de 24 items répartis en trois dimensions. L’analyse des facteurs a principalement révélé que la QdV des enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire est associée négativement à son émotivité, cette relation étant influencée par la flexibilité psychologique du parent.Conclusion : Cette étude renseigne sur la QdV des enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire. Elle fournit un outil de mesure de la QdV adaptée à cette population. Celui-ci pourra être utilisé par les cliniciens pour évaluer les interventions précoces qu’ils mettent en œuvre. Enfin, les résultats de cette recherche permettent de mieux comprendre les facteurs d’influence de la QdV des jeunes enfants autistes, en ouvrant notamment des pistes d’intervention auprès de leurs parents.
... Evidence has suggested that physical well-being is negatively associated with materialistic values. A materialistic individual prioritizes satisfaction with possessions for personal success and often looks down on their physical and psychological well-being [69]. They are more likely to engage in risky health behaviors such as smoking or drinking alcohol [70]. ...
Article
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LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) describes an emerging lifestyle that is defined by attention to health, well-being, and environmental sustainability. Discussions of the LOHAS lifestyle have moved faster than any of the research to support it. Originally developed in South Korea, it has been picked up in the U.S. and other cultures worldwide. However, researchers have proceeded as if one scale fits all. The implications of LOHAS can only proceed if there is a reliable and valid measure for LOHAS and empirical evidence that the scale is effective for diverse groups. The current research focuses on the development of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale to measure the multi-dimensional nature of LOHAS. By following generally accepted scale development procedures, a LOHAS scale is created and tested for its reliability, dimensionality, construct, and nomological validity. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications are outlined.
... Importantly, gratitude is associated with the improvement of various mental health parameters beyond the influence of the Big Five traits (Wood et al., 2009), being a unique personality trait (Wood, Maltby, Stewart, et al., 2008). Gratitude is negatively correlated with social anxiety and depression (Kashdan & Breen, 2007) and positively correlated with mental well-being (Watkins et al., 2003), positive affect and physical health (Emmons & McCullough, 2003) and the value perception of the trauma (Ruini & Vescovelli, 2013). It is also positively correlated with happiness (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). ...
Preprint
Introduction: Gratitude is known to have beneficial effects on the well-being of various populations, including women with breast cancer. The present diary study examined if daily feelings of gratitude would affect the daily functioning of women with breast cancer and if after a 2-week-long gratitude intervention they would function better than before it.Methods: Participants were 62 women with breast cancer. Half of them were randomly assigned to the gratitude condition, half to the control condition. All of them completed a 14-day diary that measured their daily gratitude, well-being, affect, satisfaction with life, perceived social support, and other aspects of daily functioning. The gratitude group took part in an intervention that involved wearing a smartwatch that asked them what they were grateful for, three times a day for 14 days. The control group wore smartwatches that sent neutral notifications. Before and after the study, participants completed a set of trait-level scales that measured their dispositional gratitude, depression, anxiety, stress coping styles, and other correlates of gratitude.Results: Daily gratitude was positively correlated with all aspects of good daily functioning (e.g., positive affect, well-being, acceptance of illness), and negatively with negative affect – regardless of the study condition. There were no significant differences in the functioning of women in the gratitude intervention and the control group, besides in daily perceived social support: women who practiced gratitude felt more supported by others on an everyday basis. All participants had a higher level of acceptance of illness and a lower level of anxiety after the study, compared to their baseline scores.Conclusion: We found that daily feelings of gratitude were associated with the good functioning of the patients in everyday life. Keeping a two-week diary that involved self-monitoring of one’s mood and well-being led to better functioning after the study, compared to the initial levels. Yet, research into the effectiveness of gratitude interventions in this population should continue and we conclude the paper with suggestions for future research. We believe this study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms behind a breast cancer patient’s daily functioning.
... Research and lay beliefs alike suggest that intrinsic pursuits foster meaning whereas extrinsic pursuits undermine meaning [5*, 25,26]. Purchases are often considered extrinsic, and this assumption may hinder the well-being that people can gain from consumption since many believe that extrinsic pursuits come at the cost of intrinsic pursuits [27]. ...
Article
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People seek meaning in the marketplace, but can meaning be bought? We review emerging evidence and suggest that the typical association between meaning and well-being is weakened in consumption contexts. We outline two lay beliefs that help explain this gap: the belief that purchases are extrinsic pursuits whereas meaning should come from intrinsic pursuits, and the belief that purchases are impure sources of meaning because companies profit at the expense of people. This conceptual model suggests three paths to enhance meaning and well-being through consumption: reframe purchases as intrinsically rewarding, change (erroneous) lay theories that profit necessarily comes at the expense of the social good, or highlight the future, enduring benefits of consumption.
... Supporting this claim, experimental research has found that manipulations of self-doubt and self-esteem lead to higher levels of materialism (Chan & Arkin, 2002;Chaplin & John, 2007). Furthermore, materialism has been associated with higher social interaction anxiety (Kashdan & Breen, 2007), and with higher peer rejection in both children (Banerjee & Dittmar, 2008) and adult populations (Jiang, Zhang, Ke, Hawk, & Qiu, 2015). Along the same lines, longitudinal research suggests that loneliness leads to higher materialism, which ironically also results in higher loneliness (Pieters, 2013). ...
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has led to an increase in the factors that typically facilitate the endorsement of materialistic values (e.g., higher media consumption, stress and anxiety, loneliness, death anxiety, and lower moods). In this paper, we examine how contextual changes affecting the antecedents of materialism influence its advocacy with a mixed‐method approach. First, a correlational study (Study 1) suggests that increases in media consumption and stress and anxiety during the pandemic predicted current levels of materialism, however, these effects were limited. Second, contrary to our expectations, a longitudinal study (Study 2) shows that people's focus on money decreased during the pandemic. Last, a social media content analysis (Study 3) reveals a downward trend in users’ online discourses about consumption‐related behaviors, but an upward trend in brands promoting spending as a way to attain well‐being. The observed effects could fuel deeper societal change in the labor market and in consumer behavior, and have further implications for individual and societal well‐being in a post‐pandemic world. We recommend future interventions aimed at diminishing materialistic attitudes to examine the effects of decreasing media consumption and to explore how other factors introduced by the pandemic (e.g., a health or well‐being focus) might moderate its advocacy.
... Nevertheless, the affective part of subjective well-being has not been investigated as much. Some authors emphasize that materialists' negative feelings lead to lower self-esteem, workaholism, stress, depression and anxiety (Christopher and Schlenker, 2004;Christopher et al., 2009;Kashdan and Breen, 2007). In addition, it has been found that materialism is more related to negative affective emotions rather than positive affect. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the relationship between emotional intelligence and materialism by exploring how subjective well-being mediates this link. Design/methodology/approach: Data was collected from surveying 1,000 Lithuanians within random sampling, and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques using SmartPLS were used to analyze the data. Findings: The results show that emotional intelligence not only has a negative indirect effect on materialism but also a positive impact on both dimensions of subjective well-being (satisfaction with life and affect balance). In addition, the findings indicate that both satisfaction with life and affect balance predict a decrease in materialism. Finally, the SEM analyzes show that the path between emotional intelligence and materialism is partially mediated by both satisfaction with life and affect balance. Social implications: The results of this study expand the understanding to what extent and how emotional intelligence is able to assist in adjusting materialistic attitudes, which have become more prevalent with the respective growth of consumerism and consumer culture worldwide. In the light of unsustainable consumption patterns threatening the survival of humankind and nature, the opportunities that could reverse this trend are presented for marketers and policy makers. This study gives insight into the potential pathways for diminishing consumer materialism, which is considered detrimental to subjective well-being and mental health. Originality/value: The relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being has been well documented, as has the link between materialism and subjective well-being. However, the simultaneous examination of the relationship between emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and materialism is lacking. The current study adds to the understanding of materialism not only by examining the effect of under-researched antecedent such as emotional intelligence but also by explaining the underlying mechanism of subjective well-being by which emotional intelligence connects to materialism.
... At the same time, materialistic values have been linked to a tendency to use self-regulatory strength to avoid being in contact with negative thoughts, feelings, or situations. 50,51 Sortheix and Schwartz's 52 adapted version of Schwartz's 53 circumplex value structure represents the different types of values that have shown to Personal View group together across cultures (figure 2). Within this structure, materialistic values are said to be strongly related to self-enhancement values and also slightly related to conservation values. ...
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Materialistic values and lifestyles have been associated with detrimental effects on both personal and planetary health. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify activities and lifestyles that both promote human wellbeing and protect ecological wellbeing. In this Personal View, we explore the dynamics of a psychological state known as flow, in which people are shown to experience high levels of wellbeing through involvement in challenging activities that require some level of skill, and can often involve less materially intensive activities. By synthesising the results of a series of experience sampling, survey, and experimental studies, we identify optimal activities that are shown to have low environmental costs and high levels of human wellbeing. We also confirm that materialistic values tend to undermine people's ability to experience a flow state. In seeking to understand the reasons for this negative association between materialism and flow experiences, we are drawn towards a key role for what psychologists call self-regulation. We show, in particular, that the tendency to experience a flow state can be limited when self-regulatory strength is low and when people evade rather than confront negative or undesirable thoughts and situations. We reflect on the implications of these findings for the prospect of sustainable and fulfilling lifestyles.
... An interesting avenue for future research would be to examine whether search for meaning is associated with a higher valuation of choice freedom in general and how this is manifested in various choice domains beyond consumption (interpersonal, professional, educational, etc.). Moreover, it might seem paradoxical at first glance that people search for meaning in consumption, given that materialism is known to be associated with lower well-being and meaning in life (Kashdan and Breen, 2007). But the distinction between presence of meaning and search for meaning is crucial here. ...
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The current research investigates maximizers' responses to restrictions of choice freedom during lockdown in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Having as a starting point the assumption that for maximizers choice is constitutive of identity, this research proposes that maximizing is associated with search for existential meaning in life. In turn, maximizers' propensity to search for meaning is associated with a higher susceptibility to experience reactance when their freedom of choice is restricted, which is further associated with higher engagement in online shopping during lockdown presumably as a means to combat reactance and restore choice freedom. Using the lockdown in spring 2020 as a naturalistic context to study consumer responses to restrictions of choice freedom, results of an online study in Austria support these predictions. These findings advance a view of maximizers as "lay existentialists," who view choice as a meaning-making device that is tightly linked to their sense of identity. As a result, when their choice freedom is threatened, maximizers may respond with higher reactance and engage in restorative actions.
... Coherence is linked to life making sense, orientation is about having goals and aims in life, while significance emphasizes life's inherent values (Martela and Steger, 2016). Previous research has found meaningfulness to be associated with more hopefulness and optimism (Damásio et al., 2013) and higher levels of selfdetermination and social integration (Kashdan and Breen, 2007). Meanwhile, meaningfulness is negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress (Sørensen et al., 2019;Schnell, 2021). ...
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Health-promoting initiatives incorporating meaning-making to enhance the well-being of people in late adulthood are important, particularly as the number of older people is increasing. Resilience and sources of meaning may be related to individuals’ experience of meaningfulness and satisfaction with life. However, few studies have investigated these relations among people in late adulthood. In the present exploratory study, we asked the following questions: What are the differences regarding scores on sources of meaning, resilience, meaningfulness, and satisfaction between people in late adulthood (≥65) and other adults (18–64)? What is the association between sources of meaning and meaningfulness, and between resilience and meaningfulness? What is the association between sources of meaning and satisfaction with life, and between resilience and satisfaction with life? A cross-sectional design was used. A population-based sample of 925 participants (aged 18–91 years) was recruited from the National Population Register in Norway. Of these, 219 participants were 65 years old and older (mean age 73 years). Additionally, sub-analyses for the age-group ≥ 75 (N = 71) were performed. Independent-samples t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA, and linear regressions adjusted for demographics, anxiety, and depression were performed utilizing standardized questionnaires. It was found that people in late adulthood (≥65 years) scored significantly higher on meaningfulness compared to younger adults (18–64). Of the sources of meaning, vertical self-transcendence, including explicit religiosity and spirituality, had the strongest relation to meaningfulness for people in late adulthood, after adjusting for demographics, anxiety, and depression. For the same group, accomplishment, including generativity and unselfish engagement with the surroundings and future generations, also stood out as a prominent source of meaning when related to meaningfulness. No sources of meaning were associated with satisfaction with life in the older group. No associations between resilience and meaningfulness, nor between resilience and satisfaction with life, were found among people in late adulthood. However, positive associations were found between resilience and meaningfulness, as well as between resilience and satisfaction with life, in the 18–64 age group. Longitudinal research and interventional studies are needed to confirm whether the designated sources contribute to meaningfulness in a Norwegian context. The implications of the findings are discussed.
... Another strategy that may decrease MVO is bolstering students' sense of security in themselves, as those who feel threatened are more likely to hold materialistic values (Kasser, 2016) and may also be more defensive to interventions that threaten their sense of identity (Sherman & Cohen, 2006). Avoiding experiences is also linked to materialism (Kashdan & Breen, 2007), whereas mindfulness activities can increase a sense of positive self-concept in adolescents (Schonert-Reichl & Lawlor, 2010). In turn, mindfulness may reduce one's MVO. ...
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Previous research suggests that ruminating on social media content is associated with greater mental distress (Yang et al., 2018). This study examined whether materialistic value orientation (MVO)—prioritizing values and goals related to consumerism, consumption, and social status—predicted social media rumination in a sample of diverse adolescents in a two-wave cross-lagged design. A cross-lagged analysis among 119 adolescents indicated that MVO at Wave 1 predicted greater social media rumination 4 months later at Wave 2, but social media rumination at Wave 1 did not predict MVO at Wave 2. Cross-lagged results suggested that MVO may lead to greater social media rumination over time for diverse adolescents. Adolescents with MVO could benefit from interventions to reduce the effects of their need for external validation and maladaptive rumination, as external validation and maladaptive rumination are linked to behaviors and thoughts that can be harmful to mental health.
Chapter
This chapter presents the results of empirical research on the influence of individual consumer characteristics: age, education, gender, income or lifestyle on the perception of the value of luxury. It also refers to the relationship between status- and demonstration-oriented consumption and imitative and snobbish inclinations. The analysis of the author’s research is preceded by a synthetic presentation of the results of foreign research conducted in this area.
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This paper presents results from a laboratory experiment that draws on insights from economics on different incentives for generosity and insights from social psychology on different personality types. Firstly, we test whether the effect of an appeal to pure altruism versus an appeal to self-interest varies across subjects. We find that there is substantial variation, and this variation is strongly correlated with a subject’s level of materialism. Secondly, we test whether spoken appeals and written appeals have different effects. We find no evidence for such a difference. These results have important implications for charities’ fundraising strategies and for experimental design.
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Objective The present study aims to examine the association between mindfulness and COVID-19 vaccination intention, and the mediating role of presence of meaning in life and moral elevation in such association. Method In a cross-sectional study design, a total of 1733 health care workers (81.1% females, Mage = 34.16 ± 9.03) from four cities in China were recruited and completed an online survey that measured mindfulness, moral elevation, presence of meaning in life and COVID-19 vaccination intention. Results It has been found that 73.1% of the participants reported an intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Mindfulness was positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention; Mediation analyses using structural equation modeling showed a significant indirect effect of mindfulness on COVID-19 vaccination intention, accounting for 42.4% of the total effect. Mindfulness was positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention directly via presence of meaning in life, and indirectly via moral elevation and presence of meaning in life. Conclusions The findings add knowledge of how mindfulness may increase COVID-19 vaccination intention, and underscore the potential need for mindfulness training, positive emotion promotion, presence of meaning in life interventions to improve acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among health care workers.
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This study used latent profile analysis to analyze the subgroups of psychological flexibility (PF) profiles based on key subcomponents of PF in college students, and how the subgroups were related to college adjustment and subjective well-being. A sample of 644 participants from a Chinese vocational college completed the questionnaires online. We found three distinct profiles of PF: high psychological flexibility (HPF), moderate psychological flexibility (MPF), and low psychological flexibility (LPF). College adjustment and subjective well-being were significantly different across the three PF profiles, with HPF individuals adjusting the best to college life and having the highest well-being, whereas LPF individuals adjusted the worst to college life and had the lowest well-being. Moreover, students from rural areas and students with siblings were characterized by LPF. The results of this study provide a new vision for understanding PF in college students using a person-oriented approach.
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A decluttering movement swept cultures around the world in 2019 with the release of a streaming television series based on Marie Kondo’s book “Sparking Joy”. The widespread tidying trend reportedly led to overflowing secondhand markets and landfills. This study examined the impact of the decluttering lifestyle movement to gain understanding of the influences, process, items, and perceived impact of decluttering. An online survey was conducted with 331 female participants from the United States. Findings indicate that awareness of and methods used to declutter are associated with age while motivations are connected to emotional well-being (i.e., joy of letting go). It is suggested that when employing the “KonMari” method of decluttering on a regular basis, this method would contribute to proper care and maintenance of an individual’s wardrobe while increasing positive feelings/emotions. Analysis of an open-ended survey question found that participants reported discarding apparel items they perceived as being of low quality or with poor fit and that apparel was the category of discarded items selected for replacement at the highest level. Interpretation of data identified a gap in the decluttering method regarding responsible disposal tactics.
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Psychological flexibility (PF) and inflexibility (PI), a unified behavioral process-oriented model of human functioning, appear associated with flourishing and suffering, respectively. Despite these well-established broad based associations, little research has identified process-level relations with outcomes of interest while also accounting for process interrelations. The present study aimed to identify structural relations of PF and PI processes and their unique associations with psychiatric symptomology and QOL using network analyses of cross-sectional data provided by undergraduate students (N = 137; Female = 73.72%, White = 90.6%). Results identified six PF and six PI processes that organized into theoretically consistent clusters. Moreover, most PF processes demonstrated unique inverse relations with corresponding PI processes (e.g., cognitive fusion ⟷ defusion). Results also suggested that processes quantitively aligned with the Open, Aware, and Active dyad organizational structure of PF/PI (e.g., Hayes et al., 2011), though substantial relations between dyads were observed. Process-specific associations with psychiatric symptomology and QOL exhibited high variability, and differential associations with outcomes at corresponding PF/PI processes emerged. Overall, results highlight the complexity of PF/PI associations and suggest a need to assess, and account for interrelations of, both PF and PI processes in future research.
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
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The present study describes the development of a short, general measure of experiential avoidance, based on a specific theoretical approach to this process. A theoretically driven iterative exploratory analysis using structural equation modeling on data from a clinical sample yielded a single factor comprising 9 items. A fully confirmatory factor analysis upheld this same 9-item factor in an independent clinical sample. The operational characteristics of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) were then examined in 8 additional samples. All totaled, over 2,400 participants were studied. As expected, higher levels of experiential avoidance were associated with higher levels of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety, a variety of specific fears, trauma, and a lower quality of life. The AAQ related to more specific measures of avoidant coping and to self-deceptive positivity, but the relation to psychopathology could not be fully accounted for by these alternative measures. The data provide some initial support for the model of experiential avoidance based on Relational Frame Theory that is incorporated into Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and provides researchers with a preliminary measure for use in population-based studies on experiential avoidance.
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inconsistent with the intended state. The operating process requires greater cognitive capacity and normally has more pronounced cognitive effects than the monitoring process, and the 2 working together thus promote whatever degree of mental control is enjoyed. Under conditions that reduce capacity, however, the monitoring process may supersede the operating process and thus enhance the person's sensitivity to mental contents that are the ironic opposite of those that are intended.
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An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
Article
Previous research has established an inverse relationship between materialism and psychological well-being (e.g., Belk, 1984). To test the hypothesis that the link between materialism and affect is due in part to an individual's level of self-presentational concern, American college students (N = 297) completed the Richins and Dawson (1992) measure of materialism, the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE), the Social (SAI) and Personal (PAI) Identity Subscales of the Aspects of Identity Questionnaire, and the Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Results indicated that the significant relationship between materialism and negative affect disappeared when FNE or SAI were statistically controlled, and that the significant relationship between materialism and positive affect disappeared when FNE was statistically controlled. Results are discussed in relation to other research that has explored reasons why material ism is related to lower level of psychological well-being.
Article
To examine the images that materialistic people wish to convey, we first asked 177 participants to complete the Richins and Dawson (1992) materialism scale and an adjective checklist that assessed five self-presentational styles. In a subsequent experiment, we primed 210 participants to experience one of five self-presentational styles and asked them to complete a state materialism scale. We expected that materialists would tend to avoid supplication and ingratiation, but would self-promote and intimidate. Across both studies, results supported the supplication and ingratiation hypotheses, but failed to show any link between either self-promotion or intimidation and materialism. We discuss how personal insecurity may be a precursor to materialism. We also discuss future research avenues with respect to probing the interrelationship between materialism, insecurity, and self-presentational considerations.
Article
Empirical research and organismic theories suggest that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards or praise relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals congruent with inherent growth tendencies. In a sample of adult subjects (Study 1), the relative importance and efficacy of extrinsic aspirations for financial success, an appealing appearance, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualization and more physical symptoms. Conversely, the relative importance and efficacy of intrinsic aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling, and physical health were associated with higher well-being and less distress. Study 2 replicated these findings in a college sample and extended them to measures of narcissism and daily affect. Three reasons are discussed as to why extrinsic aspirations relate negatively to well-being, and future research directions are suggested.
Article
The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
Article
People base many decisions on affective forecasts, predictions about their emotional reactions to future events. They often display an impact bias, overestimating the intensity and duration of their emotional reactions to such events. One cause of the impact bias is focalism, the tendency to underestimate the extent to which other events will influence our thoughts and feelings. Another is people's failure to anticipate how quickly they will make sense of things that happen to them in a way that speeds emotional recovery. This is especially true when predicting reactions to negative events: People fail to anticipate how quickly they will cope psychologically with such events in ways that speed their recovery from them. Several implications are discussed, such as the tendency for people to attribute their unexpected resilience to external agents.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1961, Vol 1[1] 1-7). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1962-06728-001.) The healthy psyche is not only an adaptational instrument, but exhibits a tendency to look within for the guiding values and rules to live by. Healthy people show a detachment, independence, and self-governing character which transcends their environment and does not stop with extrapsychic success, but also includes intrapsychic health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The emerging field of emotion regulation studies how individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express them. This review takes an evolutionary perspective and characterizes emotion in terms of response tendencies. Emotion regulation is defined and distinguished from coping, mood regulation, defense, and affect regulation. In the increasingly specialized discipline of psychology, the field of emotion regulation cuts across traditional boundaries and provides common ground. According to a process model of emotion regulation, emotion may be regulated at five points in the emotion generative process: (a) selection of the situation, (b) modification of the situation, (c) deployment of attention, (d) change of cognitions, and (e) modulation of responses. The field of emotion regulation promises new insights into age-old questions about how people manage their emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Interventions based on training in mindfulness skills are becoming increasingly popular. Mindfulness involves intentionally bringing one's attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment, and is often taught through a variety of meditation exercises. This review summarizes conceptual approaches to mind-fulness and empirical research on the utility of mindfulness-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were incorporated to facilitate quantification of findings and comparison across studies. Although the current empirical literature includes many methodological flaws, findings suggest that mindfulness-based interventions may be helpful in the treatment of several disorders. Methodologically sound investigations are recommended in order to clarify the utility of these interventions.
Article
An attempt is made in this paper to establish a foundation for a theory of materialism and quality of life. The theory posits that overall life satisfaction (quality of life) is partly determined by satisfaction with standard of living. Satisfaction with standard of living, in turn, is determined by evaluations of one's actual standard of living compared to a set goal. Materialists experience greater dissatisfaction with their standard of living than nonmaterialists, which in turn spills over to overall life causing dissatisfaction with life in general. Materialists experience dissatisfaction with their standard of living because they set standard of living goals that are inflated and unrealistically high. These goals set by materialists are more influenced by affective-based expectations (such as ideal, deserved, and need-based expectations) than cognitive-based ones (such as predictive, past, and ability based expectations). Materialists' ideal standard-of-living expectations are influenced by social comparisons involving remote referents, more so than comparisons involving standards that are situationally imposed. Examples of situationally-imposed standards are perceptions of wealth, income, and material possessions of family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and so on. In contrast, examples of standards based on remote sources are perceptions of standard of living of others in one's community, town, state, country, other countries; perceptions of standard of living of others based on gender, age, education, ethnicity, occupation, and social class. This tendency to use remote referents in social comparisons may account for materialists' inflated and value-laden expectations of their standard of living. Materialists' deserved standard-of-living expectations are influenced by the tendency to engage in equity comparisons involving income and work. Thus, materialists compare themselves with others that seem to have more income and worked no harder. These equity comparisons generate feelings of inequity, injustice, anger, or envy. These emotions may also account for materialists' inflated and value-laden expectations of their standard of living. Materialists' standard-of-living expectations based on minimum needs are influenced by the tendency to spend more than generate income. This proclivity to overconsume and underproduce may be partly responsible for materialists' inflated and value-laden expectations of their standard of living.
Policy decisions at the organizational, corporate, and governmental levels should be more heavily influenced by issues related to well-being—people's evaluations and feelings about their lives. Domestic policy currently focuses heavily on economic outcomes, although economic indicators omit, and even mislead about, much of what society values. We show that economic indicators have many shortcomings, and that measures of well-being point to important conclusions that are not apparent from economic indicators alone. For example, although economic output has risen steeply over the past decades, there has been no rise in life satisfaction during this period, and there has been a substantial increase in depression and distrust. We argue that economic indicators were extremely important in the early stages of economic development, when the fulfillment of basic needs was the main issue. As societies grow wealthy, however, differences in well-being are less frequently due to income, and are more frequently due to factors such as social relationships and enjoyment at work. Important noneconomic predictors of the average levels of well-being of societies include social capital, democratic governance, and human rights. In the workplace, noneconomic factors influence work satisfaction and profitability. It is therefore important that organizations, as well as nations, monitor the well-being of workers, and take steps to improve it. Assessing the well-being of individuals with mental disorders casts light on policy problems that do not emerge from economic indicators. Mental disorders cause widespread suffering, and their impact is growing, especially in relation to the influence of medical disorders, which is declining. Although many studies now show that the suffering due to mental disorders can be alleviated by treatment, a large proportion of persons with mental disorders go untreated. Thus, a policy imperative is to offer treatment to more people with mental disorders, and more assistance to their caregivers. Supportive, positive social relationships are necessary for well-being. There are data suggesting that well-being leads to good social relationships and does not merely follow from them. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that people suffer when they are ostracized from groups or have poor relationships in groups. The fact that strong social relationships are critical to well-being has many policy implications. For instance, corporations should carefully consider relocating employees because doing so can sever friendships and therefore be detrimental to well-being. Desirable outcomes, even economic ones, are often caused by well-being rather than the other way around. People high in well-being later earn higher incomes and perform better at work than people who report low well-being. Happy workers are better organizational citizens, meaning that they help other people at work in various ways. Furthermore, people high in well-being seem to have better social relationships than people low in well-being. For example, they are more likely to get married, stay married, and have rewarding marriages. Finally, well-being is related to health and longevity, although the pathways linking these variables are far from fully understood. Thus, well-being not only is valuable because it feels good, but also is valuable because it has beneficial consequences. This fact makes national and corporate monitoring of well-being imperative. In order to facilitate the use of well-being outcomes in shaping policy, we propose creating a national well-being index that systematically assesses key well-being variables for representative samples of the population. Variables measured should include positive and negative emotions, engagement, purpose and meaning, optimism and trust, and the broad construct of life satisfaction. A major problem with using current findings on well-being to guide policy is that they derive from diverse and incommensurable measures of different concepts, in a haphazard mix of respondents. Thus, current findings provide an interesting sample of policy-related findings, but are not strong enough to serve as the basis of policy. Periodic, systematic assessment of well-being will offer policymakers a much stronger set of findings to use in making policy decisions.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
Article
Happiness, or subjective well-being, was measured on a brith-record-based sample of several thousand middle-aged twins using the Well-Being (WB)scale of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnare. Neither socioeconomic status, educational attainment, family income, marital status, nor an indicant of religious commitment could acciunt for more than about 3% of the variance in WB. From 44% to 52% of the variance in WB, however, is associated with genetic variation. Based on the retest os smaller samples of twins after intervals of 4.5 and 10 years, we estimate that the heritability of the stable component of subjective well-being approaches 80%.
Article
Suicide is analyzed in terms of motivations to escape from aversive self-awareness. The causal chain begins with events that fall severely short of standards and expectations. These failures are attributed internally, which makes self-awareness painful. Awareness of the self's inadequacies generates negative affect, and the individual therefore desires to escape from self-awareness and the associated affect. The person tries to achieve a state of cognitive deconstruction (constricted temporal focus, concrete thinking, immediate or proximal goals, cognitive rigidity, and rejection of meaning), which helps prevent meaningful self-awareness and emotion. The deconstructed state brings irrationality and disinhibition, making drastic measures seem acceptable. Suicide can be seen as an ultimate step in the effort to escape from self and world.