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The Impact of Media Exposure on Males' Body Image

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Abstract

Mass media are believed to be a pervasive force in shaping physical appearance ideals and have been shown, to negatively impact females' body image. Little research has attended to the effects of media exposure on males' body image. The current experiment exposed 158 males to television advertisements containing either ideal male images or neutral images that were inserted between segments of a television program. Participants were blocked on dispositional body image and attitudes toward appearance variables to assess for moderating effects. Results indicated that participants exposed to ideal image advertisements became significantly more depressed and had higher levels of muscle dissatisfaction than those exposed to neutral ads. Inconsistent with past research, no dispositional effects were noted that would suggest the influence of schematicity on mood and body image changes.
... More specifically, exposure to idealized images in the media has been shown to positively associate with female emerging adult body dissatisfaction (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Robinson et al., 2017) and appearance anxiety (Monro & Huon, 2005) and negatively with selfcompassion (Slater et al., 2017). However, some research also has shown that exposure to idealized images in the media were positively associated with male emerging adult body dissatisfaction (Agliata & Tantleff-Dunn, 2004;Hatoum & Belle, 2004). ...
... Some literature does examine the effects of media on male emerging adults. For example, exposure to maledirected magazines (Hatoum & Belle, 2004) and ideal image advertisements (Agliata & Tantleff-Dunn, 2004) has been associated with high levels of muscle dissatisfaction in males. Similarly, when exposed to music video clips of muscular performers, music video clips of average-build performers, or video clips of scenery, male university students exhibited poorer levels of body and muscle tone satisfaction when exposed to muscular clips than when exposed to average or scenery clips (Mulgrew & Volcevski-Kostas, 2012). ...
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Previous research has shown that media messages affect body image in emerging adults. Furthermore, parental body image messages and parent–child relationship quality have also been shown to affect emerging adult body image. However, little research has examined the relationships among these variables collectively. Thus, the current study examined the indirect effects of media body image messages and parent–child relationship quality on emerging adult body esteem through parental body image messages. Participants included 555 college-attending emerging adults (72.1% female) who completed online surveys assessing media messages, parental messages, parent–child relationship quality, and body esteem. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal parent–child relationship quality and negative media body image messages on male and female emerging adult body esteem via negative parental body image messages.
... There is also preliminary evidence of increased concerns about appearance and heightened weight and shape concerns in people from the United Kingdom's general population during the COVID-19 pandemic (Robertson et al., 2021). Several studies suggest strong links between exposure to media and social network harmful appearance-related content and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors (e.g., Groesz et al., 2002;Agliata and Tantleff-Dunn, 2004;Glauert et al., 2009;Hawkins et al., 2010;Marques et al., 2022). In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence shows that the lack of access to in person social interactions due to confinement has led to an increase in media consumption and social networking, exposing confined individuals to a more thin/athletic ideal (Cooper et al., 2020). ...
... There is also preliminary evidence of increased concerns about appearance and heightened weight and shape concerns in people from the United Kingdom's general population during the COVID-19 pandemic (Robertson et al., 2021). Several studies suggest strong links between exposure to media and social network harmful appearance-related content and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors (e.g., Groesz et al., 2002;Agliata and Tantleff-Dunn, 2004;Glauert et al., 2009;Hawkins et al., 2010;Marques et al., 2022). In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence shows that the lack of access to in person social interactions due to confinement has led to an increase in media consumption and social networking, exposing confined individuals to a more thin/athletic ideal (Cooper et al., 2020). ...
... In literature regarding the role of gender the findings have been inconsistent, as some authors [17,22,45] reports higher BID risk in females while an Indian study [46] reported higher BID in males compared to females probably because in their study male subsample had significantly higher BMI than females. In literature it appears, correlation between BMI and negative Body Image is higher in women than in men [47] maybe because most research regarding risk factors for weight gain and body image disorder has been conducted in college women, but some study reports college men are at risk too [48,49]. In line with previous studies, we found significant negative correlation between self-esteem and BID. ...
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Background: Body Image is known to be influenced by Body Mass Index (BMI), self-esteem and personality. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) is associated with depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and maladaptive eating pattern. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that can contribute to BID. Material and Methods: This study is observational cross-sectional study on 200 medical doctors in India. Data collection was by self-reported questionnaires: Sociodemographic proforma, Body Shape Questionnaire-34 for BID, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Big Five Inventory for Personality traits. Results: Out of 200, 23.5% (n=47) participants had BID. BID significantly correlated with higher body mass index (BMI) (r = .402, P = 0.000) and lower self-esteem (r = −-.200, P =0.004). Among the personality traits, neuroticism (r = .309, P = 0.000) showed significant positive correlation and openness (r =-.309, P = 0.000) extraversion (r=-.139, P = 0.05) conscientiousness (r =-.188, P = 0.004) agreeableness (r =-.176, P = 0.014) had significant negative correlation. Conclusion: BMI, self-esteem, personality have a role in BID and this knowledge can be further utilized in identifying the contributing factors for development of BID and its psychiatric consequences which might serve as targets for designing intervention.
... However, this issue can be considered more broadly concerning each individual identifying, among other things, factors that influence the perception of body image. The analysis of studies indicates that these can be both socio-demographic factors, such as gender (Ålgars, Santtila, Varjonen, Witting, Johansson, Jern, & Sandnabba, 2009), age (Tiggemann, 2004), education (Swami, Hadji-Michael & Furnham, 2008) or social and cultural norms (Fallon, 1990), but also self-esteem (Davison & McCabe, 2005), social media (Agliata & Tantleff-Dunn, 2004;Burnette, Kwitowski & Mazzeo, 2017;Hogue & Mills, 2019;Tiggemann & McGill, 2004), marketing (D'Alessandro & Chitty, 2011;McNeill & Douglas, 2011;Parker, Haytko, & Hermans, 2008), personality (Allen & Walter, 2016) or physical activity (Hausenblas & Fallon, 2006;Robinson & Ferraro, 2004). However, among the numerous studies addressing the influence of personality on body perception, we have not found one that explicitly describes the influence of specific components of our personality on the perception of distinct aspects of corporeality among physically active individuals. ...
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The concept of body image can be considered on many levels, but constant is the fact that it is a mental image: of the size, shape, and form of one's own body, influencing one's overall self-image. Previous multifaceted research shows that perceptions of body image can be influenced among other things by physical activity or personality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between body image perception and personality, considering individuals who regularly practice physical activity (N= 104). The following research tools were used: IPIP-BFM-20, Body Esteem Scale and a questionnaire consisting of questions allowing for the respondents' characterization. Analysis of the collected data revealed that almost half of the respondents are currently dissatisfied with their body image. It was also noted that those who were satisfied with their body image scored statistically significantly higher on two of the five personality traits measured: Extraversion and Emotional Stability. The results obtained showing the relationship between personality and body image perception are consistent with previous studies in which the type of physical activity and its frequency were not examined.
... On the other hand, men's way of reaching a high status and interest from women may be through attaining a muscular body [45]. Muscularity and masculinity were found to be positively associated with formidability and strength, often translating into enhanced social status [46]. ...
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Background: Public opinion on who performs more beauty-enhancing behaviors (men or women) seems unanimous. Women are often depicted as primarily interested in how they look, opposed to men, who are presumably less focused on their appearance. However, previous studies might have overlooked how masculinity relates to self-modification among men. Methods: We explored this issue in depth by conducting a qualitative Study 1 aimed to establish how men and women enhance their attractiveness (N = 121) and a quantitative Study 2 aimed to test time spent on activities that increase one's attractiveness in a longitudinal design (with seven repeated measures from 62 participants; N(total) = 367). Results: We observed no sex differences in beauty investments. Although women spent more time on make-up and cosmetics usage, men caught up with women in exercising and bodybuilding. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that there may not be such wide sex differences in the intensity of enhancing one's appearance as has been previously thought. We hypothesize that this might partly stem from changes in gender roles regarding masculinity.
... There is also preliminary evidence of increased concerns about appearance and heightened weight and shape concerns in people from the United Kingdom's general population during the COVID-19 pandemic (Robertson et al., 2021). Several studies suggest strong links between exposure to media and social network harmful appearance-related content and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors (e.g., Groesz et al., 2002;Agliata and Tantleff-Dunn, 2004;Glauert et al., 2009;Hawkins et al., 2010;Marques et al., 2022). In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence shows that the lack of access to in person social interactions due to confinement has led to an increase in media consumption and social networking, exposing confined individuals to a more thin/athletic ideal (Cooper et al., 2020). ...
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Recent studies have shed light on how the COVID-19 pandemic changed our lives, and most of them have documented its detrimental effect on eating habits. Until now, the effects of this global crisis on negative body image and its association with disordered eating behaviors remain largely understudied. This study aimed to investigate changes in frequency of disordered eating behaviors (i.e., restrictive eating, emotional eating, and overeating) and negative body image (i.e., shape and weight concern, and body dissatisfaction) among a community sample of women during the COVID-19 pandemic (October 2020-May 2021). Furthermore, we explored the possible relation between body image-related variables and changes in the frequency of disordered eating behaviors in the context of the pandemic. A total of 161 self-identified female participants enrolled in an online-based survey. Descriptive statistics showed that women did not report clinically significant levels of weight and body shape concerns, but participants reported being dissatisfied with their body. One sample Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests revealed a tendency toward an increasing of the frequency of all disordered eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multinomial logistic regressions showed that weight concerns predicted an overall increase in the frequency of restrictive eating behaviors, whereas higher body dissatisfaction was associated with a moderate self-perceived increase in the frequency of emotional eating. These results shed light on a risk pattern of phenomena in a non-clinical sample of women, as they represent the key risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Findings could have implications for designing and implementing prevention programs.
... Media exposure to eczema content is the eczema information acquisition via routine patterns of media consumption. 16 When eczema is portrayed more frequently in the media, skin problems could be perceived as more common in the society, resulting in less stigma. Also, as media channels report news stories or provide information about eczema, viewers would have a better understanding of this illness, increasing health literacy. ...
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Issue addressed: Eczema is a common skin health issue in Singapore. A salient challenge eczema patients are facing is the stigma towards them, which has been relatively unacknowledged. It is critical to reduce stigma towards eczema patients, and an essential step is to identify factors influencing stigmatizing behavior. Methods: With a general basis of the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey (N=293) in the context of Singapore. The sample was recruited via the online panel of a survey company, Rakuten Insights. Our sample's age and education level generally fit with the population in Singapore. Results: Media exposure to eczema content did not influence stigmatizing behavior either directly or indirectly. However, personal connection with eczema patients reduced stigma indirectly, completely mediated by stigmatizing attitude towards eczema patients and health literacy. That is, personal connection with eczema patients had a negative relationship with stigmatizing attitude, which was positively associated with the intention of and actual stigmatizing behavior. On the other hand, personal connection increased health literacy, which in turn reduced stigmatizing intention and behavior. Conclusions: We call for more future initiatives to fight against health stigma. Health promotion can take advantage of eczema patients' social network to educate the general public about the eczema issue to lower stigma. Public policy responses to prevent discrimination on the basis of skin health are also needed. Media organizations should use news media and social media to speak out against stigma towards eczema patients, and avoid using stigmatizing language.
... Just as observed with females, the idealized male body portrayed in the media is increasingly unachievable, which also makes males vulnerable to the negative effects of media exposure [46]. Males taken from the general population who were exposed to tv ads that portrayed ideal bodies became significantly more depressed and dissatisfied with their muscular features than those who were exposed to neutral ads [47]. Moreover, in a sample of young male gym users, image-centric social media use was associated with the use of dietary supplements and anabolic androgenic steroids [48]. ...
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The use of prohibited performance-enhancing substances (PES) in fitness and gym settings is a public health concern as knowledge concerning its short-term and long-term adverse health consequences is emerging. Understanding the underlying psychosocial mechanisms of PES use and the characteristics of the gym-goers who use PES could help identify those who are most vulnerable to PES use. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile (e.g., sociodemographic factors, exercise profile, gym modalities, peers, and social influence) and psychosocial determinants (e.g., attitudes, subjective norms, beliefs, and intentions) of PES users in gym and fitness contexts. In total, 453 gym-goers (mean age = 35.64 years; SD = 13.08) completed an online survey. Neural networks showed a global profile of PES users characterized by a desire to increase muscle mass, shape their body, and improve physical condition; being advised by friends, training colleagues and coaches or on the Internet; less formal education, and more positive beliefs for PES use. These results may support public health and clinical interventions to prevent abusive use of PES and improve the health and well-being of gym-goers.
Chapter
Das haptische System umfasst exterozeptive, interozeptive und propriozeptive Wahrnehmungsdimensionen. Während alle anderen Sinnessysteme über spezialisierte Rezeptoren verfügen, die in einer bestimmten Region des Körpers konzentriert sind (Auge, Ohr, Nase, Mund), befinden sich die Rezeptoren des haptischen Systems in unterschiedlicher Konzentrationsdichte überall im Körper. Dadurch sind auch die Funktionen des haptischen Systems über den gesamten Körper verteilt. Außerdem in diesem Kapitel: Wahrnehmung von Temperatur und Schmerz, Entstehung der Wahrnehmungskonstrukte Körperschema und Körperbild
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The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight sub-scales measuring: 1) Drive for Thinness, 2) Bulimia, 3) Body Dissatisfaction, 4) Ineffectiveness, 5) Perfectionism, 6) Interpersonal Distrust, 7) Interoceptive Awareness and 8) Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N = 113) are differentiated from female comparison (FC) subjects (N = 577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminate validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
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The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) was developed to assess women's recognition and acceptance of societally sanctioned standards of appearance. In Study 1, factor analyses revealed two clearcut factors: awareness/acknowledgment of a societal emphasis on appearance and an internalization/acceptance of these standards. These findings were cross-validated in Study 2, resulting in a six-item Awareness subscale (alpha = .71) and an eight-item Internalization subscale (alpha = .88). Study 3 obtained good convergence between both scales and multiple indices of body image and eating disturbance. Regression analyses indicated that both factors accounted for unique variance associated with body image and eating dysfunction, however, internalization of standards was a stronger predictor of disturbance. The SATAQ should prove useful for researchers and clinicians interested in body image and eating disorders. © 1995 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of various weight-loss practices in U.S. adolescents and adults. Design: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a self-administered survey of a random sample of high school students in 1990 and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit dial survey in 1989. Setting: Thirty-eight states and the District of Columbia. Participants: High school students (n=11 467) and adults 18 years and older (n=60 861). Results: Among high school students, 44% of female students and 15% of male students reported that they were trying to lose weight. An additional 26% of female students and 15% of male students reported that they were trying to keep from gaining more weight
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The current study was designed to replicate previous research documenting the links between exposure to thinness norms and eating pathology and to extend it by examining the influence of personality and environmental factors hypothesized to be protective. Questionnaire and anthropometric data were provided by 249 undergraduate women during a single session. Multiple regression analyses were then used to establish that internalization of a "thin ideal" and body dissatisfaction mediated the relation between exposure to thinness norms and eating pathology. Further, personality measures reflecting nonconformity, self-esteem, and perceived shape, as well as the social influences of family, moderated the links between exposure to thinness norms and eating pathology. Nonconformity and low family pressures to control weight moderated the relation between exposure to thinness norms and internalization of such norms; perceived shape moderated the relation between thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction; self-esteem moderated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. These findings suggest that family environment and personal attributes may play key roles in the development of eating disorders, with potentially important implications for preventive interventions.
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Although researchers have postulated that the thin-ideal body image portrayed in the media contributes to eating pathology among females, little research has directly examined the effects of these images on women. The central aim of the present study was to experimentally assess the effects of exposure to the thin-ideal on women's affect, body satisfaction, and endorsement of the thin-ideal stereotype. The secondary aim was to link these putative mediators to bulimic symptomatology. Female undergraduates (N = 157) were randomly exposed to pictures from magazines containing either ultra-thin models, average-sized models, or no models. Results indicated that exposure to the thin-ideal produced depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity, and body dissatisfaction. Further, multiple regression analyses indicated that negative affect, body dissatisfaction, and subscription to the thin-ideal predicted bulimic symptoms.