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Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine

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Abstract

Psychiatrists rarely enquire about caffeine intake when assessing patients. This may lead to a failure to identify caffeine-related problems and offer appropriate interventions. Excessive caffeine ingestion leads to symptoms that overlap with those of many psychiatric disorders. Caffeine is implicated in the exacerbation of anxiety and sleep disorders, and people with eating disorders often misuse it. It antagonises adenosine receptors, which may potentiate dopaminergic activity and exacerbate psychosis. In psychiatric in-patients, caffeine has been found to increase anxiety, hostility and psychotic symptoms. Assessment of caffeine intake should form part of routine psychiatric assessment and should be carried out before prescribing hypnotics. Gradual reduction in intake or gradual substitution with caffeine-free alternatives is probably preferable to abrupt cessation. Decaffeinated beverages should be provided on psychiatric wards.

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... 24 It was documented that caffeine consumption is associated with weight loss attempts and unhealthy eating behavior. [24][25][26] Patients with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) believe that consuming large quantities of caffeine drinks will increase metabolic rate and decrease appetite. 25 Hence, much attention should be paid to the high smoking prevalence and caffeine consumption in patients with ED. ...
... [24][25][26] Patients with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) believe that consuming large quantities of caffeine drinks will increase metabolic rate and decrease appetite. 25 Hence, much attention should be paid to the high smoking prevalence and caffeine consumption in patients with ED. Moreover, chocolate has been previously linked to eating disorders, where chocolate craving has been linked to eating disturbances. ...
... The relationship between coffee consumption with ED somehow remains vague and needs more analysis and more research on specific types of eating disorders and their relation to coffee consumption. 25,85,86 Chocolate consumers were also at lower risk if ED than non-consumers (OR: 0.544, p-value 0.017). These results agree with the results of a previous study. ...
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Background: University students, who are at risk of eating disorders (ED), are more liable to use cognitive enhancers and psychostimulants to improve their cognitive functions and lose weight. ED in Palestinian male students is a neglected health issue. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and the association between ED and cognitive enhancers, and psychostimulants use among An-Najah National University students (ANNU). Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2020 at ANNU, 1047 students completed anonymous surveys for cognitive enhancers practice, the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), Sick, Control, One, Fat and FOOD (SCOFF) screening tests. Results: The prevalence of ED among ANNU students was 21.2% based on EAT-26 (17.1% in males, 23.8% in females) and 31.5% based on SCOFF (24.0% in males, 36.3% in females). The binary logistic regression revealed that students at risk to have ED were water-pipe smokers (OR: 1.471, p-value 0.047), especially males, while students who were less likely to have ED were males (OR: 0.341, p-value<0.001), coffee users (OR: 0.581, p-value 0.014) and chocolate users (OR: 0.530, p-value 0.041) than nonusers. Moreover, the risk of ED increased with increasing body mass index (p-value<0.01). Clinical medical students showed the lowest prevalence (11.1%) compared to preclinical (22.5%), health sciences (23.7%), and non-medical students (20.9%) (p-value 0.059). Conclusion: Our findings highlight water-pipe smoking as a significant health problem in males with ED, which may require unique treatment and prevention strategies. Moreover, coffee and chocolate consumption were associated with decreased risk of ED, only among males. The gender-gap in ED prevalence was very narrow compared to international results. These results prompt the need to focus on both genders in future studies instead of females. They also suggest the urgent need to address ED among Palestinian university students by educating students about mental health, identifying high-risk students, and offering easily accessible psychological help.
... Well-known effects of caffeine on the body include increased motor and mental activities through the stimulation of the central nervous system, increased heart rate and diuresis. Caffeine is used to mitigate sleepiness, to suppress appetite, to treat apnoea in premature infants, to enhance performance and for headache therapy (10). Despite several previous reports of the effect of caffeine on atherosclerosis (11)(12)(13), no study has ever been performed to specifically examine the effects of caffeine on PON enzymes. ...
... Caffeine has a variety of pharmacological and cellular responses in biological systems. Some well-known effects of caffeine include central nervous system and cardiac muscle stimulation, diuresis and smooth muscle relaxation (10). It is known that caffeine has several mechanisms of action. ...
... The most prominent one is reversibly binding to the adenosine receptor to block its action. Caffeine promotes wakefulness by this mechanism (10,24). Azam et al. (25) also reported that caffeine exhibits both antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. ...
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BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 are antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic structural high-density lipoprotein proteins that are mainly synthesized by the liver. No study has ever been performed to specifically examine the effects of caffeine on paraoxonase enzymes and on liver apolipoprotein A-1 protein levels. AIMS: To investigate the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on liver apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro experimental study. METHODS: HepG2 cells were incubated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 200 μM of caffeine for 24 hours. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels were measured by western blotting. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase on apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in the cells incubated with 50 µM of caffeine and a significant increase on paraoxonase-1 protein level in the cells incubated with 200 µM of caffeine. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that caffeine does not change paraoxonase-3 protein level, but the higher doses used in our study do cause an increase in both apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in liver cells.
... The association between caffeine and mental disorder is well documented. Psychiatric symptomatology caused by excessive caffeine consumption may range from anxiety and dysphoria [6,7] to mania and psychosis [8][9][10][11]. ...
... Caffeine intoxication (sometimes referred to as "caffeinism") shares many physiological and psychological features with anxiety disorders and typically occurs when daily intake of caffeine is over 1000 mg [6,7]. Death has been described from caffeine toxicity, with potentially lethal doses being associated with plasma concentrations of 70 mg/L and above. ...
... Pharmacological evidence of caffeine's effects on striatal dopaminergic activity suggests a biologically plausible mechanism for the generation of aberrant perceptual experiences and psychotic symptoms [5]. Furthermore, a number of studies indicate caffeine use increases psychotic symptoms in patients with established diagnoses of psychotic disorders [6,[18][19][20]. ...
Article
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Energy drinks are nonalcoholic beverages that are widely consumed in the general population, and worldwide usage is increasing. The main stimulant component of energy drinks is typically caffeine. Few case reports exist that link energy drink consumption to psychosis, and similarly few reports exist that associate energy drink consumption with acute renal failure. We present a patient who simultaneously developed psychosis and acute renal failure associated with excessive energy drink consumption. The patient required haemodialysis, and his psychosis resolved on cessation of energy drinks and a brief course of antipsychotic medication. We perform a review of similar cases where excessive caffeinated energy drink consumption has been linked to psychosis or acute renal failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing both renal failure and psychosis occurring simultaneously in a patient. Recognising the spectrum of disorders associated with excessive energy drink consumption is vital for both physicians and psychiatrists, as this has important implications for both prognosis and treatment.
... Evidence shows that excessive coffee intake can also cause psychiatric disorders. Caffeine is related to increased anxiety and sleep disorders, exacerbating psychosis (Winston et al. 2005). In patients who already have mental disorders, caffeine can cause hostility and increase psychotic symptoms (Winston et al. 2005). ...
... Caffeine is related to increased anxiety and sleep disorders, exacerbating psychosis (Winston et al. 2005). In patients who already have mental disorders, caffeine can cause hostility and increase psychotic symptoms (Winston et al. 2005). These symptoms may vary depending on age and sex (Jee et al. 2020). ...
... As already mentioned, high caffeine consumption may alter the function of cardiac, gastrointestinal, nervous, and renal systems (Leonard et al. 1987). Moreover, excessive caffeine intake may also cause psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and sleep disorders (Winston et al. 2005). More than four cups of coffee a day can have adverse effects (FDA 2018; Mayo Clinic 2020). ...
Chapter
Caffeine is one of the most consumed substances worldwide, and although it is present in many food products in different concentrations, coffee is likely the most significant product in terms of caffeine concentration and consumption. Despite being known and used by humankind for hundreds of years, the patterns of consumption and environmental risks are not fully understood. Therefore, global spatial and temporal caffeine consumption was investigated over the last 20 years, and health perspectives were discussed. An increase of 37% in per capita coffee consumption was observed in the last two decades worldwide, mainly in the Middle East and North Africa (84.2%) and upper middle-income countries (86.1%). Although there is still controversy on whether it is an addictive substance, it is worth noting that risks associated with its high consumption exist, mainly by more sensitive people and when mixing it with other substances, such as alcohol.
... Understanding how and why caffeine consumption influences spending is important because caffeine is one of the most powerful psychoactive stimulants legally and widely available (Smith 2005;Strain, Mumford, and Silverman 1994;Winston, Hardwick, and Jaberi 2005). It is also the world's most popular stimulant (Rogers 2007) and is consumed daily by a large number of people worldwide. ...
... Although caffeine has sometimes been compared with other addictive stimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine, the former differs from the latter in terms of physiological reactions (Nehlig 1999;Winston, Hardwick, and Jaberi 2005). As a result, shopping behavior after consuming these classical drugs of misuse (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) is likely to be different than after consuming a psychomotor stimulant such as caffeine. ...
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Caffeine is the world's most popular stimulant and is consumed daily by a significant portion of the world's population through coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Consumers often shop online and in physical stores immediately after or while consuming caffeine. This is further facilitated by the increasing prevalence of coffee shops and by the phenomenon of some retail stores having in-store coffee bars and offering complimentary caffeinated beverages. This research examines how caffeine consumption before shopping influences purchase behavior. The results of a series of experiments conducted in the field (at multiple retail stores across different countries) and in the lab show that consuming a caffeinated (vs. noncaffeinated) beverage before shopping enhances impul-sivity in terms of more items purchased and higher spending. This effect is stronger for "high-hedonic" products and attenuated for "low-hedonic" products. These findings are important for managers to understand how a seemingly unrelated behavior (i.e., caffeine consumption) in and/or around the store affects spending. From a consumer perspective, although moderate amounts of caffeine consumption can have positive health benefits, there can be unintended negative financial consequences of caffeine intake on spending. Thus, consumers trying to control impulsive spending should avoid consuming caffeinated beverages before shopping.
... Approximately 90% of the caffeine contained in a cup of coffee is cleared from the stomach within 20 minutes after oral ingestion, with its effects commencing within an hour and lasting for three to four hours. [9] The peak plasma concentration is reached after approximately 40-60 minutes, [10] with a half-life of approximately six hours in healthy adults. [11] The half-life is shorter in smokers and longer in pregnant women and women taking oral contraceptives. ...
... [11] The half-life is shorter in smokers and longer in pregnant women and women taking oral contraceptives. [9] Several studies showed that consuming a moderate amount of caffeine has a protective effect against cancer [12], diabetes mellitus type 2 [13], inammatory diseases and pain [14], Parkinson's and related neurodegenerative diseases ...
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Caffeine is the most widely consumed central nervous system stimulant in the world. Medical students and health professionals are more prone to consumption of high amounts of caffeinated products because they are regularly exposed to stress conditions. The current study is cross sectional study. The participants were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Around 500 participants composed of the sample size who were distributed with the questionnaire and the responses were recorded. The study showed consumption of caffeinated products by major portion of the sample size. Major reasons of consumption being to feel more awake, mood elevation and focus and concentration. Various side effects faced were difficulty in sleep, frequent urination, tremors and palpitations. Long term consumption showed various withdrawal symptoms is many individuals like headache, fatigue and cravings. Awareness among medical students and health professionals regarding this topic is important as future healthcare lies in their hand.
... EDs are used for their ability to raise stamina and energy level prior to and after the physical activity, to improve performance, concentration and endurance, to prevent sleep particularly during examinations, to rehydrate the body or as a mood elevator when mixed with alcohol (Gunja and Brown, 2012;Bedi et al., 2014). But the ingestion of these drinks over a course of time can pose multiple deleterious effects including behavioural changes (González et al., 2012); also the chief ingredient of EDs, i.e. caffeine, a known diuretic, leads to increased fluid loss from the body in the form of urine when taken in excess amount (Seifert et al.,2011), caffeine intoxication which in turn causes heart palpitations, elevated blood pressure (BP), nausea, vomiting, convulsions, psychosis, which under certain circumstances can even prove to be lethal and life threatening (Winston et al., 2005;Trabulo et al., 2011;Gunja and Brown, 2012;Sather et al., 2016). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the health effects and safety aspects regarding the consumption of energy drink (ED). Design/methodology/approach A wide variety of publications was identified through electronic databases (ScienceDirect, PubMed, SciELO, Google Scholar, Link springer and ResearchGate) on the basis of different keyword such as composition, market status, consumption pattern, health effects, consequences and policies related to ED consumption. Findings Owing to its popularity, various brands of EDs have been introduced in the market along with a wide variety of modifications to attract the consumers of all age groups. EDs comprise majorly active ingredients such as caffeine, taurine, guarana, L-carnitine and glucoronolactone, ginseng and sweeteners. EDs are well known to have good taste, enhance energy levels, physical alertness and performance, but they also pose risk of certain health hazards, i.e. caffeine intoxication. Because of this, different policies have been formulated by various regulatory bodies of respective countries regarding the composition, labelling, distribution and sale of EDs. Originality/value This review will provide a brief overview of composition, market status, consumption pattern, health effects, consequences and policies related to ED consumption.
... There are only a few studies about the effect of caffeine on neuromuscular diseases, and little is known about its sex differences and mechanisms. A case-controlled study from the European ALS Consortium (EURALS Group) reported that people who drink more than one cup of coffee per day for at least six months have a lower risk of ALS than those who didn't drink coffee at all [119]. Similar findings of caffeine's impact on the risk of developing MS were found in two cohort studies conducted in the USA and Sweden in 2016 [117]. ...
Article
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Caffeine occurs naturally in various foods, such as coffee, tea, and cocoa, and it has been used safely as a mild stimulant for a long time. However, excessive caffeine consumption (1~1.5 g/day) can cause caffeine poisoning (caffeinism), which includes symptoms such as anxiety, agitation, insomnia, and gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the effect of caffeine consumption as a protective factor or risk factor for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Currently, the importance of personalized medicine is being emphasized, and research on sex/gender differences needs to be conducted. Our review focuses on the effect of caffeine consumption on several neurological and psychiatric disorders with respect to sex differences to provide a better understanding of caffeine use as a risk or protective factor for those disorders. The findings may help establish new strategies for developing sex-specific caffeine therapies.
... Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), the main alkaloid component in coffee fruits, is reported to have various neuroprotective capabilities as well as well documented abilities to modulate alertness through stimulation of the central nervous system, blood circulation and respiration [6][7][8]. However, consumption of high doses of caffeine can lead to detrimental effects on human health [9] such as sleep disorders and mild addiction [10]. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, caffeine is generally safe in moderate amounts (<400 mg daily) [11]. ...
Article
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Coffee cherry is a rich source of caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In this study we investigate the structural analysis of caffeine-enriched whole coffee cherry extracts, CEWCCE by using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The changes in 1H chemical shift data in NMR spectra of CEWCCE compared to pure caffeine indicated the formation of complexes between caffeine and chlorogenic acids in aqueous solution. The effect of complexation on the peak position of caffeoylquinic acid and caffeine resonance with increasing addition of caffeine was investigated. 2D NOESY experiments show the presence of cross-peaks that are due to the proximity of chlorogenic acid and caffeine molecules in stable complexes in protic solvents. The quantification data of caffeine by 1H qNMR was found to be in close agreement with the data obtained by HPLC analysis.
... The short-term and long-term effects of caffeine on the human body have been studied. Research to date has primarily focused on caffeine's exacerbation of anxiety, sleep disorders, and depression in patients diagnosed with psychiatric symptoms [4][5][6]. Caffeine consumption has been associated with an increase in anxiety in adults with generalized anxiety disorder [7]. However, those who consume caffeine also tend to experience greater positive effects on behavior, including alertness and arousal [5]. ...
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Background The effect of caffeine on the human body, both short-term and long-term, has been studied in great depth, particularly its association with psychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate whether there is a correlation between caffeine intake and anxiety and depression among college students. Methodology A survey was administered to college students at Florida State University. Data regarding participant characteristics and caffeine intake were collected. Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores were used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Results A total of 114 participants were included in the survey, consisting mainly of women (94 [82.5%]) and junior-level students (37 [32.5%]). The main source of caffeine was coffee (64.0%), and the main reasons for caffeine intake were pleasure (43.9%) and to study outside of class (29.8%); however, no association was found between sex or grade point average and number of cups of caffeine consumed. Upper levels of education (super senior or fifth-year students), depressive symptoms (poor appetite, overeating, sleep disorders, depressed mood), and anxiety were statistically associated with greater caffeine intake (P < 0.05). Conclusions As caffeine is commonly consumed and our study showed that its intake was associated with depressive symptoms and higher levels of anxiety in college students, further studies are needed to determine a possible causality, so that measures may be taken to educate these students about alternative methods for increasing energy and alertness.
... Further, caution in promoting caffeine use among college students does need to be noted. Caffeine use should not be promoted for students with histories of adverse reactions to caffeine (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, gastrointestinal problems; Mora-Rodriguez et al., 2015;Winston et al., 2005), and it may also not be appropriate for students prone to anxiety in general (Yang et al., 2010), particularly as anxiety was increased via caffeine administration in our sample. Students for whom caffeine use may be appropriately suggested should be informed about the most effective and safest use of caffeine, which includes doses of approximately 38-400 mg per day (-0-.3 to four cups of coffee or one to eight cups of tea), used in moderation (Ruxton, 2008). ...
Article
Caffeine is regularly used by college students to enhance mood and academic performance. Although high doses confer risk for negative consequences, moderate doses of caffeine may lead to acute improvements in mood and cognitive functioning. Notably, the pharmacological effects of caffeine may be enhanced by expectancy effects. College students may also engage in nonmedical prescription stimulant use for similar purposes, as students expect strong cognitive enhancement from prescription stimulants and consider them to be more efficacious than caffeine. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the pharmacological effects of caffeine on mood/drug effects and cognitive performance are enhanced when expecting a conceivably stronger stimulant (i.e., Adderall) compared to when expecting caffeine. Sixty-five undergraduate students were randomized to condition across two variables: drug ingested (placebo or 200 mg caffeine) and drug expected (caffeine or Adderall). Participants completed self-report measures of mood and drug effects pre- and post-drug, as well as cognitive assessments post-drug. There were significant main effects of drug ingested and drug expected on several post-drug measures. Subjects receiving caffeine reported feeling more high, stimulated, anxious, and motivated than subjects receiving placebo. Further, subjects expecting Adderall reported stronger amphetamine effects and feeling more high, and performed better on a working memory test, than those expecting caffeine. Effects tended to be strongest in participants receiving caffeine and expecting Adderall. Modifying expectancies, in conjunction with the pharmacological properties of caffeine at moderate doses, may be one mechanism by which college students may experience differential effects of caffeine. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Importantly, people with schizophrenia have relatively high intakes of coffee and caffeine, due to different reasons, including the willingness to relieve boredom and apathy or the side effects of antipsychotic medication, such as sedation or dry mouth [206]. In general, it is recommended that these patients reduce coffee consumption [207]. ...
Article
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Coffee is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of thousands of bioactive compounds, and some of them have numerous potential health-promoting properties that have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, with relatively much less attention given to other body systems, such as the gastrointestinal tract and its particular connection with the brain, known as the brain–gut axis. This narrative review provides an overview of the effect of coffee brew; its by-products; and its components on the gastrointestinal mucosa (mainly involved in permeability, secretion, and proliferation), the neural and non-neural components of the gut wall responsible for its motor function, and the brain–gut axis. Despite in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies having shown that coffee may exert multiple effects on the digestive tract, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects on the mucosa, and pro-motility effects on the external muscle layers, much is still surprisingly unknown. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of action of certain health-promoting properties of coffee on the gastrointestinal tract and to transfer this knowledge to the industry to develop functional foods to improve the gastrointestinal and brain–gut axis health.
... Cognitive-emotional stress [10][11][12][13] Sleep deprivation [11,12,14] Psychostimulants (caffeine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine) [15,16] Sedative withdrawal (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, hypnotics, alcohol) Inflammation [17][18][19] Corticosteroids [20,21] Dietary sugar (especially refined sugar) [22,23] Oxygen deprivation (living at altitude) [24,25] Experimentally induced kindling of the brain [26,27] CONDITIONS AND CHEMICALS THAT DECREASE SEIZURE AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOM POTENTIAL Stress reduction [10][11][12][13] Normal sleep [11,12,14] Progesterone [28][29][30][31] Anticonvulsant drugs Sedatives (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, hypnotics, alcohol, some cannabinoids) [32][33][34] Centrally-acting alpha-2 agonists (clonidine, guanfacine) [35,36] Acamprosate [37][38][39][40][41] Riluzole [42,43] N-acetyl cysteine [44] Magnesium [45,46] Taurine [47,48] Low carbohydrate (Ketogenic) diet [22,23] Omega-3 fatty acids [49,50] Plant-based oils and alkaloids [51][52][53][54][55][56] ECT [2,3] Vagus Nerve Stimulation [57,58] Deep Bran Stimulation [59,60] + Itemization of the various conditions and chemicals that have a directionally shared impact on seizure and psychiatric symptom potential. Note that all of the items on the list affect the excitability of neurons. ...
... The rate of consumption of energy drinks is comparable to the findings of other research. A study among Saudi youth showed that 31.9% of males and 24.7% of females drank energy drinks [7]. Other studies from Saudi Arabia also reported similar findings [8,9]. ...
... A2 receptors Located in Dopaminergic neurons, such as the striatum (35) and A1 receptors is located in all parts of the brain Especially in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and hypothalamus (36). ...
Article
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Energy drinks (Red bull) is the most consumed in Saudi Arabia by different groups ages in recent times, especially by yonug age. It is one of the substances that cause many damages such as neurotoxicity, damage of nerve cells and impact on memory and learning difficulties. This study aims to determine the impact oral administration of red bull on hippocampus tissue. 3.1 ml of red bull and saline (control) were daily administered orally for 3 weeks to rats. Neurotransmitters levels include (Norepinephrine (NE), Dopamine (DA) and Gamma-Aminobutyrice Acids (GABA)) were measured and hippocampus tissues were used for histological assay the result of the study showed that the levels of neurotransmitter were decreased in red bull administered rat. The histopathological findings of the hippocampus brain show that there were degeneration of nerve cells and nuclei, Sharp abnormalities in pyramidal cells. thesechaneg will affect the memory.
... Söz konusu tanımlamalardan risk alma davranışının, şans veya olasılık faktörünün etkisiyle hem negatif hem de pozitif sonuçları olabilecek ya da sonucunda kayba uğranılsa da yan kazançların da elde edilebileceği bir olgu olarak kabul gördüğü anlaşılmaktadır. Kar-zarar hesabına benzer bu değerlendirmede dikkate değer olan nokta, pozitif sonuçların anlık veya nispeten kısa bir sürelik olmasına karşın negatif sonuçların daha ciddi ve uzun süreli olma ihtimalidir (6,7). Risk alma davranışı akut veya kronik hasar durumuna göre de değerlendirilmiştir: kumar oynama gibi davranışlar çoğu zaman gerçekleştirildiği seferle sınırlı olmak üzere zarara yol açarken, sigara tüketimi gibi davranışların sonucundaki hasar zamana yayılarak uzun vadede ortaya çıkabilmektedir. ...
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Amaç: Bu araştırma, cinsiyet değişkeni kapsamında risk alma davranışlarını ve internet kullanımını incelemeyi, internet bağımlılığı ile gündelik hayatın belirli alanlardaki risk alma davranışları arasındaki olası bağlantıları ortaya çıkarmayı amaçlamaktadır. Yöntem: Araştırmaya 260'ı (%48,2) kadın, 279'u (%51,8) erkek 539 kişi katılmıştır. Katılımcılara sosyodemografik form, risk alma davranışlarının incelenebilmesi için Belirli Alanlara Özgü Risk Tutumları Ölçeği (BARTÖ), normal ve riskli internet kullanımı ile internet bağımlılığının değerlendirilebilmesi için İnternet Bağımlılığı Ölçeği (İBÖ) uygulanmıştır. Bulgular: Kadın ve erkeklerin risk alma davranışları alt boyutlarına ait sıra ortalamaları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık saptanmıştır. Erkeklerin gündelik yaşamda etik, şans oyunları ve güvenlik alt boyutunda, kadınların ise sosyal alt boyutta yüksek ortalamaya sahip olduğu, internet bağımlılığı puanlarının ortalamaları arasında ise anlamlı bir farklılığın bulunmadığı görülmüştür. İnternet bağımlılığı ile risk alma davranışı alt boyutlarının tamamı arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişki bulunmuştur. Söz konusu ilişkide cinsiyetin etkisini görebilmek adına cinsiyet gruplarına göre ayrılan veri analiz edilmiş, kadınların ve erkeklerin İBÖ toplam puanları ile BARTÖ alt boyut toplam puanlarının tamamı arasında anlamlı ilişki olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ortalama internet kullanan grubun tüm risk alma davranışı alanlarında, internet bağımlısı ve internet bağımlılığı riski altındaki bireylerden daha düşük ortalamalara sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç: Risk alma davranışının internet bağımlılığı düzeyine göre değişkenlik gösterdiği ve internet bağımlılığı ile risk alma davranışları arasındaki ilişkinin cinsiyet gruplarına göre farklılaştığı ortaya konmuştur. Anahtar kelimeler: Risk alma davranışı, bağımlı, bilgisayarlara tutum, tehlikeli davranış Objective: This research aims to examine risk-taking behaviors and internet usage within the context of gender, to reveal possible connections between internet addiction and risk-taking behaviors in certain areas of daily life. Method: 539 participants, 260 (48.2%) female and 279 (51.8%) male, participated in the study. Participants were administered a sociodemographic form, a Domain-Specific Risk Attitude Scale (DOSPERT) to examine risk-taking behaviors and Internet Addiction Scale (IAS) to evaluate level of internet addiction. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between mean rank scores of men's and women's risk-taking behaviors. It was observed that, men had high mean score in ethics in everyday life, gambling and security, and women had high mean score in social sub-dimension. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of IAS. A positive correlation was found between IAS and whole sub-domains of DOSPERT. In order to determine the effect of gender in this correlation, the dataset splitted by gender groups were analyzed and a significant correlation was found between the sum of women's and men's IAS and DOSPERT domain scores. Conclusion: The average internet users has lower averages in all areas of risk taking behavior than internet addicts and individuals at risk of internet addiction. Keywords: Risk-taking behavior, addiction, attitude to computers, health risk behaviors
... These nutrients also play a crucial role in neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and axon myelination. In addition, dietary behaviors such as skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated beverages and consumption of high-glycemic index (HGI) food further influence mood and mental health through modulation of key neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), dopamine and others (Lee et al., 2017;Winston et al., 2005). ...
Article
Background The need for short and validated questionnaires to evaluate dietary patterns (DPs) and mental distress in clinical and research settings is increasing. Aim The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Food–Mood Questionnaire (FMQ) to assess DPs in relation to mental distress. Method A standard validation protocol that included item development, pilot–testing, test–retesting, and a series of statistical validation analyses was used. Content, face, internal, construct and external validity as well as reliability were confirmed. Content and face validity were evaluated qualitatively. Results Principal component analysis (PCA) for construct validity generated five sub-scales which reflected internal consistency (Cronbach’s α > 0.70) and internal reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.619 and 0.884; p < 0.01; confidence interval 95%). External validity was also confirmed. A total of 563 participants from four different continents completed the survey online. PCA generated five different subscales. Mental distress was associated with regular consumption of fast-food, a DP known to induce anxiety and depression. Conclusion The FMQ is a validated and a reliable tool with many potential applications that could be used with prophylactic and therapeutic approaches.
... That tells us that neuronal hyperexcitability is a catalyst for psychiatric symptoms. [11] Sleep deprivation [12] Psychostimulants (caffeine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine) [13,14] Sedative withdrawal (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, hypnotics, alcohol) Inflammation [15][16][17] Dietary sugar (especially refined sugar) [18,19] Oxygen deprivation (living at altitude) [20,21] Experimentally induced kindling of the brain [22,23] Stress reduction [11] Progesterone [24][25][26] Anticonvulsant drugs Sedatives (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, hypnotics, alcohol, some cannabinoids) [27][28][29] Centrally-acting alpha-2 agonists (clonidine, guanfacine) [30,31] Acamprosate [32][33][34][35][36] Riluzole [37,38] N-acetyl cysteine [39] Magnesium [40,41] Taurine [42,43] Ketogenic diet [18,19] Omega-3 fatty acids [44,45] Plant-based oils and alkaloids [46][47][48][49][50][51] Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) [52,53] Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) [54,55] Deep Bran Stimulation (DBS) [56,57] + Itemized comparison showing that the same conditions and chemicals that increase the potential for seizures (upper section) also increase the potential for psychiatric symptoms, and the same conditions and chemicals that decrease the potential for seizures (lower section) also decrease the potential for psychiatric symptoms. ...
... The basic source of variability of results among scientists investigating habitual caffeine use, is the division of subjects into low, moderate, and high habitual caffeine consumption groups. Some studies have defined high caffeine use as >100 mg/day [39], while others have defined it as >300 mg/day [35] or even >750 mg/day [40]. Inconsistency in these caffeine intake reference values makes the interpretation and cross-comparison of results difficult. ...
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Background: Previously studies confirm ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF); however there is no available scientific data regarding the influence of acute CAF intake on power output in athletes habitually consuming CAF. The main goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of 3, 6, 9 mg/kg/b.m. doses of CAF intake on power output and bench press bar velocity in athletes habitually consuming CAF. Methods: The study included 15 healthy strength-trained male athletes (age = 26.8 ± 6.2 years, body mass = 82.6 ± 9.7 kg; BMI = 24.8 ± 2.7; bench press 1RM = 122.3 ± 24.5 kg). All participants were habitual caffeine consumers (5.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg/b.m.; 426 ± 102 mg of caffeine per day). This study had a randomized, crossover, double-blind study design where each participant performed four different experimental sessions, with one week interval between each trial. In every experimental session participants performed bench press, three sets of five repetitions at 50% 1RM. The power output and bar velocity assessments under four different conditions: a placebo (PLAC), and three doses of caffeine ingestion: 3 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-3), 6 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-6) and 9 mg/kg/b.m. (CAF-9). Results: The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The repeated measures ANOVA between PLAC and CAF-3; CAF-6; CAF-9 revealed no statistically significant differences in power output and velocity of the bar during the bench press exercise. A large effect size (ES) in mean power-output was found between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1 and 2. A large ES in peak power-output was found between PLAC and CAF-6 in Set 2, and between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1 and 2. A large ES in peak velocity was found between PLAC and CAF-9 in Sets 1-3. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that acute doses of CAF before exercise does not have a significant effect on power output and bar velocity in a group of habitual caffeine users.
... Whether this percentage is considered small or not, it is an alerting sign that those students who consume that much caffeine from different beverages are susceptible to adverse health effects, such as hypertension, neurostimulation, and insufficient sleep [23][24][25]. Further, energy drinks consumption that is gaining an increased popularity in many countries around the world [18,26], such as the US [15], were not as popular among the participants of this study. Most students do not drink energy drinks (92.3%), and among those who do, 55% were male students and 45% were female students. ...
Article
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Background: Caffeine is the most common used drug in the world. Caffeine usage among college students is known to increase alertness and concentration, as well as to defeat stress and exhaustion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caffeinated-beverages consumption habits among medical students, especially during examination periods, and reasons for their daily consumption. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during March 2017 on medical students in two medical colleges in Irbid, Jordan, namely, Jordan University of Science and Technology, and Yarmouk University. A total of 520 students participated in the study. A survey was conducted online and completion of the survey was considered as a consent to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze the elicited data. Results: Ninety-two percent of students consume caffeine, while 78% reported increased caffeine consumption during exams. Coffee and tea were the most common caffeinated beverages used. Reasons for caffeine consumption were to stay awake for more hours during exams (46%), as daily routine (37.5%), to increase concentration (35%), to control stress (19.6%), or as part of norms or traditions (15%). As a predcitor, coffee consumption was significantly associated with "consumption during exams", "a daily routine", "to increase concentration", and "to control stress". Frequency distribution of demographic information and reasons of consumption were significant in response to "increase caffeine consumption during exams". Conclusion: The high percentage of caffeine consumption on a daily basis and during exams among medical students mandates serious efforts to distribute awareness on benefits, side-effects and withdrawal symptoms.
... Interestingly, caffeine increases dopamine release and enhances D 2 R function [57]. Since hyper-dopaminergic activity is one of most commonly known neurobiological factors for psychosis [58], our data showing the fluctuation of prepulse inhibition in response to caffeine may explain diurnal mood swing in mice or provide a possible link between adolescent caffeine abuse and psychosis [59]. ...
Article
Adolescent's consumption of caffeine and caffeinated beverage is increasing, yet little is known about the consequences of chronic caffeine exposure during the critical development period of adolescence. In the present study, we investigated the effect of beginning chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence on locomotor, mood, sensorimotor gating, and reward seeking behaviors through adolescence and in adulthood. During the light cycle, caffeine exposed mice exhibited hypoactivity in a novel open-field box and increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, while maintaining normal home cage locomotor activity. In contrast, during the dark cycle caffeine exposed mice displayed normal locomotor activity in a novel open-field box with hyperactive home cage activity. Interestingly, we found that caffeine exposed mice also showed enhanced prepulse inhibition during the light cycle whereas they displayed a deficit of prepulse inhibition during the dark cycle. Reward seeking for sucrose was higher in caffeine exposed than control mice during the light cycle. Additionally, when granted 24 -h access to ethanol as adults, caffeine exposed mice consumed more ethanol in the absence of acute caffeine use. Altogether, mice that consumed chronic caffeine beginning in adolescence had increased reward seeking and exhibited a circadian-dependent pattern of mood fluctuations in adulthood.
... There are various documented connections between adenosine receptors and the dopaminergic system in the brain. There is evidence that adenosine A2A receptors are concentrated in dopamine-rich regions, and the stimulatory signals provided by caffeine-induced adenosine antagonism require intact dopaminergic neurotransmission (Winston et al., 2005). This interplay may also play a role in neurocognitive effects of caffeine withdrawal. ...
Article
Caffeine use in the population is widespread. Caffeine withdrawal in the hospital setting is an underappreciated syndrome with symptoms including drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, low motivation, flu-like symptoms, and headache. Withdrawal may occur upon abstinence from chronic daily exposure at doses as low as 100 mg/day and following only 3-7 days of consumption at higher doses. There are limited data investigating how caffeine withdrawal contributes to hospital morbidity. Some studies suggest caffeine withdrawal may contribute to intensive care delirium and that caffeine may promote wakefulness post-anesthesia. Caffeine supplementation has also shown promise in patients at risk of caffeine withdrawal, such as those placed on nil per os (NPO) status, in preventing caffeine withdrawal headache. These data on caffeine supplementation are not entirely consistent, and routine caffeine administration has not been implemented into clinical practice for patients at risk of withdrawal. Notably, caffeine serves a therapeutic role in the hospital for other conditions. Our review demonstrates that caffeine is largely safe in the general population and may be an appropriate therapeutic option for future studies, if administered properly. There is a need for a randomized controlled trial investigating in-hospital caffeine supplementation and the population that this would best serve.
... However, such effects may be also attributed to the synergetic effect between glucose and caffeine when consumed together (Scholey and Kennedy, 2004) The health hazards induced by the excessive consumption of energy drinks are primarily related to their high caffeine content. An overdose of caffeine, more than 250mg, may promote diuresis (Riesenhuber et al., 2006), irritability, nervousness, sleeplessness, arrhythmia and upset stomach (Winston et al., 2005), increased heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure (Bichler et al., 2006). Miller (2008) reported that the rate of consumption of energy drinks by young adults in the age group 18 to 25 years is increasing to the extent that it raises a great concern regarding its possible adverse health effects. ...
... While the study recorded last caffeine intake of participants the distribution of results did not allow for any statistical between-groups analysis. Caffeine has been shown to have anxiogenic effects (Botella and Parra 2003;Brice and Smith 2002;Winston et al. 2005) and has a half-life ranging from 2.5 to 10 hours with variation affected by biological and lifestyle factors (Evans et al. 2020), therefore recent consumption prior to the study may inflate anxiety scores. It has been suggested that an abstinence of 5-6 hours should eliminate caffeine effects from the body in a healthy population (Grant et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Recent advancement in technology has made virtual reality (VR) more accessible and immersive than ever before, resulting in its increasing utility in various industries. Despite this, VR has remained an underutilised tool within clinical psychology. This study aimed to explore the potential of using VR for therapeutic benefits through examining the level of flow and anxiety-reducing effects of freeform drawing in real life (on paper) versus drawing in VR (using Tilt Brush) via a randomised-controlled trial with 40 participants. State and trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, level of flow was measured using the Long Flow State Scale, and level of presence was measured using the iGroup Presence Questionnaire. Overall level of flow was not significantly different between both groups, implying drawing in VR induces as much flow as drawing in real life. Level of flow was positively correlated to level of presence experienced in the VR group ( p < .01). Although there was no significant interaction effect, both groups experienced an overall decrease in state anxiety, with the VR group experiencing a significant reduction of state anxiety from pre- to post-test ( p < .01).
... On the other hand, excessive sugar consumption from sugary drinks can lead to weight gain and obesity [6]. Energy drinks (EDs), beverages that contain high levels of caffeine and sugar along with other ingredients such as taurine, herbal extracts, and vitamin B, are purported to provide consumers with extra energy [22][23][24][25]. Therefore, whether ED consumption increases the risk of obesity remains uncertain [6,20,21]. ...
Article
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Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity and premature death. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight in young adulthood is increasing exponentially globally, including Palestine. Consumption of energy drinks (EDs) and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among Palestinian young adults. Although different studies have demonstrated that the use of caffeine and tobacco products is highly prevalent among Palestinians, especially university students, the adverse effects of these products on obesity have not been thoroughly investigated. Methodology Male students from An-Najah National University in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administrated questionnaire in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2021. Obesity was measured as total adiposity by calculating body mass index (BMI) and as central obesity by measuring waist circumference. To determine the association between obesity and ED consumption and tobacco smoking, we used adjusted multiple logistic regression models. Shapiro-Wilk's test was used to assess the normality of the data. Results A total of 396 students filled the questionnaire, with a response rate of 89.4%. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity was 42% and 35.75%, respectively. The prevalence of ED consumption, cigarette smoking, and waterpipe smoking was 59.6%, 39.6%, and 43.2%, respectively. ED consumers were more likely to be cigarette smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 3.827, P < 0.001), waterpipe smokers (OR = 4.578, P < 0.001), and chocolate consumers (OR = 3.524, P = 0.001). Central obesity was associated with waterpipe smoking (OR = 2.126, P = 0.044), increased age (OR = 1.367, P = 0.001), and increased BMI (OR = 1.927, P < 0.001). On the other hand, cigarette smokingincreased the risk of being underweight (OR = 6.255, P = 0.012), and ED consumption decreased the risk of being obese (OR = 0.183, P = 0.017). Conclusions Waterpipe smoking was a risk factor for increased central obesity, and ED consumption was associated with decreased; however, smoking was associated with the underweight BMI category. Given the undesirable health consequences of consuming the closely associated tobacco and EDs, stricter measures are needed to prevent access to these products.
... Caffeine is one of the oldest central nervous system (CNS) stimulants that have maintained its pharmacological and economic relevance for decades. It is considered an adenosine antagonist which works through the competitive binding and subsequent blockade of adenosine receptors (majorly A and A ), thereby causing the secretions 1 2 of various neurotransmitters such as dopamine, 8,19,20 serotonin, and norepinephrine. Although caffeine can be found naturally or artificially in several products, the most common include coffee, 21,22 tea, soda, and chocolate. ...
... Lidské tělo ho přijímá buď orálně, nebo intravenózně. Je také možný transplacentární přenos (Winston, 2005). ...
... Lidské tělo ho přijímá buď orálně, nebo intravenózně. Je také možný transplacentární přenos (Winston, 2005). ...
... Lidské tělo ho přijímá buď orálně, nebo intravenózně. Je také možný transplacentární přenos (Winston, 2005). ...
... DSM-5 recognizes a construct of symptoms related to high and acute caffeine consumption (caffeinism) indistinguishable from anxiety symptoms, such as nervousness, muscle shaking, tachycardia, the erratic flow of thoughts, and motor agitation. Furthermore, in individuals with psychiatric disorders, the effects of caffeine seem to be more severe in anxiety outcomes (Vilarim et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2015;Winston et al., 2005). ...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders (AD) frequently co-occur, increasing morbidity and challenging treatment. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and acts in the brain through adenosine receptors, influencing attention, alertness, and anxiety. In the present study, we performed a gene-set analysis to verify if genes related to caffeine response are associated with anxiety disorders in 240 children and 406 adults with ADHD. We demonstrated an association between the gene-set with AD in children (P = 0.0054) and with the number of anxiety disorders in adults (P = 0.0197). In order to test if this effect is a result of anxiety in general or is related to AD comorbid with ADHD, we evaluated the association between caffeine gene-set with AD in an adult control sample. The gene-set was neither associated with the AD presence (P = 0.3008) nor with the number of AD (P = 0.5594) in this control sample. We also test this gene set with ADHD (n = 55,374) and AD (n = 18,186) GWAS summary statistics, and we did not observe significant results with ADHD (P = 0.5587) or AD (P = 0.3930). These findings suggest the caffeine-related genes play a role in the etiology of an anxiety disorder phenotype present in children and adults with ADHD.
... In the human brain, on the other side, caffeine acts as an antagonist of adenosine, binding to adenosine receptors in the neurons and acting as a stimulating of the central nervous system (CNS). In low doses, these effects are normally desired, but excessive caffeine can lead to various medical disorders such as insomnia, tachycardia and heart arrhythmia, anxiety disorders, and even chemical dependence [57]. ...
Chapter
Plants are sessile organisms that evolved several mechanisms to cope with the adversities imposed by the environment. One of the strategies to deal with environmental stressors is the production of compounds known as specialized/secondary metabolites. These compounds are known for not being present in all plants and not being directly involved in the growth, development, or reproduction of the organism. In addition to stressful situations, plants also accumulate specialized metabolites in physiological processes, such as fruit ripening. These compounds are also important to fundamental plant processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and phenotypic plasticity. However, the human intellect learned to use these substances for other purposes not related at all to plant survival and maintenance. We take advantage of the potential of these compounds and use them to fight or prevent problems associated with several diseases, such as stress. The main goal of this chapter is to link the importance of the phytochemicals in the plant to the bioactive compounds in the human diet. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosinolates, among others, will be discussed. We believe that a broad knowledge of the function of phytochemicals is of the utmost importance for students, professors, and researchers to better understand the main concerns about bioactive compounds. The use of moderate stress techniques to improve the quality of plants in terms of bioactive compounds, as well as studies related to extraction and optimization techniques, food biofortification and enrichment, encapsulation, and nanotechnology for application in food, molecular engineering, plant tissue culture, and studies with unconventional food plants are examples of the importance of cooperation and knowledge from different areas of science. Despite the large number of studies already conducted on phytochemicals and their bioactive capacity, there is still much to be explored. DOI: https://doi.org/10.52305/AFDL7660
... Adverse effects and toxicity from high-energy drinks consumption mainly are due to caffeine content [12]. Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, arrhythmia, and stomach upset [13]. Chronic consumption of caffeinated beverages such as EDs causes chronic headaches, Neural adverse effects, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal dysfunctions [14]. ...
Article
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Energy drinks (EDs) are a type of caffeinated beverages that are marketed to rising energy, the performance of athletes and mental concentration. Caffeine is the main ingredient in all energy drinks. These EDs are very popular and consumed by young adults especially among the students to increase their physical performance and mental activities. Caffeine in energy drinks is main content. Caffeine is CNS stimulant and it is added to the energy drinks to increase physical and mental activities of consumers such as; alertness and improvement of memory. The main goal of this study is to determine the consumption of caffeinated EDs among the medical students and their awareness about it. A questionnaire was carried out on 200 medical students in Benghazi University containing: the use of energy drink, reasons for use, knowledge about content and effect, benefits and side effects. In this study, EDs were consumed by 65% of students and the males were drinking them two times more than females. Most students knew about the contents of EDs and their effects on the body (59% and 65.0% respectively). The consumers were drinks the energy drinks to increase their mental activities for example, before the examinations (46.88%) and they were feeling well after the EDs drinking (70.31%). Most of the students consume the EDs with other caffeine-containing beverages, for instance, coffee and tea, and this habit may increase the incidence of caffeine toxicity. This study concludes that a significant proportion of students use EDs, especially in males. The common reason for using the EDs was to increase mental performance. The questioned students were conscious the adverse effects and health hazard of the energy drinks. Most of the students use EDs with other caffeine-containing soft drinks such as coffee and tea which potentially increase risk of caffeine overdose and toxicity
... Excess consumption of caffeine induces anxiety, increased blood pressure, palpitations, insomnia etc. Pregnant women, children, and adolescents have been advised not to consume caffeinated products with high concentration [4,5]. Caffeine can affect the baby's health and increase the risk of miscarriage [6,7]. Consumption in children and adolescents disturbs sleeping patterns, an important process for maximizing growth and brain development in the period of childhood to adolescent stage [5,8,9]. ...
Article
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This study demonstrates the electrochemical behaviour of caffeine on an acid activated carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. Characterization of the bare and CNF modified GCE was performed using a [Fe(CN)6]−3/−4 redox probe and caffeine in 0.1 M H2SO4. The fabrication of the electrochemical sensor was achieved simply by drop-coating the surface of GCE with CNF solution. The pristine and acid activated CNFs was characterized by electron microscopy, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The presence CNF modifier increased the rate of electrochemical reaction, favoured the electro-oxidation of caffeine at 1.35 V in comparison to oxidation at the bare which occurred at 1.44 V, and caused a 2.35-fold current increase for caffeine at CNF modified GCE. SWV was performed in a concentration range from 25 to 450 µM and the sensor obtained a limit of detection of 17.40 µM. The proposed method was successfully validated by UV–Vis spectroscopy. This sensor lends itself to the detection of caffeine in pharmaceutical, food and beverage samples.
... Caffeine has been associated to generate psychostimulant effects through modulating dopaminergic transmission, which is related to depression. High intakes and long-term use of caffeine have been associated with psychiatric disorders [14], triggering psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and even psychosis [15]. Symptoms of caffeine overdose toxicity generally include anxiety, insomnia, gastrointestinal disorders, tremor, psychomotor anxiety or arousal, and, in some cases, even death [16]. ...
Article
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Background and aim: Excessive intake of sugars and energy from drinks has been postulated to increase the risk of obesity, which may in turn be associated with mental health disorders. In addition, excessive intakes of alcohol and caffeine may co-occur with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the present pilot study was to estimate energy, sugar, caffeine, and alcohol intakes through the consumption of drinks in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders and assess potential differences in drink consumption between the two disorders. Methodology: The current study included 89 outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 36) and affective disorders (n = 53) attending the psychiatric clinic of the University General Hospital of Larissa (UGHL) in Greece. In addition to anthropometric measurements, the patients were asked to complete a specific, previously validated questionnaire on the frequency of drink consumption in order to estimate sugar, caffeine, and alcohol intakes. Results: The participants had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 28.9 ± 5.6 kg/m2 without significant differences between the two types of mental disorders. Similarly, the mean waist circumference (102.6 ± 15.7 cm) and mean body fat percentage (32.9% ± 10.8%) were above the recommended values. The total energy intake from drinks was more than a third of the estimated daily energy requirements. Although there was no significant difference in the mean daily caffeine intake, those with affective disorders had a significantly higher intake of sugars from drinks (median (Mdn) = 80.0 (interquartile range (IQR) = 89.8) g/day) and alcohol (Mdn = 45.6 (IQR = 31.1) g/day), compared to those with schizophrenia (Mdn = 60.0 (IQR = 45.4) g/day and Mdn = 24.9 (IQR = 19.8) g/day, respectively). Conclusions: Considering the link between high sugar and alcohol intake with excess body weight and mental health, these preliminary data are of particular concern and point to the need for better dietary counseling in order to improve the dietary behaviors of these patients.
... La cafeína se diferencia de las sustancias clásicas de uso indebido en que provoca la liberación de dopamina en la corteza prefrontal más que en el núcleo accumbens. (4) A continuación, se presenta el caso de un paciente atendido en consulta ambulatoria del Servicio de Psiquiatría del Hospital de Emergencias Villa El Salvador que presenta sintomatología psicótica por un consumo incrementado de bebidas energizantes. Caso Clínico El Sr. V es un paciente varón de 44 años, natural de Lima, estado civil casado, educación secundaria completa, religión católica y trabaja como conductor de mototaxi (transporte público), tiene antecedente de consumo de cocaína y alcohol en la juventud, quien desde hace 2 años consume bebidas energizantes con alto contenido en cafeína 2 botellas al día ("Volt", 600 ml/día = 192 mg/100 ml) debido a que se sentía cansado por las mañanas y en las noches, refiriendo que "no podía trabajar". ...
Article
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The consumption of energy drinks and their rapid expansion has created concern from a scientific and community point of view. These are drinks that contain caffeine as their most common active ingredient. We present the case of a patient with no psychiatric history with clinical presentation of psychotic symptoms after increased consumption of energy drinks. A review of existing literature is carried out on other cases of the appearance of psychosis after the consumption of these beverages in people without and with a psychiatric history, as well as cases in which the presentation of other psychiatric symptoms predominates in order to discuss the clinical impact. The consumption of energy drinks could represent a global public health problem due to the possible serious and still little studied adverse effects on physical and mental health.
... On the other hand, excessive sugar consumption from sugary drinks can lead to weight gain and obesity [6]. Energy drinks (EDs), beverages that contain high levels of caffeine and sugar along with other ingredients such as taurine, herbal extracts, and vitamin B, are purported to provide consumers with extra energy [22][23][24][25]. Therefore, whether ED consumption increases the risk of obesity remains uncertain [6,20,21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity and premature death. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight in young adulthood is increasing exponentially globally, including Palestine. Consumption of energy drinks (EDs) and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among Palestinian young adults. Although different studies have demonstrated that the use of caffeine and tobacco products is highly prevalent among Palestinians, especially university students, the adverse effects of these products on obesity have not been thoroughly investigated. Methodology Male students from An-Najah National University in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administrated questionnaire in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2021. Obesity was measured as total adiposity by calculating body mass index (BMI) and as central obesity by measuring waist circumference. To determine the association between obesity and ED consumption and tobacco smoking, we used adjusted multiple logistic regression models. Shapiro-Wilk's test was used to assess the normality of the data. Results A total of 396 students filled the questionnaire, with a response rate of 89.4%. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity was 42% and 35.75%, respectively. The prevalence of ED consumption, cigarette smoking, and waterpipe smoking was 59.6%, 39.6%, and 43.2%, respectively. ED consumers were more likely to be cigarette smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 3.827, P < 0.001), waterpipe smokers (OR = 4.578, P < 0.001), and chocolate consumers (OR = 3.524, P = 0.001). Central obesity was associated with waterpipe smoking (OR = 2.126, P = 0.044), increased age (OR = 1.367, P = 0.001), and increased BMI (OR = 1.927, P < 0.001). On the other hand, cigarette smokingincreased the risk of being underweight (OR = 6.255, P = 0.012), and ED consumption decreased the risk of being obese (OR = 0.183, P = 0.017). Conclusions Waterpipe smoking was a risk factor for increased central obesity, and ED consumption was associated with decreased; however, smoking was associated with the underweight BMI category. Given the undesirable health consequences of consuming the closely associated tobacco and EDs, stricter measures are needed to prevent access to these products.
... Many different physiologically active compounds including caffeine, polyphenols, niacin, and others (1) have been associated with neuropsychiatric diseases. For example, coffee consumption was related to various mental diseases such as MDD (2), Alzheimer's (3) and Parkinson's disease (4), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (5), bipolar disorder (BIP) (6), and schizophrenia (SCZ) (7). One hypothesis to account for these associations is a common genetic liability. ...
Article
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Coffee or caffeine consumption has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, implying a shared etiology. However, whether these associations reflect causality remains largely unknown. To understand the genetic structure of the association between decaffeinated coffee consumption (DCC) and neuropsychiatric traits, we examined the genetic correlation, causality, and shared genetic structure between DCC and neuropsychiatric traits using linkage disequilibrium score regression, bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR), and genome-wide cross-trait meta-analysis in large GWAS Consortia for coffee consumption (N = 329,671) and 13 neuropsychiatric traits (sample size ranges from 36,052 to 500,199). We found strong positive genetic correlations between DCC and lifetime cannabis use (LCU; Rg = 0.48, P = 8.40 × 10−19), alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) total score (AUDIT_T; Rg = 0.40, P = 4.63 × 10−13), AUDIT_C score (alcohol consumption component of the AUDIT; Rg = 0.40, P = 5.26 × 10−11), AUDIT_P score (dependence and hazardous-use component of the AUDIT; Rg = 0.28, P = 1.36 × 10−05), and strong negative genetic correlations between DCC and neuroticism (Rg = −0.15, P = 7.27 × 10−05), major depressed diseases (MDD; Rg = −0.15, P = 0.0010), and insomnia (Rg= −0.15, P = 0.0007). In the cross-trait meta-analysis, we identified 6, 5, 1, 1, 2, 31, and 27 shared loci between DCC and Insomnia, LCU, AUDIT_T, AUDIT_C, AUDIT_P, neuroticism, and MDD, respectively, which were mainly enriched in bone marrow, lymph node, cervix, uterine, lung, and thyroid gland tissues, T cell receptor signaling pathway, antigen receptor-mediated signaling pathway, and epigenetic pathways. A large of TWAS-significant associations were identified in tissues that are part of the nervous system, digestive system, and exo-/endocrine system. Our findings further indicated a causal influence of liability to DCC on LCU and low risk of MDD (odds ratio: 0.90, P = 9.06 × 10−5 and 1.27, P = 7.63 × 10−4 respectively). We also observed that AUDIT_T and AUDIT_C were causally related to DCC (odds ratio: 1.83 per 1-SD increase in AUDIT_T, P = 1.67 × 10−05, 1.80 per 1-SD increase in AUDIT_C, P = 5.09 × 10−04). Meanwhile, insomnia and MDD had a causal negative influence on DCC (OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95, P = 1.51 × 10−04 for Insomnia; OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.99, P = 6.02 × 10−04 for MDD). These findings provided evidence for the shared genetic basis and causality between DCC and neuropsychiatric diseases, and advance our understanding of the shared genetic mechanisms underlying their associations, as well as assisting with making recommendations for clinical works or health education.
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Chapter
Patients suffering from co-occurring substance use disorders and personality disorders frequently present to the emergency department (ED) and can present unique challenges in the assessment and disposition phases of treatment, as well as contributing to provider burnout. In this chapter, we will use an empathic and behavioral lens to review the literature on the prevalence of these comorbidities, the particular challenges around diagnostic clarification and risk assessment, how stigma creates barriers to treatment access, and effective treatment implementation and discuss behavioral strategies that can be used in the ED setting to promote optimal care for patients and self-care for providers.
Chapter
Psychiatric illnesses are common in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), and they are highly treatable conditions. The majority of adults have one or more such conditions, most commonly anxiety disorder(s). Like other 22q11.2DS-related conditions, for example, congenital heart disease, the standard means of diagnosis and management for associated psychiatric illnesses apply. The 22q11.2DS-specific caveat is the need for attention to the condition’s multisystem nature. This includes the developmental and medical conditions persisting from childhood, issues newly arising in adulthood, and polypharmacy, as these may affect both psychiatric symptom presentation and interventions. Transition from pediatric to adult practice for individuals with 22q11.2DS is an especially vulnerable time. Considerations include determining capacity for activities of daily living and vocational options, knowledge of sexual health, and reviewing genetic counseling. Capacity to provide consent for treatment and to make lifestyle and financial decisions also comes to the forefront. International guidelines for 22q11.2DS recommend that all patients should have a complete psychiatric assessment and a cognitive and adaptive skills assessment at baseline for an initial diagnosis of 22q11.2DS made in adulthood or at transition from pediatric care, whichever comes first. Many individuals with 22q11.2DS will require treatment by a mental health professional over their lifetime; hence a subsequent psychiatric assessment is often necessary after the baseline consultation. Any changes in baseline functioning affecting performance in key areas, such as cognition, emotions, behavior, and somatic (bodily) issues, provide important clues to the possible development of psychiatric illness. Emotional or temper outbursts may be a feature of untreated or undertreated psychiatric illness. Early diagnosis and provision of effective management with standard treatments, following clinical practice guidelines for the condition involved, are key to reduce symptom burden and to optimize functioning for patients and caregivers. Medical comorbidities such as endocrinological disorders, sleep disturbances, movement and other neurological disorders, and metabolic conditions in 22q11.2DS are important to consider and manage. Consideration of the individual’s context, including intellectual and learning disabilities, living situation, supports, stresses, and other factors, is essential. Involvement of patients and their caregivers, together with a multidisciplinary team, will facilitate a biopsychosocial approach that is key to optimal outcomes.
Chapter
Substance-induced anxiety (SIA) is sparsely found in literature but is commonly seen in the emergency department (ED) and can be associated with a wide range of substances. It can be challenging in the acute setting to differentiate anxiety symptoms associated with intoxication or withdrawal from those associated with a primary anxiety disorder exacerbated by substance use, but it is important to try to distinguish SIA from non-substance-induced anxiety disorders to guide appropriate treatment. Patient history and, at times, laboratory findings are essential in diagnosing SIA. Treatment and disposition options vary and are guided by the severity of presenting symptoms, final diagnosis, and safety concerns.
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Background: Caffeine is regularly utilized for its advantages, which incorporate expanded watchfulness. It has reactions, nonetheless, for example, palpitations and withdrawal indications that incorporate migraines and languor. Tertiary instruction frequently expects understudies to read for broadened hours, particularly during times of expanded remaining task at hand preceding tests and assessments. Medicinal understudies, who need to ace an extremely enormous volume of scholastic work in a constrained timeframe, are no special case. This examination was led to decide the pattern of caffeine utilization among medicinal understudies and furthermore the reactions related with it. Methodology: It is a cross-sectional study. The present examination was directed among 3rd year M.B.B.S understudies at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Around 100 restorative understudies took an interest in the investigation. A concise early on introduction was given to understudies about the method of reasoning and organization of the investigation. The information was gathered independently from anyone else evaluation poll accessible in English. Results: The examination demonstrated that lion’s share of restorative understudies where low customers of caffeine during standard days though during test days, the measure of utilization moves more toward moderate admission class. The most common reason and situation behind caffeine admission was to battle laziness and keep them progressively aware and of concentrate for the test. The manifestation they confronted frequently was loss of rest and during test days, different central nervous system related impacts were likewise noted. Conclusion: The frequency of caffeine use among medical students increases during exam days while it remains moderate to low on regular days and the most common side effect associated with such intake was found to be nervousness and loss of sleep.
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The use of caffeine to stay awake and alert is a long-lasting habit. The main motivations of the caffeine consumption are concentration, combat drowsiness fatigue and physical performance improvement. This study aimed to assess the habit of caffeine consumption and their awareness of caffeine impact on their health at Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia by performing cross-sectional survey of 333 medical students. Most of the respondents were male (69.4%), in the age group of 21 to 23 and nearly half of them are in pre-clinical year. Majority of them (64%) consumed caffeine daily, while 24.5% consume caffeine weekly, and 11.5% <1/week. Enhancement of morning awakening (46.3%), mood enhancement (45.7%), increase alertness (45.3%), and concentration during study time (45%) were the most prominent reasons to consume caffeinated beverages among participants. Most participants agreed that caffeine can increase arousal (63.7%), cause lack of sleep (80.8%), increase blood pressure (76.0%), and increase heart rate (90.4%). Our finding will enlighten in provision a strategy for educating students for consuming caffeine more acceptable in a planned way.
Conference Paper
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The excess mortality indicator, part of the European Statistical Recovery Panel, highlights the magnitude of the health crisis by providing a comprehensive comparison of additional deaths across European countries. Thus, over the 21-month period January 2020 to September 2021, the highest excess mortality rates were found in April 2020 (25.3%) and November 2020 (40.0%). Thus, it was decided to study the death cases trend during this period of time and calculate their correlation to various months and weather conditions in the Zaporizhzhia region (Ukraine).
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The present work investigates the adsorption of caffeine (CF) by oxidized carbon derived from Luffa cylindrica (OLC). Batch equilibrium experiments were carried out and the effect of adsorption parameters such as pH, contact time, temperature and ionic strength, have been investigated and discussed in detail. Maximum adsorption efficiency was observed at pH 4.0 and the adsorption of CF onto OLC reached equilibrium after 80 min. The kinetic experimental data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the equilibrium adsorption data fitted well to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was estimated to be 59.9 mg/g at pH 4 and 298 K. Increasing ionic strength from 0 to 1 M NaClO4 led to a significant decline of the maximum adsorption capacity up to 50%. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption of CF onto OLC was spontaneous, exothermic with increasing randomness in the solid/solution system interface. The adsorption of CF on OLC at pH values between 4 and 10.4 seems to occur mainly via electrostatic attraction between the negative OLC surface and cationic form of CF. At pH values lower from 3 and higher from 10.4 other mechanisms such as pi-cation and dipol-dipol interactions may determine the CF adsorption on oxidized carbon surfaces.
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Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among adolescents in South Korea. Negative influences of the abuse of energy drinks on mental health problems have emerged. Aims This study aimed to analyze the relationship between energy drink consumption, depression and suicide ideation. Methods We analyzed the data of 26,346 boys and 26,966 girls who participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The independent variable was the frequency of energy drink consumption per week. Experience of depression and suicide ideation were considered as the dependent variables. Multiple logistic regression was performed. Results An association was found between energy drink intake per week and depressive mood. Moreover, the most frequent energy drink intake (three times or more per week) group showed the highest association with depressive mood (odds ratios (ORs); boys: ORs = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25–1.56; girls: ORs = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.44–1.79) and suicide ideation (boys: ORs = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.27–1.69; girls: ORs = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.20–1.55). Conclusion We observed that consumption of excessive amounts of energy drinks is associated with depression and suicide ideation. Therefore, appropriate regulation or education is needed to prevent adolescents from experiencing adverse outcomes.
Article
Background: Fatigue among shift workers is one of the problems that not only can cause health impairment but also lead to decrement in safety performance. In Malaysia, few studies have been conducted on the prevalence of fatigue and its risk factors among shift workers, especially in the electronics manufacturing industries when compared with other countries. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of fatigue and to investigate the factors associated with fatigue among shift workers in the electronics manufacturing industry in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic, working, and lifestyle factors. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) was used to assess the prevalence of fatigue in five dimensions: general fatigue, mental fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity, and reduced motivation. Descriptive analysis was used to demonstrate the characteristics of the study population. Pearson Correlation was conducted to find the relationship between the variables. Results: The findings show the prevalence of fatigue in all dimensions with the highest in general fatigue (54.5%). Significant associations were found between general fatigue and education level; mental fatigue and shift and overtime; reduced activity and shift and exercise; and reduced motivation with age, marital status, and education level. Conclusions: Shift workers of the electronics manufacturing industry in Malaysia are exposed to fatigue and at risk of getting health impairment and affect their safety performance. Intervention programs may be beneficial to reduce fatigue risk and consequences.
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Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive substance in the world. Although caffeine-use disorder is not recognized as a formal diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, five disorders related to caffeine use are enumerated therein. An evolving literature suggests that caffeine is one of many licit substances that may cause psychotic symptoms in higher doses. Here, we present a case in which a defendant ingested large quantities of caffeine, which result in transient psychosis and a successful affirmative defense of involuntary intoxication. The purpose of this article is to summarize states' statutory approaches to involuntary intoxication, given that the term is defined variably, if defined at all. Evaluators must be careful to apply jurisdictionally appropriate standards in involuntary intoxication defenses because the bar for this total defense differs across localities.
Article
Caffeine has long been discussed in communities of individuals with body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), a group of compulsive disorders including trichotillomania (TTM) and skin picking disorder (SPD), as a potential trigger for worsening symptoms. While the anxiogenic effects of caffeine have been well characterized, findings from studies on disorders related to BFRBs have yielded mixed results. This study aimed to examine the effect of caffeine consumption on BFRB symptom severity. Subjects reported their caffeine consumption in the past week and completed measures related to BFRB severity and other clinical outcomes. Participants who reported moderate daily caffeine use (150–300mg) had significantly lower scores on severity scales compared to subjects who reported low (<150mg) or high (>300mg) daily caffeine use. The results of this analysis indicate that moderate caffeine consumption is associated with less severe BFRB symptoms. It is possible that moderate caffeine use increases alertness in adults with BFRBs who pull or pick subconsciously, without triggering anxiety-induced BFRBs. Prospective clinical trials should be conducted to provide clearer insight into the effect of caffeine and other psychostimulants on BFRBs.
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High intake of caffeine ('caffeinism') can produce symptoms that are indistinguishable from those of anxiety neurosis, such as nervousness, irritability, tremulousness, occasional muscle twitchings, insomnia, sensory disturbances, tachypnea, palpitations, flushing, arrhythmias, diuresis, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The caffeine withdrawal syndrome and the headache associated with it may also mimic anxiety. Patients with caffeinism will generally be identified only by routine enquiry into their caffeine intake. The psychiatrist should especially suspect caffeinism in patients who do not respond to psychopharmacological agents or who have psychophysiological complaints and recurrent headaches, chronic coffee drinking patients on inpatient psychiatric services, and 'hyperkinetic' children. Three case reports illustrate the syndrome.
Chapter
Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis is usually asymptomatic, presenting with slowly progressive renal impairment. Urinalysis may be normal or show low-grade proteinuria (<1.5 g/day) and/or pyuria. Diagnosis depends on renal biopsy, which reveals variable cellular infiltration of the interstitium, tubular atrophy, and fibrosis. There are many causes including sarcoidosis, drugs (prescribed and nonprescribed), irradiation, toxins, and metabolic disorders....
Article
Reports of symptoms when regular caffeine consumption is stopped have appeared in the medical literature, but the frequency and significance of this phenomenon have remained controversial. The objective of this study was to collect information on the prevalence and severity of caffeine withdrawal in the general population and determine the incidence and type of symptoms reported on blind abrupt and gradual caffeine cessation among coffee drinkers reporting past episodes of caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. A community-based telephone survey was followed by a stratified, randomized, double-blind controlled study. Participants included 11,112 persons spontaneously calling to inquire about studies not related to caffeine and 57 regular caffeine users selected from among the callers because of self-reported caffeine withdrawal symptoms. Gradual or abrupt withdrawal from caffeine was compared to continuation of the same caffeine level. In a survey of 11,112 persons, 61% reported daily caffeine consumption, and 11% of the caffeine consumers reported symptoms upon stopping caffeine. Among the regular caffeine users, only 0.9% of males and 5.5% of females reported symptoms significant enough to interfere with normal activities when they abruptly stopped caffeine. A group of those reporting withdrawal symptoms were randomly assigned to three subsamples. In the group subjected to abrupt withdrawal (N = 18), 6 (33.3%) reported symptoms (e.g., headaches and tiredness). Including decreases in functional ratings, a total of 7 of the 18 (38.8%) could be considered to have experienced caffeine withdrawal. The gradual withdrawal group (N = 20) reported minimal if any caffeine withdrawal symptoms. A third group (N = 18) was kept on a level dose of caffeine for comparison. When participants are unaware of the caffeine-withdrawal focus of the study, these results suggest that both the frequency and severity of caffeine-withdrawal symptoms are much lower than found in some previous reports and that clinically significant symptoms may be uncommon events among the general population. (C) 1999 the American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Article
• The effects of oral administration of caffeine (10 mg/kg) on behavioral ratings, somatic symptoms, blood pressure and plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol (MHPG) and cortisol were determined in 17 healthy subjects and 21 patients meeting DSM-III criteria for agoraphobia with panic attacks or panic disorder. Caffeine produced significantly greater increases in subject-rated anxiety, nervousness, fear, nausea, palpitations, restlessness, and tremors in the patients compared with healthy subjects. In the patients, but not the healthy subjects, these symptoms were significantly correlated with plasma caffeine levels. Seventyone percent of the patients reported that the behavioral effects of caffeine were similar to those experienced during panic attacks. Caffeine did not alter plasma MHPG levels in either the healthy subjects or patients. Caffeine increased plasma cortisol levels equally in the patient and healthy groups. Because caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist, these results suggest that some panic disorder patients may have abnormalities in neuronal systems involving adenosine. Patients with anxiety disorders may benefit by avoiding caffeine-con taining foods and beverages.
Article
Objective. —The extent to which daily caffeine use is associated with a substance dependence syndrome similar to that associated with other psychoactive drugs is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess volunteers who reported problems with their use of caffeine for evidence suggesting a diagnosis of caffeine dependence based on the generic criteria for substance dependence from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).
Article
Stimulant drinks belong to a class of food, known as functional foods and at present there is no legislation relating specifically to the consumption or labelling of stimulant drinks in Ireland or the UK. Following the death of a young male student in Ireland in November 1999, much controversy has surrounded stimulant drinks, prompting concern among the public about the safety of these drinks. At the request of the Minister of State at the Department of Health, safefood, the Food Safety Promotion Board, established a Stimulant Drinks Committee to commission independent scientific research into the health effects of stimulant drinks. This committee published a report in March 2002.Stimulant drinks often contain ingredients such as caffeine, gaurana, taurine and glucuronolactone. Caffeine is a pharmacologically active substance and despite extensive research, its effects and health consequences are the subject of ongoing debate. Guarana has similar stimulatory effects to caffeine. Little is known about the health effects of taurine and glucuronolactone, other than levels in stimulant drinks are several times higher than that of the rest of the diet. The report from the Stimulant Drinks Committee recommends that stimulant drinks should be labelled with an indication that they are unsuitable for children (< 16 years), pregnant women and individuals sensitive to caffeine. Consumers should also be advised that caution be exercised in the consumption of stimulant drinks with alcohol or in association with sport and the products should carry a clear statement on the label to this effect.
Article
This study was undertaken to examine differences in caffeine and nicotine use between the psychiatric population and the addicted population in a private psychiatric inpatient facility. Eighty-six patients on an adult addictive disease inpatient unit and 80 patients on an adult psychiatry unit in a private psychiatric hospital were interviewed with regard to their use of nicotine and caffeine. In addition, demographic information and primary diagnoses were obtained from the psychiatric admission assessment in the medical record as listed by the admitting psychiatrist. Although there was little difference in psychiatric patients vs. chemically dependent patients with regard to the percentage of caffeine users, the chemically dependent individuals drank more coffee, soft drinks, and tea. A much greater percentage of the chemically dependent individuals also smoked cigarettes, although not in a greater amount than the psychiatric patients who smoked. Because group assignment was not random, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were conducted to determine the independent associations of age, sex, education, and treatment population in predicting levels of caffeine and tobacco use. Even after controlling for demographic differences between the two samples, chemically dependent patients still reported higher levels of daily caffeine and tobacco use than patients on the general psychiatric unit.
Article
Caffeine and related methylxanthine compounds are recognized as having a diuretic action, and consumers are often advised to avoid beverages containing these compounds in situations where fluid balance may be compromised. The aim of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the effect of caffeine ingestion on fluid balance and to formulate targeted and evidence-based advice on caffeinated beverages in the context of optimum hydration. A literature search was performed using the Medline database of articles published in the medical and scientific literature for the period of January 1966-March 2002. Subject headings and key words used in this search were: tea, coffee, caffeine, diuresis, fluid balance and water-electrolyte balance. A secondary search was performed using the bibliographies of publications identified in the initial search. The available literature suggests that acute ingestion of caffeine in large doses (at least 250-300 mg, equivalent to the amount found in 2-3 cups of coffee or 5-8 cups of tea) results in a short-term stimulation of urine output in individuals who have been deprived of caffeine for a period of days or weeks. A profound tolerance to the diuretic and other effects of caffeine develops, however, and the actions are much diminished in individuals who regularly consume tea or coffee. Doses of caffeine equivalent to the amount normally found in standard servings of tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks appear to have no diuretic action. The most ecologically valid of the published studies offers no support for the suggestion that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages as part of a normal lifestyle leads to fluid loss in excess of the volume ingested or is associated with poor hydration status. Therefore, there would appear to be no clear basis for refraining from caffeine containing drinks in situations where fluid balance might be compromised.
Article
Of 135 patients on an acute psychiatric ward, 34 were "high users" of coffee. The high users tended to be older, single, and have diagnoses of psychosis. They showed significantly more state anxiety than other patients, but there were no differences in trait anxiety or MMPI scores. Further research is suggested to determine whether high caffeine consumption among inpatients may be related to staff coffee-drinking behavior and/or treatment with anticholinergic drugs.
Article
The stability of sleep was examined in two kinds of induced insomnia, namely after caffeine administration and after hypnotic drug withdrawal. The duration of each episode of any one sleep stage or any episode of intervening wakefulness plus drowsiness was determined. After caffeine mere was an increase in longer episodes of intervening wakefulness plus drowsiness, but no significant change in the episode duration of any of the sleep stages. In the case of drug withdrawal there was no change in the episode duration of intervening wakefulness plus drowsiness, but there was a significant shortening of episode duration in sleep stages 2 and 3 +4, with a similar trend for REM sleep episodes. Caffeine ‘insomnia’ thus seems characterized by increased stability of wakefulness, and hypnotic withdrawal ‘insomnia’ by decreased stability of sleep. The type of analysis undertaken in this study could increase understanding of other types of insomnia.
Article
The purpose of study was to determine whether the reduction or elimination of caffeine intake would affect the behavior of chronic psychiatric patients. The 14 patients were all men, 22-56 years old, who had been hospitalized for at least 6 months before the study. One patient was diagnosed as manic-depressive, 2 had organic brain syndromes, and the rest were schizophrenic. The results indicate a general improvement in patients whose caffeine intake had been reduced. This improvement was reversed when regular coffee was reintroduced.
Article
Among 83 hospitalized adult psychiatric patients, 22% reported being high caffeine consumers (750 mg or more per day); these patients scored significantly greater on the State-Trait Anxiety Index and the Beck Depression Scale than moderate and low consumers. High consumers described significantly more clinical symptoms, felt that their physical health was not as good, and reported greater use of sedative-hypnotics and minor tranquilizers. Since caffeine modifies catecholamine levels, inhibits phosphodiesterase breakdown of cyclic AMP, and sensitizes receptor sites, association of caffeinism with both anxiety and depressive symptoms is possible.
Article
Two cases are described in which markedly increased consumption of caffeine led to an exacerbation of a schizophrenic process. The original description of this phenomenon and the clinical and basic science literature regarding the psychotropic effects of caffeine are reviewed. The cases are discussed in light of the clinical and research implications.
Article
We have seen several well-marked cases of coffee excess. … The sufferer is tremulous and loses his self-command; he is subject to fits of agitation and depression; he loses color and has a haggard appearance. The appetite falls off, and symptoms of gastric catarrh may be manifested. The heart also suffers; it palpitates or it intermits. As with other such agents, a renewed dose of the poison gives temporary relief, but at the cost of future misery. A System of Medicine [ 1909] (1)
Article
Several studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia have an extremely high prevalence of smoking, almost 90%, compared to only 33% in the general population and 45-70% in patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. The reasons for the high prevalence of smoking among schizophrenics is unknown, but it is likely that smoking behavior in schizophrenia may be a complex process, related to numerous interrelationships between the psychopathological, biochemical, and neuropharmacological aspects of smoking and of schizophrenia.
Article
The authors' goal was to study the relationship between smoking status and clinical characteristics in schizophrenic patients. Seventy-eight schizophrenic outpatients were assessed by a single rater using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, and the Simpson-Angus Scale for extrapyramidal symptoms. Current smokers (N = 58) were compared with nonsmokers (N = 20) on clinical variables by independent t tests and chi-square tests. Differences in outcome variables were tested by multiple analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with smoking status and gender as factors and age, neuroleptic dose, and caffeine consumption as covariates. Seventy-four percent of patients were current smokers and reported a mean of 19 cigarettes smoked per day. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers were significantly more likely to be men, to be younger, and to have had an earlier age at onset and a greater number of previous hospitalizations. Current smokers and nonsmokers received mean neuroleptic doses of 1160 and 542 mg/day (chlorpromazine equivalents); the difference was significant. Current smokers also displayed significantly less parkinsonism and more akathisia and had higher total scores on the BPRS. Overall multiple ANCOVA demonstrated a significant main effect for smoking status but not gender or the interaction between gender and smoking status. Univariate ANCOVAs demonstrated a significant main effect of smoking status only for the Simpson-Angus Scale score. Cigarette smokers receive significantly higher neuroleptic doses, in part because of a smoking-induced increase in neuroleptic metabolism. Smoking is also associated with significant reduction in levels of parkinsonism. Smoking status is a significant factor that should be considered in assessment of neuroleptic dose requirements and neuroleptic side effects.
Article
Psychotic in-patients who consume caffeine may present complications in the course of their illness. Two cases are described which illustrate the clinical profile of such patients, whose caffeine-associated complications are often misdiagnosed.
Article
CD-1 mice received single intraperitoneal (IP) doses of caffeine-sodium benzoate (caffeine doses: 0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) followed by injections of alprazolampropylene glycol (0, 0.05, and 2 mg/kg, IP) to determine brain concentrations, effects on in vivo receptor binding of a specific high-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligand [3H]Ro15-1788, and effects on motor activity over a 1-h period. A behavioral monitoring device, using infrared sensors, measured horizontal and ambulatory activity. Caffeine produced significant increases in all motor activity measures as compared to vehicle treatment, with low dose caffeine (with brain concentrations of 13 micrograms/g) stimulating activity to a greater degree than the high dose (with brain concentrations of 30 micrograms/g). The overall effect of caffeine on benzodiazepine receptor binding was not significant. Alprazolam significantly diminished motor activity and altered benzodiazepine receptor binding. Low dose alprazolam increased binding, while the high dose diminished it. Caffeine and alprazolam antagonized each other's behavioral effects in this study, but did not alter each other's uptake into brain. Alprazolam's antagonism of caffeine-induced motor stimulation was associated with decreases in receptor binding, whereas caffeine's reversal of alprazolam-induced motor depression was not associated with any changes in binding. The lack of a clear association between drug effects on benzodiazepine binding and on motor activity suggests that behavioral effects of caffeine and alprazolam may be mediated by other sites in addition to the benzodiazepine receptor.
Article
Caffeine, 10 mg/kg, was administered to 13 schizophrenic patients in a double-blind placebo-controlled study of its behavioral effects. Some measures of psychopathology were significantly increased: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total, BPRS subscales thought disorder, unusual thought content, and euphoria-activation, and several individual BPRS items. Nurses' Bunney-Hamberg ratings of psychosis and mania, comparing the day before with the day after pharmacological challenge, increased significantly. Compared to placebo, caffeine also produced significant increases of diastolic blood pressure and cortisol. Thus, these findings indicate that caffeine increases arousal and has a psychotogenic effect when administered to schizophrenic patients. The possible roles of various neurotransmitters is discussed with special emphasis on caffeine's actions on dopaminergic and adenosinergic systems.
Article
Synopsis Caffeine toxicity remains a rarely reported condition, which may mimic anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorder patients do not consume toxic amounts of caffeine. However, increased sensitivity to caffeine in these patients has been suggested as contributing to their symptoms. Six cases of anxiety disorder are presented who improved with only caffeine abstention, and remained well for at least a six-month follow-up period.
Article
The present study replicates that of De Freitas and Schwartz (1979), using more typical chronic patients (on open wards rather than locked wards), and monitoring coffee intake with serum caffeine levels. The serum caffeine levels observed indicate that caffeine can be effectively manipulated on an open ward by switching the type of coffee served. Contrary to our predictions, no significant improvements in patients' behavior occurred when decaffeinated coffee was first introduced, nor was there any deterioration when regular coffee was reinstated. Only after decaffeinated coffee was introduced for the second time did any of the predicted changes occur; however, the improvements were few in number and may be accounted for by the considerable effect of time per se across all time periods. Although the findings cannot be generalized to all psychiatric patients, the results do not support recent calls for a switch to decaffeinated coffee for this population of inpatients (i.e., chronic schizophrenic patients on high doses of neuroleptics who drink large amounts of coffee).
Article
Two matched groups of inpatients (N = 40) who had access only to caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee on an acute psychiatric ward were compared using pre- and postchange measures. The two groups did not differ significantly on any of the psychological assessments or in medication use over the course of treatment, with the exception that patients given caffeinated coffee who received prescribed phenothiazines had significantly higher dosages than those in the groups given decaffeinated coffee.
Article
The effects of oral administration of caffeine (10 mg/kg) on behavioral ratings, somatic symptoms, blood pressure and plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol (MHPG) and cortisol were determined in 17 healthy subjects and 21 patients meeting DSM-III criteria for agoraphobia with panic attacks or panic disorder. Caffeine produced significantly greater increases in subject-rated anxiety, nervousness, fear, nausea, palpitations, restlessness, and tremors in the patients compared with healthy subjects. In the patients, but not the healthy subjects, these symptoms were significantly correlated with plasma caffeine levels. Seventy-one percent of the patients reported that the behavioral effects of caffeine were similar to those experienced during panic attacks. Caffeine did not alter plasma MHPG levels in either the healthy subjects or patients. Caffeine increased plasma cortisol levels equally in the patient and healthy groups. Because caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist, these results suggest that some panic disorder patients may have abnormalities in neuronal systems involving adenosine. Patients with anxiety disorders may benefit by avoiding caffeine-containing foods and beverages.
Article
Three types of experimental studies are reviewed: (1) intravenous and oral caffeine self-administration by laboratory animals, (2) oral caffeine self-administration by humans, and (3) human subjective effects of caffeine relevant to reinforcing effects. These studies show that, under appropriate conditions, caffeine can serve as a reinforcer and can produce elevations in subjective drug liking and/or euphoria. In this regard, caffeine can be distinguished from a wide range of behaviorally active compounds, such as the amphetamine analog fenfluramine and the major tranquilizer chlorpromazine, which do not produce such effects. Caffeine can also be distinguished from classic drugs of abuse such as cocaine, d-amphetamine or pentobarbital which generally maintain high levels of self-administration (or liking) in contrast to caffeine which tends to maintain lower levels of self-administration (or liking) or maintain self-administration under a more narrow range of parametric conditions. Several human studies and one animal experiment suggest that physical dependence substantially potentiates the reinforcing effects of caffeine. Other human and animal studies indicate that there may be substantial differences between individual subjects in the reinforcing effects of caffeine. An important challenge for future human and animal drug self-administration research will be to delineate more precisely the conditions under which caffeine does and does not serve reliably as a reinforcer.
Article
The effects of diazepam (DZ) (0, 10, and 20 mg) and caffeine (CAF) (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg) alone and in combination were examined in nine healthy male subjects using a within-subject experimental design in which all subjects received all twelve possible dose combinations. Drug effects were assessed using various psychomotor and cognitive performance tasks, staff (observer) ratings of subject behavior, and subject ratings of mood and drug effect. DZ treatment alone impaired performance on all tasks and produced staff and subject ratings indicative of sedative drug effects. CAF treatment alone facilitated performance on two psychomotor tasks requiring rapid reaction speed and increased staff ratings of subject restlessness and subject ratings of tension, alertness, arousal, and CAF symptoms. CAF generally antagonized the DZ-induced ratings of sedation and impairment of psychomotor performance; however, CAF did not consistently antagonize the DZ impairment of immediate recall or delayed recognition memory performance. DZ antagonized the CAF-induced staff-rated restlessness, and subject-ratings of tension, alertness, arousal and CAF symptoms. The results generally support the hypothesis that DZ and CAF produce antagonistic effects through functionally opposing mechanisms, however, the observed effects of drug combinations are dependent on the specific doses being tested and on the measures of drug effect being examined.
Article
Examined the effects of caffeine on a protracted visual monitoring task analogous to an aspect of automobile night driving. 100 male undergraduates participated in monitoring 2 red lights that moved apart at random intervals, simulating the rate-of-closure cue of change in visual angle for a vehicle following 60 yd. behind another vehicle. 20 measures of response latency were provided for each S in each of 4 hr. of continuous testing. 5 groups (n = 20) were given the following treatments: placebo, 200 mg. of caffeine at the beginning of the 2nd hr., 200 mg. at the 3rd hr., 400 mg. at the 2nd, and 400 mg. at the 3rd. Results indicate that caffeine significantly inhibited response blocking (attention lapses). The effects were apparent within l hr. following administration and persisted over the remaining time. No difference was found between dosage levels or in magnitude of effect at the different administration times.
Article
1 Effects of the heterocyclic amphetamine derivatives, pemoline (20 and 40 mg), prolintane hydrochloride (5 and 10 mg), methylphenidate hydrochloride (10 and 20 mg) and fencamfamine hydrochloride (10 and 20 mg), and of caffeine anhydrous (100, 200 and 300 mg) on sleep, were compared with placebo in six young adults (20-31 years) using electroencephalography for sleep measures and analogue scales for subjective assessments of well-being and sleep quality. The study was double-blind.2 No consistent effect was found with pemoline.3 With prolintane there were no changes in sleep latencies, or in slow wave sleep (SWS). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was reduced during the first 2 h after sleep onset.4 With methylphenidate and fencamfamine latencies to sleep onset and to stage 3 sleep were unchanged. The higher dose of each drug delayed the first and subsequent REM periods. Both drugs reduced the duration of REM sleep, and the higher dose of each drug reduced the percentage REM sleep. Methylphenidate also reduced total sleep time (TST). There was no evidence of reduced SWS with either drug. Impairment of sleep was reported with each drug.5 With caffeine there were no changes in latencies to sleep onset or to the first REM period, though in one study with 300 mg subsequent REM periods were delayed. Awake activity and drowsy sleep were increased and TST and SWS were decreased. With 300 mg only, REM sleep was decreased though percentage REM sleep was not altered. Impaired sleep was reported with all doses of caffeine.
Article
In 18 normal volunteers, lorazepam (2.5 mg) compared with placebo significantly impaired performance in a verbal learning task, in the digit-symbol substitution test, and in symbol copying and number cancellation tasks. These impairments were found equally in subjects with high and low state anxiety and in subjects with high and low trait anxiety. Caffeine citrate (125 to 500 mg) significantly improved performance on the digit-symbol substitution test when given alone and reduced the lorazepam impairment. In the symbol copying test caffeine counteracted the lorazepam impairment. Lorazepam produced a significant loss of appetite and made the subjects feel significantly more dizzy, physically and mentally tired, withdrawn and tranquil, and significantly less anxious. Caffeine citrate (500 mg) counteracted the lorazepam effect of reducing anxiety and making the subjects feel more relaxed.