Book

The Cultural Nature of Human Development

Authors:

Abstract

Estudio sobre el desarrollo de los seres humanos, visto como procesos culturales que ocurren a través de la participación del sujeto, junto a otros miembros de su comunidad, en la construcción y reconstrucción de prácticas culturales que han sido heredadas de generaciones anteriores. Temas clásicos del desarrollo humano como la crianza, la interdependencia y la autonomía, las transiciones a lo largo del ciclo vital, el desarrollo cognoscitivo, el aprendizaje, los roles de género o las relaciones sociales son examinados desde una perspectiva cultural, que reúne ideas de la psicología evolutiva, la antropología, la educación y la historia.
... Finalmente, se necesita considerar los factores que ya escapan al medio ambiente y se ubican en la persona, tales como la inteligencia, la motivación, la nutrición y la salud. Además, la cultura, característica inmanente de una sociedad, puede también contribuir de manera significativa al éxito -o fracaso-de los escolares con respecto a los objetivos educativos (Serpell, 1993;Rogoff, 2003). La literatura especializada muestra que, con alguna frecuencia, las prioridades que le dan la familia y la escuela a la educación formal son diferentes (Zambrano & Greenfield, 2004). ...
... Tanto la definición como la medición del concepto de cultura se cuentan entre las tareas más difíciles de las ciencias sociales, tal como se puede ver en el libro de Kroeber y Kluckholn (1952), que contiene más de 250 definiciones de cultura 19 (Rogoff, 2003;López Maguiña, Portocarrero, Silva-Santisteban & Vich, 2001). Dado que no es este el lugar más apropiado para analizar las diferencias y semejanzas entre esas y otras definiciones, me limito a la presentación de tres ideas comunes entre muchos científicos sociales (Lehman, Chiu & Schalier, 2004), ideas que nos serán útiles en el contexto de esta crónica. ...
... La primera idea es que la cultura se caracteriza por un conjunto de conductas (prácticas de crianza, por ejemplo), actitudes (como autonomía en las decisiones), creencias (por ejemplo, aquellas sobre la determinación del futuro), estilos cognitivos (por ejemplo, inferencias preceptuales) y signos/símbolos (como los rituales religiosos) compartidos 19 El libro de Bárbara Rogoff (2003) presenta una definición contemporánea de cultura desde la perspectiva de la psicología evolutiva. En el Perú hay escasos estudios sobre la cultura y su definición. ...
Book
Este texto constituye una valiosa herramienta para la formación de los psicólogos, pues promueve el juicio crítico y la capacidad reflexiva, fundamentales para tomar las mejores decisiones durante su vida académica y profesional.
... The conception that development is a self-organizing process is implicit in much contemporary research in human developmental psychology (Lerner & Walls, 1999). Viewing development as a self organizing process entails consideration of contextual factors (Cole, 1992;Parent, Normandeau, & Larivee, 2000;Rogoff, 1990). For example, the timing of locomotor development reflects a variety of culturally specific practices (e.g., Hopkins & Westra, 1988;Super, 1976) Variability in people's family, community, and culture underscores the need to conduct research in varied contexts, in addition to standard laboratory settings (Lerner & Busch-Rossnagel, 1981). ...
... To appreciate fully tool use, it is important to examine the organization of manipulative abilities in conjunction with the social practices that encourage and facilitate the use of objects as tools (Reed, 1993). The individual's sociocultural milieu contributes greatly to becoming proficient in the technology of one's culture (Rogoff, 1990(Rogoff, , 2003Vygotsky, 1978). Children participate in routine cultural activities that provide a context whereby information about the properties and functions of objects is provided along with exploratory procedures (Lockman & McHale, 1989;Rutkowska & Baines, 1997;von Hofsten & Siddiqui, 1993). ...
... To appreciate fully tool use, it is important to examine the organization of manipulative abilities in conjunction with the social practices that encourage and facilitate the use of objects as tools (Reed, 1993). The individual's sociocultural milieu contributes greatly to becoming proficient in the technology of one's culture (Rogoff, 1990(Rogoff, , 2003Vygotsky, 1978). Children participate in routine cultural activities that provide a context whereby information about the properties and functions of objects is provided along with exploratory procedures (Lockman & McHale, 1989;Rutkowska & Baines, 1997;von Hofsten & Siddiqui, 1993). ...
... Theoretically, we draw on praxis-oriented sociocultural (Gilbert, 1982;Rogoff, 2003) and narrative (McGannon & Smith, 2015;Richardson, 1990) frameworks. Rogoff (2003) argues that human behaviour is shaped by the specific cultural practices found in the cultural communities in which people live. ...
... Theoretically, we draw on praxis-oriented sociocultural (Gilbert, 1982;Rogoff, 2003) and narrative (McGannon & Smith, 2015;Richardson, 1990) frameworks. Rogoff (2003) argues that human behaviour is shaped by the specific cultural practices found in the cultural communities in which people live. It is through practical activities, both related to production and leisure, that children create their relationships with the outside world. ...
... Practical action is also what shapes what can be called the rural (Gilbert, 1982). Rural culture develops within the framework of the economic system and is shaped by the practical activities of primary production (Gilbert, 1982;Rogoff, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Physically inactive children in rural areas are overlooked in research because of the dominance of urban perspectives focusing on physical activity rather than inactivity. The aim of this article is to examine an emerging collective story of how physically inactive children (aged 9–11 years) in two rural areas experience their relationships with physical activity. Based on praxis-oriented sociocultural theorising, this study focuses on how practical physical activity is understood by rural children as part of their sociocultural environment. Five focus group interviews with 21 physically inactive rural children in western Sweden were conducted. Experiences and behaviours that the children emphasised as central to their inactivity were analysed as sociocultural expressions in a collective story about physical activity. To underline the importance of narratives for behaviour in the sociocultural environment, the collective story is presented through three composite narratives told by three fictional characters: ‘Robin, the shy one’, ‘Kim, the farm kid’, and ‘Angry Alex’. Characteristic of these inactive rural children is a lack of self-confidence, a lack of meaning, and difficulties in managing social physical activities. Common to the behaviours that follow from the children’s experiences is that they are perceived as deviating from what is expected of them in accordance with the cultural story about a physically active child. he analysis shows that the underlying cause is the discrepancy between the children’s understanding of physical activity and the understanding conveyed via institutions informed by urban perspectives such as, for example, school. For instance, children view physical activity as part of daily labour at the same time that the school teaches physical activities intended for recreational purposes in spare time. Institutions should make room for more interpretations, including rural ones, of the meaning of physical activity and, thus, contribute to reconstructing the cultural narrative about physical activity.
... For example, Jacobs (2014) found that a deficit was presumed even when the literacy practices of families in homeless shelters were consistent with their peers with permanent housing. One way to disrupt these narratives is to examine the talk of New Beginnings' residents during book club to highlight their agency in creating a repertoire of cultural practices (Rogoff, 2003). For this study, we drew upon sociocultural theory, which provides an opportunity to explore perspectives and voices in a specific setting such as a recovery program, that shape individual and collective beliefs, attitudes, values, and aspirations (Rogoff, 2003;Rueda, 2011). ...
... One way to disrupt these narratives is to examine the talk of New Beginnings' residents during book club to highlight their agency in creating a repertoire of cultural practices (Rogoff, 2003). For this study, we drew upon sociocultural theory, which provides an opportunity to explore perspectives and voices in a specific setting such as a recovery program, that shape individual and collective beliefs, attitudes, values, and aspirations (Rogoff, 2003;Rueda, 2011). ...
... For this study, we drew upon sociocultural theory which provides an opportunity to explore perspectives and voices in a specific setting, such as a recovery program, that shape individual and collective beliefs, attitudes, values, and aspirations (Rogoff, 2003) and how these practices evolve in response to place, time, and challenges of circumstances (Rueda, 2011). Within that framework, we drew upon a literacy as a social practice which focuses on cultural literacy practices embedded in local contexts (Barton, 2007;Barton & Hamilton, 2000;Perry, 2012;Street, 2001) that people draw upon in particular interactions called literacy events (Barton, 2001;. ...
Article
Book clubs are gatherings around shared texts; they have the potential to build strong interpersonal bonds (Pittman & Honchell, 2014; Porath, 2018). This study examines a weekly book club in a residential treatment center for female addicted trauma survivors and offers contrast to research on book clubs in non-restrictive settings. We address, “What are the social functions of a book club in a restrictive setting?” We drew upon sociocultural theory, specifically, literacy as a social practice which focuses on cultural literacy practices embedded in local contexts (Barton & Hamilton, 2000; Perry, 2012) that people draw upon in particular interactions (Barton, 2001). The findings focus on three primary social functions of the book club as developing: 1) a reading identity through the habit of reading and discussing books, 2) a sense of belonging to a book club, and 3) a sense of normalcy. The discussion considers this book club in relation to: 1) others held in restrictive and non-restrictive settings, 2) the establishment of a sense of community; and 3) a sense of normalcy and agency. This research offers insight into ways literacy practices, such as book clubs, meet the often-unrecognized needs of individuals and communities in restrictive environments.
... Learning changes the person's relation qualitatively with the practices the person participates in (Hedegaard 2012). Rogoff (1990Rogoff ( , 2003 and Hedegaard have elaborated upon Vygotsky's seminal work and have provided further explanations of child development in the context of the child's relationship with their social situation. Vygotsky's approach to children's development points at different development periods in relation to changes in the child's social situation. ...
... In addition to social context, culture has been given a significant importance in the cross-cultural and sociocultural research on children's education that builds on Vygotskian ideas. In drawing upon a large corpus of cross-cultural research, Rogoff (1990Rogoff ( , 1998Rogoff ( , 2003 also highlights the importance of examining culture to understand development, arguing that "development can be understood only in light of the cultural practices and circumstances of their communities-which also change. In essence, culture determines not only the principles for defining development but also frames the contexts in which the development of children is supported (Rogoff, 2003, pp. ...
Chapter
The chapter proposes a cultural-historical model of assessing children’s learning and development that demands assessment practices to move from symptomatic assessments of learning to diagnostic assessment of children’s maturing and emerging higher mental functions (e.g. logical thinking, focused attention, mediated memory and use of drawing marks or written words). Based on data from the digital educational experiment titled Conceptual PlayWorld@homeLIVE the chapter offers insights into how the concepts of social situation of development, zone of proximal development, and dialectical relationship between the everyday and scientific concept could be used to understand children’s motive orientations and to evaluate their maturing (The terms maturing functions draws from the systems of concepts in cultural-historical theory, here it is used to signify the tripartite constellation of present age, maturing functions and next age. Seen in this way it refers to the genesis and development of new psychological structures at a particular age period.) and matured psychological functions thus offering a holistic understanding of the psychological structure at a given cultural age period. Within the project, homeLIVE sessions were based on the characteristics of Conceptual PlayWorld (Fleer, Early Years 41:353–364, 2018). Examples from a child’s home setting are used to show how Conceptual PlayWorld can be used as an auxiliary tool to create condensed learning moments thus creating opportunities for both assessment and also to support children in giving their best performance. Through the Conceptual PlayWorld approach, the child is encouraged to explore their emerging psychological functions thus offering opportunity for new practices to emerge.
... To deepen our understanding, we brought together a cultural-historical approach (Gutierrez, 2002;Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003;Rogoff, 2003), and cultural psychology-based studies on grief (Brinkmann, 2017;Brinkmann & Kofod, 2018;Pulkkinen, 2017). These approaches share the idea that emotions and acts are deeply entangled and situated within socio-material practices, constituted by people, artifacts, and other matters that make up cultures. ...
... Following a cultural-historical approach (Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003;Rogoff, 2003), we grounded our observations across multiple communities. We collected data between 2016 and 2021 in four Finnish ECEC settings, i.e. four different classrooms in four different ECEC centers in an outer suburb of the Finnish capital, Helsinki. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although grief is common in children’s lives, it is under-researched and undertheorized. The aim of our study is to investigate children’s grief as a cultural activity that consists of repertoires of practices in institutional early childhood education and care (ECEC). ECEC is a central site where grief is learned and practiced. Taking a cultural-historical approach using ethnographically inspired research methods, we analyzed interaction in the contexts of separation, absence of a parent, and social exclusion. We focused on the moments of grief, demonstrating how children and adults organize their social encounters and interactional history, and engage in rich repertoires of practices. We discuss the conditions for recognizing grief in institutional ECEC.
... Children in Scotland are entitled to up to two and a half years of free early learning and childcare in either a private, voluntary or education authority early learning and childcare setting or a combination of all three (Burns 2018;Scottish Government 2017a). Regardless of the type of early learning and childcare provision the child attended, their learning and development as an individual, as an expert in their lives will have been realised principally through play (Jindal-Snape and Miller 2010;Rogoff 2003). This is achieved through pedagogical methodologies that "capitalise on children's appetite for learning and practical activities which avoid denting children's early confidence and enthusiasm" (Stephen, Ellis and Martlew 2010:315). ...
... Hayes' study (2003) found that children starting school are expected to adjust socially, emotionally, and cognitively to a new environment. Other transitions studies have found that friendships are lost or weakened, and new ones are created, and the skills and knowledge children bring with them to school are too often undervalued, not recognised or even ignored (Ackesjö 2014(Ackesjö , 2013Fabian 2002;Jindal-Snape and Miller 2010;Peters 2010;Rogoff 2003). Ackesjö (2014: 6) contends that "children both shape the transition and are shaped by the transition" and so the transition process becomes an ecological and sociocultural process, where children learn to "reconstruct themselves", and their identity as members within a new community (Ackesjö 2014: 7). ...
... As analysis focused on how participants construct meanings of their cultural identities, the current analytic technique also draws from elements of constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006;Creswell & Miller, 2000). Investigators included the first author and co-authors of this article, a team intentionally comprised of individuals with diverse ethnic backgrounds (including Mexican Americans) to balance the benefits and challenges of insider and outsider perspectives (Rogoff, 2003). Each investigator maintained a reflexive journal (Nowell et al., 2017) that documented how their own cultural identities and experiences informed their interpretation of participant discourse. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural and ethnic identity research largely highlights the adaptiveness of biculturalism among Latino youth in the United States. Less is known about how Latino youth themselves define and experience biculturalism, the cultural identity content that they deem relevant, and how heritage and host identities intersect. Using an inductive approach, this study examines the salience, valence, and meaning of biculturalism among Latino youth living in a multicultural U.S. city. Twenty-six Mexican American emerging adults (Mage = 22.35 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and constructed cultural identity maps focusing on their experiences of biculturalism. Qualitative analysis reveals that participants overwhelmingly deem biculturalism to be positive and explores the duality (i.e.: opposition or contrast) that lies beneath that positivity. Participants emphasized individual-level advantages of biculturalism, namely, that their Mexican heritage provides identity rootedness and enables expanded career and educational opportunities. The bicultural challenges that participants discussed were overwhelmingly relational: familial cultural gaps due to dissonant values and critical gazes from others due to inadequate cultural performances. By revealing that and why biculturalism is mostly positive in the eyes of participants, and exploring the duality that lies beneath that positivity, this study draws attention to the complexity of biculturalism that can be obscured by exclusive reliance on quantitative self-report measures.
... Her ne kadar bazı gelişim alanlarında, örneğin fiziksel gelişim, olgunlaşmanın etkisinin öğrenmeye oranla daha belirleyici bir rol oynadığı düşünülse de olgunlaşma ve öğrenme, özellikle de aralarındaki etkileşim sonucunda ortaya çıkan ortam çocuğun gelişimini yönlendirir. Sonuç olarak bir bireyin gelişimi hem çevresinin etkisiyle hem de bir organizma olarak bu etkilere verdiği tepkilerle biçimlenmektedir (Meaney & Szyf, 2005;Metindoğan-Wise, 2015;Rogoff, 2003). Çocuğun sosyal bir birey olmasında kalıtımın yanı sıra çevrenin etkisi yani öğrenme daha ön plandadır (Acun & Erten, 1992). ...
... Whereas the acquisition and participation metaphors are the acquisition and formation of knowledge and identities, respectively, that are "given" by the community to which one belongs, the expansion metaphor involves questioning the assumptions generally endorsed by the community and shifting the old problematic context to the new appropriate one. As individual subjectivity and consciousness cannot exist without collective ones, humans develop through changes in the way they participate in the sociocultural activities of their communities, and conversely, their communities must hold the potential for change to seek a better social structure (Rogoff, 2003;Roth & Radford, 2011). By collectively reconceptualizing the simple triangle structure of the activity system (context) developed by Vygotsky (1978), where the individual "subject" uses "tools (mediating artifacts)" to work on the "object (what the 'subject' tries to do)" (pp. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the importance of formative assessment has been recognized worldwide, the theoretical foundation is insufficiently captured within a broader sociocultural context that promotes teachers and students building an assessment culture. This study proposes a theoretical framework that supports the claim that formative assessment aims to accelerate an agentic process of transforming and improving the teaching-learning activity systems rather than helping teachers mold students with traditional values and cultural discourses. The characteristics of formative assessment were organized for each of the learning metaphors: acquisition, participation, and expansion. In this paper, assessment for expansion is defined as a form of formative assessment to facilitate expansive learning toward a process of making teaching-learning better, of which the functional core is sociocultural feedback with reference to situational criteria. Next, the theoretical discussions demonstrate that assessment for expansion emerges from making a third space and forming a culturally fitted tool for realistic and sustainable practical judgements. These conditions, which work within a continuum of problematic, ends-in-view, and expanded contexts, recognize the impact of assessments in associating a single student's voice with a school-and community-wide problem. In conclusion, the possibilities and challenges of assessment for expansion are discussed from theoretical and practical perspectives.
... An integral finding of the study was that if, indeed, our intention is to truly strengthen children's concepts of themselves as lifelong learners, it is not possible to decontextualise children from their identities as active, experiential learners who bring their languages, cultures, and whānau connections with them into learning settings. This finding aligns with previous research that situates learning identities formation within a socioculturally derived sense of self (Bishop, 2019;Carr et al., 2010;Claxton & Carr, 2004;Gunn & Gasson, 2017;Hedges, 2014;Rogoff, 2003). ...
Article
Learning stories have been used in Aotearoa New Zealand early learning settings for over two decades to capture children’s learning while honouring the intent of Te Whāriki to nurture children’s languages, cultures, and identities. This article provides a brief overview of a listening, dialogic investigation into ways the community of learners at Greerton Early Learning Centre consider learning stories have affected their children’s learning identities—that is, how children view themselves, and how they are viewed by others, as learners. Six children, their families, and their teachers were invited to reengage with selected learning stories from the children’s learning portfolios and then to rethink and retell how these learning stories had impacted their views of the children as learners. The study revealed how storying children’s lived experiences made a meaningful difference to the ways children, their whānau and kaiako viewed children, learning, and children’s learning experiences. At a time when the usefulness and appropriateness of learning stories are increasingly contested, this study provides an important demonstration of the power of thoughtfully written learning stories and the alignment of this assessment approach with the vision, values, and philosophical foundations of Te Whāriki, Aotearoa New Zealand’s Tiriti o Waitangi-informed curriculum. The study showed how Te Whāriki aspirations are honoured when learning stories are written in participatory, culturally situated ways, and meaningfully focused on agentic learning for each person. All participants provided informed consent, including choosing to forgo anonymity. The research had ethical approval from the University of Waikato.
... There is broad agreement that being brought up in different societies affects infant development (e.g. [1,3,4,[6][7][8][9][10][11]), but there is limited quantitative work characterising the naturalistic context in which infants develop and how this may be similar or different across populations [12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Early life environments afford infants a variety of learning opportunities, and caregivers play a fundamental role in shaping infant early life experience. Variation in maternal attitudes and parenting practices is likely to be greater between than within cultures. However, there is limited cross-cultural work characterising how early life environment differs across populations. We examined the early life environment of infants from two cultural contexts where attitudes towards parenting and infant development were expected to differ: in a group of 53 mother-infant dyads in the UK and 44 mother-infant dyads in Uganda. Participants were studied longitudinally from when infants were 3– to 15–months-old. Questionnaire data revealed the Ugandan mothers had more relational attitudes towards parenting than the mothers from the UK, who had more autonomous parenting attitudes. Using questionnaires and observational methods, we examined whether infant development and experience aligned with maternal attitudes. We found the Ugandan infants experienced a more relational upbringing than the UK infants, with Ugandan infants receiving more distributed caregiving, more body contact with their mothers, and more proximity to mothers at night. Ugandan infants also showed earlier physical development compared to UK infants. Contrary to our expectations, however, Ugandan infants were not in closer proximity to their mothers during the day, did not have more people in proximity or more partners for social interaction compared to UK infants. In addition, when we examined attitudes towards specific behaviours, mothers’ attitudes rarely predicted infant experience in related contexts. Taken together our findings highlight the importance of measuring behaviour, rather than extrapolating expected behaviour based on attitudes alone. We found infants’ early life environment varies cross-culturally in many important ways and future research should investigate the consequences of these differences for later development.
... In addressing forms of social control, Rogoff (2003) suggests 'that teasing and shaming, like discipline by parents and teachers, involve cultural variations in ways of compelling, persuading or guiding children to behave in accepted ways' (p.220). ...
Thesis
The aim of this thesis is to explore how children give meaning to the concept of wellbeing within a school environment. It is rooted in a recognition of the importance and value of respecting children’s rights to be heard. There is a scarcity of existing qualitative studies focusing on how young children in UK primary schools develop their understanding of wellbeing across a longitudinal course. This study asks what 6-8 year old children think wellbeing means and to what extent they see their experiences at school as supportive of children’s wellbeing. This is done to examine the impact of the school environment on how children create meaning and to enable school leaders, educators and academics to understand the nuances of children’s thought-processes and experiences in conceptualising wellbeing. Using a case study of an urban primary school in England, this study shows the importance of positive relationships and ideas about agency on children’s meaning-making. Children identified safety as a key component in their understanding of wellbeing and this was linked to both positive relationships with their teacher and a belief in God as a protector. Concerns about reprimands and peer teasing resulting from low academic attainment were found to diminish feelings of wellbeing. The significance of this study is that it informs our understanding of how a school’s particular ethos can have a considerable impact on how children conceptualise and rationalise abstract concepts. In addition, it demonstrates in practical terms the flexibility of a participatory methodology based on the Mosaic approach with exploratory methods such as story completion tasks adapted for use with young children and a successful switch midway through fieldwork to remote data generation due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
... Fundamental to sociocultural thinking is the belief that our worlds are socially, historically and culturally constructed and that learning, thinking and knowing occur through our activity, negotiation and participation in and action upon our worlds (Lave & Wenger, 1991;Rogoff 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents understandings from indigenous Māori kaumātua (elders both male and female) and whānau (parents and extended family members) from Aotearoa New Zealand. These people live in a close-knit hapū (subtribe) community close to an ancestral meeting space known as their marae. Their marae continues to be essential in the promotion of Māori knowledge, language and ways of being. Kaumātua and whānau recall important cultural understandings and practices from this journey. From growing up largely in te ao Māori (the Māori world) they consider “languaculture”, the inter-relationships between language, identity and culture, as foundational to their future “hope” for collective cultural strength and wellbeing. To renormalise the use of the language of their ancestors, we use many Māori words throughout. These words are italicised and translated the first time they are used.
... In questo contributo teorico intendiamo proporre un approccio pedagogico alle cosiddette competenze non cognitive, discutendone il merito teorico a partire dagli studi delle organizzazioni internazionali sulle competenze per il XXI secolo, per arrivare agli studi sulle soft skills in Italia. Giungiamo così a individuare nell'Apprendere ad Apprendere, cerniera tra le competenze cognitive e non cognitive, il costrutto pedagogico che consente una traduzione empirica delle soft skills in classe e indichiamo un percorso pedagogico per svilupparlo fin dall'infanzia in prospettiva socioculturale (Rogoff, 2003;Lave e Wanger, 1991;Stringher, 2016;2021a;Wells e Claxton, 2002). Per questa via, descriviamo la funzione di empowerment dell'AaA come supporto alla consapevolezza di sé, utile all'orientamento scolastico e lavorativo, al contrasto della povertà educativa e della dispersione scolastica, base per la formazione alla cittadinanza consapevole e per un sereno inserimento nella vita adulta. ...
Article
In this theoretical article, we define Learning to Learn (L2L), at the intersection between cognitive and non cognitive skills. We then point to a pedagogical pathway to develop L2L since early childhood, framed in a sociocultural perspective. In this line of thought, we describe L2L’s empowerment function to support self-awareness, useful for scholastic and work orientation, to contrast educational poverty and school dropout. L2L is a basis for the formation of active citizenship and for a positive induction into adult life. Working with this concept, we do not pretend to transform teachers into psychologists manipulating students’ personality traits. We intend to equip teachers with pedagogical tools to cultivate the numerous abilities that this hyper-competence orchestrates in children and students, up to adult life. Through this trajectory, the aims of schooling and the borders between schools’, teachers’ and families’ responsibilities in the socialization of new generations are examined.
... Culture is not only art and literature, but also a way of life, a way of coexistence, a system of values, traditions and beliefs: in a narrower sense, culture is understood as a professional activity in literature, fine arts, music, dance, theater and related fields; in a broader sense, culture is a system of attitudes, ideas, meanings, symbols and values, a way of life of a group of people or a nation, a set of beliefs, traditions, practical skills; in the broadest sense -everything man-made, cultivated, transformed, which is not nature (Geertz, 1973;Rogof, 2003;Griswold, 2013;Banks, Cherry & McGee, 2015 et al.) The development of a child outside culture is not possible (Rogoff, 2003;Parker, Webb, Wilson 2017). Culture makes a person a person, and a person understands and continues to shape culture. ...
Conference Paper
Cultural literacy today is an important educational outcome in the context of individual identity, civic education and multiculturalism. It allows an individual to understand and respect themselves, their culture and the diversity of the other cultures, know the origins, and connotations. Cultural literacy as a result of education is related to two ideas: how to live meaningfully, consciously in society and the cultural environment, how to take responsibility for cultural heritage and values and create cultural values for oneself. Traditional celebration and rituals are an important phenomenon in traditional culture. In the rituals, society has encoded the main world scenes and patterns of human behavior that have contributed to the well-being of the collective and the individual. The attachment of a ritual to a specific point in time and space is one of the most important conditions for its existence. Eternity and infinity are too vague abstractions for the limited human imagination. In order to understand the world we live in, these abstractions are saturated with reference points, markers. To master the content of traditional celebration means to orient oneself in these spatial and temporal markers, to know the participants of the ritual, their roles and functions, at the same time offering to experience those aspects of the ritual in which the experience cannot be explained only by rational thought processes. In this article the components of the content of the traditional cultural calendar celebration from the point of view of the ritual were substantiate. Recommendations for the implementation of traditional culture content in primary education are offered.
... By placing the concept of 'contextually appropriate practice' against the concept of 'developmentally appropriate practice', attention is drawn to a key theoretical discussion of the nature of child development. A significant portion of sociocultural research challenges the idea of defining development by age (Rogoff, 2003;Vygotsky, 1998). This research, therefore, also challenges the idea that development and age can be used to define and construct programs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to consider the differences in aspiring early childhood teachers' self-perception of their competence in the integration of digital technologies into early childhood educational practice, before and after the realization of the teaching process, and before and after passing the exam for the elective course titled "An early childhood teacher in a digital environment". The research sample consisted of thirty-five third-year students of the Preschool Teacher Training and Business Informatics College of Applied Studies-Sirmium, who took and passed the exam in the elective subject "An early childhood teacher in a digital environment". The results of the study show that aspiring early childhood teachers assess their competence for the integration of digital technologies into early childhood educational practice more positively after attending classes and taking the exam in the course "An early childhood teacher in a digital environment". Future early childhood teachers feel more competent in applying digital technologies to all four areas of early childhood teachers' work: direct work with children, real program development, professional development and professional public action. Апстракт Циљ истраживања је сагледавање разлика у самоперцепцији компетентности будућих васпитача за интеграцију дигиталних технологија у васпитно-образовну праксу пре и након реализације наставе и положеног испита из изборног предмета-Васпитач у дигиталном окружењу. Узорак истраживања чинило је 35 студената треће године студија Високе школе струковних студија за васпитаче и пословне информатичаре-Сирмијум који су одслушали и положили испит из изборног предмета Васпитач у дигиталном окружењу. Резултати студије показали су да будући васпитачи позитивније процењују своју компетентност за интеграцију дигиталних технологија у васпитно-образовну праксу након слушања и полагања испита из предмета Васпитач у дигиталном окружењу. Будући васпитачи се осећају компетентнијим да дигиталне технологије примењују у сва четири подручја рада васпитача: подручје непосредног рада са децом, подручје развијања реалног програ-ма, подручје професионалног развоја и подручје професионалног јавног деловања.
... Yet, computer and data science education research rarely studies gesture. Extant research primarily focuses on how teachers use gestures to communicate computer science concepts to students in classrooms (Solomon, 2021) rather than how gesture is culturally organized and improvised in situated activity (Rogoff, 2003; also see Davis et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Informed by critical data literacy efforts to promote social justice, this paper uses qualitative methods and data collected during two years of workplace ethnography to characterize the notion of critical novice data work. Specifically, we analyze everyday language used by novice data workers at DataWorks, an organization that trains and employs historically excluded populations to work with community data sets. We also characterize challenges faced by these workers in both cleaning and being critical of data during a project focused on police-community relations. Finally, we highlight novel approaches to visualizing data the workers developed during this project, derived from data cleaning and everyday experience. Findings and discussion highlight the generative power of everyday language and visualization for critical novice data work, as well as challenges and opportunities to foster critical data literacy with novice data workers in the workplace.
... In contrast, middle-class US and Turkish children are more likely to use speech, as do their respective caregivers (Rogoff et al., 1993). Questioning and responding would also crucially vary with more general constrains related to which partnerthe informant or the childtypically takes the responsibility for learning in a specific cultural setting (Rogoff, 2003). ...
Article
Curious information-seeking is known to be a key driver for learning, but characterizing this important psychological phenomenon remains a challenge. In this article, we argue that solving this challenge requires qualifying the relationships between metacognition and curiosity. The idea that curiosity is a metacognitive competence has been resisted: researchers have assumed both that young children and non-human animals can be genuinely curious, and that metacognition requires conceptual and culturally situated resources that are unavailable to young children and non-human animals. Here, we argue that this resistance is unwarranted given accumulating evidence that metacognition can be deployed procedurally, and we defend the view that curiosity is a metacognitive feeling. Our metacognitive view singles out two monitoring steps as a triggering condition for curiosity: evaluating one's own informational needs, and predicting the likelihood that explorations of the proximate environment afford significant information gains. We review empirical evidence and computational models of curiosity, and show that they fit well with this metacognitive account, while on the contrary, they remain difficult to explain by a competing account according to which curiosity is a basic attitude of questioning. Finally, we propose a new way to construe the relationships between curiosity and the human-specific communicative practice of questioning, discuss the issue of how children may learn to express their curiosity through interactions with others, and conclude by briefly exploring the implications of our proposal for educational practices.
... First, we underscore the importance of recognizing the cultural nature of human learning and development (Rogoff, 2003). The underlying view of culture in this perspective is dynamic, historically grounded and instrumental. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we present a critical review of the category specific learning disabilities (SLD) in the United States (US). We argue that the conceptualization of SLD can benefit from an intersectional analysis that examines the interlocking of learning with racial, cultural, and socioeconomic differences. For this purpose, we provide a brief historical overview of SLD, present an intersectional analysis showing how the notion of SLD has assumed a unitary standpoint that has de-contextualized learning differences, and demonstrate the importance of embracing a cultural vision of learning in SLD identification practices. We end with brief reflections for future SLD research.
... Außerdem hat sie Bezüge zur soziokulturellen Theorie nach Vygotsky, nach der Lernen ein dynamischer Prozess ist, der vom Kontext beeinflusst wird. Kognitives, soziales und emotionales Wachstum finden statt durch die soziale Interaktion der Lernenden mit kompetenteren Peers und Erwachsenen (Vygotsky, 1978), zu denen neben den Lehrkräften auch Eltern und Mitglieder einer kulturellen Gemeinschaft zählen (Rogoff, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Seit mehr als fünf Jahrzehnten befassen sich Wissenschaft-ler*innen und Praktiker*innen mit der Frage, wie Kooperation unter Schüler*innenso gestaltet werden kann, dass eine anregende Lernatmosphäre entsteht, in der einegleichberechtigte Teilhabe möglich ist sowie hilfreiche Kommunikation eingeübtwird und komplexe Denkprozesse gefördert werden. An der Stanford Universitywurde als Antwort auf diese Frage ein pädagogisch-didaktischer Ansatz entwi-ckelt, der inzwischen als Komplexer Unterricht („Complex Instruction“) verbreitetist. Komplexer Unterricht entstand auf der Grundlage von soziologischen Theo-rien, einem soziokulturellen Verständnis von Lernen und kognitiver Entwicklungsowie langjähriger Forschung. Zu diesem ursprünglich von Elisabeth Cohen (†)und ihren Kolleg*innen und Doktorand*innen ins Leben gerufenen Ansatz gehö-ren verschiedene Elemente: die Restrukturierung des Lernsettings durch neue Nor-men und Rollen, die Veränderung der Aufgabenstruktur und die Anwendung vonStatus-Maßnahmen. Komplexer Unterricht wird inzwischen in verschiedenen Län-dern und Kontexten eingesetzt und mit seinen Auswirkungen erforscht. In diesemBeitrag werden die zentralen Elemente Komplexen Unterrichts detaillierter be-schrieben und zentrale Forschungsergebnisse dazu dargestellt. Schlagwörter: Kooperatives Lernen; Gerechtigkeit; Erwartungshaltung; Status;Gleichberechtigung; Soziales Lernen
... MacNaughton (2006). Yelland (1998), see Rogoff (2003). Lhermitte (1986) inhibited, which is why we don't act on all the affordances we see. ...
Article
Full-text available
The inequitable distribution of domestic and caring labour in different‐sex couples has been a longstanding feminist concern. Some have hoped that having both partners at home during the COVID‐19 pandemic would usher in a new era of equitable work and caring distributions. Contrary to these hopes, old patterns seem to have persisted. Moreover, studies suggest this inequitable distribution often goes unnoticed by the male partner. This raises two questions. Why do women continue to shoulder a disproportionate amount of housework and childcare despite economic and cultural gains? And why is there a widespread one‐sided misrepresentation within different‐sex couples about how domestic and caring work is distributed between the two partners? We answer these questions by appealing to affordance perception – the perception of possibilities for action in one's environment. We propose an important gender disparity in the perception of affordances for domestic tasks such as the dishwasher affording emptying, the floor affording sweeping and a mess affording tidying. We argue that this contributes not only to the inequitable distribution of domestic labour but to the frequent invisibility of that labour. We explore the consequences of this hypothesis for resistance and social change.
... The research team is made up of a White American woman and two Latin American men who emigrated to the U.S. as adults; all have advanced academic degrees and work in the field of education. Although one author has a 10-year research relationship with Thailand and two of the authors have made over a dozen research visits to Thailand over the past five years, read extensively, and developed decades-long relationships with some of the Thai leaders, we are not cultural experts on Thailand, nor do we pretend even vague competency with the local languages; we bring the affordances and limitations of outsiders (i.e., Rogoff, 2003). SF's 20-year, supportive relationship with the village opened up access and trust. ...
Article
What does it mean to become a village that learns? In this paper we document the transformative learning journey of a small Thai village over 24 years, becoming a community that identified, tackled, and iterated on problems, altering their everyday practices and lives. In that process the village shifted from a subsistence agricultural community staggeringly in debt to one known for its sustainable environmental, agricultural, and financial initiatives. To understand the village’s learning journey, we consider the village itself as the primary unit of analysis, applying an iterative case study approach, with chronological sequencing, thematic, and biographical narrative analysis across 37 hours of interviews and over 350 pages of scanned project documentation (mostly from village records and writings) collected across four visits. Throughout the paper we elaborate on the role of learner interest and agency, the necessity of infrastructural (often policy) changes, the prioritized role of children in leadership, and the method of “Thai Constructionism” that the village iteratively applied to support their learning. In the discussion we argue that to understand the village’s learning journey, we must study it across multiple scales of time, multiple series of village-initiated formative intraventions across domains, and within larger ecological systems.
... Following this overview, we explain how contexts shaped by the siege enabled unique activities to emerge before moving to analyze the narratives written by our participants. In line with sociocultural theory and contemporary research in developmental psychology (Vygotsky, 1934;Luria, 1976;Cole, 1996;Rogoff, 2003;Zittoun, 2006;Daiute, 2010;Daiute & Lucić, 2010;Lucić, 2016), this work employs narrative analysis as a method to explore how various unique contexts rendered by the military siege continue to mediate thought processes of our participants in the aftermath of the acute crisis period. Theoretically, our research views languageemployed as narrative-as a tool for imposing on experience some organized differentiation between action, cognition, and feeling, thereby making sense of that experience. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
To understand how moments of crisis shape stories told in the aftermath, we explore narrative thought processes through a prism of a regional crisis. Drawing on research with participants who grew up during the military siege of Sarajevo (1992-95), we describe spaces within the unoccupied city shaped by military destruction and consider the range of unique activities these spaces afforded to the young people. Analyzing narratives written in the aftermath of the siege, we focus on participants' enactment of adverbs, a linguistic category used to qualify action in relation to place, time, circumstance, or manner. Our analyses show that, as participants reflect on activities of heightened danger across novel and precarious spaces, their narratives become more evaluative, often illustrating their feelings or impressions and qualifying the relationship between oneself and the context of activities. Beyond the singular focus on trauma narratives, our findings suggest a complex socio-cognitive response to the crisis.
... Caregivers possess certain indigenous knowledge systems or intuitive parenting practices (Papoušek and Papoušek, 1987), use culturally relevant artifacts, and hold certain beliefs about children's capacities, all of which form what Harkness (1986, 2002) call a "developmental niche." Within this niche, caregivers guide their children, scaffolding their behaviors, and support their development as full participants in their family and community (Rogoff, 1990(Rogoff, , 2003Rogoff et al., 1993;Chavajay and Rogoff, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gaze behavior is an important component of children’s language, cognitive, and sociocultural development. This is especially true for young deaf children acquiring a signed language—if they are not looking at the language model, they are not getting linguistic input. Deaf caregivers engage their deaf infants and toddlers using visual and tactile strategies to draw in, support, and promote their child’s visual attention; we argue that these caregiver actions create a developmental niche that establishes the visual modality capital their child needs for successful sign language learning. But most deaf children do not have deaf signing parents (reportedly over 90%) and they will need to rely on adult signing teachers if they are to acquire a signed language at an early age. This study examines classroom interactions between a Deaf teacher, her teacher’s aide, and six deaf preschoolers to document the teachers’ “everyday practices” as they socialize the gaze behavior of these children. Utilizing a detailed behavioral and linguistic analysis of two video-recorded book-sharing contexts, we present data summarizing the teacher’s attention-getting actions directed toward the children and the discourse-embedded cues that signal the teacher’s expectations for student participation in the signed conversation. We observed that the teacher’s behaviors differed according to the parent status of the deaf preschooler (Deaf parents vs. hearing parents) suggesting that Deaf children of Deaf parents arrive to the preschool classroom with well-developed self-regulation of their attention or gaze. The teachers also used more physical and explicit cueing with the deaf children of hearing parents—possibly to promote their ability to leverage the visual modality for sign language acquisition. We situate these socialization patterns within a framework that integrates notions of intuitive or indigenous practices, developmental niche, and modality capital. Implications for early childhood deaf education are also discussed.
... Parenting attitudes are the product of parenting knowledge, parenting values, and goals (or expectations) for their children's development. These values and goals are, in turn, influenced by cultural, social, and parental experiences and their overall values and goals (Rogoff 2003;Okagaki and Bingham 2005;Iruka et al. 2015). To a certain extent, the formation of attitudes is determined by parental self-efficacy, that is, the ability of parents to perceive their influence on the child's development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The first three years of life are the critical and sensitive periods for the formation of individual abilities. However, existing data indicates that early childhood development (ECD) in economically vulnerable areas of China is lagging, which is closely related to the lack of parenting knowledge and poor parenting practices. Methods We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in a former nationally designated poverty county of China. All 6–36-month-old children and their caregivers living in 18 communities/clusters (10 towns and 8 districts of the county seat) were enrolled in a 9-month parenting training program. In the treatment-group communities, ECD centers were installed where community workers provided parenting training sessions. If caregivers were unable to visit the center, home-based parenting training was offered. No intervention was provided to the control group. Furthermore, we assigned half of the treatment group to receive monthly developmental feedback in addition to the parenting training. Based on the baseline and follow-up data, we investigated the treatment effects on parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices through Intention-to-Treat (ITT) and Treatment-on-the-Treated (TOT) analyses. Results We found no effects on the parenting knowledge and attitudes of the caregivers but significant effects on the parenting practices. The effects were heterogeneous among families with different characteristics. Specifically, on average, the program had the largest effect on internally oriented caregivers, mothers with higher education, and mothers who are primary caregivers. We want to emphasize that, although the ITT effect on parenting practices (the average treatment effect) were stronger for mothers with higher education, the TOT effect on parenting practices (the local average treatment effect, LATE) were stronger for mothers with less education. That is, even though on average the program helped mothers with higher education, but among complier families, the program benefited mothers with less education. Conclusion The findings indicate that, at least in the short run, the program can directly change caregivers’ parenting practices without changing their knowledge and attitudes. Future studies are needed to investigate whether parenting knowledge and attitudes can change in the long run.
... In sociocultural theory, the process of learning is seen through people's participation in socially constituted practices, which to some extent is structured by the use of particular cultural tools (Cole, 1996;Lave & Wenger, 1991;Rogoff, 2003;Vygotsky, 1978). Moreover, learning is defined as "changing patterns of participation in specific social practices within communities of practice" (Gee & Green, 1998, p. 147). ...
... As a general rule, such views which envision the child as a passive recipient of knowledge, experience and skills, have long been rejected by more progressive approaches that emphasize the active participation of children in their own learning processes. By focusing on the child's contributions, and recognizing their creativity and potency, such progressive approaches aim to highlight the various ways children shape and transform the social practices in which they participate (e.g., Rogoff, 1990Rogoff, , 2003Stetsenko, 2017). However, Matusov et al. observe that encouraging a child's active participation and centering activities around their contributions is not enough to break with the instrumental tradition if the child is actively endorsing and pursuing the teacher's curricular ends. ...
Article
The paper presents an in-depth analysis of a shared mother-toddler book-reading activity. We build on critiques of progressive approaches to child education and warn against the subtle subversion of children’s agency. Our praxis-based analysis interprets the child’s initiatives as they emerge dynamically during the interaction, revealing their underlying systematic structure independently of the predetermined trajectory prescribed by the mother’s goals and guidance. We argue that an account of child agency must consider the uneven power dynamics between children and adults and how it influences the child’s legitimacy to affect transformation that transcends their initial position in the activity.
... Instrumental music learning has previously been delved into and sifted through various knowings, most noticeably sociocultural perspectives that inform understandings of individual, interpersonal, and collective learning (Rogoff, 2003;Wertsch, 2008). Teacher work is emotional, somatic, and personal (O'Connor, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
In trying to understand the complex interplay between effective learning and personal experience in instrumental music education we look to our own histories of becoming instrumental performers trained in conservatoires. We seek a collective fusion of horizons of possibility to explore the relationships of musicians, both learners and teachers, with each other and their environments. We adopt the post-qualitative turn, as it offers space and place for simmering curiosities, introspections, evaluations, and yearnings. As pondering individuals, we question how we were pulled and prodded through the acquisition of instrumental expertise. We are a trumpeter and a clarinetist; we are performers. We are also music educators who both re-enact and resist what was given to us as gospel. We hope to find within our thick and layered experiences, understandings of the better teacher we hope to become. We look beyond our “training” to our becoming both musicians and pedagogues, a work that remains in progress. We offer this pathway to our students—how can we/they become the better music educator?
... Without doubt, there is a plethora of definitions for play, all of which are intimately influenced by the cultural, social, and historical context in which a particular type of play is situated. Some societies believe in playing with their children, whereas others do so in varying degrees (Rogoff, 2003). However, one commonly agreed principle of play is that children construct their own view of the world through their creative exploration (Edwards et al., 2012;Vygotsky, 1967Vygotsky, , 1978. ...
Article
Full-text available
The teaching of fundamental movement skills (FMS) such as catching, throwing, running, jumping and rolling is widely accepted as the cornerstone of physical education in the primary school. However, there is limited debate about the use of different pedagogical approaches when teaching FMS. In this article, advice is offered for teachers vis-à-vis how FMS can be effectively learned, and the potential benefits of doing so for young children are revealed. A review of the traditional ‘technocratic’ teaching of physical education is given in order to subsequently highlight the possibility of learning FMS in alternative holistic and child-centred ways. Notably, play-based pedagogy is explored as a meaningful medium for skill learning, enabling children to make significant transformations in their physical, cognitive and social capacities. Several practical ideas for teaching FMS through play are provided, and tangible examples of how to differentiate these FMS learning activities are shared, with an inclusive mindset for skill teaching advocated.
... The co-genetic process of equalizing/distinguishing (Rogoff, 2003). Establishing this appropriate range also implies co-creating the boundaries of deviance and the conditions for inequalities (Tateo, 2015a). ...
Chapter
Contemporary formal educational systems are obsessed with performance. Social devices and practices are built in order to measure students’ and teachers’ achievements as well as the performance of the system itself, as a result of the commoditization of education: putting money into school and requiring account for investments. This process of naturalization of economic relations is hiding the value-laden nature of all formal educational systems. In any culture, development is guided by systems of values, as Ichheiser adamantly showed 70 years ago. He had three main concerns: how human beings understand (or misunderstand) each other’s differences; how human beings interpret (or misinterpret) the relationship between images of the world and expectations about it in the context of culture and ideology; and, finally, how human beings are aware (or ignore) the “inner man” which lies beyond the social roles. These issues are crucial in the tendency of education to evaluate individuals according to success or failure. I will start from Ichheiser analysis of the relationship between ideology and education to draw some ideas about further potential developments in the contemporary cultural psychology of education.KeywordsValue-laden educationEpistemology of cultural psychologyImaginationCultural psychology of education
... And another example from this group: It was also interesting to see that they discussed even the collocations and the type of collocations. This kind of interaction may result in learning, as Barbara Rogoff (2003) points out at the importance of human interaction in the learning process. She in particular described how interaction among students (as opposed to interaction with adults) can lead to higher levels of thinking. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim. The paper aims to investigate the students interactions engaged in mindful tasks in an English reading classroom. It attempts to explore whether there is any connection between being mindful and having a good interaction. Methods. For the research a case study approach was utilised, in which eight BA students majoring in English language and literature at the University of Mazandaran participated. They were divided into two groups of non-mindful and less mindful, each having four members based on their scores from Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). The data was collected in three sessions of critical reading practice, in which both groups were engaged in different forms of critical reading tasks. The less mindful group was encouraged to engage in some mindful activities prior to the critical reading tasks. All the sessions were video recorded and then transcribed for analysis. The transcribed data were analysed by the researcher and a second rater. Results. The results of the data analysis demonstrated that there were some minor differences in interactions of non-mindful and less-mindful group in critical reading tasks. The less-mindful group seemed to have more interactions than the non-mindful one. Conclusions. Due to the study limitations the results cannot be generalised. Originality. Mindfulness is a fairly new concept in English language teaching which is attracting attention as an alternative to promote learning. However, within the context of education, there have also been a select few studies that have focused on the benefits of mindfulness in English reading classrooms.
... The EST is traditionally described using a nested systems metaphor (Anderson et al., 2014), to capture the idea of the multiple transactions within and between all the systems in the frame. However, it is usually presented as an overlapping configuration of interconnected ecological systems (Rogoff, 2003), as it is shown in Figure 1. The mesosystem represents the interrelationships between the settings within a child's microsystem, while the fourth circle -the exosystem, is about the settings in which children do not directly participate but which are considered influential in a child's development (e.g., policy, school policy). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This comparative case study explores the perceptions of caregivers and professionals, regarding the repetitive behaviour (RB) in their 4-to-13-year-old children/ students with vision impairment (VI) or with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was conducted in Greece, as no related research has been conducted in the country. Research questions: This research aims to address the types of RBs observed by adults in children with VI or ASD, the explanations the adults employ to interpret these behaviours and the impact RBs have on the child, the caregiver, the professional and society. The underlying reason for this is an attempt to discover any potential differences between two different disabilities in a comparative fashion. The research questions that support the study are: 1. What are the RBs that caregivers and professionals observe in children with VI and children on the ASD? Does the child’s individual characteristics such as their age or ability have an impact on their behaviour? 2. What explanations do caregivers and professionals attribute to these behaviours? and 3. What is the impact of these behaviours a) on the child, b) on the caregiver/ professional, c) on others? Design: This study is based on interpretivist paradigm and followed a qualitative approach. A comparative case study design based on the ecological systems theory (EST) was adopted. 35 caregivers and accredited professionals were recruited (17 for the VI group, out of whom 8 were caregivers and 9 were professionals, and 18 for the ASD group, out of whom 9 were caregivers and 9 were professionals). Following the completion of a pilot study, all participants were interviewed regarding one specific child – their own child/ student – via semi-structured interviews. During the interviews, the researcher used a research diary as a methodological tool and video elicitation as a facilitation tool. A cross-case analysis was conducted and data was analysed according to the method of thematic analysis. Results: A link has been indicated between VI and ASD, which concerns perceptions about the socially constructed manner in which an RB is perceived. ASD is perceived by the participants as a disability with challenging characteristics, such as an RB. The ASD group perceived RB as linked to ableism, social stigmatisation and taboo, in contrast to VI, where the existence of RB seems to be a consequence of sensory loss. Bi-directionality of EST seems to have been lost completely and the macrosystem seems to drive the interactions between the ecological systems. School policy and practical implications are discussed. Keywords: repetitive behaviour, vision impairment, autism spectrum disorder, caregivers and professionals’ perceptions, social stigma, ableism
... Dialogic discussion requires teachers to see their students as doing much more than simply receiving knowledge. Instead, students are negotiating meaning with teachers and peers through their participation in culturally and historically situated discourses and within particular communities of practice (Gee, 1989;Lave & Wenger, 1991;Rogoff, 2003). Seeing learners and learning through this sociocultural lens, the work of teaching expands, requiring teachers to be in relationship with students' emergent ideas about content, to respond authentically to those ideas, rather than simply replace them with new ideas. ...
Article
Despite warrants for classroom discussion, research consistently finds that discussions in K-12 classrooms remain rare. Our research investigates whether and in what ways practice-based teacher learning opportunities focused on discussion facilitation influence opportunities for student talk. Grounded in data from a job-embedded professional development program for fourth- to eighth-grade literacy teachers, we analyzed videos of teachers co-planning and co-facilitating discussions with students. Findings indicate that, across 1 year, during co-facilitated classroom discussions, teacher talk decreased, while student talk increased. In a parallel finding, our analysis of co-planning sessions revealed that the ways teachers planned for discussions also changed. Teachers went from engaging only in what we call proactive pedagogical reasoning to balancing that with what we have come to call responsive pedagogical reasoning.
Chapter
Although learning conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic were quite difficult, Yucatec Maya students from elementary to university levels did not stop learning, although they did not necessarily follow conventional school ways. Instead, Yucatec Maya families resumed their traditional Indigenous ways of learning. There is no question that during the pandemic these students faced challenges such as a lack of access to technology and equipment for distance education and a lack of motivation, both of which explain the poor performance at school. Nevertheless, this chapter presents evidence of a hidden factor of success, the cultural ways of learning. If these ways are applied properly, they have the potential to contribute significantly to successfully face the challenge of returning to full face-to-face schooling.
Chapter
On small islands, education is considered a key contributor to economic growth. Due to their small size and limited employment prospects, islands with small economies like Malta, face unique challenges that are believed to be overcome by investment in education. It is estimated that small economies tend to disproportionately spend more on social development, including education (Read, 2021). Given the economic and social rates of return on investment in education, intensive human capital activities are regarded as supporting the international competitiveness and long-term economic growth of small islands (Read, 2021). Influenced by the central argument of this book around the environment and environmental sustainability in early childhood education on an archipelago of small islands that have suffered in the hands of colonisers for centuries, it seems rather fitting to discuss the influences and impacts of colonialism on early childhood education in Malta, with specific focus on early childhood education for sustainability (ECEfS). Thus far, in this book, I have focused mainly on the data that emerged from the research process with children. In keeping with the argument in this book, children’s interests in, and understanding of, the environment and environmental sustainability do not emerge from thin air. As we have seen in previous chapters, children’s interests were initiated by relationships with significant others in the family, school and community, as well as by children’s participation in cultural and social experiences and artefacts. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the community in which children’s environmental learning has taken place. The members of the community of interest in this chapter are the head teacher and the teachers who participated in this study.
Chapter
This volume presents an international collection of research which has examined ways in which teachers and researchers have researched effective assessment of young children (birth to eight years) and have revised ways in which they assess children’s learning and development and use the knowledge gained for curriculum planning. The tensions and challenges associated with assessment of young children are explored. The focus of this volume therefore is observation, assessment, evaluation and uses of data systems in early childhood and junior primary settings. The authors in this volume have explored what effective, socially, and culturally appropriate assessment of young children can involve, using a range of data systems. The chapter provides an overview of why the research these authors have been doing is needed now and the contributions that the collective body of research makes to understandings of early years development and education. The chapters explore issues in assessment of young children, the uses of data systems in early years education and the implications for teachers’ practices.
Chapter
In crisis situations, during armed conflicts or after natural disasters, education systems often fail to provide access to the quality of education that is arguably crucial for conflict stabilisation, peacemaking, and development, particularly in countries recovering from war. Challenges to educational provision in (post-)crisis situations and the demands of curriculum change are well discussed and thoroughly documented in the literature. However, the critical role of teachers is often discussed in general terms but not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the challenges with initial teacher education in post-crisis contexts, or about the quality of teaching in such contexts. This study aims to identify the challenges with providing quality teaching and teacher education in crisis situations by studying the case of Mosul University in Iraq. Focusing on developments after the demise of the Islamic State, the study looks at expert interviews as a means of exploring the perspectives of teacher educators at different faculties of Mosul University. It also analyses the teacher education curriculum and its development and implementation. Our findings provide an insight into teacher education structures in Iraq and the broader challenges presented by crisis contexts. A core challenge appears to be the centralised curriculum, which focuses on subject specific knowledge rather than other types of knowledge that are of key importance for prospective teachers in areas affected by conflict. Finally, the article provides suggestions for improving the teacher education curriculum at Mosul University and for addressing the challenges presented by crisis contexts.
Chapter
This chapter revises two important critical pedagogy concepts—cultural competence and critical consciousness—so they make meaning in early childhood educational contexts. Cultural psychology theories are used to re-conceptualize these terms from a non-Euro-centric perspective to emphasize that children's holistic development is nuanced particularly by the communities that they develop within. These terms are also examined from a critical pedagogical context of “super-diversity” through a discussion on identity and community cultural wealth to broach the idea that sites of early childhood education must serve as spaces that give agency and empowerment, given the trans-migratory world we live in. Further, Derman-Sparks and Edwards' conception of anti-bias education is demonstrated in the use of Persona Dolls, specifically for pedagogical leadership, in instructional settings as a way to broach critical pedagogy. Finally, some strategies for pedagogical leadership are suggested.
Chapter
The process through which parents transmit cultural values, as well as beliefs, traditions, and behavioral norms to their children is commonly referred to as ethnic-racial socialization. Socialization practices have been found to influence the ethnic identity and behaviors of Latinx school-age children in important ways including achievement and psychological functioning. This chapter focuses on three prominent values found in Latinx families that weave into the educational experiences of children and youth in schooling. Among the cultural values important in socializing Latinx children is respeto (respect) that emphasizes and dictates knowing the level of courtesy and decorum required in a given situation and delineates the boundaries of appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Understanding the Latinx value of “bien educado” (well-educated or well-mannered) is also important in understanding the uniquely nuanced behaviors Latinx children bring to the classroom. Bien educado is a broad construct that generally reflects strong socialization along several behaviors including comportment, composure, meeting role obligations, obedience, respect, and self-reliance expectations of Latinx children. Finally, this chapter will describe Latinx collective orientation typically called “familismo.” Familismo or familism emphasizes collectivism over individual needs with strong identification and attachment to their nuclear family and extended families with demonstrations of loyalty, reciprocity, and solidarity.KeywordsLatinx childrenFamilismoRespetoBien educadoEthnic-racial socialization
Article
Full-text available
Amid a broader sociopolitical milieu of division, disagreement, and uncivil debate, this study investigates instances of disagreement among students in a high school science classroom as they attempt to answer the civic question of what should we do about climate change, a long contentious topic in the USA. Using a theoretical framework that frames relational practices and ideological positions as discursive resources, this study analyzes the resources youth bring to bear within disagreement. Through discourse analysis and qualitative coding of naturalistic moments of disagreement, this study shows that youth leverage diverse constellations of discursive resources when disagreeing over science-civic matters. From this analysis, I suggest paths forward in terms of research and practice in efforts to prepare young people for science-civic participation that will inevitably involve disagreement with others in one’s community.
Article
Learning and teaching are fundamentally cultural processes. Culture is the constellations of practices that communities have historically developed and dynamically shaped in order to accomplish the purposes they value, including the tools they use, the social networks with which they are connected, the ways they organize joint activity, and their ways of conceptualizing and engaging with the world. This chapter reviews research on the cultural nature of learning, including studies of (1) learning in and out of schools; (2) relationships between everyday and academic knowledge and discourse; (3) classroom-based design research that explores linkages between students’ diverse repertoires of practice and those of the academic disciplines being taught. This review addresses multiple dimensions of learning including cognition, discourse, affect, motivation, and identity. The research has implications for several issues in the learning sciences: How does learning interact with community practices? How can we connect these community practices to academic disciplinary practices? How can we use our understanding of community practices to support deeper learning?
Article
In this article, we offer a blueprint that connects learning, humanizing pedagogies, and inclusive assessment to foster equity in higher education. First, we build upon extant literature to infuse sociocultural theories in our reimagination of learning. Second, we articulate how inclusive pedagogical practices bring strong potential to humanize campus learning systems. Third, we share strategies for educators to enact inclusive assessment based upon conceptualizations of learning and inclusive pedagogies. Our hope is for readers to consider inclusive assessment as one tool for iteratively redesigning a powerful learning environment where students are supported, affirmed, valued, and validated as their whole selves.
Chapter
This article examines how a partnership between schools and external organisation provide learning opportunities for teachers and other partners to develop new competencies and practices. The partnership was formed between a school, science centre, community social service agency and education research institute to design programmes to improve lower-track students science learning and well-being. Using a design-based implementation research methodology, the partnership sought to design, implement, and evaluate innovative tinkering-based science lessons iteratively while learning about the profile of the lower-track students. Over the span of three and a half years of the partnership, we documented the partnership process, meetings, lesson design and enactments, and interviews with students and partners. We found that the learning outcomes of the partnership included the development of skills for design, new practices and changed mindsets about failure which was facilitated by collectively building capacity in the partnership and developing the understanding of students. Through a social cultural lens of collaboration, context, and tools, we found that participating in partnerships can move members towards the development of knowledge, practices, and experience that they contribute to the growth of other members in culture of sharing, openness, and power balance.
Chapter
Much has been written about affording young children (including infants) rights to participate in matters that affect them. In particular, most early childhood curriculum guides that include infants, reflect contemporary images of infants as powerful learners, capable of contributing to their own and others learning. While these strong images of capable children may sit comfortably with curriculum approaches for older preschoolers, there is less clarity about how infants might have their agency and rights to be participants in curriculum honoured. This chapter presents three narratives, developed as part of a case study considering infants’ encounters with curriculum. Drawing on the Levinasian idea of encounter (Levinas, Time and the other. Duquesne University Press, Pittsburgh, 1987), these narratives are an attempt to get closer to infants’ perspectives and illuminate the ways in which these infants propose their learning agendas and invite others into the encounter. The narratives suggest that infants’ contributions and key signals about their interests and ambitions for learning can be easily overlooked. As a way of overcoming these oversights, Shier’s (Child Soc 15(2):107–117, 2001) principles of participation are considered as a possible framework for listening to infants and fostering their participation rights in curriculum. A reconceptualising of these principles, based on insights gleaned from the narratives, provides new ways of thinking about infants as protagonists and partners in their curriculum encounters. This chapter will invite conversations about hidden, silenced and overlooked aspects of the curriculum experience for infants and provide a framework for considering how infants rights to have a say in curriculum might be honoured.
Article
Full-text available
Resume Betydning af børns tilhør i børnefællesskaber synes at være et underbelyst aspekt, når vi undersøger den gode opstart for børn i vuggestue. Vi analyserer i denne artikel, hvad pædagoger, forældre og børn oplever og forstår som en god opstart i vuggestuen, og hvordan det viser sig i praksis. Vi peger på, hvordan der med fordel kan bygges bro mellem forståelser af børns behov for tilknytning til voksne og børns behov for tilhør til børnefællesskaber. Artiklens analyser trækker på feltnoter og interviewmateriale med forældre, pædagoger og ledere i forskningsprojektet Samarbejde om småbørn (Marschall, Munck, Heinesen & Bæk, 2018-2020). Abstract Meaning of belonging: Overlooked perspectives on children’s ”good” settling-in processes in ECEC The significance of children’s belonging to children’s communities seems to be an under-elucidated aspect when we examine the good settling-in processes for young children in ECEC. In this article, we analyze what pedagogues, parents and children experience and understand as a good “settling-in” in ECEC and how it appears in practice through their ways of taking part. We point to how understandings of children’s needs for attachment to adults can usefully be bridged by children’s needs for belonging to children’s communities. The analyses draw on field notes and interview material with parents, pedagogues and ECEC managers in the research project Collaboration about Toddlers (Marschall, Munck, Heinesen & Bæk, 2018-2020).
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents an analysis of songbooks used in kindergarten. It outlines the need for renewal of the existing kindergarten curriculum from the perspective of preserving the Slovenian music tradition, and within this context, the indispensable role of children’s folk songs in the preservation of Slovenian folk music. Furthermore, it tackles the following three issues: (i) the disproportionate representation of children’s folk songs and author songs in songbooks; (ii) the information provided about children’s folk songs in songbooks, and (iii) the representation of children’s folk songs in kindergarten.
Article
This paper reports a quantitative study related to Interactive Learning Environment and motivation of secondary school mathematics students. The aim of this research was to measure the impact of Interactive Learning Environment on Student’s motivation. The respondents were chosen from the public secondary schools situated in Islamabad (Federal Territory), working under control of Federal Directorate of school education. There were 101 public schools out of which 56 were for girls and 45 were for boys. This research study was delimited to pupil of grade 10th only. Total 12810 students were studying in these schools in grade tenth, out of which about 2 percent were selected randomly. Thus the sample of the study was 260 students. A questionnaire “What Is Happening in the Class (WIHIC)”was adapted and utilized to study the prevailing practices regarding to learning environment of the classroom. To determine the students’ level of motivation “Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS)” was used. The instruments were validated by professionals from the field of education and educational psychology. The reliability of the instrument was determined by using Cronbach Alpha which was found 0.89 for WIHIC questionnaire and 0.82 for MAS. Student’s cohesiveness was found most prevailing practice related to classroom learning environment in maths classrooms and maximum number of the students were at medium level of motivation. Findings also reveal that Interactive learning environment motivate the learners utmost. The major recommendation of the study was that learning environment may be interactive and directed in such a way that it should motivate the learners to learn and perform better.
Article
This article explores some of the often overlooked, traumatic psychological consequences that follow from major social and political disruption and upheaval. Specifically, it examines the importance of maintaining memory and legacy in the face of widespread uprootedness and dislocation of the sort that can undermine and even obliterate personal, social, and collective identities. The role that authentic social frameworks for memory play in preserving psychological rootedness and that accurate historical narratives play in resistance and regrouping is explored. Finally, the importance of creating a new psychology that is fully grounded in history and culture is emphasized.
Article
In this article, Marjorie Faulstich Orellana highlights the work immigrant children do as active agents in supporting and sustaining their families, households, and schools. Building on the work of sociologists who examine children's engagement in social processes, Orellana maintains that we should not lose sight of children's present lives and daily contributions in our concern for their futures. Similarly, we should not see immigrant children only as a problem or a challenge for education and for society while overlooking their contributions to family and school. Integrated into her discussion are the voices of Mexican and Central American immigrant children living in California as they describe their everyday work as helpers at home and school. These examples illustrate how immigrant children's work can be understood in many ways - as volunteerism, as opportunities for learning, and as acts of cultural and linguistic brokering between their homes and the outside world. Immigrant children and the children of immigrants comprise the new majority in many urban school districts in the United States. This fact is publicized dramatically in news articles and educational reports: for example, children in California come from homes where over eighty-eight languages are spoken (Cornelius, 1995); one in five children in the United States lives in an immigrant-headed household (Suarez-Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 2000); and the Hispanic population of the United States grew 38.8 percent in the last decade, mostly due to immigration (James, 2000). In these forums, immigrant children are largely considered as a problem, or at best a challenge, for the educational system and for society. The focus is also on their futures, rather than their present realities. How will they be educated, acculturated, and assimilated into U.S. society? What do we (teachers,
Article
Ethnographic literature indicates that in many cultural communities around the world, children have extensive opportunities to learn through observing and participating in their community’s work and other mature activities. We argue that in communities in which children are often segregated from adult work (as in middle-class European American communities), young children instead are often involved in specialised child-focused activities such as lessons, adult–child play (and scholastic play), and conversation with adults on child-related topics. We examine this argument with systematic time-sampled observations of the extent of 2- to 3-year-old children’s access to adult work compared to their involvement in specialised child-focused activities. Observations focused on 12 children in each of four communities: two middle-class European American communities (West Newton, Massachusetts and Sugarhouse, Utah), Efe foragers of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and indigenous Maya of San Pedro, Guatemala. West Newton and Sugarhouse children had less frequent access to work and were involved more often in specialised child-focused activities than Efe and San Pedro children. The results support the idea that the middle-class European American children’s frequent involvement in specialised child-focused activities may relate to their more limited opportunities to learn through observing work activities of their communities. It may be less necessary for the Efe and San Pedro children to be involved in specialised child-focused activities to prepare them for involvement in mature community practices, because they are already a regular part of them.
Article
Findings from research on parent-child and adult mate relationships suggest that there are different paths of development in Japan and the United States. In Japan, the path is one of symbiotic harmony, as seen in the emphasis on union in infancy, others' expectations in childhood, the stability of relationships with parents and peers in adolescence, and assurance about the mate relationship in adulthood. In the United States, the path is one of generative tension, as seen in the tug between separation and reunion in infancy, the emphasis on personal preferences in childhood, the transfer of closeness from parents to peers in adolescence, and the emphasis on trust-a faith and hope in new relationships-in adulthood. The notion that there are different paths of development challenges Western investigators' presumption that certain processes-separation-individuation, use of the relational partner as a secure base for exploration, and conflict between partners-are central in all relationships. The notion of different paths also challenges the assumption of many cross-cultural investigators that relationships in the United States are less valued or weaker than those in Japan; this article highlights cultural differences in the meaning and dynamics, as opposed to the importance and strength, of relationships. The model suggests a need to investigate the processes underlying, and the adaptive consequences of, these two alternative paths.
Article
Traditional indigenous social organization in the Americas has been characterized as involving horizontal multiparty engagements, in contrast with schooling, which often relies on hierarchy and division of labor. This study examined whether the social organization of problem solving of Guatemalan Mayan indigenous mothers and children varied with the mothers' extent of experience with school. We observed 47 mothers as they constructed a puzzle with 3 children (ages 6-12 years). Mayan mothers with little schooling (0-2 grades) were involved more in horizontal, multiparty engagements, whereas Mayan mothers with extensive experience with schooling (12 or more grades) were involved more in hierarchical, division-of-labor engagements with the children. The results suggest that Western formal schooling contributes to the reshaping of traditional collaborative social organization among indigenous Mayan people.
Article
Cultural homelessness (CH) is the authors' term to describe unique experiences and feelings reported by some multicultural individuals. Ethnically related concepts found in the cross-cultural and multiethnic literature (e.g., marginality, intercultural effectiveness, ethnic enclaves, reference group) are used to explain how CH may arise from cross-cultural tensions within the ethnically mixed family and between the family and its culturally different environment, especially due to geographic moves. CH is conceptualized as a situationally imposed developmental challenge, forcing the child to accommodate to contradictory and changing norms, values, verbal and nonverbal communication styles, and attachment processes. Culturally homeless individuals may enjoy a broader, stronger cognitive and social repertoire because of their multiple cultural frames of reference. However, code-switching,complexities may lead to emotional and social confusion, which, if internalized, may result in self-blame and shame. Culturally encoded emotion labeling may be disrupted, leading to alexithymia.