Article

Social Loafing and Swimming: Effects of Identifiability on Individual and Relay Performance of Intercollegiate Swimmers

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Abstract

A sizable body of research indicates that people tend to put forth less effort when performing in groups than when alone, a phenomenon called social loafing. However, archival data suggest that swimmers actually perform better when swimming in relays than when swimming in individuals events. Physical factors contributing to this difference were controlled in an experiment in which the degree of identifiability of swimmers' times and type of event (individual vs. relay) were manipulated. A significant interaction between these two variables resulted, supporting previous social loafing findings. Swimmers recorded significantly better times in relays than individually when identifiability was high but tended to perform more poorly in relays under conditions of low identifiability.

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... This difference in pacing strategy between individual and relay swims may be attributed to the relay leg assignment as well as the added pressure to perform well for the team [9]. Extensive research on team dynamics and behavioural aspects of competitive relay swimming are described in the literature [10][11][12][13]. Compared to individual events, swimming performance is typically faster in relays which may be attributed to elevated motivation and effort [13,14]. ...
... Extensive research on team dynamics and behavioural aspects of competitive relay swimming are described in the literature [10][11][12][13]. Compared to individual events, swimming performance is typically faster in relays which may be attributed to elevated motivation and effort [13,14]. However, there is conflicting evidence of differences in starts, turns and swimming speed between individual and relay events [8]. ...
... Among the many variables that may impact relay swimming performance, the psychology of team competition is important [13,14]. Note that we have adjusted for the effect of the flying start in relay legs two through four by setting exchange block times equal to individual reaction time [8]. ...
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Aim The aim was to predict and understand variations in swimmer performance between individual and relay events, and develop a predictive model for the 4x200-m swimming freestyle relay event to help inform team selection and strategy. Data and methods Race data for 716 relay finals (4 x 200-m freestyle) from 14 international competitions between 2010–2018 were analysed. Individual 200-m freestyle season best time for the same year was located for each swimmer. Linear regression and machine learning was applied to 4 x 200-m swimming freestyle relay events. Results Compared to the individual event, the lowest ranked swimmer in the team (-0.62 s, CI = [−0.94, −0.30]) and American swimmers (−0.48 s [−0.89, −0.08]) typically swam faster 200-m times in relay events. Random forest models predicted gold, silver, bronze and non-medal with 100%, up to 41%, up to 63%, and 93% sensitivity, respectively. Discussion Team finishing position was strongly associated with the differential time to the fastest team (mean decrease in Gini (MDG) when this variable was omitted = 31.3), world rankings of team members (average ranking MDG of 18.9), and the order of swimmers (MDG = 6.9). Differential times are based on the sum of individual swimmer’s season’s best times, and along with world rankings, reflect team strength. In contrast, the order of swimmers reflects strategy. This type of analysis could assist coaches and support staff in selecting swimmers and team orders for relay events to enhance the likelihood of success.
... No information from statistical tests concerning the reported differences (and nondifferences) is provided that were apparently found Summarizing the 12 obtained studies focusing on effort losses in sports teams (see Table 4.1), the following aggregated features become apparent: First, all studies with the exception of Anshel (1995) set out to investigate factors that may mitigate social loafing or even reverse it (Høigaard, Boen, De Cuyper, & Peters, 2013;Williams, Nida, Baca, & Latané, 1989). Only the study by Anshel (1995) seems to be exclusively motivated to document a social loafing effect in sports teams. ...
... The study by Miles and Greenberg (1993) employed a between-subjects design and used an individual performance baseline provided by other participants than the participants in the team condition. Third, all but one study (Study 1 by Williams et al., 1989) set up experimental or quasi-experimental designs to investigate their research question. In their Study 1, Williams et al. (1989) used archival data. ...
... Third, all but one study (Study 1 by Williams et al., 1989) set up experimental or quasi-experimental designs to investigate their research question. In their Study 1, Williams et al. (1989) used archival data. Moreover, only Williams et al. (1989) and Anshel (1995) employed standing rather than ad hoc teams. ...
... While swim starts from the OSB11 block are commonly performed with a kick-start technique [24], relay swimmers use various starting techniques including upper limbs swing starts with parallel foot placement and one-step or doublestep approaches [5] as long as their feet do not lose touch with the starting platform before the preceding teammate touches the wall (FINA rule SW 10.11 [2]). Up to date, relay start papers have examined differences in the in take-off techniques [7,16,23], the meaning of the change-over time for the relay start performance [6,19,20,21] or motivational influences of relay swimming as compared to individual races [9,10,11,29]. ...
... Aside from possible biomechanical advantages in the relay starts influencing relay race times, motivational effects have been suggested to improve relay swimming [9,10,11,21,29]. In this paragraph, a summary of studies will be discussed in favor of or questioning such motivational effects accounting the serial positions within a relay team as well. ...
... In this paragraph, a summary of studies will be discussed in favor of or questioning such motivational effects accounting the serial positions within a relay team as well. One of the first publications investigating motivational effects in relay swimming was provided by Williams, Nida [29]. These authors examined the social loafing issue meaning that individuals exert less effort in groups than when alone. ...
Chapter
Swimming a relay is different from swimming in an individual race. The most visible difference can be found in the starting behavior from the block. For the individual start, swimmers initiate, at rest, their take-off movement as soon as a starting signal appears. For relay starts, swimmers may initiate their take-off behavior any time they wish. However, a relay team will be disqualified if a swimmer’s feet lose contact with the starting platform before the preceding teammate touches the wall. Aside from differences in the starting behavior, motivational effects are thought to influence relay swimming when contributing to a group performance while these effects are amiss during individual races. This chapter summarizes various issues related to the specifics of relay starts as compared to swim starts in individual races. For the relay start, differing movement techniques will be analyzed including traditional upper limbs swing starts with parallel foot placement and new step-start techniques. Moreover, the new OSB11 start block model may offer additional construction characteristics that have possibly not been fully exploited yet for relay starts. Furthermore, literature suggestions will be analyzed on when to initiate the relay start. As a particular characteristic of relay starts, the importance of change-over time will be discussed. For a more practical issue, strategic arrangements of faster and slower relay team members will be examined as well.
... While swim starts from the OSB11 block are commonly performed with a kick-start technique [24], relay swimmers use various starting techniques including upper limbs swing starts with parallel foot placement and one-step or doublestep approaches [5] as long as their feet do not lose touch with the starting platform before the preceding teammate touches the wall (FINA rule SW 10.11 [2]). Up to date, relay start papers have examined differences in the in take-off techniques [7,16,23], the meaning of the change-over time for the relay start performance [6,19,20,21] or motivational influences of relay swimming as compared to individual races [9,10,11,29]. ...
... Aside from possible biomechanical advantages in the relay starts influencing relay race times, motivational effects have been suggested to improve relay swimming [9,10,11,21,29]. In this paragraph, a summary of studies will be discussed in favor of or questioning such motivational effects accounting the serial positions within a relay team as well. ...
... In this paragraph, a summary of studies will be discussed in favor of or questioning such motivational effects accounting the serial positions within a relay team as well. One of the first publications investigating motivational effects in relay swimming was provided by Williams, Nida [29]. These authors examined the social loafing issue meaning that individuals exert less effort in groups than when alone. ...
Chapter
Swimming a relay is different from swimming in an individual race. The most visible difference can be found in the starting behavior from the block. For the individual start, swimmers initiate, at rest, their take-off movement as soon as a starting signal appears. For relay starts, swimmers may initiate their take-off behavior any time they wish. However, a relay team will be disquali-fied if a swimmer’s feet lose contact with the starting platform before the preceding teammate touches the wall. Aside from differences in the starting behavior, motivational effects are thought to influence relay swimming when contributing to a group performance while these effects are amiss during in-dividual races. This chapter summarizes various issues related to the specif-ics of relay starts as compared to swim starts in individual races. For the re-lay start, differing movement techniques will be analyzed including tradition-al upper limbs swing starts with parallel foot placement and new step-start techniques. Moreover, the new OSB11 start block model may offer addition-al construction characteristics that have possibly not been fully exploited yet for relay starts. Furthermore, literature suggestions will be analyzed on when to initiate the relay start. As a particular characteristic of relay starts, the im-portance of change-over time will be discussed. For a more practical issue, strategic arrangements of faster and slower relay team members will be ex-amined as well.
... Social facilitation, by contrast, has a stronger basis of examination in the athletic population. Studies on cyclists (16,61), swimmers (59), and weightlifters (42) suggest that the presence of an audience and/or competition can improve maximal physical performance. Yet, despite the positive effect on maximal athletic performance shown in these studies (16,42,59,61), only a small number of studies by our research group (7)(8)(9)(10) have examined the potential role of social factors during athletes' submaximal training sessions. ...
... Studies on cyclists (16,61), swimmers (59), and weightlifters (42) suggest that the presence of an audience and/or competition can improve maximal physical performance. Yet, despite the positive effect on maximal athletic performance shown in these studies (16,42,59,61), only a small number of studies by our research group (7)(8)(9)(10) have examined the potential role of social factors during athletes' submaximal training sessions. Many athletes, especially those in endurance sports, perform a substantial amount of training below maximal effort (22,49). ...
... Our prior studies diverge from previous findings of positive effects, showing null (9,10) or negative (7,8) responses to the presence of a peer. The unexpected findings of these preliminary studies on adult runners, compared with the enhanced maximal athletic performance in previous social facilitation literature (16,42,59,61), highlight the need for further experimental research on the behavioral and psychological effects of performing submaximal training coactively with others. ...
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Carnes AJ, Mahoney SE. Cohesion is Associated with Perceived Exertion and Enjoyment during Group Running. JEPonline 2016; 19(6):24-39. The purpose of this study was to determine if interval running with a group affects average speed, perceived exertion (RPE), and/or enjoyment in recreational runners, and if these variables are associated with cohesion and/or social support. Twenty adult runners performed two trials under different social conditions (alone, group), consisting of high intensity intervals. Average interval time, enjoyment, and RPE were compared between trials. Social support and cohesion were assessed separately. There were no main or interaction effects on average speed (P>0.87), RPE (P>0.08), or enjoyment (P>0.26). Task cohesion (r =-.58, P=0.01) and social support (r =-.73, P=0.001) were negatively associated with RPE in the group condition only, and positively associated with enjoyment. Running with a group did not affect speed, enjoyment, or RPE during an interval workout. However, higher perceived task cohesion and social support were associated with lower perceived exertion and greater enjoyment during group running. While the group environment did not augment the subjects' average running speed during a high intensity interval workout, group training may nonetheless furnish psychological benefits that could aid in the completion of challenging, high intensity training sessions.
... Social facilitation, by contrast, has a stronger basis of examination in the athletic population. Studies on cyclists (16,61), swimmers (59), and weightlifters (42) suggest that the presence of an audience and/or competition can improve maximal physical performance. Yet, despite the positive effect on maximal athletic performance shown in these studies (16,42,59,61), only a small number of studies by our research group (7)(8)(9)(10) have examined the potential role of social factors during athletes' submaximal training sessions. ...
... Studies on cyclists (16,61), swimmers (59), and weightlifters (42) suggest that the presence of an audience and/or competition can improve maximal physical performance. Yet, despite the positive effect on maximal athletic performance shown in these studies (16,42,59,61), only a small number of studies by our research group (7)(8)(9)(10) have examined the potential role of social factors during athletes' submaximal training sessions. Many athletes, especially those in endurance sports, perform a substantial amount of training below maximal effort (22,49). ...
... Our prior studies diverge from previous findings of positive effects, showing null (9,10) or negative (7,8) responses to the presence of a peer. The unexpected findings of these preliminary studies on adult runners, compared with the enhanced maximal athletic performance in previous social facilitation literature (16,42,59,61), highlight the need for further experimental research on the behavioral and psychological effects of performing submaximal training coactively with others. ...
... When setting out to study whether effort gains in teams in field settings exist, we realized that competitive swimming could be a promising context. Not only are there various pertinent studies using either archival data from swimming competitions (e.g., Williams et al., 1989, Study 1) or investigating competitive swimmers in field settings (Everett et al., 1992;Miles & Greenberg, 1993;Sorrentino & Shepperd, 1978;Williams et al., 1989, Study 2), but archival data from swimming competitions has various desirable properties. First, it seems reasonable to assume that there is a positive monotonous relation of effort and performance in swimming. ...
... When setting out to study whether effort gains in teams in field settings exist, we realized that competitive swimming could be a promising context. Not only are there various pertinent studies using either archival data from swimming competitions (e.g., Williams et al., 1989, Study 1) or investigating competitive swimmers in field settings (Everett et al., 1992;Miles & Greenberg, 1993;Sorrentino & Shepperd, 1978;Williams et al., 1989, Study 2), but archival data from swimming competitions has various desirable properties. First, it seems reasonable to assume that there is a positive monotonous relation of effort and performance in swimming. ...
Article
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Although group work has the potential to both reduce and increase the effort expenditure of its members, effort losses (i.e., reduced effort in group-versus individual work) have long been perceived as (nearly) inevitable in Social Psychology. This notion was elicited, accompanied, and bolstered by (i) pessimistic theorizing on group productivity, and (ii) the primary use of laboratory experiments to study effort expenditure in groups. In this contribution, we adopt a more optimistic theoretical perspective. We review a series of consecutive field and vignette studies showing that individuals often work harder in groups than alone (i.e., effort gains in groups). We show that effort gains in groups are robust and can be reliably observed under various theoretically derived conditions. We also illustrate that effort gains in groups cannot be explained by various alternative explanations, and illuminate underlying mechanisms and moderators of effort gains in groups in field settings. We conclude our review by elaborating on the relevance of our findings for current theorizing, the motivating design of group work, and new directions in the study of effort expenditure during group work.
... 5 Results from laboratory-based studies indicate that individuals exert less effort when part of a group in a variety of sporting and nonsporting settings, a concept known as social loafing. 9 When this concept was investigated with a university swim team in a simulated competition, swimmers swam 0.7 second faster in a relay than an individual event when their individual lap times were publicly displayed, but when their results were nonidentifiable they swam 0.4 second slower in relays. 9 Participants were permitted to use a flying start in both the individual and relay swims. ...
... 9 When this concept was investigated with a university swim team in a simulated competition, swimmers swam 0.7 second faster in a relay than an individual event when their individual lap times were publicly displayed, but when their results were nonidentifiable they swam 0.4 second slower in relays. 9 Participants were permitted to use a flying start in both the individual and relay swims. Higher levels of effort and more pressure to perform well were reported when competing in a relay. ...
Purpose: Although pacing is considered crucial for success in individual swimming events, there is a lack of research examining pacing in relays. The authors investigated the impact of start lap and pacing strategy on swimming performance and whether these strategies differ between relays and the corresponding individual event. Methods: Race data for 716 relay (4 × 200-m freestyle) finals from 14 international competitions between 2010 and 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. Each swimmer's individual 200-m freestyle season's best time for the same year was used for comparison. Races were classified as a fast, average, or slow start lap strategy (lap 1) and as an even, negative, or positive pacing strategy (laps 2-4) to give an overall race strategy, for example, average start lap even pacing. Results: A fast start lap strategy was associated with slower 200-m times (range 0.5-0.9 s, P ≤ .04) irrespective of gender, and positive pacing led to slower 200-m (0.4-0.5 s, P ≤ .03) times in females. A fast start lap strategy led to positive pacing in 71% of swimmers. Half of the swimmers changed pacing strategy, with 13% and 7% more female and male swimmers, respectively, displaying positive pacing in relays compared with individual events. In relays, a fast start lap and positive pacing was utilized more frequently by swimmers positioned on second to fourth relay legs (+13%) compared with lead-off leg swimmers (+3%). Conclusion: To maximize performance, swimmers should be more conservative in the first lap and avoid unnecessary alterations in race strategy in relay events.
... In this respect, identifiability has been consistently demonstrated as a situational factor with the potential to influence the occurrence of social loafing. For example, Williams, Nida, Baca, and Latane (1989) demonstrated that swimmers were faster in 100 yd freestyle relays than a 100 m individual freestyle race when identifiability was high. Identifiability has also been found to moderate the link between specific individual differences and the magnitude of social loafing. ...
... Considering the findings, it was concluded that social loafing could occur only in certain circumstances. Consistent with previous studies (Haugen et al., 2016;Swain, 2013;Williams et al., 1989), the present study demonstrated that the influence of dispositional factors on social loafing might depend on situational factors; in this case, identifiability. ...
Article
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The present study aimed to investigate extraversion as a moderator of social loafing on a motor task that requires fine motor skills as well as perceptual-motor skills. Participants with higher and lower levels of extraversion were asked to group dots according to their color during high and low identifiability conditions. The performance was determined by the number of dots accurately grouped. A 2 (group; high/low extraversion) × 2 (identifiability; high/low) mixed model of ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between extraversion and identifiability, which means that extraverts’ performance increased from the low to high identifiability condition. On the other hand, introverts’ performance remained relatively stable across high and low identifiability conditions. Overall, results suggested that in an identifiable state, extraverts tend to increase their performance.
... Existing social facilitation research in the athletic setting focuses primarily on the enhancement of maximal effort during competition. Just as Triplett's (1898) early study showed increased speed in cyclists competing against others, later studies on weightlifters (Rhea, Landers, Alvar, & Arent, 2003), swimmers (Williams, Nida, Baca, & Latane, 1989), and cyclists (Corbett, Barwood, Ouzounogluo, Thelwell, & Dicks, 2012;Wilmore, 1968) suggest that the presence of an audience or competition improved maximal performance. While competition at maximal effort is athletes' primary concern, a substantial amount of their training occurs below maximal (i.e., submaximal) effort. ...
... While past experimental research has shown enhanced athletic performance during competition (Corbett, Barwood, Ouzounogluo, Thelwell, & Dicks, 2012;Rhea et al., 2003;Williams et al., 1989;Wilmore, 1968) the current study more closely relates to those on non-athlete adults and children Grindrod et al., 2006;Plante et al., 2010;Rittenhouse et al., 2011;Sanders et al., 2014;Salvy et al., 2008) that showed a positive effect on physical activity behavior and enjoyment during submaximal exercise. By contrast, a preliminary study by our research group (Carnes and Barkley, 2015) examined the effect of peer influence on athletes during submaximal exercise. ...
Article
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Training with a partner is a common practice amongst athletes, but there is little research on the causal impact of peer influence on acute exercise behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if running with an unfamiliar peer (versus alone) affects average speed, enjoyment, or perceived exertion during self-paced outdoor running. Sixteen recreational runners (n = 8 female, n = 8 male) completed self-paced 6.4-km runs on a measured path. One run was done alone while the other was with a single unfamiliar, age and sex matched peer. There was a significant sex by condition by interaction (p = 0.01) for average speed. Women ran slower (p = 0.05) with a peer than alone, while men increased speed with a peer. The presence of an unfamiliar peer had a divergent effect between sexes, suggesting a possible sex difference in the effect of an exercise partner.
... Innenfor idrett har forskning vist at det forekommer både innfor koaktive idretter (f.eks. løping (stafett), cheerleading, svømming (stafett), roing, sykling; Anshel, 1995;Hardy & Latané, 1988;Huddleston, Doody, & Ruder, 1985;Høigaard, 2010;Høigaard, Boen, De Cuyper, & Peters, 2013;Williams, Nida, Baca, & Latané, 1989) og interaktive idretter (f.eks. håndball, fotball, ishockey; Høigaard, 2010;Høigaard et al., 2010;Høigaard & Ommundsen, 2007). ...
... Ingen signifikant forskjell mellom gruppene på noe tidspunkt, og ingen interaksjonseffekt (F(df) = 0.38 (1) , p = .38). Karau & Williams, 1993;1995;Williams et al., 1989). Dette innebaerer at eksperimentet lyktes i å skape en betingelse hvor sosial loffing oppstod. ...
Chapter
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The aim of the study was to examine the extent in which verbal feedback (positive and negative) affected the collective efficacy, and to what extent an increase in collective effi-cacy would affect the propensity to social loafing in a sport group context where individual effort is not perceived as identifiable. 66 sports students conducted an interval of one-minute maximum effort on the bike ergometer under individual conditions. Participants were then randomized into teams in which half of them received positive feedback, while the others received negative feedback, before they then carried out three trials under collective condi-tions. The participants’ belief in the team’s victory chance was reported ahead of the second and third attempt. The results show that feedback affected the collective efficacy, but there was a non-significant difference in performance between the groups.
... The importance of social loafing also extends to sport (Carron & Burke, 2004). As social loafing occurs in many sports and in the performance of various tasks requiring physical activity, including shouting and clapping (Harkins, Latane´, & Williams, 1980), swimming (Williams, Nida, Baca, & Latane´, 1989), rowing (Anshel, 1995;Hardy & Crace, 1991), running (Huddleston, Doody, & Rudder, 1985), and 30-m sprint relay (Hoigaard, Tofteland, & Ommundsen, 2006). However, the aforementioned studies used athletes who participated in individual sport, i.e., a sport in which there is only one performer, and the final success depends on the performance of this individual as opposed to team sports, i.e., sports where there is more than one performer and the success depends on the performance of all the team members. ...
... We cannot explain the absence of social loafing in team sports athletes from the identifiability and evaluation perspective (Hardy & Latane´, 1988;Høigaard & Ommundsen, 2007;Williams et al., 1989). When individual contributions in collective activities can be evaluated and identified that individual is less likely to loaf. ...
Article
The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2.0) had to pull a rope individually and collectively. Groups of two, three, four, and six persons were formed from among individuals with no previous sports experience, and of those who had engaged in individual and team sports. For each team, the sum of individual achievements of the individuals constituting a team was computed. This sum served as the anticipated result (expected value). The expected values were later compared to the actual achievements, i.e., the value achieved by the whole team. The results of the study suggested that previous experience in collective (team) sports eliminated the effect of social loafing. Copyright: SAGE
... This 1 3 results in a high interdependence between partners and makes it obvious that goals can only be achieved if each side commits to the endeavor (Dirks, 1999). Moreover, complementary competences as well as prolonged cooperation should reduce motivational losses like social loafing, thus also boosting the individual effort (Harkins & Perry, 1982;Hilkenmeier, 2018;Williams et al., 1989). Besides, commitment can be increased by bringing own effort into the project, again showing interest and ensuring a high level of participation (Barbolla & Corredera, 2009;Liu & Hsiao, 2019). ...
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One of the main challenges in technology transfer is to actively involve small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)—which are most in need of and benefit the most from collaborative Research and Development (R&D) programs. This study presents a large-scale collaboration program which focuses on project-based technology transfer in SMEs with little to no prior experience in collaborative research projects. The core of this collaboration program is the temporary secondment of scientists from a Research and Technology Organization (RTO) into an SME to jointly work on a practical project objective—which is directly tailored to the demands of the SME. To evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in overcoming barriers related to finding the right collaboration partner, limited resources, and limited absorptive capabilities, we adopt the R&D Lifecycle Model as a theoretical framework. Our findings, using self-reported and objective data from 106 different projects in a structural equation model, highlight that most SMEs in the considered cluster environment not only successfully mastered a challenging topic in the context of industry 4.0 that immediately benefits the organization, but also engaged in new R&D projects to strengthen their scientific and technical human capital in the long term. Moreover, consistent with previous literature, we found that trust is the main driver within the R&D Lifecycle Model both in building capabilities and economic growth. Based on these insights, we consider a long and close secondment of scientists to SMEs as key for collaboration projects and discuss implications for research and future technology transfer approaches.
... As Hüffmeier et al. (2013) argue, the superior team members may have maintained high effort to present themselves as likeable and dependable. Another explanation may be that the knowledge of being the strongest team member can be motivating in itself, and the perceived feeling of being identified or evaluated may have contributed to the elimination of effort losses in the study herein (e.g., Hardy & Latane, 1988;Harkins, 1987;Williams et al., 1989). It may also be that the ability differences in the present task are not perceived as stable or accurate (Kerr & Bruun, 1983), leading to a risk that the superior (based on feedback from the pre-test) team member may become the inferior team member on the retest, who would then determine the team's performance. ...
Article
The study purpose was to investigate the effect of ability on effort within a sport-specific conjunctive task. The hypothesis was that, compared to working alone, inferior team members would increase their effort when performing a conjunctive sport task in a three-person team, whereas superior team members would decrease their effort. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions (inferior member, control member or superior member) during a 1-min maximal team time trial on a stationary bike. One hundred five relatively well-trained undergraduate sports students (male = 64, female = 41) performed 1-min maximum ergometer cycling tests individually and in random three-person teams. After completing the individual test, participants were told that the next trial would be performed in teams with a conjunctive task structure and were randomly assigned to receive manipulated feedback (that they were either the inferior member or the superior member). Control members received no feedback. Participants in the inferior member condition showed a statistically significant performance gain (i.e., effort gains) when performing the test with stronger partners. Participants in the control and superior member conditions showed neither performance gains nor performance losses (i.e., no effort losses) when completing the test within teams. Receiving feedback about being the inferior member of a sports team may lead to increased effort and, thus, improved performance (i.e., the Köhler effect), whereas no evidence of a free-rider effect was identified in the superior members.
... psykologiske betingelser (Haugen et al., 2016;Nilsen et al., 2014). Laboratorietester på innsats/prestasjon blir ofte brukt i idrettspsykologiske eksperimenter, hvor en empirisk forsøker å etterprøve kausale teoretiske mekanismer (se for eksempel Haugen et al., 2016;Høigaard, et al., 2006;Williams, et al., 1989). Det vil da vaere avgjørende at eventuell variasjon fra én test til en annen kan relateres til de manipulerte betingelsene, og ikke laeringseffekt, tretthet eller tilfeldig målingsstøy. ...
Chapter
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The study aim was twofold: 1) Review basic principles of test-retest reliability, and 2) investigate the reliability of a test procedure of a one-minute time trial on an ergometer bicycle in relatively well-trained young adults. The subjects (N = 12) completed three “all-out” intervals on the bicycle ergometers where average watt produced was recorded. The results of the experiments showed no significant mean differences across tests, high ICC (.996), low CV, TE, and SEM. The findings suggested that the ergometer test had the ability to produce accurate and stable measurements. It also indicated that measurement biases that affected the results did not seem to occur.
... Alanyazında eğitim örgütlerinde öğretmen ve öğrenciler üzerine; Latane, Williams ve Harkins (1979), Şeşen ve Kahraman (2014), Hoigaard ve Ingvaldsen (2006), Fang, Liu ve Chang (2007), Tan ve Tan (2008), Balcı, (2016), Çakır (2017) ve Bayram Candan(2017)tarafından yapılan araştırmalara rastlanmıştır. Eğitim örgütleri dışında örgütlerde ise; Tripplet (1898),Ringelmann (1913),Ingham, Levinger, Graves ve Peckham (1974),Williams (1981),Williams, Nida, Baca ve Latane (1989),George (1992),Karau ve Williams (1993),Kugihara (1999), Murphy, Wayne, Liden ve Erdoğan (2003), Liden, Wayne, Jaworski ve Bennett (2004), Luo, Qu ve Marnburg (2013), Ülke (2006), Ilgın (2010), Çıra (2011), Bozkurt (2012), Doğan, Bozkurt ve Demir (2012), Kanten (2014), Özek (2014), Sünnetçioğlu, Korkmaz ve Koyuncu (2014), Kesen (2015) ve Özgüven (2017) tarafından yapılan araştırmalar yer almaktadır. ...
... Several factors have been shown to buffer the magnitude of social loafing, such as explicit identification and evaluation of individual effort (Harkins, 1987;Williams et al., 1989), and team members' perceptions of their own contribution as important and unique to the team's performance (Harkins & Petty, 1982;Kerr, 1983;Kerr & Bruun, 1983). In interactive teams, reduced social loafing is associated with a higher level Shared mental models, role ambiguity, team identification and social loafing of: (a) cohesion (Høigaard et al., 2006); (b) collective efficacy (Høigaard & Peters, 2009); (c) task-oriented motivational climate (Høigaard & Ommundsen, 2007); and (d) satisfaction with their role in the team . ...
Article
The aim of this study was to test a multiple mediation model linking athletes’ shared mental model (SMM) to social loafing through role clarity and team identity. The following hypothesis was tested: SMM is directly and negatively associated with social loafing; athletes’ perceived SMM is positively related to role clarity and team identification, which in turn is negatively related to social loafing. In total, 152 male professional senior players from all 10 teams in an elite ice hockey league participated. Data were analyzed using a linear regression procedure and bias-corrected bootstrapping technique to measure indirect effects. The results confirm the hypothesis and demonstrate that SMM has an indirect effect through the mediators. Coaches and sport psychologists should be aware of the significance of SMM in their work to enhance team performance. Facilitating SMM may reduce social loafing through role clarity and team identification.
... Offering individual incentives for completion of a sub-task, or holding individuals directly accountable for a sub-task, can facilitate specialization [180]. One advantage of increased identifiability of individual roles is that it reduces social loafing [181,182], perhaps because of the prospect of negative evaluation [183]. However, increased accountability can have unwanted side effects, such as group members suppressing original ideas for fear of negative evaluation [184], or wasting time and resources trying to defend exactly why they did as they did [143]. ...
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We review the literature to identify common problems of decision-making in individuals and groups. We are guided by a Bayesian framework to explain the interplay between past experience and new evidence, and the problem of exploring the space of hypotheses about all the possible states that the world could be in and all the possible actions that one could take. There are strong biases, hidden from awareness, that enter into these psychological processes. While biases increase the efficiency of information processing, they often do not lead to the most appropriate action. We highlight the advantages of group decision-making in overcoming biases and searching the hypothesis space for good models of the world and good solutions to problems. Diversity of group members can facilitate these achievements, but diverse groups also face their own problems. We discuss means of managing these pitfalls and make some recommendations on how to make better group decisions.
... Moreover, it is well documented that individuals may exert less effort when they work in a group. When individual members of a collective juggle multiple tasks, it can distract their attention from thinking critically or permit a reduction in individual effort within the group setting (Karau & Williams, 1993;Latané, Williams, & Harkins, 1979;Williams, Nida, Baca, & Latane, 1989). ...
Article
The group accountability literature over the past two decades is reviewed in this article. Results are organized according to the theoretical accountability framework proposed by London, Smither, and Adsit (1997). The reviewed literature suggests that group accountability is more dynamic than current conceptualizations allow, and that the priority of accountability demands shifts over time. Building on these insights, the authors extend London et al.’s model to accommodate group accountability as a dynamic interpersonal process. Specifically, they propose that group accountability is an emergent state that derives from group interactions as well as from external sources of accountability expectations. In this extended model, both the person within the group who is held accountable as well as other group members play key roles in transforming individual accountability up to the group level. Based on the combined results of the empirical review and expanded conceptual model, the authors identify directions for studies of group accountability.
... Bruun, 1983;Kravitz & Martin, 1986;Latané, Williams, & Harkins, 1979;Weldon & Gargano, 1985Weldon & Mustari, 1988;Williams, Nida, Baca, & Latané, 1989). However, since then a more nuanced picture has emerged that suggests people do not always exert less effort when working in groups. ...
Article
Two studies examined the effort that participants expended on a challenging physical persistence activity when that activity was a critical part of a divisible conjunctive task performed by two people working as a team compared to when it was structured as an individual task performed by one person working alone. It was found that participants put greater effort into that activity when they worked as part of a team task compared to when they worked alone—a motivation gain when working in groups. This gain occurred despite the absence of any apparent task-related ability differences among participants, and is most parsimoniously explained by the greater indispensability associated with working on a critical element of a divisible conjunctive group task. The implications of these results for the occurrence of motivation gains on other types of tasks and in real-world work settings are discussed.
... Past research on peer influence and athletes' exercise behavior has focused on maximal performance in a competitive setting. Studies on weightlifters (27), swimmers (38), and cyclists (7,39) suggest that the presence of an audience or competition with other athletes can improve performance. Social facilitation theory (40), which states that performance is improved in the presence of others, has been used to explain this ergogenic effect. ...
... This was conceptualised and implemented based on the tendency for narcissists to self-handicap when selfenhancement opportunities are not apparent (Wallace & Baumeister, 2002). Williams, Nida, Baca and Latane (1989) found that increasing the identifiability of individual swimmers' performance within a relay race enhanced overall performance. Therefore, making individual performances more openly available could enhance team performance. ...
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This chapter focuses on the captain of a professional basketball team, Ethan, who displayed the characteristics of a narcissist. Ethan was exerting a negative effect on team functioning, and some of the other players demonstrated hostility toward him. However, during high pressure or challenging competitive games, the coach and other players were glad he was on their side, as Ethan would always perform well in difficult circumstances. Issues surrounding Ethan's negative influence surfaced whilst conducting a team performance profile, follow up one-to-one interviews, and observations. An intervention was designed to increase awareness within the squad of the influence of differing personalities in order to encourage acceptance of one another. In addition, part of the intervention was directed toward coach education on narcissism to aid the coach in his management of Ethan.
... Past research on peer influence and athletes' exercise behavior has focused on maximal performance in a competitive setting. Studies on weightlifters (27), swimmers (38), and cyclists (7,39) suggest that the presence of an audience or competition with other athletes can improve performance. Social facilitation theory (40), which states that performance is improved in the presence of others, has been used to explain this ergogenic effect. ...
Article
Carnes, AJ, Petersen, JL, and Barkley, JE. Effect of peer influence on exercise behavior and enjoyment in recreational runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 497-503, 2016-Fitness professionals and popular media sources often recommend exercising with a partner to increase exercise motivation, adherence, intensity, and/or duration. Although competition with peers has been shown to enhance maximal athletic performance, experimental research examining the impact of peer influence on submaximal exercise behavior in adults is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the presence of familiar and unfamiliar peers, vs. running alone, on recreational runners' voluntary running duration, distance, intensity, liking (i.e., enjoyment), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs). Recreational runners (n 12 males, n 12 females) completed 3 experimental trials, each under a different social condition, in a randomized order. Each trial consisted of self-paced running for a duration voluntarily determined by the participant. The 3 social conditions were running alone, with a sex-and fitness-matched familiar peer, or with a sex-and fitness-matched unfamiliar peer. A wrist-worn global positioning system was used to record running duration, distance, and average speed. Liking and RPE were assessed at the end of each trial. Mixed model regression analysis showed no significant effects of social condition (p ≥ 0.40) for any of the dependent variables. The presence of a familiar or unfamiliar peer did not alter recreational runners' running behavior, liking, or perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. However, exercising with others may have other benefits (e.g., reduced attrition) not examined herein.
... Für den Einsatz dieses Szenarios spricht, dass die Untersuchungsergebnisse Aussagen darüber erlauben, ob soziales Faulenzen auch beim Lösen realitätsnaher komplexer Probleme auftritt. Die Ergebnisse der Feldforschung liefern Anhaltspunkte hierfür (Comer 1995;Earley 1989;Gabrenya et al. 1983Gabrenya et al. , 1985Williams, Nida, Baca und Latané 1989). ...
Article
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The term "social loafing̈ refers to a decrease in motivation and achievement in group work due to sinking responsibility of the individual for the groups' outcome. Recent studies assume a paradoxical relation between motivation and outcome, which should produce better outcome with decreased motivation. The current study addresses this question. Two experiments with N=60 subjects working in groups of 3 are reported. Subjects had to deal with a computer simulated scenario of a fire fighting situation. There was a simple and a more complex version; also, individual responsibility for the groups' outcome was either given (coactive condition) or not (collective condition). During experiment 1, subjects could only deal with their own section of the scenario; in experiment 2, they were allowed to work on the whole field. Dependent variables were effort (in terms of commands given) and achievement (in terms of space saved). It turned out that under collective responsibility effort was reduced but this did not lead to decreased achievement. Under the complex condition, with decreased effort even an increase in achievement could be demonstrated. Implications for the collective effort model presented by Karau and Williams are discussed.
... We analyzed the official score shooters obtained in the team and individual tournaments separately, since previous research indicated that the type of competition can bring about fundamental changes in the competitors. Williams et al. (1989) argued that identifiability was at the basis of the difference. Athletes competing in a team context are relatively anonymous and thus are better shielded from competitive pressure. ...
Article
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The current study aimed to compare shooting performance between male and female athletes during the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Rifle Championship from the 2007 to 2013 seasons. This sport is distinct from most competitive sports as it requires little physical exertion, so physiological/ biomechanical differences between the genders that generally bring about superior performance by males relative to females may have only minimal effect on shooting performance. NCAA competitions, unlike Olympic shooting events today, allow male and female shooters to compete against each other. Using archival data covering a period of 7 years from both the team and individual tournaments, 555 scores of the best 149 shooters among mostly U.S. collegiate athletes (the best of whom went on to compete in the Olympics) were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. We found no differences in performance between the genders both during team and individual competitions. The results suggest that Olympic shooting is exercising a “separate and (un)equal” policy which should be reconsidered.
... Worchel et al. (1998) further argue increased productivity in group setting than alone in an experiment when evaluator group was physically presentand less productivity than individual productivity when evaluator group was not present for evaluation. Williams, Nida, Baca, and Latané (1989) also argue significant positive relationship among swimmers in relays under high efforts identifiability than low identifiability. Worchel et al. (1998) concluded that highest productivity is associated with greater tendency of categorizing individuals as a group, evaluative group, identifiability in a group, impact of group behavior on individual, interest of group part and thinking about group. ...
... While it is common for competitive athletes to train with teammates or training partners and exercising with a partner is a widely recommended method to increase exer cise intensity and motivation (Kravitz, 2011), experimental research on the potential effects of exercising with others is limited. A number of studies on various populations (Corbett, Barwood, Ouzounogluo, Thelwell, & Dicks, 2012;Grindrod, Paton, Knez, & O'Brien, 2006;Plante et ah, 2010;Rhea, Landers, Alvar, & Arent, 2003;Rittenhouse, Salvy, & Barkley, 2011;Salvy et ah, 2009;Williams, Nida, Baca, & Latane, 1989;Wilmore, 1968) suggest a positive effect of the presence of others on physical activity behavior, which may be explained by the social facilitation and self presentation theories of Zajonc (1965) and Bond (1982). These theories respectively propose that physical performance is enhanced in the presence of others as a means to "look good" or project an image of competence. ...
Article
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Although it is a common practice for competitive athletes to train together with fellow athletes and/or teammates, experimental research on the effect that training partners may have on athletes ’ submaximal exercise behavior is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine if, relative to an alone condition, exercising with a familiar peer or in a group of familiar peers affects average running speed and/or liking of the exercise during a self-paced outdoor run in a sample of competitive collegiate distance runners. Collegiate male distance runners (N=12, 20.5 ± 1.98 years old) completed running trials on separate days under three different, randomized order social conditions: running alone, with a single peer, and in a group with two additional runners (three total). Trials consisted of a self-paced 6.4-km run on a measured outdoor trail. The primary dependent variables were average speed and liking (assessed via visual analog scale) of the run. Mixed model regression analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.016) main effect of condition for average speed and liking. Participants ran faster in the alone condition than in the peer or group conditions and enjoyed running in a group more than running alone. The presence of peers, relative to the alone condition, increased the liking of a bout o f exercise in collegiate male distance runners. However, both peer conditions reduced average running speed in this group of athletes.
... Worchel et al. (1998) further argue increased productivity in group setting than alone in an experiment when evaluator group was physically presentand less productivity than individual productivity when evaluator group was not present for evaluation. Williams, Nida, Baca, and Latané (1989) also argue significant positive relationship among swimmers in relays under high efforts identifiability than low identifiability. Worchel et al. (1998) concluded that highest productivity is associated with greater tendency of categorizing individuals as a group, evaluative group, identifiability in a group, impact of group behavior on individual, interest of group part and thinking about group. ...
Article
This paper covers the issue of foreign collaboration in the Indian Business Education and its implications on professionalism and development of competence among the budding managers. The issue of foreign collaboration in Indian Business Education is considerably significant issue in the light of India as an emerging economic power and business. Already there is considerable flow of foreign collaboration in Indian business education witnessed by the institutional partnership. The existing institutional partnership and the future intention of foreign players are entering in business educations have been impacting in the new professional development as well as to develop professional competence in the arena of management education in India. Impacts on the new array of professionalism and competence in the country due to foreign collaboration need a fresh re-look and assessment. This paper has three sections. Section -1 deals the historical snapshot of global alliances of business education, modes of alliances; section-II deals on the quotients analysis for spread of global alliances, and in final the section the section-III analyses perceptions of stakeholders on the global alliances.
Article
In this paper, we present and extend previous theoretical results that show that tax authorities can at the same time reduce tax evasion and boost output with clever audit behavior. We argue that randomized controlled trials or field experiments are impractical for empirical testing in this context. Instead, we turn to laboratory experiments and test if humans follow the theoretical mechanisms underlying the theory. We find that both dividends, less evasion, and higher output, materialize in the laboratory. We show in additional experiments that the behavioral mechanism generating the higher output differs from the theoretical driver.
Chapter
Sportlich aktive Menschen treiben Sport überwiegend in Gruppen – sei es in gesundheits- und fitnessorientierten Sportgruppen oder leistungsorientierten Sportmannschaften. Insbesondere bei letzteren geht es immer wieder um die Frage, wie die Leistung der Gruppe optimiert und maximiert werden kann. In diesem Kapitel wird geklärt, welche Ansammlungen von Personen typischerweise als Gruppe bezeichnet werden, und es werden Modelle beschrieben, die die Entstehung und Entwicklung von Gruppen beschreiben. Es wird ein konzeptioneller Rahmen zur Erforschung von Sportgruppen vorgestellt, anhand dessen empirische Befunde zur Gruppenproduktivität präsentiert werden. Es wird darauf eingegangen, welchen Einfluss die Gruppengröße, die Gruppenzusammensetzung und der Gruppenzusammenhalt haben. Zusätzlich werden einschlägige Messinstrumente und Interventionsmöglichkeiten präsentiert.
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This preregistered meta-analysis theoretically and empirically integrates the two research strands on effort gains and effort losses in teams. Theoretically, we built on Shepperd’s (1993) framework of productivity loss in groups and Karau and Williams’ (1993) Collective Effort Model (CEM) and developed the Team member Effort Expenditure Model (TEEM), an extended expectancy × value framework with the explicit addition of an individual work baseline. Empirically, we included studies that allowed calculating a relevant effect size, which represents the difference between an individual’s effort under individual work and under teamwork conditions. Overall, we included 622 effect sizes (N = 320,632). We did not find a main effect of teamwork on effort. As predicted, however, multilevel modeling revealed that the (in-)dispensability of the own contribution to the team performance, social comparison potential, and evaluation potential moderated the effect of teamwork versus individual work on expended effort. Depending specifically on the level of (in-)dispensability and the potential to engage in social comparisons, people showed either effort gains or losses in teams. As predicted, we also found that people’s self-reports indicated effort gains when they had objectively shown such gains, while their self-reports did not indicate effort losses when they had shown such losses. Contrary to our hypotheses, team formation (i.e., ad-hoc vs. not ad-hoc teams) and task meaningfulness did not emerge as moderators. Altogether, people showed either effort gains or losses in teams depending on the specific design of teamwork. We discuss implications for future research, theory development, and teamwork design in practice.
Article
ZET Bu çalışmada, kontrol odağının sosyal kaytarma davranışı üzerindeki etkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini Tokat ili sosyal hizmet kurumlarında görev yapan çalışanlar oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda veriler anketler aracılığıyla toplanmış frekans, t testi, varyans, korelasyon ve regresyon analizleri ile değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre kişilerin dış kontrol odaklı olması sosyal kaytarma davranışını pozitif yönde etkilemektedir. Kişisel kontrol ve adil olmayan dünya inancı sosyal kaytarma davranışını pozitif yönde etkileyen kontrol odağı alt boyutlarıdır. Ayrıca sosyal kaytarma davranışı ve kontrol odağının demografik değişkenler açısından farklılık gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Bu fark sosyal kaytarma davranışında memleket değişkeninde görülmektedir. Kontrol odağı boyutlarında ise cinsiyet, memleket, eğitim, kurum ve görev açısından bir farklılık söz konusu olmaktadır. Çalışmada ayrıca gelecekte bu konuda yapılacak çalışmalar için önerilerde bulunulmuştur. ABSTRACT In this study, the determination of the effect of locus of control on social loafing is aimed. The sample of the study consisted of employees, working at social service organizations in Tokat. For this purpose the data collected through survey. The data were evaluated by frequency, t-test, variance analysis, correlation and regression analysis. According to the results of the study, the individuals being externally controlled has a positive effect on social loafing. Personal control and the belief of an unfairworld are the locus of control dimensions that positively affects social loafing. In addition, it was determined that social loafing and locus of control dimensions differed by demographic variables. This difference in social loafing behavior is seen in country variable. There is differences in locus of control dimensions in terms of gender, country, education, institution and task. Also in this study is offered suggestions for future researches.
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The second edition of this popular textbook encapsulates the excitement of the fascinating and fast-moving field of social psychology. A comprehensive and lively guide, it covers general principles, classic studies and cutting-edge research. Innovative features such as 'student projects' and 'exploring further' exercises place the student experience at the heart of this book. This blend of approaches, from critical appraisal of important studies to real-world examples, will help students to develop a solid understanding of social psychology and the confidence to apply their knowledge in assignments and exams.
Chapter
Working with others on group or collective tasks often leads individuals to slack off and reduce their own efforts, but such motivation losses are not inevitable, and motivation gains can even occur under certain circumstances. In this chapter, we provide a detailed, integrative review of research and theory on individual motivation within groups and work teams. Specifically, we review historical foundations, classic studies, major theories, and key research findings, and discuss the various group and team contexts and wide range of moderating variables that have been examined or identified by researchers. Coverage includes both motivation losses (i.e., social loafing) and motivation gains (including social compensation and the Köhler effect). We use the Collective Effort Model (Karau & Williams, 1993) and meta-analytic results to integrate our review and highlight some promising directions for future research and practice. This chapter may serve both as a stand-alone review of the literature, and as an introduction to some of the more specific motivation loss and gain issues handled in greater depth in later chapters of this book.
Chapter
Im Vergleich zur Leistung von Einzelpersonen erbringen Gruppen und Teams in manchen Situationen überraschend gute, in anderen Situationen hingegen überraschend schlechte Leistungen. In diesem Kapitel soll daher geklärt werden, unter welchen Umständen das Eine oder das Andere zutrifft und welche Phänomene und Prozesse hierbei eine Rolle spielen. Hierzu werden zunächst wichtige Definitionen und Theorien zum Bereich Gruppe und Teams vorgestellt. Anschließend liegt der Fokus auf dem Phänomen des sozialen Faulenzens, das zu Leistungsverlusten in Gruppen führt. Im Gegensatz dazu stehen Leistungsgewinne in Gruppen im darauffolgenden Abschnitt im Vordergrund, gefolgt von theoretischen Erklärungen zu beiden Aspekten. Dann werden gruppenbezogene Phänomene vorgestellt, die eine wissenschaftlich nachgewiesene Auswirkung auf die Gruppenleistung haben. Zuletzt wird dargestellt, mit welchen validierten Instrumenten wichtige gruppenbezogene Konstrukte gemessen werden können.
Article
The present study replicated and extended research on the influence of team assignment methods on task performance and fairness perceptions. This study examined the influence of team assignment methods, goal commitment, and partner status on team member performance and fairness perceptions in a laboratory setting. The assignment conditions were comprised of three variables: assignment method (random, self-decision, and ability), performer status (assigned or unassigned), and partner status (unassigned team member stayed or left during task performance). A significant interaction was found between assignment method and performer status when the unassigned team member left during task performance, but not when the unassigned team member stayed. Random and self-decision assignment methods resulted in higher levels of goal commitment and task performance than did ability-based assignment conditions. Lastly, goal commitment was found to mediate the relationship between assignment method and task performance. The implications of these findings for the task performance and organizational justice literatures, as well as for managers in general, are discussed.
Chapter
The researches have mainly examined some negative consequences of careerism. Despite the importance of negative behaviors that will be harmful for organizations' wellbeing, studies regarding these behaviors' predictors are interestingly limited. This chapter proposes that careerism, as one of negative employee orientations, may play a predictor role in assessing social loafing behaviors in light of social cognitive theory. Grounded in social exchange theory, the authors also propose that transformational leadership may have a reducing effect on the careerism-social loafing behaviors. While the positive effects of transformational leadership have been worked extensively in the extant literature, its effects in diminishing the negative organizational orientations and behaviors remain relatively rare. Hence, the proposed model would create new possible avenues for future research.
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Inspired by recent results on self-tunability in the outer hair cells of the mammalian cochlea, we describe an array of magnetic sensors where each individual sensor can self-tune to an optimal operating regime. The self-tuning gives the array its “biomimetic” features. We show that the overall performance of the array can, as expected, be improved by increasing the number of sensors but, however, coupling between sensors reduces the overall performance even though the individual sensors in the system could see an improvement. We quantify the similarity of this phenomenon to the Ringelmann effect that was formulated 103 years ago to account for productivity losses in human and animal groups. We propose a global feedback scheme that can be used to greatly mitigate the performance degradation that would, normally, stem from the Ringelmann effect.
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Affinity diagram is a popular brainstorming method for groups to visualize and organize their ideas together. These groups likely use sticky-note paper and whiteboard as their brainstorming tool. While there is simplicity in using paper, engineers develop technologies that make the process more efficient. However, despite the advantages of technologies, utilizing them in brainstorming was not widely adopted. We explore the earlier technologies proposed and their design flaws, and based on their studies, we propose a digital affinity-diagram system using the concept of concurrent engineering of distributed system and conducted an experiment to compare the productivity of group brainstorming between paper analog method and our proposed digital methods. We will report on which of the two methods is more productive and on whether the proposed system could increase the adoption of digital tools for group brainstorming.
Chapter
Sportlich aktive Menschen treiben Sport überwiegend in Gruppen – sei es in gesundheits- und fitnessorientierten Sportgruppen oder leistungsorientierten Sportmannschaften. Insbesondere bei letzteren geht es immer wieder um die Frage, wie die Leistung der Gruppe optimiert und maximiert werden kann. In diesem Kapitel wird geklärt, welche Ansammlungen von Personen typischerweise als Gruppe bezeichnet werden, und es werden Modelle beschrieben, die die Entstehung und Entwicklung von Gruppen beschreiben. Es wird ein konzeptioneller Rahmen zur Erforschung von Sportgruppen vorgestellt, anhand dessen empirische Befunde zur Gruppenproduktivität präsentiert werden. Es wird darauf eingegangen, welchen Einfluss die Gruppengröße, die Gruppenzusammensetzung und der Gruppenzusammenhalt haben. Zusätzlich werden einschlägige Messinstrumente und Interventionsmöglichkeiten präsentiert.
Chapter
The effectiveness of work in groups has been investigated over several decades. One of the main areas of investigation has been to examine why groups almost inevitably fail to fulfil their potential. One of the first to study this area empirically was Steiner (1972). He argued that when a group of individuals is assembled together to solve a problem or to perform a task, the group activity will produce both losses and benefits; however, the overall result will be negative, namely, that the potential achievement of the group will remain unfulfilled.
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Introduction: This study investigated the relation between co-presence and bicyclists' riding behavior. We assumed that the presence of peer riders would either facilitate or inhibit risky behaviors depending on bicyclists' perceptions of three traffic contexts conducive to risk taking (i.e., red-light, go straight, and turn to left). Method: Young bicyclists (N=207)were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (alone vs.with peers). They filled in a scenario-based questionnaire about their intentions to adopt risky behaviors in three specific traffic situations as well as their risk perception of these situations and their general self-perceived efficacy as a bicyclist. We hypothesized that the presence of peer riders engaged in a risky behavior will facilitate the intention to adopt risky behaviors in situations where group risk is evaluated as lower than individual risk. In opposition, the presence of peer riders engaged in a risky behavior will inhibit the intention to adopt risky behaviors in situations where group risk is evaluated as higher than individual risk. Results: The results confirmed the hypotheses. Practical Applications: The findings offer insights for developing new effective education and intervention programs in order to reduce the frequency of dangerous behavior among bicyclists.
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This volume critically evaluates more than a century of empirical research on the effectiveness of small, task-performing groups, and offers a fresh look at the costs and benefits of collaborative work arrangements. The central question taken up by this book is whether -- and under what conditions -- interaction among group members leads to better performance than would otherwise be achieved simply by combining the separate efforts of an equal number of people who work independently. This question is considered with respect to a range of tasks (idea-generation, problem solving, judgment, and decision-making) and from several different process perspectives (learning and memory, motivation, and member diversity).
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This study examines the relationship between leadership behaviors and perceived social loafing in a coproductive tax-service environment. It proposes that coproductive taxpayers can be the source of directive and supportive leadership behaviors that reduce tax collectors perceived social loafing. Based on survey data from a coproductive tax-service agency, the study finds that supportive (but not directive) leadership by taxpayers has a significant negative effect on tax collectors perceived social loafing. Supportive leadership can be provided not only by hierarchical leaders but also by collaborative leaders outside the organization. These findings expand the knowledge base of public sector leadership theories and provide empirical evidence to support the importance of citizen coproduction.
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Students rated a poem and an editorial believing that they alone were responsible, that they were one of four persons responsible, or that they were one of sixteen persons responsible for evaluating the communications. As predicted, group mem bers reported putting less effort into the assessment than indi viduals, and this diffusion of effort followed an inverse power function. In addition, individuals evaluated the communications more favorably than persons who thought they shared the evalu ation responsibility.
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A current focus of research on individual versus group performance is social loafing, the decrease in individual effort that occurs when the individual works within a cooperative group rather than alone. Theory and research on this issue have been strongly influenced by results reported in Moede (1927) and attributed to Ringelmann. Despite the importance and frequent citation of Ringelmann's study, the location of his original report has been a mystery. In this article Ringelmann's original article is discussed and described in detail. Ringelmann was a French agricultural engineer who gathered his data in the 1880s. He (Ringelmann, 1913b) reported the performance of human workers as a function of the method that the workers used to push or pull a load horizontally. Comparison of individual and group performance was a secondary interest in this experiment. Ringelmann interpreted the obtained decrement in group performance in terms of coordination loss, although he was also aware of motivational factors. Ringelmann's results are briefly related to contemporary theory and research.
Article
Proposes a theory of social impact specifying the effect of other persons on an individual. According to the theory, when other people are the source of impact and the individual is the target, impact should be a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of other people. Furthermore, impact should take the form of a power function, with the marginal effect of the Nth other person being less than that of the ( N–2)th. When other people stand with the individual as the target of forces from outside the group, impact should be divided such that the resultant is an inverse power function of the strength, immediacy, and number of persons standing together. The author reviews relevant evidence from research on conformity and imitation, stage fright and embarrassment, news interest, bystander intervention, tipping, inquiring for Christ, productivity in groups, and crowding in rats. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments with 156 male undergraduates tested the extent to which the identifiability of one's individual output moderates social loafing—the reduction of individual efforts due to the social presence of others. In the 1st stage of Exp I, Ss were asked to produce noise either alone, in groups of 2 and 6, or in pseudogroups where Ss actually shouted alone but believed that 1 or 5 other people were shouting with them. As in previous research, Ss exerted less effort when they thought that they were shouting in groups than when they shouted alone. In the 2nd stage, the same Ss were led to believe that their outputs would be identifiable even when they cheered in groups. This manipulation eliminated social loafing. Exp II demonstrated that when individual outputs were always identifiable (even in groups), Ss consistently exerted high levels of effort, and if their outputs were never identifiable (even when alone), they consistently exerted low levels of effort across all group sizes. Results suggest that identifiability is an important mediator of social loafing. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Ringelmann's classic finding—that the addition of co-workers in a rope-pulling task leads to a linear decrement in the individual group member's average performance—was reexamined experimentally. Study I attempted to replicate the effect, using groups of subjects ranging in size from 1 to 6. Performance dropped significantly as group size was increased from one individual to two or to three, but the addition of a fourth, fifth, or sixth member produced insignificant additional decrements; thus, the effect was not linear but curvilinear. Study II was designed to examine possible sources of performance loss, separating the factors of “coordination” and “motivation” loss (Steiner, 1972). The possibility of intermember incoordination was eliminated, while motivation loss remained free to vary: Each experimental subject pulled alone, and in “groups” where he believed there were from one to five other members. Once again, individual performance declined significantly with the addition of the first and second perceived co-worker, but then leveled off for perceived group sizes three to six. Some implications are discussed.
Article
When asked to work both alone and in groups, people exert less effort in groups, a phenomenon we call “social loafing.” Either of two possible strategies could explain this outcome: an allocational strategy where people work as hard as they can overall but conserve their strength for individual trials where work is personally beneficial and a minimizing strategy where the primary motive is to “get by” with the least effort possible. However, an allocational strategy would lead participants who always work in groups to put out as much effort as participants who always work alone, since there is no need to husband strength. Two studies using a sound production task found social loafing even under these conditions, suggesting that allocational strategies are not prevalent. Social loafing seems to occur when people perform together in groups, regardless of whether or not they must also perform alone.
Article
Social facilitation and social loafing have been treated as separate lines of research in the social psychological literature. However, it is argued in the present paper that these two paradigms are closely related; in fact, they are complementary. Viewed from this perspective, the experimental conditions that have been included in loafing and facilitation research fall into three cells of a 2 (Alone vs. Coaction) × 2 (Evaluation vs. No Evaluation) factorial design. In the current research, the complete 2 × 2 design was run in two experiments. In both experiments, consistent with the findings of previous loafing research, with number held constant, participants whose outputs could be evaluated outperformed participants whose outputs could not be, but, inconsistent with descriptions of the loafing effect (e.g., B. Latané, K. Williams, & S. Harkins, 1979, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 823–832), with evaluation potential held constant, pairs outperformed singles. These data suggest that both social facilitation and social loafing can be accomodated in the same design. It is argued that combining the paradigms in this way refines our understanding of both phenomena.
Article
As reported in summary form by W. Moede (1927), an unpublished study found that in a rope-pulling task, while collective group performance increased somewhat with group size, it was less than the sum of the individual efforts (IE). IE decreased as group size increased. The present 2 experiments with 84 undergraduates investigated this effect using clapping and shouting tasks. Results replicate the earlier findings. The decrease in IE, which is here called social loafing, is in addition to losses due to faulty coordination of group efforts. The experimental generality, theoretical importance, widespread occurrence, and negative social consequences of social loafing are examined, along with ways of minimizing it. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Social loafing: A review and theoretical analysis
  • J M Jackson
  • K D Williams
Jackson, J. M., & Williams, K. D. (1987). Social loafing: A review and theoretical analysis. Unpublished manuscript.
The effects of group cohesiveness on social loafing. Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association
  • K D Williams
Williams, K. D. (1981, May). The effects of group cohesiveness on social loafing. Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Detroit.