Article

The Advantages of an Inclusive Definition of Attitude

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Abstract

In The Psychology of Attitudes, we provided an abstract - or umbrella - definition of attitude as "a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor" (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, p. 1). This definition encompasses the key features of attitudes - namely, tendency, entity (or attitude object), and evaluation. This conception of attitude distinguishes between the inner tendency that is attitude and the evaluative responses that express attitudes. Our definition invites psychologists to specify the nature of attitudes by proposing theories that provide metaphors for the constituents of the inner tendency that is attitude. We advocate theoretical metaphors that endow attitudes with structural qualities.

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... This conceptualization is consistent with more recent work on the attitude construct within social psychology. Eagly and Chaiken (2007) define an attitude as "a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor" (p. 582). ...
... An attitude is thus understood as an overall evaluation of an attitude object, which can be any mental object. This overall evaluation of an object can be formed through cognitive, affective and/or behavioral processes (Aronson et al., 2014, p. 218-221;Eagly & Chaiken, 2007;Haddock & Maio, 2014, p. 199-206). These cognitive processes include, but are not limited to, beliefs associated with a particular attitude object (Aronson et al., 2014, p. 218;Haddock & Maio, 2014, p. 200). ...
... The operationalization of the attitude construct is based on current findings from attitude research within social psychology. As mentioned above, an attitude is understood as the overall evaluation of a particular object with some degree of favor or disfavor (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). According to studies based on the theory of planned behavior, an attitude toward a particular behavior seems to be a good predictor of that same behavior (e.g. ...
Article
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Person-centered teacher behavior is positively related to cognitive and affective-motivational student outcomes. Although underlying teacher attitudes are thought to be of great importance for person-centered teacher-student relationships, this aspect has not been considered in empirical studies to date. This study examined the internal structure and reliability of a new self-report measure assessing attitudes on person-centered behavior toward students (APBS) in a sample of 363 German pre-service teachers aged 18-40 years (M = 22.28, SD = 3.48; 72.7% female). Exploratory factor analyses and internal consistency analyses based on polychoric correlations provided evidence for a theoretically grounded four-factor model with “unconditionality” (α = .91), “empathic understanding” (α = .92), “trust” (α =.89) and “genuineness” (α = .83) explaining 46% of the total variance. Interfactor correlations ranged between .53 and .72. There is thus preliminary evidence that the APBS test scores can be interpreted as intended. However, further validation studies are required to replicate the internal structure using confirmatory factor analyses and to examine the relations between APBS test scores and external variables. The instrument can be used in research in the field of teacher-student relationships as well as in teacher education courses addressing participants’ educational attitudes.
... Thus, news on sports topics and events contains information and frames (Tewksbury and Scheufele 2009). As a result, this could affect the consumers' thoughts, feelings, and attitudes (in the sense of the degree of favor or disfavor as defined by Eagly and Chaiken (2007) and behaviors (in the sense of responses). Consequently, it could also affect the way consumers will react and/or make subsequent evaluations of sports protagonists (Price et al. 1997). ...
... Especially in the case of athletes, since it has been documented that the frames aim to change attitudes and consequently behavior (Nelson and Oxley 1999), athletes' statements and the attribution of responsibilities by them to noncompetitive factors could affect the thoughts and feelings of the audience, and hence the degree of sympathy towards them (Eagly and Chaiken 2007). The fact that journalists have published athletes' statements linking responsibility with noncompetitive factors could potentially affect the way that the audience will react and/or make subsequent evaluations of the sports protagonists (Price et al. 1997). ...
Article
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Abstract: As the study of the negatively expressed news on sports constitutes a scientific area that has not received proper attention by researchers yet, the purpose of this study was to investigate the framing of the Greek national men’s basketball team defeats by the Greek press. Articles (n = 178) concerning the Eurobasket championships from 2007 to 2017, published in three political newspapers and one sports newspaper, were analyzed through content analysis. Specifically, the research reflected upon (a) the existence of the primary framework of “attribution of responsibility”, (b) the differences in framing among the newspapers, and (c) where/to whom the Media focused on regarding the defeats. The “attribution of responsibility” framing was found in all newspapers under study, both in the content and in the titles of the articles, primarily the day after the games. Regarding the defeats, the media were centralized around 12 factors and 8 subfactors as components of responsibilities, while a significant number of other frames were also identified as well as the four stages of the framing function. In conclusion, the finding that framing is significantly met in sports reporting contradicts the credited characterization of “cheerleaders” to sports journalists. Keywords: frames; framing; attribution of responsibility; sports journalism; basketball; Eurobasket championships; Greek national team
... Obwohl Einstellungen insbesondere in der Psychologie, aber auch in der Kommunikationswissenschaft bereits viel Beachtung gefunden haben und auf sehr vielschichtige Weise betrachtet wurden, gibt es im Kern ein recht einheitliches Verständnis des Konstrukts. Dieses versteht Einstellung als "a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor" (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, S. 1 (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007;Rosenberg & Hovland, 1960). Eine wichtige Eigenschaft von Einstellungen ist, dass sie in ihrer Stärke variieren können. ...
... Darüber hinaus ist es plausibel anzunehmen, dass subjektives Wissen auch für Verhalten von Bedeutung ist. Das liegt zum einen daran, dass zwischen Einstellung und Verhalten ein Zusammenhang besteht (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980;Eagly & Chaiken, 2007;Howe & Krosnick, 2017;Krosnick & Petty, 1995) (Nelson & Narens, 1990). Aus dieser Modellierung des Metagedächtnisses und der Levelinteraktionen ist es demnach plausibel anzunehmen, dass Einschätzungen des eigenen Wissens für Verhalten von Bedeutung sind. ...
Book
Durch das Internet hat sich der Zugang zu Nachrichten maßgeblich verändert. Informationen stehen nicht nur unbegrenzt zur Verfügung, sondern sie sind auch zu einem omnipräsenten Bestandteil in digitalen Informationsumgebungen geworden. Dadurch werden Internetnutzer*innen, auch ohne bewusst danach zu suchen, wiederholt mit tagesaktuellen Schlagzeilen konfrontiert, z.B. wenn sie ihren Browser öffnen, oder sich auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten bewegen. Diese kurzen Nachrichtenkontakte haben aufgrund der geringen Informationsmenge wenig Potential für Lerneffekte, können jedoch das Gefühl vermitteln, sich mit einem Thema auszukennen. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt sich die Frage, inwiefern Nachrichten in digitalen Informationsumgebungen die Entstehung einer Wissensillusion begünstigen, wie sich dieser Prozess erklären lässt und mit welchen Folgen dies verbunden ist. Im theoretischen Teil der Arbeit werden dazu Erkenntnisse zum Gedächtnis, dem Metagedächtnis und der Rolle von Medien für Wissen und Wissenswahrnehmung aufgearbeitet. In Studie 1 wird mit einer experimentellen Studie untersucht, wie sich Nachrichten auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten im Vergleich zu vollständigen Nachrichtenartikeln auf objektives und subjektives Wissen auswirken. Außerdem werden Effekte einer Wissensillusion für Einstellungen und Verhalten untersucht. Studie 2 untersucht mit qualitativen Leitfadeninterviews, welche Rolle Medien für Wissen und Lernen aus Sicht der Nutzer*innen spielen. Diese Erkenntnisse liefern Erklärungen dafür, weshalb und aufgrund welcher Merkmale unterschiedliche Nachrichtenkontakte eine Wissensillusion begünstigen können.
... It is worth noting, however, that stockpersons' attitudes toward animals are not just limited to the direct interactions with them, such as handling, but also affect attention to details, readiness to solve problems, decisions in management and housing decisions; thus, understanding the role of attitudes in goat farming would be particularly useful. Given that attitudes are learnt and may change over time because of new information, new experiences and newly acquired knowledge [152], appropriate training based on specific experiences and knowledge acquisition could have a positive effect in changing farmers' attitudes, reducing negative behaviours and poor relationships. According to [15], to ensure that training programmes are well targeted for farmers, they should be adapted to situations, needs and level of knowledge that humans have already acquired. ...
Article
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There is consensus that the quality of the human–animal relationship (HAR) is relevant to guarantee appropriate levels of animal welfare. Given the impact that HAR may have on both goats and human beings, the aim of the present review is to elucidate: (1) how humans and goats communicate; (2) which are the factors affecting human–goat interactions; (3) how we can measure the quality of this relationship. The systematic review led to the selection of 58 relevant articles. Effective human–goat communication takes place by means of visual, tactile and auditory stimuli and, to a less extent, via olfactory and gustative stimuli. Goats have well-developed socio-cognitive abilities and rely on humans to get relevant information. A deep knowledge of goats’ communication means and socio-cognitive abilities may greatly help improving the human–goat relationship. Management practices (e.g., rearing methods, amount and quality of interactions), as well as genetic selection for suitable individual traits, may contribute to improving HAR. Several measures to assess the quality of HAR have been validated, including avoidance in the pen and at the feeding rack and latency to first contact. Finally, farmers’ attitudes and empathy with goats, as well as their motivation to work with animals, should be improved through appropriate training.
... The concept of operational attitude is the willingness to respond favorably or unfavorably to a person, institution or event, assessed through measurable responses such as affections (e.g., feelings, mood and emotions), cognition (e.g., beliefs, thoughts), and behaviors. Since attitudes are complex and abstract constructs, the instruments designed to evaluate them ultimately measure every part of the whole (Ajzen, 2005;Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). ...
Article
Child sexual abuse is a serious problem in Brazil and requires actions taken together by Justice, Security, Health and Social Welfare to effectively protect and guarantee victims’ rights. Professionals working in these fields have difficulty in evaluating cases, owing to limitations of the Brazilian Welfare Network and lack of specialized training. Such difficulty may cause professionals to carry out poorly substantiated assessments and fail to properly protect victims. Instruments to measure professionals’ attitudes in the assessment of situations of sexual violence are scarce. As a result, this study aimed to adapt and evaluate validity evidence of the Child Forensic Attitude Scale (CFAS) in the Brazilian context. A total of 177 professionals (86.4% females), with a mean age of 37.6 years (SD = 10.1 years) participated in the survey. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that in the Brazilian context, the scale structure presents three first-order oblique factors, namely “Fear of Not Identifying Abuse” (F-Under), “Fear of Overcalling Abuse” (F-Over) and “Skepticism” (Skep). The internal consistency of the three dimensions was satisfactory (F-Under, α = 0.66, F-Over, α = 0.80, and Skep, α = 0.92). Evidence has shown that the CFAS can be used to evaluate health professionals’ attitudes when assessing cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents in Brazil. This instrument can support the assessment of health professionals’ attitudes, and it emphasizes the importance of qualifying Brazilian professionals in the Welfare Network services by providing training opportunities regarding work with victims of sexual abuse.
... To identify human and landscape characteristics influencing perception in this review, we included studies that examined: (1) the public's beliefs about the functions and purposes of an L-SWMP, (2) their judgments of its safety, attractiveness, utility, naturalness, or appropriateness, and (3) their beliefs about its benefits and disadvantages. We use the term ''attitudes'' to refer to the public's behavioral predispositions (Eagly and Chaiken 2007) and behavioral intentions (Fishbein and Ajzen 1977) toward L-SWMPs. While perceptions play a part in determining attitudes toward L-SWMPs, attitudes are also influenced by other factors such as practical concerns over maintenance responsibility and economic incentives (Venkataramanan et al. 2020). ...
Article
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Urban stormwater management increasingly changes urban landscapes. From rain gardens to stormwater ponds, landscape-based practices are visible and often accessible to community members, whose support and experience of these practices will affect their success. This critical narrative review addresses these Landscape-based Stormwater Management Practices (L-SWMPs). It assesses quantitative and qualitative evidence for the effects of characteristics of individual community members, L-SWMP landscape context, and L-SWMPs themselves on community members' perceptions, attitudes, and societal outcomes. Characteristics of community members are most well-studied. Environmental knowledge and past experiences of community members have strong, consistent effects, while the effects of demographic characteristics are weaker and inconsistent. Landscape characteristics, especially greenspace context and neighborhood landscape norms, consistently influence perceptions of L-SWMPs as amenities. Effects of noticeable L-SWMP characteristics are understudied; we argue that paying greater attention to these characteristics may help practitioners innovate L-SWMPs that benefit communities and receive their support.
... The current study assesses stakeholder views as attitudes encompassing important orientations and reactions to risk [36,37]. We assume that attitudes entail "a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor" ( [36] p. 1). ...
Article
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The potential devastation that a nuclear accident can cause to public health and the surrounding environment demands robust emergency preparedness. This includes gaining a greater knowledge of citizens’ needs in situations involving radiation risk. The present study examines citizens’ attitudes to a remediation scenario and their information and communication needs, using focus group data (n = 39) and survey data (n = 2291) from Sweden. The focus groups uniquely showed that adults of all ages express health concerns regarding young children, and many also do so regarding domestic animals. Said protective sentiments stem from a worry that even low-dose radiation is a transboundary, lingering health risk. It leads to doubts about living in a decontaminated area, and high demands on fast, continuous communication that in key phases of decontamination affords dialogue. Additionally, the survey results show that less favorable attitudes to the remediation scenario—worry over risk, doubt about decontamination effectiveness, and preferences to move away from a remediation area—are associated with the need for in-person meetings and dialogue. Risk managers should thus prepare for the need for both in-person meetings and frequent information provision tasks, but also that in-person, citizen meetings are likely to feature an over-representation of critical voices, forming very challenging communication tasks.
... Selon Eagly et Chaiken (1993), l'attitude serait une tendance psychologique exprimée en évaluant une entité particulière avec un certain degré de faveur ou de défaveur (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). L'attitude en ce sens peut être modélisée dans un cadre comportant trois dimensions : une dimension cognitive, une dimension affective et une dimension comportementale (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). La dimension affective qui nous intéresse ici concerne les émotions associées à l'objet d'analyse. ...
Thesis
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L’éducation à l’esprit critique des élèves fait aujourd’hui partie intégrante des prescriptions officielles de l’Éducation Nationale française. En parallèle, la formation des enseignants à l’esprit critique se développe dans de nombreuses académies, ce qui pose la question des effets de ces formations, mais également de la manière dont sont formés les enseignants à l’appropriation et à la maîtrise des compétences en lien avec l’esprit critique. Notre recherche s’est d’abord concentrée sur les prescriptions et textes officiels pour comprendre les attendus en matière d’éducation à l’esprit critique. Puis nous avons effectué un travail d’analyse de la littérature scientifique pour établir les bases conceptuelles permettant de définir l’esprit critique, la pensée critique et le penseur critique (Ennis, 2015). Cette analyse nous a permis de dégager des caractéristiques de la pensée critique (connaissances, capacités et dispositions) et des critères d’évaluation pour le penseur critique (fiabilité, confiance). Pour former un penseur critique « efficace », l’intérêt d’utiliser des contenus de types pseudoscientifiques ou « paranormaux » a été évalué par plusieurs travaux (Dyer & Hall, 2018; Wilson, 2018). Nous avons alors testé et mis en évidence 1/ l’effet de la rationalité épistémique sur l’adhésion des enseignants à des croyances non fondées (Adam‐Troian, Caroti, Arciszewski, & Ståhl, 2019) et 2/ l’effet de formations à l’esprit critique pour enseignants s’appuyant sur des contenus et exemples de type pseudoscientifiques ou « paranormaux » sur la réduction de croyances non fondées, et le renforcement de certaines dispositions critiques des enseignants, à savoir la rationalité épistémique et l’humilité épistémique.
... Attitude is defined as an individual's positive or negative evaluation of a behavior, including the dimensions of cognition, emotion, and behavior. 26 Among them, cognition, which includes perception, is the key component of attitude. 27 Risk perception, as an aspect of risk factors related to cognition, includes perceived severity and perceived vulnerability. ...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic motivated people to stay at home to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and community transmission, but limited research has investigated the behavioral mechanisms underlying home quarantine. Methods: Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study explored the mediating role of intention toward home quarantine and the moderating role of nationality among attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. A total of 827 college students from the United States and China were recruited to complete an online survey. Results: The results of structural equation modeling showed that antecedents (ie, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) could predict actual home-quarantine behavior through the role of intention. Notably, the relation between both attitude and intention and perceived behavioral control and intention were moderated by nationality. Specifically, attitude was a stronger predictor of intention for American participants than for Chinese participants; however, perceived behavioral control was a stronger predictor of intention for Chinese participants. Conclusion: These findings reveal the internal mechanism of home-quarantine behavior and the heterogeneous explanations attributed to cultural diversity during the pandemic, which not only expands the application of TPB but also provides a reference for infectious disease mitigation in the field of public health policy.
... Araştırmacılara göre kapsayıcı davranışlar, gözlemcilerin ortaya koyduğu psikolojik (kalıp yargılar gibi) sonuçlardan etkilenmektedir. Daha önce de belirtildiği üzere tutumlar, olumlu/olumsuz değerlendirmeleri içeren psikolojik eğilimleri yansıtmaktadır (Eagly ve Chaiken, 2007). Dolayısıyla, söz konusu sonuçlar aslında engelli çalışanlara yönelik tutumu ortaya koymaktadır. ...
Conference Paper
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Damgalanma, özellikle Covid 19 küresel salgın sürecinde ortaya çıkan riskli ve güvenli olmayan çalışma koşulları karşısında sağlık çalışanlarının sıklıkla maruz kaldığı durumu ifade etmektedir. Literatürde, sağlık çalışanlarının salgın ve bulaşıcı hastalıklar sebebiyle damgalanmayla karşılaştığı ve damgalanmanın doğurduğu çeşitli sonuçların ele alındığı görülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, çalışmada Covid 19 sürecinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarının damgalanmaya maruz kalma şekillerinin ve damgalanmanın sonuçlarının bir model çerçevesinde sunulması amaçlanmaktadır. Araştırma amacı kapsamında farklı hastanelerde görev yapan; kıdem, yaş, çalışma birimi gibi farklı kriterler esas alınarak, 28 çalışan ile yarı yapılandırılmış soru formu aracılığıyla mülakatlar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Mülakatlardan elde edilen veriler MAXQDA nitel veri analizi programı kullanılarak kodlanmış ve kategorize edilmiştir. Kodların ve kategorilerin görselleştirilmesinde frekans analizi, karşılaştırmalı analiz ve ilişki analizlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, damgalanmaya maruz kalan sağlık çalışanlarının karşılaştığı sonuçlar dört ana tema çerçevesinde sekiz alt-tema olarak sınıflandırılmıştır. Bununla birlikte sağlık çalışanlarının maruz kaldığı damgalanma sonuçları “bireysel”, “örgütsel”, “toplumsal” ve “ailevi” olarak dört ana tema kapsamında sınıflandırılmıştır.
... Considerable research has focused on teachers' attitudes towards students with disability and inclusive education. In the socio-psychological literature, attitude is consistently defined as a psychological tendency to evaluate an object with a certain degree of favour or disfavour (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). Attitude can be viewed as an emotional reaction towards the object and can be considered as one on the most important factors that predict social behaviours (Aubé & Ric, 2019;Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007). ...
... From the perspective of [6], willingness, based on the personal plan and different from attitude, is a conscious behavioral motive and a unique psychological state. According to [7], the customer's purchase willingness refers to the subjective probability of the customer engaging in a particular purchasing behavior, proportional to the probability of occurrence of the behavior. Kotler [8] believes that the purchase process consists of requirement identification, information collection, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and postpurchase evaluation. ...
Article
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Along with the fast development of the Internet and the continuous improvement of e-commerce platforms, Chinese consumption has dramatically changed. Online shopping is gaining wider popularity among consumers. In recent years, as the upstream and downstream industries relevant to e-commerce continue to develop, the types of online shopping have once again been widened. Large musical instruments such as pianos and guitars are also sold on e-commerce platforms. Their market share is gradually expanded by under more reasonable and transparent prices and lower logistics costs. Compared with the fast-growing market scale, we have few theoretical literatures concerning online shopping. At present, most of the study mainly focuses on the development of information technology and customer behaviors on the whole platform, and slightly ignores specific theoretical research on the art industry. Based on previous information systems theory, seven hypotheses about the behavior willingness for musical instruments online were put forward. A reasonable structural equation model is constructed; an empirical analysis on the collected valid 364 data is carried out; and six hypotheses are tested by analyzing the relation between path coefficient and variables. Moreover, perceived trust and perceived risk are two independent variables in the same dimension. The hypothesis that the result was not accepted is elaborated, and management and marketing suggestions are provided for managers of the online shopping platform.
... Based on differences in the use of coercive practices among different countries, regions, and hospitals, some of the variation can be attributed to differences in staff attitudes to the use of coercion (15). Attitudes can be defined as a psychological tendency that is expressed through evaluating an entity with a normative degree of either positivity or negativity, based on experience (16). Attitudes do influence behavior, but the connection between attitudes and behavior is complex, and may depend on situational factors. ...
Article
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Objective The Staff Attitude to Coercion Scale (SACS) was developed to assess mental health care staff's attitudes to the use of coercion in treatment. The staff's attitudes to the use of coercion may also influence their willingness to engage in professional development projects aimed at reducing use of coercion. This study systematically reviews the existing evidence related to the measurement properties of the SACS in papers published since the publication of SACS in 2008. Methods Seven databases were searched for studies published until October 2021 assessing the measurement properties of SACS or using SACS. All original studies reporting data relevant for the assessment of measurement properties of the SACS were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed and rated using the COnsensus-based Standard for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). Results Of the 81 identified publications, 13 studies with a total of 2,675 respondents met the inclusion criteria. Most studies reported data on structural validity and internal consistency, with high methodological quality, but there were almost no data on any other measurement properties. Conclusion We found evidence for adequate structural validity and internal consistency of the SACS, while other important measurement properties were not addressed in any of the reviewed studies. Caution is needed when interpreting results of the SACS in terms of aspects such as reliability, criterion validity and measurement error. The relationship between staff attitudes to coercion and the actual use of coercion also remains unclear and needs to be further investigated. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , identifier: CRD42021239284 .
... Community involvement can be defined as the amount of local people's participation in their community's decision-making and the extent of such participation in daily activities within their communities (Lee, 2013). The concept of attitude means psychological tendencies expressed through direct, indirect behavior of favoritism or resentment (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). Therefore, it is necessary to understand the attitude of local communities since it allows stakeholders in the event industry to adopt an appropriate defense mechanism to the negative influences that arise from this industry (Sharma & Dyer, 2009). ...
Article
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This study aims at exploring the impact of events on sustainable regional development. To accomplish the aim of the study, the effects of event awareness, community involvement, and destination attributes on locals' attitudes were measured, and their motivation to encourage and support holding events was evaluated. Data were collected from 277 residents of Aqaba city through utilizing a fit sampling approach. Results of data analyses show that there are positive effects of event awareness , community involvement, and destination attributes on locals' attitudes to hosting events and motivations. The results indicate that the events are a major factor in sustainable development through involving the community in decision-making and their actual participation in events. This study contributes to determining the importance of activities and the role of the local community in Sustainable Regional Development (SRD).
... Attitudes can be described as beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies toward socially significant objects [13]. Some authors [14] define them as tendencies to favor or disfavor while assessing a particular situation, such as including students with ASD in mainstream schools. In this case, the authors of [15] referred to attitudes as people's cognitive and emotional evaluations and behavioral intentions toward an object, idea or information, which could be individuals, organizations, values, etc. ...
Article
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(1) Teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mainstream schools influence daily educational practices. Depending on whether these attitudes are favorable or not, inclusive education could be fully or partially reached. This systematic review aims to analyze teachers’ attitudes toward ASD and to determine the variables that moderate them. (2) We conducted a systematic review in WoS, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases, obtaining an amount of 16 studies included in this review. (3) The results revealed inconclusive levels in teachers’ attitudes: Some of the teachers reported positive attitudes, some neutral, and some negative. (4) Among the variables that probably moderate attitudes, we found knowledge, experience, training, and gender. Future research and implications for pre-service and in-service teachers, school administrators, and policy makers are suggested.
... It refers to one's beliefs, thoughts, and opinions. Attitude is the consistent response of an individual to a product, brand, or service (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). Consistently favorable responses to a product or service indicate that customers value it and intend to purchase it in the future. ...
Article
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Vehicles are classified as a mobile source of pollution worldwide. This problem is compounded in countries like India, where the population is enormous, and the number of automobiles increases quickly. To overcome this issue, governments and individuals must adopt electric vehicles and maximize the use of eco-friendly vehicles. However, the adoption of electric vehicles in India is gradual. One of the reasons is the attitude towards traditional and electric vehicles. This study’s primary objective is to determine how attitude influences the adoption of electric vehicles. The topic is vital since the attitude provided by numerous studies influences the intention to buy anything. This study considered one dependent variable (electric vehicle adoption) and one mediating variable (attitude) along with five independent variables. The data collection method was straightforward, and the sample size was 366 respondents. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), structural equation modeling (SEM), and mediation analysis were used to analyze the data. All adopted constructs were trustworthy, with average variance extracted exceeding 0.55, composite reliability exceeding 0.75, and factor loadings exceeding 0.70 for most. The model fit indices were also found to be significant on several parameters. Among all other variables, only financial incentives affect electric vehicle adoption. In other circumstances, opinions did not influence customer uptake of electric vehicles.
... In general, the acceptance of any respective system is mainly determined by different attitudes (Schuitema et al., 2010) and influenced by local scheme-specific characteristics (Grisol ıa et al., 2015). According to Eagly and Chaiken (2007) "attitudes represent a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity (such as pricing policies or street transformations) with some degree of favor or disfavor." They also reflect a social norm, which influences how effective people believe policies are, and thus their acceptance (Schade & Schlag, 2003). ...
Article
Urban communities should now build in specific measures, addressing multimodality and fair distribution of public space. The transformation of arterials into multimodal corridors can be a key strategy that will shape new futures. The social acceptance of “push” measure that aim to modify road space allocation have never been examined following quantitative research methods. This study aspires to fill this gap now, as it is inspired by the great debate opened in Athens, Greece about “pop-up” interventions implemented in Panepistimiou Avenue. To explore the social acceptance factors, a rating experiment is designed by developing hypothetical scenarios, which are evaluated by different road users, daily car drivers, motorcycle riders, public transport (PT) users, cyclists, and walkers. A 5-point Likert Scale is utilized, and the collected observations are processed using ordinal logistic regression methods. The main findings suggest that the majority of the participants opted for solutions that ensured a rather equal or balanced space distribution, regardless of their preferred transport mode. Car users were willing to exchange their space, and consequently experience higher travel times for the greater benefit of the city, while public transport users, daily cyclists and walkers recognize the importance to maintain a good level of service for car users too. A surprising finding from this study case is that any increase in a pedestrian area, which is already sufficiently wide, influences negatively social acceptance, while the installation of a cycle lane reports considerably high probability to be accepted from all user groups.
... Attitude refers to the extent to which a person develops a positive or negative perception toward a given behavior (Ajzen 1991). Attitude may be categorized as cognitive (that is, beliefs or knowledge about an attitude object), affective (that is, the feelings or emotions toward an object), and behavioral (that is, the way that a person has influenced his or her behavior) (Eagly and Chaiken 2007). Significant associations between attitude and intention can be found in various settings and contexts, which is evident from a large number of published works. ...
Article
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This study adopted an extended theory of planned behavior to understand how risk perception affected disaster preparedness behavior. An intercept survey (N = 286) was conducted at a typhoon-prone district of Hong Kong, China in 2019, then the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that risk perception and intention of preparedness were predictors of disaster preparedness behavior. Risk perception significantly affected intention of preparedness and the effect was partially mediated by subjective norm. Risk perception also significantly affected attitude and perceived behavioral control, but attitude and perceived behavioral control were not significantly correlated with intention of preparedness. Not only may this study supplement the existing literature of disaster preparedness toward typhoons, but also it provides insights for the planning and management of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction in Hong Kong.
... Dazu gehört, dass a) Einstellungen bewertende Tendenzen sind b) sich diese auf ein Einstellungsobjekt beziehen und c) sie sich von drei verschiedenen Informationsklassen ableiten lassen oder darauf basieren. Bei diesen Informationsklassen handelt es sich um die Affektion, Kognition und Konation (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, 1998, 2007Zanna & Rempel, 1988). Die Forscher Eagly und Chaiken geben auf Basis dieser Annahmen eine der verbreitetsten und aktuellsten Definitionen für Einstellungen: "Attitude is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour" (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, S. 1). ...
... Attitude is defined as a psychological path of evaluating a specific object with favor or disfavor (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). Attitude is established through experiences and may transform when new experiences are obtained (Ajzen, 2005). ...
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The objective of the paper was to analyze the factors influencing the purchase intention of consumers for imported beef in Long Bien district, Hanoi. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed in this study based on an online survey using a structured questionnaire. The data were collected from 388 consumers who bought imported beef or had an intent to buy in the future. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that the factor of perceived quality and the factor of clear information on the packaging with the country of origin were the significant factors that increased purchase intention. These factors also contributed to increasing the positive attitudes towards the consumption of imported beef. Attitudes were also a mediating factor that positively influenced purchase intention. In addition, the availability of the product in the market contributed to the stronger purchase intention towards imported beef.
... It is critical to evaluate REB attitudes toward purchasing local products and services for wildlife conservation in this study because attitudes are a component of endurance. It means that someone who has a favorable opinion of an object, person, thing, or event will continue to have a favorable opinion (Eagly, & Chaiken, 2007). In psychology, emotion refers to the sentiments of happiness, love, fear, fury, or hatred elicited by a current circumstance and capable of influencing action. ...
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In sustainable ecotourism, responsible ecotourist behaviour towards purchasing local products and services is vital to alleviate poverty in local communities and help wildlife conservation. Using an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study investigates the relationship between attitude, anticipated emotion, and environmental concern. This pilot study was conducted to test the reliability of the questionnaire instrument before conducting the actual research. Data collection was conducted in Penang National Park, and questionnaires were distributed face to face among the ecotourist. Samples were obtained using the purposive sampling method. Statistical Software Packages, namely SPSS version 26.0, were used to perform data analysis. The high internal consistency of items among the constructs shows that the questionnaires are reliable in conducting actual research in predicting responsible ecotourist behaviour (Cronbach Alpha value ranges from 0.883 to 0.604).
... Araştırmacılara göre kapsayıcı davranışlar, gözlemcilerin ortaya koyduğu psikolojik (kalıp yargılar gibi) sonuçlardan etkilenmektedir. Daha önce de belirtildiği üzere tutumlar, olumlu/olumsuz değerlendirmeleri içeren psikolojik eğilimleri yansıtmaktadır (Eagly ve Chaiken, 2007). Dolayısıyla, söz konusu sonuçlar aslında engelli çalışanlara yönelik tutumu ortaya koymaktadır. ...
... Early behavioural theories, in particular the theory of reasoned action, posit that attitude influences intention, and that intention is a direct precursor of behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977). Attitude can be expressed as a set of emotions, beliefs and behaviours towards an object, event or situation (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). It is acquired and formed through experience, learning processes and social factors (Frymier & Nadler, 2017). ...
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Aims and objectives: To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument that measures nurses' Attitudes Towards Recognising Early and Noticeable Deterioration (ATREND). Background: General ward nurses play an important role in recognising patient deterioration. However, their attitudes towards early recognition of clinical deterioration have not been adequately explored due to the lack of a valid and reliable scale. Design: An instrument development and validation study. Methods: A three-phase structure that followed the STROBE checklist was used: (1) item generation, (2) content and face validity assessment and (3) psychometric properties evaluation. The scale items were developed based on a comprehensive literature review and content validity assessment by 15 international experts from five countries. The psychometric properties of the ATREND scale were tested on 434 registered nurses, with retest evaluations (n = 100) at two hospitals. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the factor structure of the scale. The scale was also evaluated for its internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity. Results: The scale's content validity was 0.95. A 3-factor solution was identified from the final 11 items: (1) beliefs about importance of patient observation, (2) use of broader patient assessment skills and (3) confidence in recognising clinical deterioration. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was supported with an acceptable Cronbach's alpha value of 0.745. Test-retest reliability of the scale was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.825. The ATREND scale shows evidence of good convergent validity. Conclusion: The final 11-item ATREND scale demonstrates adequate initial evidence of reliability and validity for use in acute ward settings. Relevance to clinical practice: Nursing educators and clinicians may use this scale to assess ward nurses' attitudes and practices towards early recognition of clinical deterioration and then enhance their competencies and behaviours in the recognition of clinical deterioration.
... Attitude is described as an individual's like or dislike towards something (Eagly and Chaiken, 2007). This is an internally driven factor, based on an individual's assessment of certain behaviour. ...
Article
Purpose The objective of the study is to explain how health orientation influences attitude towards paying attention to nutrition claims (NCs), intention to pay attention to NCs, and willingness to buy products containing NCs. Design/methodology/approach In the first study, conducted amongst 770 respondents using the CAWI (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) method, the authors investigated the role of health orientation in explaining intention to pay attention to NCs and willingness to buy products with NCs. The theory of planned behaviour was used as the main theoretical framework. In the second online experiment, carried out amongst 485 respondents, the impact of health orientation on attitude towards the label containing NC and on NC product purchase intention was studied. Findings The authors revealed that health orientation plays a significant (direct and indirect) role in explaining attitude towards paying attention to NCs, and intention to pay attention to NCs, as well as NC product purchase intention. Originality/value Health orientation appeared to be an important determinant of selecting products with NCs. Consumers' intent to choose products containing claims is mainly determined according to their attitudes driven by health orientation and outcome expectancy. Consequently, intention to pay attention to NCs is strongly related to intention to buy products containing claims.
... TPB holds the position that attitudes are the evaluation of the behavior, which can be positive or negative. Eagly and Chaiken (2007) defined attitude as "a psychological path of evaluating a specific object with favor or disfavor". This cost and benefit analysis is referred to attitudes and if the evaluation of a consumer is positive then he/she is expected to involve in such behavior(s) (Lindenberg and Steg, 2007). ...
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Purpose Human health, food safety and environmental concerns are growing issues for policymakers, firms and the general public. Food without chemicals and pesticides is healthy for the human body and hence, relevant motives to promote organic food consumption needs to be explored. This study used three motivational factors, i.e. hedonic, gain and normative motivations proposed by goal-framing theory (GFT) that affect sustainable consumption. Considering the local scenario, constructs like normative triggers and knowledge have also been incorporated into the model. Therefore, this study attempts to explore whether normative triggers and motivations influence the intention to purchase organic food with the application of GFT Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 467 consumers using the purposive sampling technique. The span of the collection of data collection was around five months. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has been applied and after checking the validity and reliability indicators, bootstrapping has been used for hypotheses testing. Findings All the motivational factors were found significant and positive to consumers' intentions toward organic food. Moreover, normative triggers also influence intentions. The construct knowledge was not found in a direct relationship with intentions; however, a moderating role was established between gain motivations and intentions. Research limitations/implications The study validated and extended the concepts presented in the GFT. Motivational constructs were found important and can be implied in low-cost product categories. The policymakers are suggested to take appropriate measures, based on empirical results. Originality/value The study provides an understanding of motivational factors, normative triggers and knowledge in the organic food consumption extent. This will help administrative authorities, marketers and producers of organic food in making their policies, communication strategies and production preferences.
... It is critical to evaluate REB attitudes toward purchasing local products and services for wildlife conservation in this study because attitudes are a component of endurance. It means that someone who has a favourable opinion of an object, person, thing, or event will continue to have a favourable opinion (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). In psychology, emotion refers to the sentiments of happiness, love, fear, fury, or hatred elicited by a current circumstance and capable of influencing action. ...
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In sustainable ecotourism, responsible ecotourist behaviour towards purchasing local products and services is vital to alleviate poverty in local communities and help wildlife conservation. This study was conducted to test the relationship between attitude, anticipated emotion, and environmental concern to predict responsible ecotourist behavioural intention to purchase local products and services for wildlife conservation in Penang National Park. Study samples were obtained using the purposive sampling method, and questionnaires were distributed face to face in Penang National Park. Statistical Software Packages, namely SPSS Amos version 26.0, were used to perform data analysis to run Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Out of the nine hypotheses that have been proposed, 8 of them are supported. The findings of the study found that attitude has a significant relationship with intention, anticipated emotion has a significant relationship to attitude, environmental concern has a significant effect on attitude and anticipated emotion, and environmental concern has no significant effect on intention. Mediation analysis found that attitude is a mediator between anticipated emotion and intention, and attitude is also a mediator between environmental concern and intention. Mediation analysis also found that anticipated emotion is a mediator between the relationship of environmental concern and intention. This study is critical in assisting stakeholders in the ecotourism industry in planning an effective marketing strategy to promote local products and services.
... Attitude can be defined as the favorable or unfavorable psychological reaction an individual shows towards a specific object or behavior (Eagly & Chaiken, 2007). Regarding environmentallyfriendly product buying behavior, attitude is defined as the degree to which consumers evaluate environmentally friendly products to be either positive or negative (Chen & Deng, 2016). ...
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The clothing industry is a high-growth industry that is attractive to be occupied by the business. However, behind its appeal, this industry brings harmful impacts to the environment. The fashion industry is considered the 2nd most destructive industry in the world. Environmental damage due to industry occurs not only in the production process but also in consumption and disposal. As the growth of this industry cannot be separated from consumer intervention, efforts to improve the environmental impact caused by this industry also require consumers’ role. Consumers can improve the environment through their consumption choices, such as replacing the usual products with more sustainable products. Therefore, it is essential to discover what factors can encourage consumers to consume more environmentally friendly apparel. This study intends to explore consumer motivation in deciding to buy environmentally friendly apparel by applying the extended theory of planned behavior. As an extension, this study includes two additional variables, namely environmental concern and environmental knowledge. This study involved 407 respondents who have followed some environmentally friendly apparel brands. The collected data would then be analyzed with smartPLS 3.0. The result of the study showed that all variables are proven to be significant in influencing consumers’ purchase intention for environmentally-friendly apparel, except for environmental concern, which influence is indirect through attitude. The result of this study gives new insight into what shapes the intention of buying environmentally-friendly apparel.
... La prise en compte des attitudes est primordiale car ces dernières influencent la manière dont les individus perçoivent le monde, leur mode de pensée ainsi que leurs comportements 84 . Une revue de littérature récente s'est intéressée aux attitudes des professionnels de santé envers la médecine de précision du cancer 85 87 montrent que, même chez les professionnels de santé, les connaissances nécessaires à l'interprétation et à l'implémentation de ces tests dans la pratique de soin courante sont jugées comme étant insuffisantes. ...
... The overall study design was guided by the Tripartite Model of Attitude Structure [43], as revised by Eagly and Chaiken [44]. The final national survey was the result of formative research and community-engaged efforts to ensure that study implementation was culturally appropriate and targeted to AAs. ...
Article
Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial group in the USA, but their health disparities are often overlooked. Although their needs for transplantable organs are substantial, they have the lowest rates of organ donation per million compared to other Americans by race. To better understand Asian Americans’ disposition toward organ donation, a self-administered survey was developed based on formative data collection and guidance from a Community Advisory Board composed of Asian American stakeholders. The instrument was deployed online, and quota sampling based on the 2017 American Community Survey was used to achieve a sample representative (N = 899) of the Asian American population. Bivariate tests using logistic regression and the chi-square test of independence were performed. Over half (58.1%) of respondents were willing to be organ donors. A majority (81.8%) expressed a willingness to donate a family member’s organs, but enthusiasm depended on the family member’s donor wishes. Only 9.5% of respondents indicated that the decision to donate their organs was theirs alone to make; the remainder would involve at least one other family member. Other key sociodemographic associations were found. This study demonstrates both the diversity of Asian Americans but also the centrality of the family’s role in making decisions about organ donation. Practice and research considerations for the field are also presented.
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THE EFFECT OF PARENTS ON THE FORMATION OF RIGID POLITICAL ATTITUDES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY: THE CASE OF ISPARTA PROVINCE Abstract Especially in recent years, political polarization is one of the issues that are on the agenda of Turkey and that is given importance by the relevant researchers. The polarization environment is formed due to the attitudes of individuals who adopt different political views in the society, just because of their different political ideas, show a strict attitude to each other, break the communication link between them, and move away from each other. To find a solution to this political polarization that harms the integrity of society, it is necessary to examine the factors that cause the formation of rigid political attitudes. In this respect, in this article, the role of parents, which is one of the many psychological, socioeconomic and cultural factors that cause individuals to be prone to rigid political attitudes, will be discussed. In this context, firstly, a theoretical framework was drawn by making use of the literature review on the subject of attitudes and the effect of the family on political attitudes. Then, the survey questions prepared for the author's master's thesis research were applied to 521 participants who were voters of the province of Isparta. The data obtained from here were calculated with the IBM SPSS 20 program, and based on the findings, it was determined that one of the factors that had a significant effect on the formation of rigid political attitudes was the role of the family. Keywords: Rigid Political Attitudes, Political Polarization, Political Psychology, Influence of the family.
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Qualitative research has currently become prominent in various fields, including that of counseling psychology. In recent years, qualitative research training has been offered in some counseling psychology graduate programs in Thailand and some existing studies have suggested that there is a link between qualitative research training offered and the number of qualitative research theses conducted. However, there is a paucity of research that specifically investigates counseling psychology graduates’ motivations of undertaking qualitative research, as such, it is not yet clear what actually influences the choice of undertaking a qualitative research thesis. Thus, one of the aim of this study was to address such knowledge gap. Five graduates of counseling psychology who completed a qualitative research thesis took part in semi�structured interviews and the interview transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Two superordinate themes in relation to motivations of undertaking qualitative research were identified. The first superordinate theme, ‘The influence of past research training environment’, demonstrated how participants’ previous research training background played a significant part in shaping their prior attitudes toward qualitative research. The second superordinate theme, ‘The significant role of qualitative research training’, detailed how qualitative research training served as a catalyst for the route toward qualitative thesis research. The results highlighted the need for qualitative research training to be a core element in research training in counseling psychology, not only for enhancing students’ interest and competence in qualitative research, but also for promoting methodological diversity and advancing psychological knowledge.
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The United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) champion responsible management education and research globally by instilling social responsibility values in students through teaching, research, and service. As investment capital shifts toward sustainable opportunities and companies recognize the limitations of an exclusive focus on shareholders (to the exclusion of broader stakeholders), the demand for social responsibility focused students has increased. How can business schools meet the dual challenge of recognizing those students with strong global sustainability perceptions, while encouraging those without those perceptions to shift? Our empirical approach uses a freed measurement model to offer a holistic understanding of the precursors of students’ perceptions of ethics and social responsibility. We provide actionable steps for business schools in implementing new pedagogical interventions that provide individualized approaches for increasing students’ perceptions of social responsibility. For students without strong prosocial values, we propose improving their perceptions of social responsibility indirectly through changing attitudes or directly via value system rank order change.
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Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Fokusgruppen werden in der qualitativen Forschung und zunehmend auch in der Gesundheits- und Pflegewissenschaft eingesetzt. Es ist bisher nicht untersucht worden, wie Fokusgruppen in diesem Kontext eingesetzt und berichterstattet werden. Um dies zu untersuchen, wurde ein Scoping Review durchgeführt. Methoden In den Datenbanken MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL und SSCI wurde nach pflege- und gesundheitswissenschaftlichen Publikationen (2009-2019) recherchiert, die Fokusgruppen als Methode angeben. Aufgrund der hohen Trefferzahl wurde eine einprozentige Zufallsstichprobe pro Datenbank gezogen. Zwei Personen prüften die Ein- und Ausschlusskriterien. Die Datenextraktion erfolgte anhand einer literaturbasiert entwickelten und mit Expert*innen diskutierten Matrix. Die Ergebnisse wurden inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet und quantifiziert. Ergebnisse Die Zufallsstichprobe betrug n = 408 Publikationen, wovon nach Prüfung der Ein- und Ausschlusskriterien n = 319 eingeschlossen wurden. Am häufigsten wird der Einsatz semi-strukturierter Interviewleitfäden berichtet (43,9%, in den Publikationen häufiger als focus group interview bezeichnet) – offene Verfahren (11%) und Verfahren ganz ohne Leitfanden (6,3%) wurden deutlich seltener berichtet (in den Publikationen häufiger als focus group discussion bezeichnet). In keiner Publikation wurde die Interaktion in die Analyse einbezogen. Obschon sich die Berichterstattung an internationalen Standards orientiert, werden einige spezifische methodische Aspekte häufig unzureichend oder gar nicht berichtet: In 92% der Publikationen gibt es keine Angaben zur Interaktion der Teilnehmenden und in 72% wird die Rolle der moderierenden Person nicht näher beschrieben. Diskussion Semi-strukturierte Formen von Fokusgruppen überwiegen, aber es werden auch offene Formen mit nur einer Einstiegsfrage umgesetzt. Es wäre zu erwarten gewesen, dass bei den offeneren Ansätzen die Interaktion unter den Teilnehmenden und gruppendynamische Prozesse bei der Auswertung der Fokusgruppen stärker berücksichtigt werden. Die Entwicklung methodenspezifischer Berichtspunkte für Fokusgruppen steht noch aus. Dies könnte zu einer Verbesserung der Berichterstattung und kritischen Reflexion insbesondere methodenspezifischer Aspekte beitragen. International finden sich Hinweise auf eine unterschiedliche Nomenklatur je nach Typ der Fokusgruppe. Forscherinnen und Forscher sollten die Bezeichnung sorgfältig wählen und das Vorgehen präzise beschreiben. Fazit Der Scoping Review gibt erste Hinweise auf Durchführung und Berichterstattung von Fokusgruppen in der gesundheits- und pflegewissenschaftlichen Forschung. Das Potential der Methode könnte stärker ausgeschöpft werden im Hinblick auf die Analyse der Gruppeninteraktion. Künftige methodische Arbeiten, die sich mit der Methode Fokusgruppe auseinandersetzen, sollten die Etablierung einer international verbindlichen Nomenklatur und sowie Kriterien für eine transparente Berichterstattung für unterschiedliche Typen von Fokusgruppen vorantreiben.
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Background: While current public policy scholarship can take advantage of a decades-long accumulated knowledge base on the relationship between evidence and policy, it is hard to keep the overview across different literatures. Over time, the ever more differentiated branches of public policy research have developed their own perspectives, languages, and conceptualisations of ‘evidence’ and ‘policy’, as well as their connections. Aims and objectives: Existing reviews have stressed that studies often do not provide clear definitions of ‘policy’ or ‘evidence’, and have outlined the importance of investigating underlying conceptualisations in the literature. Against this backdrop, this article investigates how present-day public policy scholarship approaches the concepts of ‘evidence’, ‘policy’, and their connections. Methods: We conducted a qualitative systematic review following the PRISMA method. Using a keyword search, we identified relevant articles (n=85) in eleven Q1 and Q2 policy journals included in Web of Science in the period 2015 to 2019. Findings: The synthesis confirms that ‘evidence’ and ‘policy’ are often not clearly defined, yet different trends regarding understandings can be identified. There are two approaches taken on the evidence and policy connection: a ‘use of evidence’ or a ‘use for policy’ perspective. Discussion and conclusions: Research on evidence and policy would benefit from more explicit conceptual discussions. This review may provide a heuristic for explicating conceptual choices when working with the notions of ‘evidence’, ‘policy’, and their connections. It also suggests several avenues that are worth exploring in future research.
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Current corporate crisis literature is split on whether a good corporate reputation before a product harm crisis hurts or helps a company after the crisis. We argue that the current views on this issue miss two crucial elements: (1) the primary domain where the company's precrisis reputation lies in: corporate social responsibility contributions or corporate ability in providing quality products and services; and (2) consumers' attitude certainty developed from such precrisis reputation. Through an online experiment, our study not only provides a way to reconcile the current division in the literature but also provides insights for organizations to capitalize on their precrisis reputation when responding to the product harm crisis. Our results show that companies' precrisis reputation and consumer certainty developed from such a reputation matter more than companies' postcrisis communication in restoring consumer evaluations.
Article
Purpose Gift-givers are often confronted with the possibility of choosing gifts that are inconsistent with their own attitudes (“attitude-inconsistent gifts”). For example, a gun opposer may be faced with the possibility of choosing gun paraphernalia as a gift, and a vegetarian might be forced to consider the possibility of choosing a steakhouse gift card as a gift. This study aims to compare givers’ decision-making when they are confronted with the possibility of choosing attitude-inconsistent gifts with their decision-making when they are faced with the possibility of choosing gifts that are neither inconsistent nor consistent with their attitudes (“attitude-neutral gifts”). Design/methodology/approach Seven experimental studies test the hypotheses. These studies have participants make decisions as givers and use a variety of gifts, giver-recipient relationships, gifting occasions and dependent variables, as well as both consequential and hypothetical decisions. Findings Givers strategically avoid choosing attitude-inconsistent (vs attitude-neutral) gifts, even when they believe that these kinds of gifts are the ones that recipients desire the most. This aversion emerges because givers anticipate that choosing an attitude-inconsistent (vs attitude-neutral) gift would cause them to experience a higher level of psychological discomfort. Research limitations/implications This research documents a novel gift-giving phenomenon (givers’ aversion to attitude-inconsistent gifts), one of the most widespread forms of intentional preference-mismatching in gift-giving (givers’ avoidance of attitude-inconsistent gifts when they believe that these kinds of gifts are the ones that recipients desire the most), and a psychological mechanism that has a strong influence on givers’ decision-making but was yet to be explored in the gift-giving literature (givers’ anticipations of psychological discomfort). Collectively, these facets improve the field’s understanding of consumer gift-giving and call into question the assumption that gift-giving is aimed predominantly at pleasing the recipient. Practical implications This research suggests that if gift-givers want to be more financially efficient, they should refrain from contemplating the feelings of psychological discomfort that they would experience from choosing an attitude-inconsistent gift and instead focus on selecting the gift that the recipient desires the most. Moreover, it indicates that gift-givers’ tendency to avoid preferred, attitude-inconsistent gifts can have undesirable social and well-being consequences. Finally, it suggests that firms’ bottom lines may be harmed by givers’ aversion to attitude-inconsistent gifts, and that firms selling products that are likely attitude-inconsistent for segments of consumers should think carefully about advertising those products as gifts. Originality/value The gift-giving literature has recently documented multiple cases of givers intentionally refraining from choosing the gifts that they believe best match recipients’ preferences. Yet, the present work shows that there was a considerable gap in this segment of the gift-giving literature. Specifically, the present research documents a previously unexplored, but highly common, instance in which intentional preference-mismatching in gift-giving occurs: whenever a potential gift is attitude-inconsistent. Moreover, this work sheds light on a psychological mechanism that plays an important role in givers’ decision-making but was yet to be explored in the gift-giving literature: givers’ anticipated feelings of psychological discomfort.
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Background: With regard to attitudes towards pain, many questionnaires have been developed. Although undoubtedly useful, they were specifically designed for the use in chronic pain and are less suitable for the assessment in the general population. The purpose of the present paper was to develop a measure for the assessment of general attitudes towards pain applicable in the general population, regardless of clinical condition, and to test its psychometric properties. Methods: We developed the General Attitudes Towards Pain Inventory and conducted two studies in order to provide psychometric data: In a general population sample (N = 362, study one), participants were asked to complete a questionnaire battery. To assess test-retest reliability, participants were contacted again after four weeks (retest sample: N = 101). For the evaluation of criterion validity (study two), a sample with sadomasochistic sexual preference (N = 68) was additionally recruited. Results: Statistical analyses revealed, overall, acceptable internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities. A ten-factor model showed acceptable fit and was superior to alternative models. The inventory demonstrated convergent and divergent validity. In this context, we found pain sensitivity to be associated with pain attitudes. Finally, compared to the general population sample, individuals with sadomasochistic sexual preference showed significantly higher scores on fascination-pleasure and challenge subscales. Conclusions: In the present paper, we introduce a new and comprehensive instrument for pain research and provide evidence for its reliability and validity. In addition, we present new insights into how interindividual differences in pain sensitivity relate to pain attitudes.
Article
Aim: Few studies have compared attitudes to coercion in both patients and healthcare professionals, and the Staff Attitude to Coercion Scale (SACS) has not previously been used in Norway. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences in staff and patient attitudes using SACS. Method: The study included 1160 employees and 332 patients. Factor analysis was used to compare SACS's three-factor model across the two groups. Independent t-tests were used to compare staff and patient attitudes on the three SACS dimensions: coercion as potentially offensive and/or harmful to the patient, coercion as care and safety, and coercion as treatment. Results: We found statistically significant differences between staff and patients' reported attitudes on two SACS dimensions. Patients reported coercion as more offensive and/or harmful than did with staff (t (495) = 7.96, p <.001). Staff reported coercion as care and safety to a higher degree than did patients (t (444) = -5.91, p <.001). Conclusion: The results suggest the presence of attitudinal differences between patients and staff. One limitation of the study is that SACS has not been validated for use by patients. Generally, the results imply a discrepancy in attitudes that may lead to a weak treatment alliance between staff and patients. Keywords: coercion, mental health care, ethical challenges, SACS, staff-patient alliance.
Thesis
Cette étude porte sur la pénibilité du travail et s'intéresse plus particulièrement à la pénibilité psychique. Elle a pour objectif la distinction de la pénibilité psychique de la dimension physique dans tout secteur d'activité et la compréhension de ses articulations avec le stress et l'épuisement professionnel afin de mieux saisir ses enjeux. Ainsi, 39 salariés d’une industrie agroalimentaire et 32 salariés d'une entreprise de prestation de services ont pris part à cette étude. Les analyses ont diagnostiqué la présence de la pénibilité psychique dans les deux secteurs d'activité et les résultats montrent qu'elle constitue l'un des prédicteurs du stress et de l'épuisement professionnel. Cette pénibilité est distincte de la pénibilité physique, se caractérise à la société agroalimentaire P par les facteurs indirects liés à l'activité, tels que le poids de la responsabilité relatif au poste occupé, l'inexpérience dans un poste de travail, la crainte de commettre une erreur à lourde conséquence pour l'entreprise et l’hyper vigilance imposée par le rythme de la machine ; et à la chambre consulaire professionnelle A, elle se caractérise par une forte pression de travail liée au travail de dernière minute, aux contraintes de délais très courts, au travail dans l'urgence, à une charge de travail importante associée à l'ajout régulier des dossiers, à un style de management trop directif, à une organisation du travail inappropriée et au manque de reconnaissance du travail de certaines catégories socioprofessionnelles par la hiérarchie. En outre, la satisfaction au travail et le sens du travail participent à la variabilité interindividuelle de la pénibilité psychique
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Background Negative attitudes toward mental disorders are not only an interpersonal issue but also a concern of mental health care. Given that nursing students are future health care providers, it is pivotal to improve their attitudes toward individuals with mental disorders prior to their transition into clinical practice. However, research on nursing students’ attitudes in relation to schizophrenia in Taiwan remains unexplored. Aim The aim of this article is to examine the correlates of attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia among Taiwanese undergraduate nursing students. Method A descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional study was adopted. Self-reported questionnaires were conducted with a convenience sample of 306 Taiwanese undergraduate nursing students. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlations, and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. Results Nursing students expressed negative attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia. Nursing students, who were female, had contact with individuals with mental disorders, and expressed greater empathy and personality traits held more favorable attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia. The study found that empathy, personality traits, and academic year were the most crucial attributes contributing to attitudes of nursing students toward individuals with schizophrenia. Conclusion Findings suggest that nursing education programs with empathy- and personality-tailored modules in mental health are pivotal to provide humanistic approaches with supportive attitudes regarding schizophrenia.
Article
This work describes the evaluation of the Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI), as well as two modifications (one for measuring attitude toward math and one for measuring attitude toward biology), for college students at a Hispanic Serving Institution. Instrument reliability was tested via multiple administrations of the instruments, and confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure similar to an existing model of a revised version of the ASCI for all three instruments. The similar factor structure of the three instruments, coupled with interviews with students, provide validity evidence for the instruments and support an interpretation that one of the subscales aligns with a cognitive aspect of attitude while the other subscale aligns with an affective aspect. The results of these instruments indicate that students have a more positive attitude toward biology than either chemistry or math, and more positive affective attitude than cognitive attitude for all three subjects, although student attitudes show little change with respect to biology, chemistry, or math during a typical semester. However, major perturbations, such as switching to remote instruction midsemester, can lead to small but significant increases and decreases in attitude.
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The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive model and investigate the relationship between identified factors of green marketing strategies and green consumer behavior, such as green brand positioning (GBP), green brand knowledge (GBK), attitude toward green brands (ATGB), willingness to pay (WTP) a premium, and green purchase intention (GPI). A questionnaire survey was deployed to collect data from the young consumers, from 600 students studying at nine state universities of India by employing stratified random sampling method. The results of the study suggest that a firm's green marketing strategies had an impact on green consumer behavior. The study found that GBP and GBK affect consumers green brand attitudes separately. Similarly, consumers green brand attitudes influence GPI. Meanwhile, WTP premium significantly moderates relationship between attitude toward green brand and GPI. The findings of this study suggest that marketing managers should consider a firm's GBP strategy as an important component in developing promotional messages that generate positive customer responses to the firm's green initiatives. A well‐implemented GBP strategy can lead to a more favorable GBK among consumers. As a result, it would assist in the development and promotion of green brands for businesses.
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Design of advertising stimuli is critical for marketing, especially to destinations which have limited exposure to visitors. Existing studies postulate the design of advertising affects the amount and valence of thoughts (Cognition), thought confidence (Metacognition) and attitudes towards a destination. Despite this, limited research has considered the influence of emotional arousal and perceived credibility of advertising on cognition, metacognition and attitude. This research implemented a two-by-two experimental design to examine how cognition, metacognition and attitude differ across different levels of emotional arousal and perceived credibility of an advertisement of Iran. Results demonstrate participants showed higher cognitive engagement with the advertisement and more thought confidence and developed more favourable thinking and attitude to Iran in response to a highly credible and emotionally arousing tourism stimulus. A key contribution of this research is that high emotional arousal evokes more favourable cognition, metacognition and attitude towards a destination.
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We examined how individuals’ implicit biases and explicit attitudes toward the poor may be associated with the types of social programs people chose to give to. Participants included 112 students. When people believed that poverty is due to internal causes (e.g., people are lazy) or if they held implicit biases that the poor are irresponsible, they were more likely to avoid unconditional cash transfer (UCT) or in-kind donation (IKD) and choose conditional cash transfer. When people believed that poverty is due to external (e.g., poor economy) or cultural causes (e.g., born poor), they were more likely to choose UCT or IKD. People’s affective/positive feelings toward the poor using implicit and explicit measures were not associated with donation choice. Our study highlighted differences between affective feelings versus cognitive beliefs about the poor, and that both implicit and explicit forms of cognitive beliefs can be associated with one’s giving choices.
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This experiment examined the reasoning process by which novel attitudes are deduced from existing evaluations. Participants deduced an attitude toward a specific news item (concerning penal reform or sex discrimination) from existing attitudes on more general issues (capital punishment or equal rights for women and men, respectively) by spontaneously accessing the general attitude and generating thoughts about the news items that supported their evaluations on the general issue. Furthermore, participants engaged in this reasoning process only when: (a) their general attitudes were structurally consistent and provided a coherent basis for thinking about the new issue, and (b) the news item was framed to be directly relevant to the broader issue.
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Most theories treat attitudes as enduring evaluative tendencies; the dispositional focus enjoys intuitive appeal because it is compatible with observers’ preference for dispositional explanations (aka fundamental attribution error). From the actor’s perspective, evaluation stands in the service of action. Any adaptive system of evaluation needs to be highly sensitive to the specifics of the present, turning deplorable “context dependency” into laudable “context sensitivity.” Attitude construal theories conceptualize the context sensitivity of evaluative judgment and provide a parsimonious account of core findings of the attitude literature without assuming enduring dispositions; their assumptions are compatible with theories of situated cognition.
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Analyzed data on the job satisfaction of over 5,000 45–59 yr old males to investigate the dispositional argument that job attitudes are consistent within individuals, showing stability both over time and across situations. Data were collected longitudinally over multiple waves, with the majority of the sample assessed on job satisfaction during 1966, 1969, and 1971. Results show significant stability of attitudes over a 5-yr time period and significant cross-situational consistency when individuals changed employers and/or occupations. Prior attitudes were also a stronger predictor of subsequent job satisfaction than either changes in pay or the social status of the job. Implications of these results for developing dispositional theories of work behavior are discussed, along with possible implications for popular situational theories (e.g., job design, social information processing). (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter, we consider the social nature of attitudes. Our focus differs from the other chapters in this book, which instead emphasize intra-individual attitudinal processes in settings that involve only limited social interaction. In social influence paradigms, attitudes typically are studied in relatively rich social settings that implicate interaction with others. When influence is social, people not only are interested in understanding reality--the prominent motive studied in message-based persuasion research, but also are oriented to relate to others and to adopt a favored self-view. People also might be concerned about the consistency of their attitudes with others, and we briefly consider this motive after discussing how people strive to understand, relate, and be themselves in influence settings. In conducting the present review, we were struck by how much people's responses to social influence appear to be goal directed and how closely these goals fit a small set of motives. A recurring theme throughout the chapter is the ways in which people use information provided by others, especially information from a consensus of others, in order to achieve social and informational goals. Social consensus refers to the agreed-upon judgments, feelings, and actions of a significant group, typically a majority of others. The chapter is structured so that, after reviewing the motives in influence settings that orient people to consider consensus views, we then evaluate the information-processing mechanisms that underlie social influence. Then, as examples of how people respond to consensus, we consider research on group polarization and minority influence. We also consider the dynamics of influence processes, especially the determinants and consequences of changing consensual views within a group. A dynamic account of the give and take that occurs as group members exert influence on each other raises issues of larger-scale societal and cultural factors in social influence. Our discussion of these societal factors concludes with a critical analysis of contemporary research on social influence and its historical roots. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How we think about the representation of attitudes has a profound impact on how we think about attitudes themselves, attitude change, and the attitude-behavior relationship. In this article, we briefly review the model of attribute representation in a distributed, connectionist memory system, which portrays attitudes as time-dependent states of the system rather than as static "things" that are "stored" in memory. This model is particularly well-suited to addressing some of the field's most pressing questions about the multiplicity of attitudes and their stability (or instability) over time. We address several of these questions from the distributed, connectionist perspective, concluding that the new model renders some questions meaningless, suggests straightforward answers to others, and hints at exciting new hypotheses about the answers to still others.
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Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model's contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual's encountering the attitude object. The implications of the theoretical perspective for a number of recent discussions related to the attitude concept are elaborated. Among these issues are the notion of attitudes as "constructions," the presumed malleability of automatically-activated attitudes, correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and postulated dual or multiple attitudes.
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Fazio, Sanbonmatsu, Powell, and Kardes (1986) demonstrated that Ss were able to evaluate adjectives more quickly when these adjectives were immediately preceded (primed) by attitude objects of similar valence, compared with when these adjectives were primed by attitude objects of opposite valence. Moreover, this effect obtained primarily for attitude objects toward which Ss were presumed to hold highly accessible attitudes, as indexed by evaluation latency. The present research explored the generality of these findings across attitude objects and across procedural variations. The results of 3 experiments indicated that the automatic activation effect is a pervasive and relatively unconditional phenomenon. It appears that most evaluations stored in memory, for social and nonsocial objects alike, become active automatically on the mere presence or mention of the object in the environment.
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The genetic basis of individual differences in attitudes was examined in a survey of 195 pairs of monozygotic twins and 141 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins. A principal components analysis of the 30 attitude items in the survey identified 9 attitude factors, of which 6 yielded significant heritability coefficients. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for the most variance in the attitude factors. Possible mediators of attitude heritability were also assessed, including personality traits, physical characteristics, and academic achievement. Analyses showed that several of these possible mediators correlated at a genetic level with the heritable attitude factors, suggesting that the heritability of the mediator variables might account for part of the heritable components of some attitudes. There was also some evidence that highly heritable attitudes were psychologically "stronger" than less heritable attitudes.
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Behavioral scientists have long sought measures of important psychological constructs that avoid response biases and other problems associated with direct reports. Recently, a large number of such indirect, or "implicit," measures have emerged. We review research that has utilized these measures across several domains, including attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes, and discuss their predictive validity, their interrelations, and the mechanisms presumably underlying their operation. Special attention is devoted to various priming measures and the Implicit Association Test, largely due to their prevalence in the literature. We also attempt to clarify several unresolved theoretical and empirical issues concerning implicit measures, including the nature of the underlying constructs they purport to measure, the conditions under which they are most likely to relate to explicit measures, the kinds of behavior each measure is likely to predict, their sensitivity to context, and the construct's potential for change.
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The authors argue that the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A.G. Greenwald, D.E. McGhee, & J.L.K. Schwartz, 1998) can be contaminated by associations that do not contribute to one's evaluation of an attitude object and thus do not become activated when one encounters the object but that are nevertheless available in memory. The authors propose a variant of the IAT that reduces the contamination of these "extrapersonal associations." Consistent with the notion that the traditional version of the IAT is affected by society's negative portrayal of minority groups, the "personalized" IAT revealed relatively less racial prejudice among Whites in Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiments 3 and 4, the personalized IAT correlated more strongly with explicit measures of attitudes and behavioral intentions than did the traditional IAT. The feasibility of disentangling personal and extrapersonal associations is discussed.
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This article describes a 2-systems model that explains social behavior as a joint function of reflective and impulsive processes. In particular, it is assumed that social behavior is controlled by 2 interacting systems that follow different operating principles. The reflective system generates behavioral decisions that are based on knowledge about facts and values, whereas the impulsive system elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations. The proposed model describes how the 2 systems interact at various stages of processing, and how their outputs may determine behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. It extends previous models by integrating motivational components that allow more precise predictions of behavior. The implications of this reflective-impulsive model are applied to various phenomena from social psychology and beyond. Extending previous dual-process accounts, this model is not limited to specific domains of mental functioning and attempts to integrate cognitive, motivational, and behavioral mechanisms.
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The authors argue that implicit measures of social cognition do not reflect only automatic processes but rather the joint contributions of multiple, qualitatively different processes. The quadruple process model proposed and tested in the present article quantitatively disentangles the influences of 4 distinct processes on implicit task performance: the likelihood that automatic bias is activated by a stimulus; that a correct response can be determined; that automatic bias is overcome; and that, in the absence of other information, a guessing bias drives responses. The stochastic and construct validity of the model is confirmed in 5 studies. The model is shown to provide a more nuanced and detailed understanding of the interplay of multiple processes in implicit task performance, including implicit measures of attitudes, prejudice, and stereotyping.
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A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes. Whereas associative processes are characterized by mere activation independent of subjective truth or falsity, propositional reasoning is concerned with the validation of evaluations and beliefs. The proposed associative-propositional evaluation (APE) model makes specific assumptions about the mutual interplay of the 2 processes, implying several mechanisms that lead to symmetric or asymmetric changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. The model integrates a broad range of empirical evidence and implies several new predictions for implicit and explicit attitude change.
Article
An evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with 4 characteristics is proposed. (a) The fear module is preferentially activated in aversive contexts by stimuli that are fear relevant in an evolutionary perspective. (b) Its activation to such stimuli is automatic. (c) It is relatively impenetrable to cognitive control. (d) It originates in a dedicated neural circuitry, centered on the amygdala. Evidence supporting these propositions is reviewed from conditioning studies, both in humans and in monkeys; illusory correlation studies; studies using unreportable stimuli; and studies from animal neuroscience. The fear module is assumed to mediate an emotional level of fear learning that is relatively independent and dissociable from cognitive learning of stimulus relationships.
Article
Evaluated the validity of a prevalent model of attitude structure that specifies 3 components: affect, behavior, and cognition. Five conditions needed for properly testing the 3-component distinction were identified. Consideration of the tripartite model's theoretical basis indicated that the most important validating conditions are (a) the use of nonverbal, in addition to verbal, measures of affect and behavior; and (b) the physical presence of the attitude object. Study 1--in which 138 undergraduates attitudes toward snakes were examined, through the use of measures such as the Mood Adjective Check List, semantic differential, and distance of approach--indicated very strong support for this tripartite model. The model was statistically acceptable, its relative fit was very good, and the intercomponent correlations were moderate. Study 2, with 105 Ss, was a verbal report analog of Study 1. Results from Study 2 indicate that higher intercomponent correlations occurred when attitude measures derived solely from verbal reports and when the attitude object was not physically present. (74 ref) ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
Article
The present article provides an analysis of the attitude construct from the perspective of the Associative-Prepositional Evaluation Model (APE Model). It is argued that evaluative responses should be understood in terms of their underlying mental processes: associative and propositional processes. Whereas associative processes are characterized by mere activation, independent of subjective truth or falsity, propositional reasoning is concerned with the validation of evaluations and beliefs. Associative processes are claimed to provide the basis for primitive affective reactions; propositional processes are assumed to form the basis for evaluative judgments. Implications of this conceptualization for a variety of questions are discussed, such as automatic features of attitudes, processes of attitude formation and change, attitude representation in memory, context-sensitivity and stability of attitudes, and the difference between personal and cultural evaluations.
Article
Verplanken, Hofstee, and Janssen (1998) found that the affective component of attitude is accessed more readily than the cognitive. Three studies further examined these findings in the light of two competing explanations: affective primacy, which states that emotional material is inherently more accessible than cognitive; and evaluative primacy, which states that emotional material is more accessible only if it is inherently more evaluative or supports the overall evaluative basis of attitude. Study 1 measured the accessibility of cognitive and affective traits while equalizing the evaluative nature of these traits. This study found a speed advantage for affective traits, but the attitude objects in this study turned out to be mainly affectively based. Studies 2 and 3, using a mixture of affectively and cognitively based objects, found that the speed advantage for affective terms was only found among affectively based objects; Study 3 also found a speed advantage for cognitive terms among cognitively based objects, and additionally found that individual differences in attitude basis explained part of this interaction. Collectively, these studies show that while affective material may be accessed more quickly than cognitive, this is most true when overall evaluation is based on affect rather than cognition. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Three experiments examined the sequence of cognitive processes that mediate the impact of a persuasive message on behavioral decisions. When participants could concentrate on the message content, they first estimated the likelihood of each behavioral outcome described in the message and then evaluated its desirability. They later used these outcome-specific beliefs and evaluations to compute an overall attitude toward the behavior, which influenced their behavioral intentions and their actual behavioral decisions. When participants were distracted from thinking carefully about the message content, they were more likely to use the message-relevant affect they were experiencing as a basis for their attitudes toward the behavior; these attitudes influenced their estimates of the likelihood and desirability of the behavior’s outcomes. Giving participants more time to think about the implications of the message eliminated the effects of distraction on the impact of argument strength and decreased the influence of the affect they were experiencing.
Article
Political democracy assumes that citizens can form consistent political attitudes that guide their political actions, thereby communicating political preferences to elites. Responding to the longstanding debate about the democratic competence of the U.S. mass public, we use a multitiered framework of opinion formation to describe the structure of mass opinion, showing that the mass public displays relatively consistent responses across multiple issues and uses these to evaluate presidential candidates. Confirmatory factor analysis allows us to examine multiple models of political attitudes, showing the best fit to be three positively correlated general orientations for economic, social, and racial issues. We find no significant racial or educational differences in the structuring of these attitudes but some evidence of “race-coding” of economic issues and class differences in levels of support for economic and social liberalism. Liberal/conservative self-identification operates as a basic structuring principle for organizing these general orientations with liberals and conservatives assigning different salience to specific issues. These general political orientations, in turn, influence presidential evaluations net of party loyalties. Although the mass public may not be ideologically sophisticated, it is “deliberative and reasonable” in its political thinking and, in this sense, democratically competent.
Article
This experiment examined the reasoning process by which novel attitudes are deduced from existing evaluations. Participants deduced an attitude toward a specific news item (concerning penal reform or sex discrimination) from existing attitudes on more general issues (capital punishment or equal rights for women and men, respectively) by spontaneously accessing the general attitude and generating thoughts about the news items that supported their evaluations on the general issue. Furthermore, participants engaged in this reasoning process only when: (a) their general attitudes were structurally consistent and provided a coherent basis for thinking about the new issue, and (b) the news item was framed to be directly relevant to the broader issue.
Book
Excerpts available on Google Books (see link below). For more information, go to publisher's website : http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780805822335/
Article
Applies a theory of information integration to attitudes and social judgments, based on a principle of information integration. Exact tests based on analysis of variance are given for 4 applications of a simple but general algebraic model of judgment, and these applications are reconsidered under the further restriction imposed by the averaging hypothesis. Qualitative comparisons are made to several other theories of attitude change. Molar and molecular analyses of communication structure are considered briefly and the analysis of inconsistency resolution within integration theory is discussed. It is concluded that integration theory has had reasonable success in the areas of learning, perception, judgment, decision making, and personality impressions, as well as attitude change. It may thus provide a beginning to a unified general theory. (6 p. ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
proposes a conceptualization of attitude strength that links strength to a basic understanding of attitude itself / begin by giving a definition of attitude, which leads directly to an interpretation of attitude strength as a structural variable / the consequence of attitude strength that we emphasize is resistance to change: strong attitudes do not readily change / this principle may appear simple, but it camouflages an underlying psychology of some complexity—specifically, a set of mechanisms by which people resist change / argue that the likelihood that particular mechanisms appear depends not merely on attitude strength, but on the particular structural configuration that underlies an attitude's strength / however, resistance to change is not the only important consequence of attitude strength / strong attitudes are also relatively persistent over time and predictive of overt behavior, and they exert selective effects on information processing provides an integrative theory of attitude strength and its several consequences by means of [an intra and inter] structural interpretation of strength and the treatment of resistance as strength's critical consequence techniques by which strong attitudes are changed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book is designed for the teacher and the student who are primarily interested in the science of psychology as a systematic, interpretive account of human behavior and who are interested in applying the science of psychology to current social issues. In attempting to meet these requirements the authors have not found it necessary to keep two sets of readers in mind or to treat the subject matter of this book from two points of view. The basic guiding principle has been that a theoretically sound social psychology is also a practically valid and immediately useful social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Is there a difference between believing and merely understanding an idea? R. Descartes (e.g., 1641 [1984]) thought so. He considered the acceptance and rejection of an idea to be alternative outcomes of an effortful assessment process that occurs subsequent to the automatic comprehension of that idea. This article examined B. Spinoza's (1982) alternative suggestion that (1) the acceptance of an idea is part of the automatic comprehension of that idea and (2) the rejection of an idea occurs subsequent to, and more effortfully than, its acceptance. In this view, the mental representation of abstract ideas is quite similar to the mental representation of physical objects: People believe in the ideas they comprehend, as quickly and automatically as they believe in the objects they see. Research in social and cognitive psychology suggests that Spinoza's model may be a more accurate account of human belief than is that of Descartes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
summarize research showing that attitudes relatively high in evaluative-cognitive consistency behave the way attitude theorists and researchers expect strong attitudes to behave / discuss evidence suggesting that such attitudes are strong because they are accompanied by a well-organized set of supporting cognitions that mutes the change impact of new counterattitudinal information and that also enables their possessors to actively refute such information / summarize data indicating that evaluative-cognitive consistency is not reducible to other common indicators of attitude strength [addresses] evaluative-affective consistency / it refers to the degree of consistency that exists between people's overall evaluations of attitude objects and the evaluative meaning of the emotions, feelings, moods, and sympathetic nervous system activity they experience in relation to these objects / suggest that simultaneous consideration of evaluative-cognitive and evaluative-affective consistency provides a means of diagnosing the cognitive vs affective basis of people's attitudes, and that knowledge of an attitude's structural basis is crucial to understanding the concept of attitude strength / charts the theoretical and empirical road that led to these ideas (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Political democracy assumes that citizens can form consistent political attitudes that guide their political actions, thereby communicating political preferences to elites. Responding to the longstanding debate about the democratic competence of the U.S. mass public, we use a multitiered framework of opinion formation to describe the structure of mass opinion, showing that the mass public displays relatively consistent responses across multiple issues and uses these to evaluate presidential candidates. Confirmatory factor analysis allows us to examine multiple models of political attitudes, showing the best fit to be three positively correlated general orientations for economic, social, and racial issues. We find no significant racial or educational differences in the structuring of these attitudes but some evidence of “race-coding” of economic issues and class differences in levels of support for economic and social liberalism. Liberal/conservative self-identification operates as a basic structuring principle for organizing these general orientations with liberals and conservatives assigning different salience to specific issues. These general political orientations, in turn, influence presidential evaluations net of party loyalties. Although the mass public may not be ideologically sophisticated, it is “deliberative and reasonable” in its political thinking and, in this sense, democratically competent.
Article
We examined the inXuence of extrapersonal associations (Olson & Fazio, 2004)—associations that neither form the basis of the attitude nor become activated automatically in response to the object—on the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) by experimentally creating both attitudes and extrapersonal associations. The results revealed that participants who were given extrapersonal information that was inconsistent with their own attitudes were aVected by this information when they later performed an IAT. They exhibited signiWcantly reduced IAT scores compared to participants who were provided attitude–consistent extrapersonal information. This attenuation of the IAT eVect occurred despite the fact that participants rated the source of the atti-tude–inconsistent extrapersonal information as irrational and foolish. On the other hand, the extrapersonal associations did not inXuence a subliminal priming measure in Experiment 1, nor a personalized version of the IAT (Olson & Fazio, 2004) in Experiment 2. These measures proved sensitive to the attitude, regardless of the congruency of the extrapersonal information.
Article
In three studies we examined the assumption that attitudes can be based on a stable structure of individually important attributes. In the first study we examined if people are able to adequately determine what the attributes are that underlie their attitude by relating meta-attitudinal measures to more operative measures of attribute importance. The results of the operative measures corroborate the subjective ratings of importance. In the second study we examined the associative strength between the individually important attributes and the attitude object. Results indicate that priming participants with individually important attributes leads to facilitation of the overall attitudinal response, as opposed to priming them with less important attributes. This suggests a bottom-up process underlying attitude judgment. The third study shows that attitude strength can play a moderating role in this respect. Implications for research on attitude structure are discussed.
Article
When viewed in the aggregate, studies of the longitudinal consistency of intelligence, personality traits and self-opinion (self-esteem, life satisfaction etc.) show a hierarchy of consistency. Uncorrected retest coefficients over periods of 6 months to 50 yr are analyzed as the product of period-free reliability (R) and the true stability of the construct (sn, where s is the coefficient of annual stability and n the number of years of the retest interval). The annual stabilities of intelligence, personality traits and self-opinions are estimated as 0.99, 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. While intelligence and personality may be regarded as relatively stable characteristics over the length of the adult lifespan, self-opinion has little stability over periods of more than 10 yr. The hierarchy of consistency should be taken into account in causal models of human development. Although self-opinion is not a longitudinally-stable characteristics, it may still be predicted over long periods of time by higher-order constructs such as personality traits and intelligence.
Article
Affect is considered by most contemporary theories to be postcognitive, that is, to occur only after considerable cognitive operations have been accomplished. Yet a number of experimental results on preferences, attitudes, impression formation, and decision making, as well as some clinical phenomena, suggest that affective judgments may be fairly independent of, and precede in time, the sorts of perceptual and cognitive operations commonly assumed to be the basis of these affective judgments. Affective reactions to stimuli are often the very first reactions of the organism, and for lower organisms they are the dominant reactions. Affective reactions can occur without extensive perceptual and cognitive encoding, are made with greater confidence than cognitive judgments, and can be made sooner. Experimental evidence is presented demonstrating that reliable affective discriminations (like–dislike ratings) can be made in the total absence of recognition memory (old–new judgments). Various differences between judgments based on affect and those based on perceptual and cognitive processes are examined. It is concluded that affect and cognition are under the control of separate and partially independent systems that can influence each other in a variety of ways, and that both constitute independent sources of effects in information processing. (139 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses R. S. Lazarus's (see PA, Vols 69:11728 and 25:2812) challenge of the view that there are circumstances under which affect precedes cognition and that affective arousal that does not entail prior cognitive appraisal exists. His argument, however, is based entirely on an arbitrary definition of emotion that requires cognitive appraisal as a necessary precondition. To satisfy this concept of emotion, Lazarus has broadened the definition of cognitive appraisal to include even the most primitive forms of sensory excitation, thus obliterating all distinction among cognition, sensation, and perception. No empirical evidence is offered to document the principle of cognitive appraisal as a necessary precondition for emotional arousal. It is concluded that the contrasting view of an affective primacy and independence is derived from a series of findings and phenomena, including the existence of neuroanatomical structures allowing for independent affective process. (56 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A scattering of recent research has studied the current political beliefs and attitudes of individuals identified as “1960s activists.” In contrast to much of the treatment accorded such people in the popular media, this research tends to find most of these activists currently liberal on a wide variety of political topics. However, in the absence of panel data, most of this research has had to assess any change in the activists' attitudes either by assuming the activists' past positions or by trusting to their retrospective reports. In this paper we report on panel data from a large group of white activists, mostly students, who spent the summer of 1965 organizing voter registration drives in Southern black communities. In some specific areas on which the activists tended to hold rather extreme positions in 1965, they may have moderated by 1984. However, their overall pattern of response on a wide variety of issues is basically stable over this twenty-year period.
Article
Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. The identifying feature of implicit cognition is that past experience influences judgment in a fashion not introspectively known by the actor. The present conclusion--that attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes have important implicit modes of operation--extends both the construct validity and predictive usefulness of these major theoretical constructs of social psychology. Methodologically, this review calls for increased use of indirect measures--which are imperative in studies of implicit cognition. The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. The finding that implicit cognitive effects are often reduced by focusing judges' attention on their judgment task provides a basis for evaluating applications (such as affirmative action) aimed at reducing such unintended discrimination.
Article
An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., flower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect & pleasant) share a key. This performance difference implicitly measures differential association of the 2 concepts with the attribute. In 3 experiments, the IAT was sensitive to (a) near-universal evaluative differences (e.g., flower vs. insect), (b) expected individual differences in evaluative associations (Japanese + pleasant vs. Korean + pleasant for Japanese vs. Korean subjects), and (c) consciously disavowed evaluative differences (Black + pleasant vs. White + pleasant for self-described unprejudiced White subjects).
Article
Two studies related attribute importance to accessibility and speed of judgment. Attitudes were assessed by a direct attitude measure and a modal set of 15 attributes. Attributes were rated in terms of their probability and desirability. Subsequently, participants were required to select the five attributes they considered to be most important. Results of Study 1 (dealing with attitudes towards condom use) show that individually selected, important attributes are more easily retrieved and judged faster than non-selected, less important attributes. Judging attributes took less time than evaluating one's overall attitude, suggesting a bottom-up process in which the various attributes are combined to form an overall attitude. Study 2 (dealing with attitudes towards smoking) extends these findings and also addresses the stability of attitude structure. Important attributes were again associated with reduced response times, and attribute-related judgments took less time than judging one's overall attitude. Accessibility of important attributes remained stable over time as indicated by the results of a lexical decision task one week later. Finally, important attributes were also recalled better than less important attributes. Implications for research on attitude structure are discussed.
Article
This article discusses a recurrent connectionist network, simulating empirical phenomena usually explained by current dual-process approaches of attitudes, thereby focusing on the processing mechanisms that may underlie both central and peripheral routes of persuasion. Major findings in attitude formation and change involving both processing modes are reviewed and modeled from a connectionist perspective. We use an autoassociative network architecture with a linear activation update and the delta learning algorithm for adjusting the connection weights. The network is applied to well-known experiments involving deliberative attitude formation, as well as the use of heuristics of length, consensus, expertise, and mood. All these empirical phenomena are successfully reproduced in the simulations. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to be consistent with algebraic models of attitude formation (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). The discussion centers on how the proposed network model may be used to unite and formalize current ideas and hypotheses on the processes underlying attitude acquisition and how it can be deployed to develop novel hypotheses in the attitude domain.