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Where Have We Been, Where Are We Going? Taking Stock in Creativity Research

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Abstract

The dedicated work of numerous scholars has, over the last 10 years, led to some radical advances in our understanding of the nature and implications of creativity. This work has been summarized in 2 recent handbooks - Mark Runco's Creativity Research Handbook and Robert Sternberg's Handbook of Creativity. In this article I use these handbooks as a starting point to take stock in both what has been accomplished and what still needs to be done in our attempts to understand creativity. I begin by noting that both handbooks clearly describe the major approaches being used in studies of creativity and the findings resulting from each approach. A careful review of the chapters presented in these handbooks, however, brings to the fore a number of issues. For example, we need critical comparative tests contrasting the merits of different methods and theories, elaboration and extension of our traditional samples and our traditional measures, and more attempts to develop integrative models. However, some topics, such as the demands of practical innovation, cross-field differences in the nature of creative thought, and the effects of creativity on people and social systems need more thorough treatment. By laying a foundation for cumulative research along those lines, publication of these handbooks represents an important step toward development of a coherent, scientific model of the creative act.

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... Also, Ivcevic (2009) emphasized the fact that an abundant number of research studies in creativity were conducted with a concentration on individuality. Work by Mumford (2003) stated that creativity is strongly affected when there is an interest to do a task which is also known as intrinsic task motivation (Eisenberger and Shanock, 2003). This will act as proof of the significance of such a research. ...
... Also, Ivcevic (2009) emphasized the fact that an abundant number of research studies in creativity were conducted with a concentration on individuality. Work by Mumford (2003) stated that creativity is strongly affected when there is an interest to do a task, which is also known as intrinsic task motivation (Eisenberger and Shanock, 2003). ...
... Nevertheless, there is still a need for a research to encompass all these three components and their relationships to creativity into account. In addition, previous studies (Eisenberger and Shanock, 2003;Mumford, 2003) studied the social environment effects (an outside of individual components) on only one component like intrinsic task motivation, as one of the within individual components (Paramithaa and Indartib, 2014;Culpepper, 2010) or how the environment affects domain-relevant skills and creativity relationship (Aghayere et al., 2012;Kuo, 2011). What other studies had not done is to observe the social environment effects as a moderator of the relationship between individual components of creativity and creativity, while investigating the moderating effect of social environment on all three components separately too. ...
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Purpose The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationship between creativity-relevant processes, domain-relevant skills, intrinsic task motivation, creativity and the moderating effect of social environment (sufficient resources, workgroup support, realistic work pressure and lack of organizational impediments). Design/methodology/approach A total of 289 valid questionnaires were collected from engineering students in Malaysian universities to test the measurement as well as the structural model using partial least squares (PLS) path modelling. Findings This study reveals that while a high level of domain-relevant skills, intrinsic task motivation and creativity-relevant processes influence creativity among the sample of engineering students, social environment acts as an insignificant moderator to the creativity perception. While the statistical results support the structural relationships (direct effects), the social environment shows the insignificant moderating effect (except creativity relevant process to sufficient resource to creativity). Work-group support, sufficient resources and lack of organizational impediments, as the three factors of the social environment, will not have any effect on creativity of upcoming engineers. Originality/value While businesses in the emerging markets mostly neglect the concept of developing creative mindsets among engineering students, in the competitive world of business that is extremely fast-paced, being creative within a business setting will act as a paramount criterion to differentiate. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
... These seemingly inconsistent findings remind us of a tension implied in most definitions of creativity. An exemplar definition was given by Mumford (2003), after an extensive literature review, states "creativity involves the production of novel, useful products" (p. 110). ...
... Creativity brings about products with both novelty and value (Mumford 2003;Newell et al. 1959). In a creative process the need for both divergent and convergent thinking, suggested by recent studies (Chua et al. 2015;de Stobbeleir et al. 2011;Goncalo et al. 2015), derives from the tension between novelty and value. ...
Conference Paper
In a creative process, divergent thinking needs to be stimulated to generate novel ideas; yet these ideas must be synthesized to produce something valuable. Hence to foster creativity in developing IT products, creators need to manage the tension between novelty and value. Since the forces affecting the novelty-value tension often exist outside a creator's group or organization, we apply organizational ecology theory to propose an industry-level, ecological model for understanding the novelty of IT products. Analyzing data on 2,903 mobile devices developed by 156 firms worldwide over a ten-year period, we found that legitimation of the products in a market niche and competition between market niches enhanced product novelty. However, not all kinds of competition stimulated novelty. Competition within each niche hampered novelty. This ecological perspective contributes to creative IT/IS research and has the potential to bridge studies of creativity and digital innovation.
... These policies should not be static, their constant reconfiguration being fundamental to the development of destinations, in order to keep up with the frequent changes and changes in the markets (Brouder& Ioannides, 2014). In this context, the effectiveness of the governance of networked territories is characterized by applying a management model that relies on the horizontal coordination of stakeholders, instead of the usual models of vertical leadership, that is, promoting the sharing of power and decisions instead of hierarchical direction (Beritelli & Laesser, 2014;Hristov, 2015;Hristov & Zehrer, 2015;Farmaki, 2015;Lousã, 2013;Mintzeberg, 1979Mintzeberg, , 1983Mumford, 2003;Spyriadis, Fletcher & Fyall, 2013). The focus is on the degree of autonomy of the actors and the processes in which they interact which, in turn, are inherent to the very motives, attributes or representations of the socio-cultural contexts from which they emerge (Scuttari,Volgger, & Pechlaner, 2016). ...
... The negative association between these two concepts suggests that the qualification of human resources varies inversely with leadership. All the studies analyzed in the scope of this work, as well as the main theories on leadership (Lousã, 2013;Mumford, 2003) justify this interpretation of the data, because they argue that the more qualified the human resources are, the greater the autonomy they should be given, recognizing their ability to autonomously lead the processes they are responsible for (Farmaki, 2015;Mintzeberg, 1979Mintzeberg, , 1983. Therefore, vertical leaders should have less control. ...
Chapter
The literature is highlighting that research on the internationalization of destinations is scarce. This chapter presents a validation of the governance factors which contribute to the internationalization of tourism destinations. A survey was carried out on Portuguese DMOs with responsibilities in the areas of tourism and local/regional development (N=147). The ‘Questionnaire on Internationalization of Tourist Destinations' was submitted to content, reliability, and construct validations through exploratory and confirmatory second-order factor analysis. Governance factors influencing the internationalization of destinations were F1-Collaboration and F2-Networks. F1 associates items related to stakeholder involvement in destination decisions. F2 highlights the interaction between stakeholders, whose collective action is oriented towards active participation in decisions and leadership. The perception of Portuguese entities with different levels of influence on tourism development allows the systematization of results that meet some priority lines defined in the Tourism Strategy 2027.
... Consequently, they have been driven by the assumption that the creativity of employees is beneficial to the achievement of the strategic objectives of the company. Thus, researchers have devoted significant attention to identifying its antecedents, but have shown much less interest in its effects (Mumford, 2003;Zhou and Shalley, 2008). Consequently, creativity is recognized as being of utmost importance for organizations insofar as it positively contributes to the labor productivity of employees (Gilson, 2008). ...
... In this sense, collaborators are generally more eloquent, finding many meanings to solve problems, using non-traditional approaches and at the same time being persistent. The elements discussed above suggest that individuals can exhibit high levels of creativity (Shin et al., 2003, Scott et al., 1994. ...
Article
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The generation of innovation initiatives within companies is a preponderant share for the development and growth of business lines, as it helps to improve the market shares and competitiveness since these come to be implemented and the FINTECH organizations are no exception. However, some companies have not encouraged these dynamic works, hence the need to identify which elements and type of workers contribute to generate these actions. To do this, it becomes necessary to analyze how transformational leadership, self-creative efficacy, and intrinsic motivation within organizations are given and how with these characteristic’s companies create value. Even from the literature review, it was identified that the so-called theory of dynamic capabilities provides a framework to understand that organizations constantly must evolve their resources if they wish to remain competitive in industries that have participation. To address the above, it seeks to understand the characteristics, abilities, and motivations from transformational leadership to flourish creativity. In this sense, it should be noted that transformational leadership has been conceived as the ability to influence employees by expanding and raising their expectations by giving them confidence to develop beyond their own expectations (Dvir, Eden, Avolio & Shamir, 2002). In turn, it is intended to generate information needed for decision-making by the different actors involved in this process to facilitate environments to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of products and / or services seeking to promote intrinsic motivation in followers to generate value to customers.
... The emotional response of team members is their emotional behavior in response to leaders' unfavorable emotional displays, which is dependent on their supervisory contact history (Bono et al., 2007;Van Kleef et al., 2009). Consequently, team members' creativity may be defined as a phenomenon wherein individuals in a group develop unique, innovative, practical, and/or valuable ideas and suggestions that may aid in enhancing work performance (Mumford, 2003;Zhou & George, 2001). Lastly, the work performance of team members is defined as their level of accomplishment or completion of scheduled tasks (O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986;Turnley et al., 2003). ...
Article
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As a result of Korea's strong hierarchical tradition, leaders in Korean ICT service organizations frequently disregard the relevance of their emotional expressions, which may be associated with the overall outcomes of team members' creativity and performance. Consequently, the goal of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between team leaders' negative emotional displays and team members' positive and negative emotional responses, as well as the moderating effect of temporal diversity. Using data collected from 251 individuals in 50 teams across three Korean ICT businesses, structural equation models were evaluated. In order to explore the moderating effect of two temporal diversity theories based on emotion as social information theory, the model was separated into temporary and permanent teams. The findings of the global model reveal that members' emotional responses to perceived leaders' negative emotional displays are connected with their innovation and performance. Furthermore, only in a permanent team context do perceived leaders' negative emotional displays have a positive effect on team members' job performance. The findings have implications for how leaders might manage their emotional outbursts to boost the creativity and performance of their team members. This study added the context of ICT service firms to earlier research on emotion as social information theory. Field managers may find findings addressing the moderating influence of temporal diversity useful.
... Scientific education is based on scientific investigation and it is an important method of learning. Creativity is production of novel products (Mumford, 2003). "Creativity" is related with novelty of ideas and their implementation to make something new from existing ones (Greenstein, 2012). ...
... Gardner (1993) afirmó que las personas creativas pueden resolver problemas, modelar productos o definir nuevas preguntas de una manera novedosa pero aceptable en un contexto cultural particular. En este sentido, la creatividad también se considera como la capacidad de producir o diseñar algo que es original, adaptable con respecto a las limitaciones de tareas, de alta calidad (Kaufman y Sternberg, 2010;Sternberg y Lubart, 1999), útil, bello y novedoso (Feist, 1998;Mumford, 2003). (Tristán y Mendoza, 2016) Atributo Descripción Autores ...
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A pesar de estas limitaciones, los investigadores están unidos en la necesidad de continuar examinando la creatividad. La interrelación entre las ciencias, las tecnologías, las artes y los oficios es permanente. Su separación es más una conveniencia que una necesidad. Forman un todo integrado. Cada una de ellas ha fructificado a partir de conceptos paralelos y de un impulso, común y activo, de creación. La belleza ha calado en el entramado de las teorías científicas y en el diseño tecnológico, y los artistas han incorporado las ideas científicas y los avances tecnológicos en sus procesos creativos. En los siguientes capítulos se plantea cómo la creatividad puede ser el punto de convergencia entre las ciencias y las artes. Esta cohesión hay que defenderla en forma de cultura transversal. La mayoría de los investigadores piensan que la creatividad científica se compone de los mismos procesos mentales que guían cualquier otra forma de creatividad, y lo que hace a las ciencias diferentes es el vasto conocimiento (teórico, técnico y experimental) que se requiere para crear una idea novedosa. Exploramos las similitudes entre los procesos creativos que utilizan científicos y artistas para llevar a cabo su trabajo de creación. El concepto de investigación es fundamental para entender la práctica artística. La intención básica del científico es encontrar regularidades y patrones en el mundo exterior para moderar el miedo que el caos y la impredecibilidad provocan al ser humano, a través de leyes y 14 Javier González García teorías que permiten predecir acontecimientos. Esto es semejante a lo que mueve al artista. Se abre un camino para observar cómo científicos sociales y cognitivos, filósofos y artistas, pueden ponerse de acuerdo en unos mismos objetos y líneas de estudio. En la complejidad del mundo, el arte se articula con la ciencia para ampliar la experiencia.
... Kreativitas juga dimaknai kemampuan untuk menciptakan sesuatu yang baru dan menjadi produk yang bermanfaat (Mumford, 2003) atau memproduksi sesuatu yang asli dan memiliki nilai (Stemberg, 2011) sebagai 'the production of "something original and worthwhile". Dengan demikian, kreativitas merupakan bagian dari inovasi. ...
Chapter
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Inovasi sektor publik sedang menjadi pembicaraan yang cukup populer khususnya bagi pemerintah terutama untuk memberikan solusi terkait dengan penyediaan layanan publik yang lebih baik kepada masyarakat. Kondisi ini bukan hanya karena adanya pandemi Covid-19, tetapi juga karena tuntutan perkembangan zaman yang telah memasuki era Revolusi Industri (RI) 4.0. Karakteristik RI.4.0 yang sarat dengan kemajuan sistem informasi yang didukung dengan perkembangan teknologi yang semakin canggih menjadi tantangan yang berat bagi sektor publik. Seolah seperti kebetulan, pandemi Covid-19 yang mulai merebak pada awal tahun 2020 menjadi peringatan lebih keras lagi bahwa untuk mengidentifikasi, menerapkan bahkan membudayakan inovasi untuk memperbaiki pelayanan publik. Sehingga masa ini merupakan momentum yang justru dapat sebagai pemantik dan pendorong bagi percepatan pengembangan inovasi sektor publik. Namun demikian, karena sektor publik adalah kompleks, dan melingkupi hampir seluruh aspek kehidupan masyarakat, proses inovasi mengalami banyak tantangan dan hambatan. Hambatan terkait dengan perilaku ditengarai birokrasi menjadi kendala utama bagi proses pengembangan inovasi, disamping adanya kendala lain seperti kebijakan, kepemimpinan, iklim dan budaya organisasi, infrastruktur, dan tidak kalah pentingnya adalah mindset masyarakat. Padahal dinamika kemajuan sistem pelayanan pada sektor publik sangat tergantung kepada bagaimana organisasi sektor publik melakukan reformasi diri menyesuaikan dengan dinamika zaman.
... Yaratıcılık söz konusu olduğunda, literatürdeki çalışmaların genellikle bu olguyu duygular ile ilişkisi açısından incelediği, özellikle de son on yılda duygu durumlarının yaratıcılık üzerindeki etkisinin ele alındığı görülmektedir (Baas vd., 2008;Mumford, 2003). Bazı çalışmalar daha çok örgüt ve sistem üzerindeki etki ile ilgilenirken, kimi çalışmaların, bireysel düzeyde, psikolojik süreçleri de barındıran noktalara vurgu yaptığı görülmektedir. ...
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z Değişim her ne kadar tüm örgütler açısından kaçınılmaz bir olgu olsa da, bu örgütlerde çalışan bireylerin değişime uyum göstermeleri başlı başına zorlu bir süreç olmaktadır. Çalışanların örgütlerine ve/veya çalışma alanlarına yönelik olan ortaya çıkan değişime direnç göstermeleri, bu sürecin ilk etabını teşkil ederken, bu direncin, bireylerin örgüte ve/veya işe yönelik tutumlarını etkileyen bir duruma dönüşmesi mümkündür. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye'de yükseköğretim kurumlarında çalışan akademisyenlerin, değişime karşı dirençlerinin, yaratıcı davranışları üzerindeki etkisini analiz etmektir. Bu sebeple, çalışmada 115 akademisyenden oluşan bir örneklem üzerinde nicel bir çalışma gerçekleştirilmiş ve değişime direncin teorik kapsamda belirlenen farklı boyutlarının, akademisyenlerin yaratıcılık düzeylerini olumsuz etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmada, katılımcıların stres düzeylerinin, değişime direnç ve yaratıcılık arasında öne sürülen bu ilişki üzerinde tam aracı rolü üstlendiği de tespit edilmiştir. Bu durumda, değişime karşı direncin katılımcıların stres seviyesini artırarak yaratıcılığı azalttığını ve ayrıca yeni teori-yöntem-uygulama bulması beklenen bu meslek grubundaki çalışanların bu süreçten olumsuz etkilendiğini söylemek mümkündür. Abstract Although the change is inevitable for all organizations, adapting to this change is a completely difficult process for the employees. While the employees' resistance to change, which occurs in their organizations and/or occupations, becomes the first step of this process, this resistance might transform a state that affects their attitudes towards their organizations and/or jobs. The purpose of current study is to analyze the impact of the resistance to change on creative behavior of academicians working in higher education institutions in Turkey. Thus, a quantitative study was conducted on a sample of 115 academicians and it was found that all theoretically identified dimensions of resistance to change negatively affects the academicians' creativity. In the study, it was also revealed that the respondents' stress level fully mediate the proposed link between resistance to change and creativity. In this case, it can be stated that the resistance to change decreases the creativity by increasing the respondents' stress level and also, employees in this occupational group, which is expected to find new theory-method-application are negatively affected.
... A kreativitás egy egyszerű, de lényegre törő definíció szerint újszerű és hasznos dolgok létrehozását jelenti (Mumford, 2003). Más megfogalmazásában a kreativitás az a képesség, amely új, minőségi és egy adott problémához illeszkedő megoldás létrehozását eredményezi. ...
... Οι παράγοντες που εμπλέκονται στη διαδικασία της δημιουργικής γραφής είναι το γλωσσικό πρόβλημα -ερέθισμα, ο δημιουργικός συγγραφέας, η δημιουργική διαδικασία και τα στάδιά της και το δημιουργικό αποτέλεσμα -κείμενο. Πρόκειται, ως εκ τούτου, για τέχνη και τεχνική του γράφειν, καθώς η δημιουργικότητα είναι μια διαδικασία και όχι απαραίτητα ένα εγγενές χαρακτηριστικό, είναι ταλέντο και τελικά, είμαστε πιο δημιουργικοί απ' όσο γνωρίζουμε και απ' όσο πιστεύουμε ότι είμαστε (Mumford, 2003). Η δημιουργική γραφή εν τέλει είναι «ένα παιχνίδι και πειραματισμός με τη συγγραφή» (Καλογεροπούλου, 2006: 72-73), πράγμα που μπορεί να αναδειχθεί με τον πλέον αποτελεσματικό και πρόσφορο τρόπο στο μάθημα της Λογοτεχνίας. ...
... Οι παράγοντες που εμπλέκονται στη διαδικασία της δημιουργικής γραφής είναι το γλωσσικό πρόβλημα -ερέθισμα, ο δημιουργικός συγγραφέας, η δημιουργική διαδικασία και τα στάδιά της και το δημιουργικό αποτέλεσμα -κείμενο. Πρόκειται, ως εκ τούτου, για τέχνη και τεχνική του γράφειν, καθώς η δημιουργικότητα είναι μια διαδικασία και όχι απαραίτητα ένα εγγενές χαρακτηριστικό, είναι ταλέντο και τελικά, είμαστε πιο δημιουργικοί απ' όσο γνωρίζουμε και απ' όσο πιστεύουμε ότι είμαστε (Mumford, 2003). Η δημιουργική γραφή εν τέλει είναι «ένα παιχνίδι και πειραματισμός με τη συγγραφή» (Καλογεροπούλου, 2006: 72-73), πράγμα που μπορεί να αναδειχθεί με τον πλέον αποτελεσματικό και πρόσφορο τρόπο στο μάθημα της Λογοτεχνίας. ...
... Yaratıcılık söz konusu olduğunda, literatürdeki çalışmaların genellikle bu olguyu duygular ile ilişkisi açısından incelediği, özellikle de son on yılda duygu durumlarının yaratıcılık üzerindeki etkisinin ele alındığı görülmektedir (Baas vd., 2008;Mumford, 2003). Bazı çalışmalar daha çok örgüt ve sistem üzerindeki etki ile ilgilenirken, kimi çalışmaların, bireysel düzeyde, psikolojik süreçleri de barındıran noktalara vurgu yaptığı görülmektedir. ...
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z Değişim her ne kadar tüm örgütler açısından kaçınılmaz bir olgu olsa da, bu örgütlerde çalışan bireylerin değişime uyum göstermeleri başlı başına zorlu bir süreç olmaktadır. Çalışanların örgütlerine ve/veya çalışma alanlarına yönelik olan ortaya çıkan değişime direnç göstermeleri, bu sürecin ilk etabını teşkil ederken, bu direncin, bireylerin örgüte ve/veya işe yönelik tutumlarını etkileyen bir duruma dönüşmesi mümkündür. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye'de yükseköğretim kurumlarında çalışan akademisyenlerin, değişime karşı dirençlerinin, yaratıcı davranışları üzerindeki etkisini analiz etmektir. Bu sebeple, çalışmada 115 akademisyenden oluşan bir örneklem üzerinde nicel bir çalışma gerçekleştirilmiş ve değişime direncin teorik kapsamda belirlenen farklı boyutlarının, akademisyenlerin yaratıcılık düzeylerini olumsuz etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmada, katılımcıların stres düzeylerinin, değişime direnç ve yaratıcılık arasında öne sürülen bu ilişki üzerinde tam aracı rolü üstlendiği de tespit edilmiştir. Bu durumda, değişime karşı direncin katılımcıların stres seviyesini artırarak yaratıcılığı azalttığını ve ayrıca yeni teori-yöntem-uygulama bulması beklenen bu meslek grubundaki çalışanların bu süreçten olumsuz etkilendiğini söylemek mümkündür. Abstract Although the change is inevitable for all organizations, adapting to this change is a completely difficult process for the employees. While the employees' resistance to change, which occurs in their organizations and/or occupations, becomes the first step of this process, this resistance might transform a state that affects their attitudes towards their organizations and/or jobs. The purpose of current study is to analyze the impact of the resistance to change on creative behavior of academicians working in higher education institutions in Turkey. Thus, a quantitative study was conducted on a sample of 115 academicians and it was found that all theoretically identified dimensions of resistance to change negatively affects the academicians' creativity. In the study, it was also revealed that the respondents' stress level fully mediate the proposed link between resistance to change and creativity. In this case, it can be stated that the resistance to change decreases the creativity by increasing the respondents' stress level and also, employees in this occupational group, which is expected to find new theory-method-application are negatively affected.
... Tradicionalmente, Guildford (1950) se refiere a la creatividad como la expresión del pensamiento divergente, constituida por cuatro procesos: la fluidez, o capacidad de generar ideas para resolver un problema; la flexibilidad, o facilidad para cambiar la manera de interpretar una situación o modificar la estrategia para abordarla; la originalidad de ideas; y la elaboración o habilidad para diseñar o mejorar un producto con alto nivel de análisis (Penagos y Aluni, 2000). Hoy en día, la revisión de la bibliografía científica evidencia que la creatividad se refiere a la capacidad de elaborar nuevas categorías y/o crear soluciones novedosas (Mumford, 2003), siendo el motor que proporciona impulso a los cambios culturales, tecnológicos, personales e intelectuales (López-Martínez y Navarro-Lozano, 2010). Se considera un proceso inherente al funcionamiento cognitivo humano presente en menor o mayor medida en todos los individuos (Almansa, 2007;Almansa y López Martínez, 2010), que implica la combinación de una serie de recursos intelectuales, emocionales y variables de personalidad (Runco, 2007). ...
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Resumen: La creatividad debe ser una de las competencias a desarrollar en la universidad porque promueve la empleabilidad del alumnado universitario. En los últimos años, se evidencia la relevancia de la función ejecutiva en el proceso creativo. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la relación entre creatividad, flexibilidad cognitiva, fluidez verbal y rendimiento académico en población universitaria. Se empleó una muestra de 105 estudiantes universitarios del primer curso del Grado de Psicología de la Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, de ambos sexos (84 mujeres y 21 hombres) con una edad media de 19.05 años (DT= 1.81). Se administraron el PICA para valorar creatividad, el CAMBIOS para evaluar flexibilidad cognitiva, una prueba de generación de palabras para medir fluidez verbal y se consideró la nota media del primer cuatrimestre como medida del rendimiento académico. El análisis correlacional y de regresión confirma la existencia de una relación significativa positiva entre creatividad gráfica y flexibilidad cognitiva y entre creatividad narrativa y general y la fluidez verbal fonológica. No se hallaron relaciones significativas en relación al rendimiento académico. Consecuentemente, los resultados obtenidos permiten diseñar programas que impulsen un cambio de paradigma en el ámbito universitario optimizando las capacidades creativas. CREATIVIDAD EN EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR: ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO CON FUNCIÓN EJECUTIVA Y RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO Creativity in higher education: an exploratory study with Executive Functions and Academic Achievement VOL. 25, Nº3 (Noviembre, 2021)
... Yaratıcılık farklı disiplinlerde farklı şekillerde görülür; eğitimde "yenilik", iş dünyasında "girişimcilik", matematikte genellikle "problem çözme" ve müzikte "performans" veya "kompozisyon" ile eşdeğerdir (Reid ve Petocz, 2004: 45). Bu anlamda Mumford (2003) da yaratıcılığı, yeni, özgün ve kullanışlı ürünlerin üretimi olarak tanımlamaktadır. Ancak diğer yandan Runco ve Jaeger (2012), özgünlük ve kullanışlılığın yaratıcılıkta hayati bir değer taşımasına rağmen, bunun yaratıcılık olgusunu açıklamakta yeterli olmadığını ve yaratıcılığın etkinlik de gerektiren daha karmaşık bir süreç olduğunu ifade etmektedirler. ...
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Yeni bakış açılarının ve alışılmamış fikirlerin ortaya konması, tasarım problemlerinin çözümünde özgün ve yaratıcı yaklaşımların önerilmesi, yeni ve orijinal yapıların tasarlanması, mimari tasarım eğitiminde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Zira mimarlık, mesleki ve teknik beceriler kadar, yaratıcılık da gerektiren bir disiplindir. Yaratıcılık, özellikle 20. yüzyılın son yarısından sonra, mimari tasarım eğitiminde önemli bir kavram haline gelmiş, yaratıcılığın nasıl ortaya konulacağı ve geliştirilebileceği konusunda çeşitli görüşler ileri sürülmüştür. Ancak, tasarım disiplinleri arasında yaratıcı süreçler ve yaratıcılığın özellikle öğrenme ve öğretme deneyimlerine nasıl uygulanmaları gerektiği konusunda anlayış birliği yoktur (Williams, A., Ostwald, M., & Haugen, A. H. 2010). Yaratıcılığı tanımlamanın en yaygın yolu, ürünleri aracılığıyla olmuştur (Potur ve Barkul, 2006: 1). Diğer yandan yaratıcılık, yeni ve orijinal bir ürünün ortaya konması kadar problemin çözümü ve ifade etme becerilerini de kapsayan karmaşık bir süreçtir. Bu karmaşık sürecin özü kavramlara dayanmaktadır. Yaratıcı becerilerin kazandırılmasında kavramlar kilit unsurdur. Kavramların temsildeki gücü, nesnenin hakikatini, hüviyetini açığa çıkarır ve zihinde bilinenin dış dünyaya aktarımı kavramlarla ifade edilir ve anlamlı hale gelir. Zihinsel bir olgu olarak kavramlar, göstergesel karşılığını mimarın yaratıcılık yordamı ile ortaya koymaktadır. Bu noktadan hareketle makalede, kavramlar ve yaratıcılık ilişkisi üzerine odaklanılmış ve tasarımda kavramlarla düşünmenin çok daha yaratıcı sonuçlar doğurabileceği, yaratıcılık becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde önemli bir yeri olan temel tasarım dersi üzerinden örneklenmiştir.
... Paradigm shift towards environmental sustainability through creative problem solving and digital approach Fundamental concept of creativity Creativity is a broader concept and it has become ambiguous sometimes which has to a matter of debatable by scholars in terms of understanding the nature of creativity and its utility (Basadur et. al., 2013;Mumford, 2003). With the span of time the concept of creativity vary in its theory and practices. . ...
... Affective states in turn tend to influence an actor's behavior [47], [48]. Among all the psychological antecedents, mood as an affective state stands out as one of the widely researched and least disputed predictors to the creativity process [18], [49]- [51]. Once we understand how mood affects evaluation of an externally developed idea, we can then begin to shape effective idea evaluation processes in OI, potentially avoiding costly mistakes of developing unpromising ideas thrusted higher in evaluation due to a focal actor's mood state. ...
Article
What causes ineffective external idea evaluation in open innovation (OI) still remains an unsolved puzzle, with most such studies focused on creative idea generation or using samples of untrained evaluators. To help better understand the microfoundations of OI, this article examines the effects of mood on external idea evaluation using a practitioner sample. Drawing on “mood-as-an-input” theory, in two behavioral experiments using music induction, cognitive tasks, and idea framing, we test how one's mood affects the innovativeness rating of an externally developed idea, and examine whether this effect is stable within a mood state regardless of the level of creativity (high and low) of an idea. We found that people in happy and sad mood conditions differ in their evaluation of the same external idea, which is explained by differences in assessment of creativity of an idea and not the perceived certainty of its success. Moreover, a given mood state does not affect how ideas low in creativity are rated in their innovativeness, compared to ideas high in creativity. This article by investigating effects of mood within an OI process augments individual level OI literature, while informing the ways external idea evaluation can be managed toward enhancing OI potential.
... In scholarly literature, the concept has been discussed in a more nuanced manner, emphasizing the complexity of its connotations in different historical periods and in scholarly contexts ranging from aesthetics to philosophy and from psychology to logic, to mention just a few (Pope 2005). The scholars have often concluded that creativity involves the production of novel, useful, or valuable ideas and/or products (Mumford et al. 2002;Mumford 2003;Pope 2005). These views home in on the act of creating. ...
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The introductory chapter explains the core concepts of the book: Cultural literacy and creativity. Cultural literacy is defined as a social practice that is inherently dialogic and based on learning and gaining knowledge through emphatic, tolerant, and inclusive interaction. Creativity is seen as stimulating cultural literacy learning through openness and curiosity to test and develop something new or imaginative. The chapter introduces the Cultural Literacy Learning Programme (CLLP) and the research data: 1906 works created by 5–15-year-old children and young people who participated in the program in 2019 and 2020 in Cyprus, Germany, Israel, Lithuania, Spain, Portugal, and the UK. The authors discuss how the data is explored through data-driven content analysis and self-reflexive and collaborative interpretation.
... There have been numerous works dedicated to the understanding of creativity and innovation, describing the different approaches used in studies of creativity and the factors affecting creativity such as social impacts, nature influences, and other issues [25][26][27][28][29]. Some of the most common techniques are brainstorming, lateral thinking (six thinking hat), Synectics, Six Sigma, quality function deployment (QFD), and theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ). ...
Article
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The whole energy system requires renewables that scale and produce reliable, valuable energy at an acceptable cost. The key to increasing the deployment of ocean energy is bringing down development and operating costs. This paper proposes a structured approach to innovation in ocean energy systems that would spur innovation and expand the market for ocean energy. This approach can be used by a wide range of stakeholders—including technology and project developers and investors—when considering creating or improving designs. The Structured Innovation design tool within the DTOceanPlus suite is one of a kind beyond the current state-of-the-art. It enables the adaptation and integration of systematic problem-solving tools based on quality function deployment (QFD), the theory of inventive thinking (TRIZ), and the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methodologies for the ocean energy sector. In obtaining and assessing innovative concepts, the integration of TRIZ into QFD enables the designers to define the innovation problem, identifies trade-offs in the system, and, with TRIZ as a systematic inventive problem-solving methodology, generates potential design concepts for the contradicting requirements. Additionally, the FMEA is used to assess the technical risks associated with the proposed design concepts. The methodology is demonstrated using high-level functional requirements for a small array of ten tidal turbines to improve the devices layout and power cabling architecture. The Structured Innovation design tool output comprises critical functional requirements with the highest overall impact and the least organisational effort to implement, along with appropriate alternative solutions to conflicting requirements.
... However, in order to foster the idea generation process and creativity the organization are compelled to identify the underlying elements. For creating such environment various factors have been identified & explored by the scholars (West, Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups, 2002a); (West, Ideas are ten a penny: its team implementation not idea generation that count, 2002b); (Mumford, 2003); (Gilson & Shalley, 2004); (Amabile, Barsade, Mueller, & Staw, 2005); (Shin & Zhou, 2003), and (Cheng, 1994). ...
Article
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Idea generation and creativity in today's hi-tech organizations is expected to boost up productivity and equip the firms to face modern times global challenges of a business world. The study is based on the assumption that certain job related dimensions which serves as impediments to creativity needs to be minimized that may opens the doors for far-reaching innovation and sustained competitive advantage. The research was conducted on Advertising Firms based in four major cities of Pakistan. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire using stratified random sampling technique. The analysis of data and results contended the assumption that a hypothesized structural regression model of impediments to creativity is validated when tested in Pakistani perspective using Structural Equation Modeling technique. However, the demographic characteristics and attitude/ interest taken as moderators upon working style of advertising professionals were found unimposing i.e. not serving the purpose of a catalyst for improving idea generation and creativity.
... A product is creative when it is (a) novel and (b) appropriate. Mumford (2003) Creativity involves the production of novel, useful products. Amabile (1983) The production of novel and useful ideas in any domain. ...
Article
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The article contains the results of a research within the STIMEY (Science, Technology, Innovation, Mathematics, Engineering for the Young) project funded by the European Union’s Horizon-2020 research and innovation program (2016-2021). In the project, a hybrid learning environment (LE) was developed for both on-site and online learning suitable for the learning conditions in the COVID-19 era and beyond. The purpose of the research segment presented in this paper was to develop an instrument for assessment of the learner’s progress in creativity as one of the key targets of STIMEY. COVID-19 has shown that creativity is also needed to allow education systems the flexibility for unexpected changes and circumstantial challenges. The article presents a definition of Science and Technology Oriented Creativity (STOC) based on the existing theories in the field, a short outline of the STOC measurement method developed, procedures, evaluation algorithms and an overview of the experimental STOC testing results. The relevance of the method developed to its purpose and suggested tentative positive influences of the STIMEY LE on learners’ creativity are discussed. Argumentations of strengths, limitations, applications of STOC testing outside the STIMEY project and the key directions of further improvements of the method developed are provided.
... Pautado nas teorias de base referidas, o trabalho integra conteúdos elaborados em diferentes contextos disciplinares, e discute a possibilidade de utilização de competências criativas externas ao ambiente empresarial em favor do processo de inovação. Essa estratégia de pesquisa é apoiada na abordagem sistêmica da criatividade e no crescente interesse no plano teórico da criatividade pelo estudo de processos criativos em diferentes domínios (Hennessey & Amabile, 2010;Mayer, 2014;Mumford, 2003). ...
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This paper presents the proposal formulation process of a PhD research "through design" under the metaprojectual lens. The study derived from the interface between the domains of Design, Management and Haute Cuisine and difficulties faced by Small Enterprises (SEs) in what concerns the creativity management in innovation. With basis in design systemic and transdisciplinary approaches, the investigation question is: Under Strategic Design and Design-Driven Innovation theories, how can the study on Haute Cuisine creative processes contribute for the optimization of innovation management processes in SEs? With the support of ‘Grounded theory’, the investigation articulates systematic literature review and multiple case studies for the conception of a framework for creativity management, contributing for: (I) the state of the art deepening and conception of theories on the relation among Strategic Design, the innovation and creativity management (II) the optimization of innovation processes in SEs; (III) the status of design as an articulator domain in innovation processes.
... Scientific education is based on scientific investigation, and it is an important method of learning. Creativity is the production of novel products (Mumford, 2003). Creative thinking is related to the novelty of ideas and their implementation to make something new from existing ones (Greeenstein, 2012). ...
Article
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Major aim was to determine the effect of guided inquiry on fluency and originality of ideas in creative thinking.The study was quasi-experimental. "Convenience" sampling technique was used. The sample size was 60. The experiment was performed in an elementary school in Islamabad. The scoring rubrics were used to analyze creative thinking in terms of fluency and originality. The scores of tests of the experimental group and control group were compared by t-test. There was a significant difference in the performance of the control group and the experimental group. Guided inquiry is recommended for the teaching of creativity in terms of originality and fluency.
... While it is crucial to examine the individual and contextual factors that influence creativity, it is equally important to understand the outcomes that are accepted as being creative. It has been widely agreed that the outcome of creativity should include novelty and usefulness (e.g., Amabile, 1988;Boden, 2004;Cropley, 1999;Kilgour, 2007;Mumford, 2003). ...
Article
Creativity has been recognised as one of the most important skills in the 21st century. Although creativity has been advocated in the context of education, there still seems to be a lack of understanding of the concept of creativity, leading to teaching and learning practices that still encourage uniformity and conformity. The current literature on creativity is insufficient for understanding creativity from a more comprehensive manner, as frameworks and taxonomies for creativity largely focus on either listing a set of components relevant to creativity without explaining strategies that invoke creativity or categorising creative strategies without explaining the factors that support the use of these strategies, and the result of applying these strategies. More importantly, these frameworks are largely theoretical without empirical evidence. While there have been studies that investigate approaches for developing creativity, the effectiveness of these approaches is measured based on the improvement demonstrated through the creative outputs produced by the participants, by mainly looking at the number of solutions being produced and the originality of the solutions. They do not examine the use of strategies in the creative processes. As such, the understanding of how creativity can be supported by the use of set of strategies remains insufficient. In view of these situations, this study aimed to develop a taxonomic framework that could facilitate the understanding and development of creativity, which could serve as a foundation for teaching, learning and assessment. This study viewed creativity from the problem-solving perspective, where problems act as a catalyst for creative thinking. The sample for this study was lecturers and students across various disciplines from an international university in Malaysia. This study aimed at (i) developing a prototype taxonomic framework for creativity through a synthesis of literature on theories, frameworks and research on creativity, (ii) exploring and understanding the meaning of creativity from the higher education lecturers and students’ perspectives, (iii) examining the creativity features and usability of the taxonomic framework based on the perceptions of creativity and the relevance of the framework among a group of higher education lecturers and students, and (iv) examining the use of the creative strategies in the prototype taxonomic framework for creativity through a problem-solving task. The methodology for this study involved a mixed-methods, multiphase design. This study comprised four phases i.e., (i) a systematic synthesis of the literature on creativity through a thematic analysis to develop a prototype taxonomic framework for creativity, (ii) data collection from general higher education lecturers and students through a survey, (iii) data collection from the participant-nominated creative students and lecturers through a series of interviews, and (iv) data collection from higher education students through a problem-solving task. Findings revealed that the prototype taxonomic framework for creativity consisted of 24 features of creativity. Findings gained from the survey and interviews showed that creativity was generally perceived as an ability related to the mental processes and the ability to produce something that has a value – usually innovativeness and originality. Additionally, the taxonomic framework was generally perceived to be relevant for teaching, learning and assessment. Findings from the problem-solving task revealed that the taxonomic framework was able to facilitate creativity, by allowing students to use a wider range of strategies, produce more solutions, provide greater detail to their solutions and generate solutions that are novel, useful and ethical. In general, the overall findings from the study have demonstrated that creativity is a skill that can be taught and learned. The implications of the study offered several contributions of the framework for educational purposes.
... Scholars believe that creativity is associated with divergent thinking (Shadiev et al., 2022a). Mumford (2003) and Sternberg et al. (2012) suggested that creativity means producing original, valuable, novel, and useful products and things. Creativity refers to using individual information and knowledge to generate new and valuable ideas (Zhang and Zhang, 2018). ...
Article
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In this study, telecollaborative learning activities were carried out in virtual learning environments created by the 360-degree video technology. We aimed to facilitate students’ creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Two groups of students, a group of junior high school students from China (n = 15) and a group of university students from Indonesia (n = 10), participated in the study. Students created cultural learning content using the 360-degree video technology which considered to be creative, innovative, and entrepreneurial, shared it with their international partners on the telecollaborative platform and then watched content of their partners to experience virtual panoramic tours. After that, students exchanged their ideas and comments with each other in order to improve content quality. We investigated whether participation in telecollaborative learning activities positively impacts students’ creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. We also analyzed content created by the participants in learning activities. Two main findings were obtained: (1) technology-supported learning activities improved participants’ creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship and (2) the participants positively perceived their learning experiences. Based on our results, we proposed several suggestions and derived some implications.
... Creativity is a unique human ability that psychological researchers have claimed is demonstrated by each individual in their everyday lives [1,2]. However, some fundamental questions regarding creativity remain to be solved, including what creativity is and how this construct can be measured [3,4]. The most popular and consensual definition of creativity describes it with just two words, "novelty" and "useful," meaning that creative products should be original and valuable [2,3]. ...
Article
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Although creativity has been measured in various ways (ideas, products, achievements, and personality), the relationships between these measurements remain unclear. The current study examines whether divergent thinking predicts creative behavior (i.e., creative production and achievement) and whether beliefs about own creative personality influences the link between divergent thinking and creative behavior. Eighty-eight undergraduate students were assessed via a divergent thinking test, a creative production test, and a creative achievement questionnaire. The results showed that divergent thinking was positively associated with both creative behaviors (i.e., creative production in fine arts and achievement). In addition, beliefs about own creative personality moderated the relationship between divergent thinking and creative achievements, in that this relationship was stronger when Creative Personality Scale scores were higher. The current findings suggest some associations among creativity indices: divergent thinking promotes creative achievements, and this relation is moderated by beliefs about own creative personality. Further investigation is required to specify the causal relationships among creativity indices.
... How can creativity be operationalized and measured? Despite variations in the definitions of creativity (Amabile et al., 1996) there has been some consensus that elements of novelty and usefulness form its foundation (Mumford, 2003). It is now acknowledged that the creative process consists of two distinct, yet equally important subprocesses: convergent and divergent thinking (Cropley, 2000(Cropley, , 2006. ...
Article
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Creativity is a valuable commodity. Research has revealed some identifying characteristics of creative people and some of the emotional states that can bring out the most creativity in all of us. It has also been shown that the long-term experience of different cultures and lifestyles that is the result of travel and immigration can also enhance creativity. However, the role of one-off, extreme, or unusual experiences on creativity has not been directly observed before. In part, that may be because, by their very nature, such experiences are very difficult to bring into the laboratory. Here, we brought the tools and empirical methods of the laboratory into the wild, measuring the psychological effects of a unique multisensory experience: an underwater nightclub. We showed – with fully randomized and experimentally controlled conditions – that such an experience boosted measures of divergent thinking in participants. This demonstrates that one element of creativity can be directly enhanced by unusual situations, and that experimental tools of psychology can be used to investigate a range of consumer experiences.
... A precise conceptualisation of creativity includes such aspects as novelty, originality, and utility (Mumford 2003, Plucker, Beghetto & Dow 2004. The outcome of creative process should therefore be new (novelty), different from other concepts (originality), and should have some value, for instance be aesthetically pleasing or usable (utility). ...
Chapter
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In this paper our current understanding of linguistic creativity in theoretical linguistics is linked with advances in the field of instructed L2 acquisition and in particular with the role of affect in foreign language instruction. As we witness a new wave of research interest on creativity (Li 2020) and the emotional side of learning (Dewaele & Li 2018), this paper investigates how stimulating linguistic creativity helps lower affective barriers and improve second language (L2) learners' oral fluency. First, the notion and scope of creativity is discussed with a reference to linguistics and L2 acquisition. In the empirical part of the paper are presented the results of a study in which a group of learners improved their oral fluency and accuracy scores having undergone a 20-week creativity-boosting training. The results suggest that creative tasks help remove learners' inhibitions to take part in classroom interaction and are therefore conducive to L2 acquisition.
... For example, Guilford (1950) defined creativity as the mental abilities involved in creative achievement, while Campbell (1960) saw creativity as dependent upon blind variation and selective retention. Despite the differences and challenges in defining creativity, there seems to be agreement that creativity involves both novelty (or originality) and acceptability (or usefulness) (Mumford, 2003). Runco and Jaeger (2012) regarded this consensus as indicating a standard definition of creativity, which can be traced to Stein's work in 1953. ...
Book
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Creative thinking is an essential contributor to success across all academic disciplines and therefore has long been a focus of educators. This guidebook offers insights into the current pedagogy on creative thinking skills and equips readers with the knowledge to teach them.
... Over the years of quality management experience, (Mumford, 2003), (Sternberg, J.; Sternberg, K.; Mio, 2012), (Meusburger, Funke & Wunder, 2006) seems we have achieved a united issue that processes, procedures, products, services, etc., which are innovative, are part of creativity, or involve it (Ceko. 2021). ...
Article
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Purpose – The paper aims to clarify the relationship between innovation and creativity, innovation and quality management, and creativity and quality management, using regression analysis. Design/methodology/approach – The paper opted for an exploratory study using regression analysis to find relations between innovation and creativity, innovation and quality management, and creativity and quality management, using data complemented Global Innovation Index and Creativity index and ISO 9001 standards certificate issued in European countries. Findings – The paper provides statistical insights about relations between innovation and creativity, innovation and quality management, and creativity and quality management. It suggests that successful business organizations should invest in innovation, creativity, and quality management to achieve competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications – Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may need extended periods of investigation, therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further. Practical implications – The paper includes implications for the development of a powerful tool combining innovation, creativity, and quality management, achieving competitive advantage. Originality/value – This paper fulfills for the first time under a regression analysis an identified need to study how innovation, creativity, and quality management are related strongly between them. Article Type: Research paper.
... It includes multiple stages, such as identifying problems, stimulating ideas, proposing solutions, seeking the supporters of solution, implementing solutions, expanding production scale, and finally institutionalizing it [30,31], and covers all the discontinuous activities from idea generation to promotion and implementation of the idea [32]. Thus, it can be seen that the innovative work behavior can achieve the final output with clear application components and research value [33]. ...
... For this study, creativity may be defined as an intellectual competence that has the propensity to produce novel ideas or products that serve some purpose. Scholars believe that creativity paves the way for innovative and valuable ideas (Mumford, 2003). In educational research, researchers are eager to determine factors that can influence the creativity of students, like examining the impact of digital game-based learning on creativity (van Hooijdonk et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2020). ...
Article
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In terms of information availability, talent acquisition and entrepreneurial education, female prospective entrepreneurs encounter several hurdles and inadequacies. This study investigates how social media learning might improve entrepreneurial learning and creativity among female learners. In summary, this article examines the impact of two critical activities in social media communities (knowledge sharing and social interaction) on entrepreneurial learning and creativity, which might develop entrepreneurial ambitions among Muslim female learners. The data were collected from 253 university and college female students who used social media for entrepreneurial learning. The structural equation modelling technique was used on 233 functional responses in the study. The study instrument’s reliability and validity were also evaluated through different statistical measures before hypotheses testing. The study findings exposed that both knowledge sharing and social interactivity influenced entrepreneurial learning and creativity separately. The study also revealed that entrepreneurial learning and creativity further influenced entrepreneurial intentions. This research reveals female learners’ entrepreneurship intentions, which can be advanced using social media learning in a developing region. The primary theoretical research contribution is the identification of essential activities in virtual entrepreneurial communities, which can enhance the learning and creativity of young female learners. However, further studies need to be carried out in other developing regions among other marginalized groups to generalize these findings. Both teaching faculties and policymakers should make effective use of social media for imparting entrepreneurial education among students, which would further lead to entrepreneurial intentions among them. The researchers argue that there is an imperative need to promote female entrepreneurship intentions, especially among Muslim women, to make them self-reliant and self-employed. This makes it essential to promote entrepreneurial learning and creativity among them, which are significant factors to foster entrepreneurial intentions. Thus, this study has provided an effective and cost-efficient manner of imparting entrepreneurial education to female learners aspiring to become entrepreneurs.
... Fay and Sonnentag (2002); Widmer et al. (2012) Time pressure positively influences individual intrinsic motivation and wellbeing. Mumford (2003) Clear job specifications for individuals help reduce stress that is caused by role conflicts and stimulate work creativity. Lepine et al. (2005) Excessive challenge stress forces workers to become excessively involved in their work such that they fail to meet their job requirements and exhaust their energy and resources, thereby seriously impairing their creativity. ...
Article
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In this study, experiments were conducted on 30 subjects by means of electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) methodologies as well as a money game to examine the effects of stress on creativity in business problem-solving. The study explained the relationship between creativity and human physiological response using the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. The subjects were asked to perform a cognitive mapping task. Based on the brain wave theory, we identified the types of brain waves and locations of brain activities that occurred during the creative problem-solving process in a business environment and studied the effects of stress on creativity. The results of the experiments showed significant differences in creativity in business problem-solving depending on whether or not stress was triggered. Differences were found in the time domain (SDNN, RMSSD) and frequency domain (HF, LF/HF ratio) of heart rates, a physiological stress indicator, between the stress group and the no-stress group. A brain wave analysis confirmed that alpha waves increased in the frontal lobe of the brain during creative business problem-solving but decreased when the subjects were under stress, during which beta waves in the brain increased. This study seeks to examine creativity in business problem-solving by studying the effects of stress on human physiological response and cognitive functions in the hope of providing a new and objective interpretation of existing research results.
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A highly important societal aspect of language use are pragmatic creative acts and interactions. The ability to, through multimodal interaction, create something new, is primordial for human sociality. In this paper, I propose a theoretical model that enables detailed analysis of situated co-operative creative actions as these naturally emerge in interactional situations. First, I develop the theoretical model by extrapolating from Charles Goodwin’s theory of co-operative action. I then illustrate the model through detailed analysis of a single case where participants interact in a video-mediated robotic context. The model is situated within ethnomethodological multimodal conversation analysis and based on video ethnographic data. This research contributes to the field of creativity and human pragmatic action by providing an applicable model for Situated Co-Operative Creativity, the SCOC model, which can be used for detailed analysis of everyday creativity.
Article
The current stage of civilization is closely linked to leadership in research and development, the emergence of new knowledge, the development of high-tech production and the creation of mass innovative products. The development of innovation potential is not only a way of dynamic development and success, but also a means of ensuring the security and sovereignty of the state, its competitiveness in the modern world. The article presents a modern scientific understanding of the phenomena of creativity and innovation from the standpoint of various fields of knowledge. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of this issue, given that the main dominant feature of the progressive development of our time is the formation of an innovative personality capable of creating innovations in all spheres of life. It has been found that in modern scientific discourse the phenomenon of creativity acts as a process of activity, characterized by a certain result, in which one can trace material or spiritual value. It is determined that an important quality of personality is creativity, which is understood as the ability of an individual to variability, flexibility, liquidity, stability, focus on action and can be formed by creating special conditions in the process of learning and education. The understanding of the phenomenon of innovation as a process of implementation of new ideas is described. The essence of innovations in education as a process of creation, introduction and dissemination in educational practice of new ideas, tools, pedagogical and managerial technologies, as a result of which indicators (levels) of achievements of structural components of education increase, the system transitions to a qualitatively different state. The study used methods of theoretical generalization, comparative analysis, analysis and synthesis, which allowed to identify the essence of the concepts of «creativity» and «innovation» to understand their modern content.
Article
The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) allows to work in multiple locations. The purpose of this article is to investigate how multilocal knowledge workers engage in work in the interplay of workplaces between cities and mountain regions. We follow a mixed methods approach with intertwined quantitative and qualitative data sources. The results show that working in the periphery using marginality can be beneficial and disadvantageous at the same time. Furthermore, marginality is seldom utilized for creativity but preferably for working undisturbed. This study contributes to the literature on marginality and flexible working between urban centers and rural peripheries in the digital age.
Conference Paper
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This study examined how creative secondary school students are. The research design is a survey of 300 purposively selected Junior and Senior secondary school students from 10 schools in the urban state capital of Makurdi in Benue state, Nigeria. A semi-structured, validated and peer-reviewed 28-item questionnaire built on a modified version of the measuring questionnaire by Torrance was used for data collection. The measurement also included a test for influence of cultural inclinations on creativity. The findings show that many students (29.33%) see creativity as creating ideas to solve problems, and being skillful and imaginative to get something new (27.33%).most (91.0%) claim that they are moderately creative while (51.67%) rated themselves as just creative. Consistently it was found that there was evidence that majority of students (70.33-95.76%) cannot recognise creativity. Within Makurdi urban settlement culture appears not to have much influence on students' creativity level. Creativity level of students increases as their class level increases but generally the girls were less creative than the boys and science students were consistently, although on a small scale express more creativity than non science students. However, there was no significant mean difference in creativity level among the science, non-science and not sure groups of students; F 2, 297 = 0.42, p = 0.66 > 0.05. There was a significant difference in mean creativity level among JS 1, JS 3 and SS 3; F 2, 297 = 3.62, p = 0.03 < 0.05 there was no significant difference between mean creativity level of male and female students; t 296 = 0.13, p = 0.90 > 0.05. Based on the findings and conclusions made, it is recommended that teachers should provide motivating and creatively challenging task for students in class to serve both as source of intrinsic motivation and as a step towards helping the students become more creative.
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This study aimed to determine the effect of discovery learning on the students’critical thinking skill. The research was a comparative study with 64 students of 11th grade that were randomly selected from senior high school in Yogyakarta. The data of critical thinking was collected through the critical thinking test instrument. Face content and construct validity conducted as initial step in developing the instrument before the test was used to measure students’ critical thinking skill toward the research sample. The instrument went through the R&D for examining its validity and reliability using the Partial Credit Model with the result of validity showed 8 of 10 items fit with model. The study analysis was conducted using t-test and descriptive analysis. The results of this study show there was a significant difference in students’ critical thinking between the experiment and control group. The profile results of critical thinking skill indicate that indicators of problem identification were better compared to other indicators learning.
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Technological progress has been recently associated with a crowding-out of cognitive-skill intensive jobs in favour of jobs requiring soft skills, such as ones related to social intelligence, flexibility and creativity. The nature of soft skills makes them hardly replaceable by machine work and among subsets of soft skills, creativity is one of the hardest to define and codify. Therefore, creativity-intensive occupations have been shielded from automation. Given this framework, our study contributes to a nascent field on interdisciplinary research to predict the impact of artificial intelligence on work activities and future jobs using machine learning. In our work, we focus on creativity, starting from its possible definitions, then we get significant insights on creativity patterns and dynamics in the Italian labour market, using a machine learning approach. We make use of the INAPP-ISTAT Survey on Occupations (ICP), where we identify 25 skills associated with creativity. Then, we apply matrix completion—a machine learning technique which is often used by recommender systems—to predict the average importance levels of various creative skills for each profession, showing its excellent prediction capability for the specific problem. We also find that matrix completion typically underestimates the average importance levels of soft skills associated with creativity, especially in the case of professions belonging to the major group of legislators, senior officials and managers, as well as intellectual professionals. Conversely, overestimates are typically obtained for other professions, which may be associated with a higher risk of being automated.
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Purpose The purpose of the present research is to introduce a combined framework that integrates innovative work behavior, product innovation process and customer knowledge management; then, to explore the mediating effect of customer knowledge management in the relationship between innovative work behavior and the product innovation process. Design/methodology/approach The basis for the present research is a cross-sectional design. Data collection from 154 employees occurred using the following structured questionnaires: Customer Knowledge Management (CKM), Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) and Product Innovation Process (PIP). Data processing used SPSS version 26.0, including the PROCESS (3.5) macro analysis. Findings The results show positive relationships between innovative work behavior and the product innovation process ( r = 0.420, p < 0.01). Pearson's correlation shows a coefficient of 0.42, meaning that 42% of the variations in perceived product innovation are due to variations in innovative work behavior. The second condition of the mediation test involved testing the relationship between the independent variable (Innovative Work Behavior) and the mediating variable (Knowledge Management) and showed a significant relationship ( r = 0.272, p < 0.01). The findings suggested that knowledge management that other determinants supported, such as collaboration in idea exploration, idea championing and encouragement of participation in idea implementation, significantly contributed to the product innovation process ( r = 0.509, p < 0.01). The bootstrapping method confirmed that innovative work behavior supports product innovation through the mediation of customer knowledge management ( z = 3.01, p = 0.002). Research limitations/implications The cross-sectional design, along with the relatively low number of participants and the self-reporting nature of the questionnaires, represent the current study's main limitations. Developing the research model could integrate new variables, such as customer co-creation processes, performance-based compensation, employee citizenship activities and transformational leadership. Practical implications This research has both theoretical and practical implications. These emphasize the importance of further investigation into the factors influencing companies' innovation processes. They also provide managers with a means of finding a fit between the deployment of customer knowledge mechanisms and the achievement of innovative workplace behavior, to improve innovation process efficiency. Originality/value The current study broadens the empirical research area of customer knowledge management and its impact on both innovative work behavior and the product innovation process, particularly in knowledge-intensive market scenarios that require organizations to be innovative.
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This paper examines mentorship as a mechanism for individuals to acquire and develop creativity. More specifically, we study the effect of mentor creativity on protégé creativity and how this effect is moderated by the mentoring styles of autonomy and exploration. Our empirical analysis focuses on formal PhD supervision and training, drawing on survey and bibliometric data for 143 life-science professors (mentors) and their 685 PhD students (protégés). We find that the effect of mentor creativity on protégé creativity is insignificant during protégés’ PhD studies but becomes significantly positive after protégés hold faculty positions, suggesting that the mentorship effect takes time to manifest but is enduring. Furthermore, the effect of mentor creativity on protégé creativity is significant only when protégés have high levels of autonomy and exploration during PhD studies. This suggests the importance of autonomy and exploration in the effective transfer of creativity from mentors to protégés.
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The chapter is an attempt to structure the lesson in a holistic way with the use and application of edu- cational robotics. Emphasis is given on developing students’ creativity, which is one of the dominant challenges of modern educational system, as it can be achieved through an educational environment focused on it. The use of STEAM method can help students develop creativity and at the same time develop skills such as programming and using new technologies (ICT). In fact, robotic constructions can help students understand basic principles of science such as mechanics and mathematics while solving problems related to their daily lives. During the project, students work in groups and highlight their skills in areas such as the creation of a mock up, the construction and presentation of robots, etc. This process gives the course a manifold holistic approach, as the knowledge the student acquires from different domains is used towards one direction, instead of the classical approach according to which only one subject is analyzed
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Applying analogies in teaching and learning can significantly improve their outcomes. It is pedagogically important to know the various factors on which depend the frequency and manner of application of analogies. Such factors include creativity. We can see the relationship between creativity and analogy from several angles. In this paper, we are dealing with the connection between self-assessment of creativity and the tendency to apply analogies in a pedagogical context. On a sample of 305 students, the Kaufman Creativity Domain Scale (K-DOCS) and inventory were applied to measure the propensity to spontaneously apply analogies. The results suggest that there is a connection between self-assessment of creativity and a tendency to apply analogies, but also that the nature of that connection is complex. The connection was registered with two areas of expression of creativity (personal-everyday and academic area), while the connection with other areas was not registered. The meaning and pedagogical significance of the obtained results were discussed.
Conference Paper
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the proof of human efforts in independent presentation of the leverage aimed to faster and more efficient economic development. Developed countries have accepted and implemented the concept of enterprises by creating positive business environment and a supportive financial structure. The significance of SMEs in total economic development of Croatia became noticeable during last years. SMEs are increasingly represented by growing number of economic subjects, in financial results and in number of employees within the total economy. Certainly, the biggest problem to SMEs is funding, i.e. difficulty in approaching the capital essential for their establishing and development. In this area a very special role belongs to the state and regional units of self-government which should provide a stable and safe business environment in order to contribute to both, creation of new and development of the existing economic subjects. By strengthening the competitiveness of the SMEs on the long-term basis there is tendency to create favourable conditions for the growth of investment and increasing the number of entities with new products resulting in higher added value. Namely, since the mid of the year 2013 all the participants have found themselves in a new situation, while SMEs are looking for a support and institutions which can provide it(Ministries, Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund, Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Croatian Agency for SMEs and Investments and the like). When Croatia became a member of EU, surveillance of the financial supports has been transferred to the rigorous „big boss“, European Commission. Looking forward to the future, the portion of EU funds of support should be growing, while national supports should lessen. This work researches institutional and regulatory restrictions to development of the SMEs in Croatia. The research is specifically targeted to the problem of financing of SMEs in Croatia and it shows the complete system of financing of this part of the national economy. At the same time the purpose and goal of this work is to provide systematization, describe and explore relevant determinants of financial supports to SMEs in Croatia, as well as to propose improvements of the existing and implementing of possible new sources of financing, that would significantly expand possibilities of financing of these enterprises in terms of quality.
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About the Book: This book compiled with quality research papers of the Two Day International E-Conference on “Trends Issues and Development of Physical Education and Sports” under the theme of “All round development of human personality” jointly organised by Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Fit India Campaign Committee and Fit India Club, Manipur University, Canchipur in collaboration with National Association of Physical Education and Sports Science (NAPESS). This book has been undertaken by the organisers to share the knowledge of the professionals through their research papers and to exchange their experience and research finding area in the field of physical educational and sports science. This is the book of the reviews on the concrete solutions to the permanent problems in the physical education and sports science. It is a humble energy to bind the drowning talents of physical education and sports. We express our gratitude, to those humble physical education teachers, research scholars, students, sports lovers, coaches, and sports administrators, who made this chance. Editor Dr. L.Santosh Singh
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This research examines an integrated theoretical model that explains how strategies for participating in the market for corporate control (acquisitions and divestitures) affect internal control mechanisms and, together, influence internal and external innovation. Nine out of ten hypotheses received support, with results showing that firms engaging in acquisitions and divestitures emphasize financial controls, de-emphasize strategic controls, and thereby produce less internal innovation. Furthermore, these firms are likely to seek external innovation to gain short-term benefits in competitive advantage. We conclude that engaging in the market for corporate control strongly affects the context in which innovation is framed, the control mechanisms employed, and the design and process of innovation.
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Problem construction has been suggested as the first step in creative problem solving, but our understanding of the underlying process is limited. According to a model of problem construction (Mumford, Reiter-Palmon, & Redmond 1994), problem construction ability, active engagement in problem construction, and the presence of diverse and inconsistent cues influence creative problem solving. To test these hypotheses, 195 undergraduates were asked to solve 6 real-life problems and complete a measure of problem construction ability. Active engagement in problem construction was manipulated by instructions to the participants. Cue consistency was manipulated by the information presented in the problem situation. The quality, originality, and creativity of the solutions were evaluated. Results indicated that problem construction ability was related to higher qualify solutions as well as solutions rated as more original. Problem construction ability also interacted with cue consistency such that individuals with high problem construction ability produced solutions of higher quality and originality when faced with inconsistent cues. The implication of these findings to our understanding of creative problem solving and the problem construction process are discussed.
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The subject of creativity has been neglected by psychologists. The immediate problem has two aspects. (1) How can we discover creative promise in our children and our youth, (2) How can we promote the development of creative personalities. Creative talent cannot be accounted for adequately in terms of I.Q. A new way of thinking about creativity and creative productivity is seen in the factorial conceptions of personality. By application of factor analysis a fruitful exploratory approach can be made. Carefully constructed hypotheses concerning primary abilities will lead to the use of novel types of tests. New factors will be discovered that will provide us with means to select individuals with creative personalities. The properties of primary abilities should be studied to improve educational methods and further their utilization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Collaborations have produced many great achievements. To stimulate the scholarly attention that the phenomenon deserves but has not received, this article reviews anecdotal evidence and examples of collaboration from different fields and indicates various forms it can take. Several creative phenomena are reinterpreted in light of collaboration's effects, and hypotheses and methods for study are suggested. It is speculated that collaborations benefit from partner diversity and require special talents of which people differ.
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Prior research suggests that both transformational leadership and anonymity may affect creativity in groups using group decision support systems to generate ideas. A laboratory study examined effects of high and low levels of transformational leadership on group creativity under anonymous and identified electronic brainstorming conditions. Four measures of group creativity were used: fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration (Torrance, 1965). Results indicated that groups working under higher levels of transformational leadership generated more idea elaborations and original solutions than groups working under lower levels of transformational leadership. Anonymous groups were more flexible in generating ideas than identified groups. Results also indicated a significant Leadership Style x Anonymity interaction for flexibility.
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This study examines the possibility that the relative salience of the controlling and informational aspects of competition determines its impact on creative performance, as suggested by cognitive evaluation theory. The salience of these aspects was manipulated by varying competitor presence and visibility. Three components Of creative performance were measured: fluency, flexibility, and overall creativity. Results provided mixed support for the importance of distinguishing between the informational and controlling aspects of competition. Consistent with predictions, scores on the creativity measures were higher in two conditions when the informational aspect of competition should be high (i.e., when individuals were in competition with others present but nor visible and when individuals were in competition with absent others and were visible to noncompetitive others) than in a condition when the controlling aspect was expected to be high (i.e., when individuals were in competition with present others and visible to them) and in no competition conditions. However, other findings failed to provide support for the importance of the informational/controlling distinction (e.g., individuals who competed with absent others and were not visible to noncompetitive others produced work low in creativity). The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
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How does man know anything and, in particular, how can we account for creative thought? Campbell posits 2 major conditions: mechanisms which produce wide and frequent variation (an inductive, trial and error, fluency of ideas) and criteria for the selection of the inductive given (the critical function). The ramifications of this perspective are explored in terms of organic evolution and human history, and in terms of psychology and epistemology. This exposition is offered as a pretheoretical model.
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This study examined the independent and joint contributions of employees' creativity-relevant personal characteristics and three characteristics of the organizational context - job complexity, supportive supervision, and controlling supervision - to three indicators of employees' creative performance: patent disclosures written, contributions to an organization suggestion program, and supervisory ratings of creativity. Participants (171 employees from two manufacturing facilities) produced the most creative work when they had appropriate creativity-relevant characteristics, worked on complex, challenging jobs, and were supervised in a supportive, noncontrolling fashion.
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Verbal protocols were recorded while 21 MBA students at India's leading management school sought to solve a complex divergent thinking task. The content analysis of these protocols yielded five major categories and 23 subcategories of divergent thinking. The five major categories were problem structuring, searching, feeling, ideating, and evaluating. Ideating turned out to be the most commonly utilized category. The resort to ideating, that is, articulating solutions, was negatively correlated with feeling and problem structuring and positively correlated with evaluating. There were marked differences in the way the subjects tackled the divergent thinking task. Three cognitive styles were uncovered through cluster analysis: the intuitive ideator style, the anxious analyst style, and the random scanner style. Transitions among categories were examined, and yielded several recursive divergent thinking paths. Contrary to several extant models of creative problem solving, there was no marked evidence for sequentiality among the categories of divergent thinking. Most solutions to the divergent thinking problem were of the “objective”; type, that is, they actually existed in nature. A minority were “creative,”; that is, synthesized through an act of imagination. There was relatively greater tendency for objective solutions to be preceded by the use of searching, evaluating, and analytical mechanisms, and relatively greater tendency for creative solutions to be preceded by ideating (especially listing and elaboration), feeling, and redefinition mechanisms. Implications of the findings for models of divergent thinking are discussed.
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Previous work has shown that positive mood may facilitate creative problem solving. However, studies have also shown positive mood may be detrimental to creative thinking under conditions favoring an optimizing strategy for solution. It is argued herein that the opposite effect is observed under conditions promoting loose processing and satisficing problem-solving strategies. The effects of positive and negative mood on divergent-thinking performance were examined in a quasi-experimental design. The sample comprised 188 arts and psychology students. Mood was measured with an adjective checklist prior to task performance. Real-life divergent-thinking tasks scored for fluency were used as the dependent variables. Results showed natural positive mood to facilitate significantly task performance and negative mood to inhibit it. The re was no effect of arousal. The results suggest that per sons in elevated moods may prefer satisficing strategies, which would lead to a higher number of proposed solutions. Persons in a negative mood may choose optimizing strategies and be more concerned with the quality of their ideas, which is detrimental to performance on this kind of task.
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This book reviews recent efforts to deal with taxonomic issues in the behavioral sciences. Some of the material is based on an extensive research program directed by the first author. The book updates this work and integrates it with recent related research. The program attempted to develop and evaluate systems for describing and classifying tasks that could improve predictions about human performance. Emphasis is on a common task-descriptive language to integrate the human performance research literature and improve generalizations of research findings. The book brings together ideas from such diverse fields as human learning, experimental and differential psychology, task analysis, and human factors technology. These fields in one form or another are concerned with the prediction of human task performance, but there has so far been a lack of communication across these fields. This book provides the needed integration. The effort represents one of the few attempts to bridge the gap between basic research on human performance and the applications of the research to real-world problems. The book deals with conceptual and methodological issues in developing useful taxonomic structures in various areas of the behavioral sciences, and relates these to developments in other sciences. Innovative efforts in areas of human performance are reviewed and evaluated according to a variety of criteria. The world of human tasks is not impossibly diverse and common task dimensions that allow improved predictions of human performance can be identified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors present the general structural model used in the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). They begin by examining the concerns influencing their development of this model and then consider the major types of variables included in the model. The O*NET content model circumvents the problems encountered by more traditional occupational information systems. This model is able to provide a common framework that allows users to answer a host of questions about jobs that otherwise would prove difficult to answer. The content model considers multiple types of cross-job descriptors, which allows users to look at jobs through different windows. Although it appears that the O*NET content model might provide the kind of flexible information system we need, there are a host of issues which have not yet been addressed. To apply this model, we need to develop descriptors within each domain specified by the content model and evidence that these descriptors can provide an accurate, meaningful assessment of the similarities and differences among jobs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present article is concerned with certain conceptual issues embodied in the description and understanding of creative behavior. Initially, we argue that although creativity has been defined in many ways, the ultimate concern in studies of creativity is the production of novel, socially valued products. Subsequently, we review the literature pertaining to the development of innovative occupational achievement. We suggest that the integration and reorganization of cognitive structures are likely to underlie major creative contributions and that the application of existing cognitive structures is likely to underlie minor contributions. We then extend this interpretation to the processes traditionally held to underlie individual differences in creativity and note that both the major and minor forms of creativity will require a number of different knowledges, skills, and abilities. Further, we suggest that the effective translation of ideas into action will depend on a variety of individual and situational attributes. On the basis of these observations, we concluded that enhanced understanding and prediction will require a more sophisticated multivariate approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
ABSTRACT In this article, we argue that the continuity-discontinuity of personality development is not just an empirical issue, but is also a metatheoretical and theoretical issue Stances taken in regard to one of three metatheories (or models)—the orgamsmic, the mechanistic, and the developmental contextual—determine theoretical ideas about (a) the units of analysis thought to be relevant to personality development, (b) the processes believed to govern these units, and (c) whether changes in these units are continuous or discontinuous Theories associated with the models also differ in regard to whether they describe and/or explain intra-individual personality changes as quantitatively or qualitatively continuous or discontinuous Developmental contextual theories seek to identify the orgamsmic and contextual conditions under which any instance of continuity-discontinuity occurs These conditions involve both nomothetic and idiographic processes Organism-context relations must be studied longitudinally in order to understand how these processes function across life
Article
Presents a 1964 follow-up study of 1500 engineering students originally administered 4 tests of mechanical creativity during 1955. Analyses were devoted to the criterion validity of the original battery, the job environment, and life history correlates of outstanding performance, and the possibility of a Type of Person * Optimal Environment interaction. Results suggest (1) a validity coefficient of .40 for the 1955 tests, (2) factors of academic underachievement and research orientation of supervision as important personal and environmental correlates of performance; and (3) no Type of Person * Optimal Environment interaction. (15 ref.)
Article
Although many studies have examined creativity in organizational settings, little attention has been given to the impact of leader behavior on subordinate creativity. To address this issue, current models of creative performance were used to identify three leader behaviors that might influence subordinate creativity, including problem construction, learning goals, and feelings of self-efficacy. Subsequently, these leader behaviors were manipulated as subordinates performed a task requiring creation of a marketing campaign. The quality and originality of the resulting campaigns was evaluated. It was found that leader behavior contributing to problem construction and feelings of self-efficacy lead to higher subordinate creativity. The implications of these findings for understanding creative performance were considered, along with some potential practical applications.