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Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis


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The purpose of this study is to evaluate claims that emotional intelligence is significantly related to transformational and other leadership behaviors. Results (based on 62 independent samples) indicated a validity estimate of .59 when ratings of both emotional intelligence and leadership behaviors were provided by the same source (self, subordinates, peers, or superiors). However, when ratings of the constructs were derived from different sources, the validity estimate was .12. Lower validity estimates were found for transactional and laissez-faire leadership behaviors. Separate analyses were performed for each measure of emotional intelligence. Trait measures of emotional intelligence tended to show higher validities than ability-based measures of emotional intelligence. Agreement across ratings sources for the same construct was low for both transformational leadership (.14) and emotional intelligence (.16).
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Leadership Institute
Leadership Institute Faculty Publications
University of Nebraska - Lincoln Year 
Emotional Intelligence and
Transformational and Transactional
Leadership: A Meta-Analysis
Peter D. Harms
Marcus Cred´e
University of Nebraska - Lincoln,
State University of New York at Albany
This paper is posted at DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
Research into the relationship between emotional in-
telligence (EI) and transformational leadership is lled
with bold claims as to the relationship between these con-
structs. Noted experts in the eld of EI argue that elements
of EI such as empathy, self-condence, and self-aware-
ness are the core underpinnings of visionary or transfor-
mational leadership (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002).
An information package distributed by Multi-Health
Systems, the leading distributor of EI assessment tools,
claims that “emotional intelligence is synonymous with
good leadership.” Some have claimed that “for those in
leadership positions, emotional intelligence skills account
for close to 90 percent of what distinguishes outstanding
leaders from those judged as average” (Kemper, 1999, p.
16). Others have noted the disappointing results of intelli-
gence and personality models in the prediction of excep-
tional leadership and have argued that EI may represent
an elusive “X” factor for predicting transformational lead-
ership (Brown & Moshavi, 2005).
Since Goleman (1995) popularized the concept of EI,
there has been no shortage of studies investigating the
relationship between EI and positive outcomes. Two re-
cent meta-analyses have found positive associations for
EI with school and work performance outcomes (Van
Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004) as well as mental and phys-
ical health (Schutte, Malouff, Thorsteinsson, Bhullar, &
Rooke, 2007). Research into the relationship between EI
and leadership outcomes has seen similar, if not more,
levels of interest in recent years. The relationship with
transformational leadership has received particular at-
tention in these studies, which can be attributed to both
its popularity in the leadership literature and specic el-
ements of transformational leadership theory that seem
relevant to EI. Yet, there has been widespread skepti-
cism of the link between EI and leadership outcomes (An-
tonakis, Ashkanasy, & Dasborough, 2009; Landy, 2005;
Locke, 2005) and many studies have failed to nd signi-
cant relationships between EI and transformational lead-
ership in particular (e.g., Brown, Bryant, & Reilly, 2006;
Moss, Ritossa, & Ngu, 2006; Sosik & Megarian, 1999;
Weinberger, 2004). A review of the relationship between
EI and leadership outcomes described the ongoing de-
bate between the proponents and critics of EI as one that
“thrives on hyperbolic claims on one hand, and empirical
evidence to the contrary on the other” (Lindebaum, 2009,
p. 227). Furthermore, in a recently published debate (An-
Published in Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 17:1 (2010), pp. 5–17; doi: 10.1177/1548051809350894 Copyright © 2010 Baker Col-
lege; published by Sage Publications. Used by permission.
Emotional Intelligence and Transformational
and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis
P. D. Harms
University of Nebraska–Lincoln, USA
Corresponding author — 114 CBA, 1240 R Street, Lincoln, NE 68588; email
Marcus Credé
State University of New York at Albany, USA
The purpose of this study is to evaluate claims that emotional intelligence is signicantly related to transformational and other leadership be-
haviors. Results (based on 62 independent samples) indicated a validity estimate of .59 when ratings of both emotional intelligence and leader-
ship behaviors were provided by the same source (self, subordinates, peers, or superiors). However, when ratings of the constructs were de-
rived from different sources, the validity estimate was .12. Lower validity estimates were found for transactional and laissez-faire leadership
behaviors. Separate analyses were performed for each measure of emotional intelligence. Trait measures of emotional intelligence tended to
show higher validities than ability-based measures of emotional intelligence. Agreement across ratings sources for the same construct was low
for both transformational leadership (.14) and emotional intelligence (.16).
Keywords transformational, leadership, emotional intelligence
6 Har m s & Cre d é in Jo u r n a l o f le a d e r s hi p & orga n i z ati o n a l stu d i e s 17 (2010)
tonakis et al., 2009) between major gures in each camp,
Ashkanasy and Dasborough argued that a meta-analysis
was needed to establish whether or not the claims of the
EI proponents had merit. To address the issues raised in
prior research and the current debate, this study will use
a meta-analytic approach to establish whether or not EI is
related to transformational and transactional leadership
behaviors and under what circumstances.
Transformational Leadership
The concept of transformational leadership, a compo-
nent of Bass and Avolio’s “full range leadership theory”
(Antonakis & House, 2002; Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1998), is
one of the most widely researched paradigms in the lead-
ership eld and has shown substantial validity for pre-
dicting a number of outcomes including leader perfor-
mance and effectiveness ratings in addition to follower
satisfaction and motivation (Judge & Piccolo, 2004; Sash-
kin, 2004). Transformational leaders act as mentors to
their followers by encouraging learning, achievement,
and individual development. They provide meaning, act
as role models, provide challenges, evoke emotions, and
foster a climate of trust. The ve dimensions of transfor-
mational leadership are idealized inuence (attributed),
idealized inuence (behavioral), individual consider-
ation, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimula-
tion (Bass & Avolio, 1997). Idealized inuence (attributed) re-
fers to the socialized charisma of the leader and whether
or not he or she is perceived as being condent and com-
mitted to high-order ideals. Idealized inuence (behavioral)
refers to charismatic actions by the leader that are based
on values, beliefs, or ideals. Individualized consideration is
the extent to which a leader attends to the needs and con-
cerns of his or her followers by providing socio-emotional
support. This involves mentoring followers, maintaining
frequent contact, encouraging followers to self-actualize,
and empowering them. Inspirational motivation is the de-
gree to which leaders inspire and appeal to followers by
setting challenging goals and communicating optimism
with regard to goal attainment. Intellectual stimulation re-
fers to the extent to which leaders engage in behaviors
that cause followers to challenge their assumptions, think
creatively, take risks, and participate intellectually.
Beyond the subdimensions of transformational leader-
ship, Bass and Avolio’s (1997) full range model of leader-
ship also contains three transactional leadership factors:
contingent reward, management-by-exception (active),
and management-by-exception (passive). Contingent re-
ward refers to the degree that leaders operate according to
economic and emotional exchange principles with follow-
ers. The leader sets out clear goals and expectations and re-
wards followers for working toward them. Management-
by-exception (active) is the extent to which a leader actively
monitors followers for mistakes and tries to correct them.
Management-by-exception (passive) refers to leaders who wait
for mistakes to occur before acting to correct them.
A nal style of leadership is laissez-faire leadership,
which refers to the absence of leadership. Laissez-faire
leaders avoid making decisions or taking positions, hes-
itate to take action, abdicate their authority, and are typ-
ically absent when they are needed. Although conceptu-
ally similar to management-by-exception (passive), this
form of leadership results in a lack of action even when
correction is needed.
It has been noted that leaders can display each of these
leadership styles at various times and to various degrees
but that effective leaders are described as displaying
transformational leadership behaviors and transactional
leadership behaviors more frequently than passive and
ineffective non-leadership style behaviors (Avolio, 1999).
Although there has been a great deal of research dem-
onstrating the effectiveness of transformational leadership
behavior in organizations (Judge & Piccolo, 2004), there has
been a relative lack of research investigating the anteced-
ents of these behaviors (Rubin, Munz, & Bommer, 2005).
Prior research has linked transformational leadership with
a number of biographical background factors such as par-
ents taking an active interest in the development of their
child, high parental moral standards, and whether or not
individuals enjoyed school and their prior work experience
(Avolio, 1994). In terms of psychological factors, transfor-
mational leadership has been linked with the higher levels
of the traits Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional Sta-
bility, and Openness (Bono & Judge, 2004) in addition to
other individual differences such as Need for Power (An-
tonakis & House, 2002; Sashkin, 2004), moral reasoning
(Turner, Barling, Epitropaki, Butcher, & Milner, 2002), and
secure attachment style (Popper, Mayseless, & Castelnovo,
2000). Higher levels of intelligence have also been found to
be related to transformational leadership (Atwater & Yam-
marino, 1993). However, overall, the capacity of individual
differences to predict transformational leadership has been
disappointing. A meta-analysis of the relationship between
transformational leadership and Big Five traits found that
the corrected correlation between these constructs ranged
from a low of .09 for Openness to a high of .23 for Extraver-
sion (Bono & Judge, 2004). As a consequence, it has been
suggested that other, unexplored factors such as EI may
play a prominent role in predicting transformational lead-
ership behaviors (Bass, 2002; Brown & Moshavi, 2005; Nye,
Emotional Intelligence
Although denitions of EI vary widely, it can be
thought of as “the set of abilities (verbal and non-verbal)
that enable a person to generate, recognize, express, un-
derstand, and evaluate their own and others’ emotions in
order to guide thinking and action that successfully cope
with environmental demands and pressures” (Van Rooy
emotion a l intel l i g enCe a n d tr a n sfor m ati o n al a n d tr a nsaC t i o na l le a d e rsHip 7
& Viswesvaran, 2004, p. 72). Research has conceived of EI
as either a trait (Bar- On, 1997; Goleman, 1995; Petrides
& Furnham, 2000; 2001) or an ability (Salovey & Mayer,
1990). As a trait, EI is considered to be an innate charac-
teristic that enables and promotes well-being. Trait EI has
been described as a constellation of emotional self-per-
ceptions at the lower levels of personality hierarchies (Pe-
trides, Pita, & Kokkinaki, 2007). As an ability, EI is con-
sidered to be important for not only comprehending and
regulating emotions, but also understanding and integrat-
ing them into cognitions.
Because of differences in denitions, researchers
have employed a variety of assessment devices to mea-
sure EI. Typically, research into trait EI has used self-re-
port measures such as the Bar-On (1997) Emotional Quo-
tient Inventory or the Swinburne University Emotional
Intelligence Test (Palmer & Stough, 2001). Whereas trait-
based measures generally depend on participants self-re-
porting their levels of EI, ability-based measures such as
the Mayer-Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test
(Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002) require participants
to engage in tasks that assess EI based on performance.
On these measures, participants may be asked to identify
the emotions conveyed by pictures, report on how they
would manage or change emotions in response to hypo-
thetical scenarios, relate emotions to sensory stimuli, or
report on circumstances that would be expected to change
emotional states (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004). Re-
sponses are then scored according to consensus or expert
ratings of the different options.
While there have been considerable efforts made to
create psychometrically valid measures of EI, there re-
mains no single universally accepted measure of EI, and a
number of criticisms have been made concerning the psy-
chometric properties of the current scales available with
regard to their convergent, discriminant, and predictive
validity. For instance, Brackett and Mayer (2003) com-
pared a number of different EI inventories and found lit-
tle convergence across EI measures. Because of this, some
researchers have questioned whether or not different
measures of EI assess the same construct at all (Matthews,
Zeidner, & Roberts, 2002). Beyond concerns about cross-
measure comparability, Antonakis (2004) has noted that
in numerous studies, EI measures fail to add incremen-
tally to the prediction of work outcomes above and be-
yond established measures of personality and cognitive
intelligence. Moreover, concerns have been raised about
the susceptibility of trait-based EI measures to faking un-
der high-stakes conditions (Day & Carroll, 2008).
The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Despite concerns about the various EI measurements
themselves, interest in EI remains high, in particular in
the leadership domain. A recent meta-analysis has dem-
onstrated that, across criteria, EI has an operational va-
lidity of .24 with employment-related criteria (Van Rooy
& Viswesvaran, 2004). Anthropologists have noted that
appropriate emotional displays and recognition of the
emotional displays of others are essential for successful
functioning and leadership in primate societies (Boehm,
1999). Moreover, there are a number of theoretical argu-
ments to be made for the relationship between EI and ef-
fective leadership, specically transformational leader-
ship (Daus & Ashkanasy, 2005). EI competencies such as
self-condence, self-awareness, transparency, and em-
pathy have been argued to be essential for communi-
cating visionary messages (Goleman et al., 2002). Sosik
and Megarian (1999) suggested several aspects of EI that
would facilitate transformational leadership. First, empa-
thy may be necessary for transformational leaders who
display individual consideration to followers. Second,
emotion management may promote positive affect and
condence in followers expressing and generating new
ideas. Third, self-aware leaders may possess a greater
than average sense of purpose and meaning. Fourth,
those skilled at emotional management are also those
more likely to put the needs of others ahead of their own
personal needs. George (2000) argued that emotional ap-
peals may be used by transformational leaders for inspi-
rational motivation. Others have pointed out that adher-
ence to professional or moral standards of behavior are
common aspects of both EI and transformational leader-
ship (Brown et al., 2006).
Hypothesis 1: Emotional intelligence will be positively
related to transformational leadership.
While there are less theoretical underpinnings to guide
hypotheses concerning the relationship of transactional
and laissez-faire styles of leadership with EI, it has been
suggested that to provide the effective and equitable ex-
changes characteristic of contingent reward behaviors,
leaders should have abilities and traits associated with el-
evated EI (Barling, Slater, & Kelloway, 2000). Because ac-
tive management-by-exception behaviors reect reactive
and routine leadership behaviors that require no insight
or empathy, it is not expected that there would be any re-
lationship with EI (Barling et al., 2000). However, it is ex-
pected that EI would show negative relationships with
passive management-by-exception and laissez-faire lead-
ership behaviors, because individuals with elevated EI are
thought to be higher on initiative and self-efcacy (Gole-
man et al., 2002).
Hypothesis 2: Emotional intelligence will be positively
related to contingent reward behaviors.
Hypothesis 3: Emotional intelligence will be nega-
tively related to management-by-exception (pas-
sive) and laissez-faire leadership behaviors.
8 Har m s & Cre d é in Jo u r n a l o f le a d e r s hi p & orga n i z ati o n a l stu d i e s 17 (2010)
Literature Search
Possible sources of data for this study were identi-
ed via searches of the PsychINFO (1872-2009), Disser-
tation Abstracts (1980-2009), Business Sources Premier,
and ERIC databases as well as Internet searches for ad-
ditional unpublished data sources. Keywords used for
these searches included emotional intelligence, transforma-
tional leadership, multifactor leadership questionnaire, and
charismatic leadership. The citation lists of all examined
journal articles, technical reports, and dissertations were
also examined for additional promising sources. This ini-
tial search yielded a total of 106 articles, dissertations, and
technical reports.
Studies were only included if they reported zero-or-
der correlations or data from which unbiased estimates of
zero-order correlations could be computed. Studies that
reported statistically signicant correlations, but not non-
signicant correlations, were not included in our analysis;
the inclusion of such studies would result in upwardly bi-
ased meta-analytic estimates of the strength of relation-
ships. We attempted to contact the authors of all studies
that did not present data in a manner that allowed inclu-
sion in our analysis and requested full zero-order correla-
tions for all relevant variables such that their data could
be included.
We also decided to include only studies that reported
data from explicit measures of EI. Some authors (e.g.,
Hoffman & Frost, 2006) have used measures of personal-
ity as proxies for measures of EI, but such studies were
not included in our analysis.
Coding Procedures
All studies were coded by the two authors using strict
coding procedures and coding sheets to ensure a high
level of accuracy and rating agreement. Accuracy checks
revealed near unanimous agreement in the coding of all
relevant variables. Coded information included correla-
tions, reliability estimates, sample size, the source of both
EI and leadership ratings, and the inventories used to as-
sess EI and leadership. Where relevant, we also coded in-
tercorrelations among facet scores of EI and leadership
inventories to allow us to calculate unit-weighted com-
posites for those studies that only reported correlations at
the facet level.
Our nal database was comprised of correlations de-
rived from 62 independent samples, representing data
from 7,145 leaders. The Multifactor Leadership Question-
naire (MLQ, Bass & Avolio, 1995) was the most frequently
used measure of transformational leadership (k= 39) with
only one other inventory, the Leadership Practices Inven-
tory (LPI, Kouzes & Posner, 2003), being used in more
than one study (k=7). A large variety of inventories were
used to assess EI with the most frequently used being the
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MS-
CEIT, Mayer et al., 2002) (k = 12), Wong and Law’s (2002)
Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, k = 7), the Bar-On
(1997) Emotional Quotient Inventory (BOEQI, k = 8), the
Emotional Intelligence Appraisal (k = 3), and the Swin-
burne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT,
Palmer & Stough, 2001) (k = 4).
Analytic Procedure
The Hunter and Schmidt (1990, 2004) psychomet-
ric meta-analytic method was used in this study. This
method allows estimation of the amount of variance at-
tributable to sampling error and artifacts such as unre-
liability in both the predictor (EI) and criterion (leader-
ship) variables, while also providing the best estimates
of the population correlations in the absence of measure-
ment error (i.e., ρ). Because not all studies reported reli-
ability data, we used reliability estimates from those stud-
ies that did report internal consistency estimates to create
artifact distributions for both the predictor and criterion
variables. That is, rather than correct individual correla-
tions using the relevant sample reliability estimates, we
corrected the distribution of correlations using the distri-
butions of reliability estimates for the criterion and pre-
dictor variables (i.e., the interactive meta-analytic proce-
dure; Hunter & Schmidt, 1990) to improve the accuracy of
the results. For cases in which subscale composites were
formed, we calculated Mosier (1943) reliability estimates
when subscale intercorrelations were available and used
the mean of the subscale reliabilities if the intercorrela-
tions were not available.
By correcting robs and SDobs for measurement error
and measurement error variability, we were able to ex-
amine whether the variability in observed correlations
is due to systematic artifactual biases or reects the ex-
istence of substantive moderators. Moreover, correcting
SDobs for the occasionally substantial differences in sam-
ple sizes across studies yields a more accurate estimate
of whether or not the differences observed in the litera-
ture are merely the result of sampling error. At the same
time, we note that readers should be cautious when in-
terpreting SDρ estimates as indicators of moderator ef-
fects, especially for meta-analyses with a small number of
studies, as is the case for some of our analyses (Oswald &
Johnson, 1998).
Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership
Meta-analytic results for the relationship between EI
and transformational leadership are shown in Table 1. A
visual inspection of the data showed a clear difference in
the size of correlations between those studies that relied
on same-source ratings for both EI and transformational
emotion a l intel l i g enCe a n d tr a n sfor m ati o n al a n d tr a nsaC t i o na l le a d e rsHip 9
leadership and those that used multi-source ratings (i.e.,
EI ratings and transformational leadership ratings came
from different sources). The most typical of these stud-
ies were designs that relied on self-ratings for both EI and
transformational leadership (same-source) and designs
that relied on self-ratings of EI and subordinate- or peer-
ratings of transformational leadership (multi-source). We
therefore conducted separate meta-analyses for same-
source and multi-source data.
The relationship between EI and transformational
leadership was moderately strong for correlation; CV =
credibility interval; MLQ= Multifactor Leadership Ques-
tionnaire. The relatively large SDρ value for same-source
ratings suggested the possible presence of substantive
moderator effects, and we therefore also conducted sep-
arate meta-analyses to compare the effects of different
measures on the estimated relationship.
Effect of Leader Rank
A number of studies in our analysis used coaches, prin-
ciples, ministers, nurses, supervisors, and student leaders
for their samples. To test whether or not the relationship
between EI and transformational leadership was moder-
ated by type of leader, we ran separate analyses for those
samples that specically used managers and higher-rank-
ing positions in the business sector and those that used
other types of leaders. The results of these meta-analyses
are presented in Table 1. For leaders with management
positions or higher, there was a strong relationship when
same source ratings were used (k = 33, N = 3,626, ρ = .52),
but a weak relationship when multi-source ratings were
used (k =14, N = 2,013, ρ = .08). These results were only
slightly smaller than those of the full sample.
Effect of Type of Emotional Intelligence Assessed
To evaluate the potential moderating effect of different
types of EI, we conducted separate analyses of the rela-
tionship between leadership style for trait-based and abil-
ity-based measures of EI. The results of these meta-anal-
yses are presented in Table 1. Both types of EI measures
showed markedly lower validity estimates when multi-
source ratings were used. For trait-based measures of EI,
effects for same source ratings showed a strong relation-
ship (k = 38, N = 4,424, ρ = .66) between EI and transfor-
mational leadership, but a weak relationship for multi-
source ratings (k = 20, N = 2,491, ρ = .11). Ability-based
measures of EI showed lower validity estimates than
trait-based measures when same-source ratings were
used (k =10, N = 1,066, ρ = .24) and had no relationship
with transformational leadership when multi-source rat-
ings were used (k = 4, N = 441, ρ = .05).
Effect of Publication Type
It is often assumed that meta-analyses overestimate
validity relationships because they tend to be derived
from published sources with signicant effects. Similar
studies that failed to nd those effects tend to remain un-
Table 1. Relationships Between Overall Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership
Source of EI
and TL Ratings k N r¯ ρ SDρ 10% CV 90% CV
All samples 62 7,145 0.36 0.41 0.26 0.08 0.74
All samples same 47 4,994 0.48 0.56 0.23 0.26 0.85
All samples different 22 2,661 0.11 0.12 0.04 0.07 0.17
MLQ only same 33 3,999 0.47 0.54 0.21 0.27 0.81
MLQ only different 14 1,549 0.09 0.12 0.07 0.03 0.21
Managers and higher only same 33 3,626 0.45 0.52 0.23 0.23 0.81
Managers and higher only different 14 2,013 0.08 0.09 0.01 0.08 0.10
Ability-based EI Measure same 10 1,066 0.20 0.24 0.00 0.24 0.24
Ability-based EI Measure different 4 441 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.05
Trait-based EI Measure same 38 4,424 0.58 0.66 0.19 0.42 0.91
Trait-based EI Measure different 20 2,491 0.11 0.13 0.05 0.07 0.19
Unpublished only same 34 3,619 0.48 0.56 0.25 0.23 0.88
Unpublished only different 10 1,476 0.08 0.09 0.01 0.08 0.10
Published only same 11 1,220 0.48 0.55 0.13 0.39 0.72
Published only different 12 1,182 0.14 0.16 0.08 0.06 0.26
EI = overall emotional intelligence; TL = overall transformational leadership; k = number of correlations; N = combined sample size; Mean r¯
= mean uncorrected correlation; ρ = estimated true score correlation; SDρ = standard deviation of estimated true score correlation; CV =
credibility interval; MLQ = Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.
10 Har m s & Cre d é in Jo u r n a l o f le a d e r s hi p & orga n i z ati o n a l stu d i e s 17 (2010)
published and, therefore, meta-analyses “oversample”
larger effects. This is known as the “le drawer” problem.
In this study, the majority of studies used in the overall
meta-analysis were from unpublished sources such as
dissertations. As a consequence, it is unlikely that these
results represent an overestimate of the true relationship
between EI and transformational and transactional lead-
ership. Nevertheless, we tested the effect of publication
source to establish whether there was any bias in the ef-
fect sizes reported in published studies. The results of this
analysis can be found in Table 1. When comparing studies
that used same-source ratings, the results were strikingly
similar for publication types. Both unpublished (k = 35, N
= 4,115, ρ = .59) and published studies (k = 11, N = 1,220,
ρ = .55) showed high effect sizes. However, when multi-
source ratings were used, both unpublished (k = 10, N =
1,476, ρ = .09) and published studies (k = 12, N = 1,182, ρ
= .16) showed substantially lower validity estimates with
transformational leadership.
Effect of Emotional Intelligence Inventory
To assess the potential moderating effect of specic in-
ventories of EI on the relationship between EI and leader-
ship style, we conducted separate analyses of the relation-
ship for each of the most frequently used inventories of EI.
The results of these meta-analyses are presented in Table
2. The number of studies and total sample sizes for each
of these analyses were relatively small and results should
be interpreted with some caution; nevertheless, it appears
that the EI–transformational leadership relationship was
signicantly weaker for the MSCEIT than for other inven-
tories. It should be noted that although SDρ estimates are
zero for some relationships in Table 2, these should not be
interpreted to necessarily mean the complete absence of
variability across situations. Rather, they are an artifact of
the Hunter and Schmidt (1990) meta-analytic method for
analyses involving a small number of studies.
Effect of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
Given the preponderance of the MLQ as the measure
of transformational leadership in this area we also con-
ducted meta-analyses of the studies that assessed the rela-
tionship between EI and the MLQ. Results for these meta-
analyses are also presented in Table 1 with the size of
relationships being largely unchanged. For same-source
ratings the relationship was of moderate strength (k =
33, N = 3,999, ρ = .54), while it remained weak for multi-
source ratings (k = 14, N = 1,549, ρ = .09).
In addition to this, we also conducted meta-analyses
of the subscales of transformational leadership and the
other components of the full range model of leadership
assessed by the MLQ. The results for these meta-analyses
are presented in Table 3.
For the facets of transformational leadership, the pat-
tern of results was largely the same as for overall trans-
formational leadership. That is, for same-source data, the
observed relationships were of moderate strength while
being of low strength for multi-source data. EI exhibited
weak relationships with both management-by-exception
(passive) and management-by-exception (active), al-
though the negative relationship with management-by-
exception (passive) was so strong that the 90% credibil-
ity intervals for both same-source and multi-source data
did not contain zero. EI exhibited a moderately strong
negative relationship with Laissez-Faire leadership for
same-source ratings (k = 14, N = 1,304, ρ = –.36) and a
weak relationship for multi-source ratings (k = 8, N =
617, ρ = –.17).
Interrater Agreement
Given the substantial and consistent differences in the
strength of observed relationships for same-source and
multi-source ratings, we decided to examine the level of
agreement between self-ratings and other-ratings in more
Table 2. Relationships Between Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence Moderated by Rating Source and Emotional Intelligence
Measure Rating Source k N r¯ ρ SDρ 10% CV 90% CV
MSCEIT Same 10 1,066 0.20 0.24 0.00 0.24 0.24
MSCEIT Different 4 441 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.05
WLEIS Same 6 564 0.49 0.54 0.13 0.37 0.70
WLEIS Different 5 1,099 0.08 0.09 0.00 0.11 0.11
BOEQI Same 6 640 0.56 0.67 0.08 0.58 0.77
BOEQI Different 4 267 0.18 0.20 0.12 0.05 0.35
SUEIT Same 4 512 0.50 0.50 0.10 0.37 0.64
EIA Same 3 135 0.45 0.47 0.28 0.11 0.83
No reliability information available from included studies for this analysis. k = number of correlations; N = combined sample size; r¯ = mean
uncorrected correlation; ρ = estimated true score correlation; SDρ = standard deviation of estimated true score correlation; CV = credibility
interval; MSCEIT = Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test; WLEIS = Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale; BOEQI = Bar-On
Emotional Quotient Inventory; SUEIT = Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test; EIA = Emotional Intelligence Appraisal.
emotion a l intel l i g enCe a n d tr a n sfor m ati o n al a n d tr a nsaC t i o na l le a d e rsHip 11
detail for both EI and transformational leadership. Eight
data sources provided relevant data: Barbuto and Bur-
bach (2006); Buford (2001); Burbach (2004); Danehy (2005);
Elbers (2007); Fox, Staebler Tardino, and Maloney (2008);
Sosik and Megarian (1999); and Wu, Liu, Song, and Liu
For these data, we calculated meta-analytic estimates
of interrater agreement self-ratings and other-ratings of
both EI and transformational leadership. The results for
this analysis (see Table 4) show very low levels of agree-
ment between self- and other-ratings of both EI = .16)
and transformational leadership (ρ = .14).
Given the widespread interest surrounding EI as a pre-
dictor of organizational outcomes, and leadership in par-
ticular (Spector, 2005), we examined the relationship be-
tween EI and transformational leadership, along with
other components of the full range model of leadership
(Bass & Avolio, 1997). Recently, it was argued that “lead-
ership theory and research have not adequately consid-
ered how leaders’ moods and emotions inuence their
effectiveness as leaders” (George, 2000, p. 1028). The re-
sulting studies conducted using EI measures to address
Table 3. Relationships Between Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Components and Overall Emotional Intelligence Moderated by
Rating Source
MLQ Subscale Rating Source k N r¯ ρ SDρ 10% CV 90% CV
Idealized inuence (attributed) same 15 1576 .30 .38 .18 .15 .61
Idealized inuence (attributed) different 2 284 –.00 –.00 .00 –.00 –.00
Idealized inuence (behavioral) same 15 1576 .36 .46 .15 .27 .65
Idealized inuence (behavioral) different 2 284 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00
Idealized inuence (overall) same 17 1815 .33 .42 .15 .22 .61
Idealized inuence (overall) different 7 730 .08 .10 .00 .10 .10
Individual consideration same 17 1815 .35 .45 .14 .28 .63
Individual consideration different 7 730 .08 .10 .10 –.02 .22
Inspirational motivation same 17 1814 .36 .43 .16 .23 .63
Inspirational motivation different 7 730 .12 .14 .15 –.05 .33
Intellectual stimulation same 17 1815 .32 .40 .15 .21 .59
Intellectual stimulation different 7 730 .08 .10 .00 .10 .10
Contingent reward same 12 1272 .29 .35 .18 .12 .59
Contingent reward different 6 622 .10 .13 .18 –.10 .36
Management by exception (active) same 10 871 –.08 –.10 .07 –.19 .01
Management by exception (active) different 3 333 .02 .02 .00 .02 .02
Management by exception (passive) same 10 871 –.17 –.22 .06 –.30 –.14
Management by exception (passive) different 3 333 –.09 –.12 .00 –.12 –.12
Laissez faire same 13 1204 –.30 –.37 .18 –.60 –.14
Laissez faire different 8 617 –.12 –.17 .00 –.17 –.17
Extra effort same 8 869 .31 .36 .20 .11 .61
Extra effort different 3 304 .14 .18 .15 –.01 .37
Effectiveness same 8 869 .32 .37 .17 .15 .60
Effectiveness different 3 304 .10 .14 .06 .06 .21
Satisfaction same 8 869 .31 .35 .20 .09 .61
Satisfaction different 3 304 .09 .12 .10 –.01 .25
k = number of correlations; N = combined sample size; ; r¯ = mean uncorrected correlation; ρ = estimated true score correlation; SDρ =
standard deviation of estimated true score correlation; CV = credibility interval.
Table 4. Relationships Between Self and Other Ratings for Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership
Rating Construct k N r¯ ρ SDρ 10% CV 90% CV
Emotional intelligence 3 175 .15 .16 .00 .16 .16
Transformational leadership 4 202 .12 .14 .05 .07 .21
k = number of correlations; N = combined sample size; r¯ = mean uncorrected correlation; ρ = estimated true score correlation; SDρ = standard
deviation of estimated true score correlation; CV = credibility interval.
12 Har m s & Cre d é in Jo u r n a l o f le a d e r s hi p & orga n i z ati o n a l stu d i e s 17 (2010)
this decit have produced somewhat mixed results. Some
have taken the positive ndings as proof that EI was sig-
nicantly related to transformational leadership (Daus &
Ashkanasy, 2005), whereas others remain entirely skepti-
cal of the validity of the construct of EI itself, much less its
role in leadership outcomes (Locke, 2005). In such a situ-
ation, where the results of empirical research are not en-
tirely clear, meta-analyses can offer insight into the possi-
ble reasons for such confusion in addition to providing a
more precise estimate of the relationships in question.
Overall, our results linking EI with transformational
leadership variables were not as strong or as compelling
as advocates of EI testing predicted. Although we found
a moderate relationship between EI and transformational
leadership behaviors, this was only present for studies
where results may have been inated by the methodolog-
ical confounds of common method bias and socially de-
sirable responding. In studies where the raters of EI and
transformational leadership were not the same, the rela-
tionship was small but signicant, with effect sizes com-
parable to those found between personality traits and
transformational leadership (Bono & Judge, 2004).
Across the various facets of transformational leader-
ship, the results were broadly the same with studies us-
ing same-source raters showing moderate effects and
studies using multiple raters showing small or nonsig-
nicant effects. For other components of the full range
model of leadership (Bass & Avolio, 1997), the results of
our meta-analysis broadly supported our hypotheses.
Contingent reward had a positive relationship with EI at
comparable levels to that of transformational leadership.
Management-by-exception (active) showed no signicant
relationship with EI, and the passive forms of leadership,
management-by-exception, and laissez-faire leadership
were negatively related to EI.
Where data were available, we tested to see whether
the type of EI being assessed or the use of a particular EI
measure had an effect on the validity estimates. Overall,
trait measures of EI were more strongly related to trans-
formational leadership for both same-source and multi-
source ratings than were ability-based measures of EI.
The Bar-On (1997) Emotional Quotient Inventory had the
highest validity estimate for both methods. Both trait- and
ability-based measures showed similar reductions in va-
lidity when multiple sources for raters were used.
We also tested whether or not organizational rank of
the leader being assessed affected the validity of EI rat-
ings. Results showed that there was little difference in
validity estimates when only those who were ranked
manager or above were considered. One other potential
moderator, source of publication, also failed to show any
signicant effects on the results.
It was noted that the self–other agreement for both
EI and transformational leadership was quite low. This
was not entirely unexpected as prior studies of self–other
agreement on transformational leadership have found
similar or even lower levels of consensus (Atwater &
Yammarino, 1992). In a similar way, prior research has
demonstrated that observable traits, such as extraversion,
show higher levels of consensus across raters than do
less observable traits such as emotional stability (Funder,
1995; John & Robins, 1993). Moreover, Watson and col-
leagues (Watson, Hubbard, & Wiese, 2000) have shown
that self–other agreement for positive and negative emo-
tions is typically lower than that of Big Five traits. Low
agreement across sources is not indicative of lack of va-
lidity. Sources can differ in their estimates or attributions
of behavior and still show validity if they are using differ-
ent cues (Funder, 1995). It has been argued that one of the
reasons that there is seldom much agreement on ratings
of leadership effectiveness is that different kinds of raters
use different criteria (Hogan, Curphy, & Hogan, 1994).
For instance, subordinates tend to base their assessments
of leader effectiveness on the character and trustworthi-
ness of the leader, whereas their upper level supervisors
base their ratings of effectiveness on technical compe-
tence and productivity. Nonetheless, the lack of consen-
sus across raters of each of the constructs of interest could
partially explain the lower validity estimates seen in stud-
ies where multiple raters were used.
Although these results fail to support some of the more
extreme claims of EI proponents concerning the potential
role of EI in effective leadership, they did not rule out the
possibly that EI may play an important role. Although
there have been a number of studies conducted assess-
ing the role of EI in transformational leadership, very few
have actually been conducted using each of the different
measures of EI. Moreover, for each measure of EI, almost
no studies have been conducted using a multimethod
framework, so comparisons of effect size estimates across
methods are not entirely reliable. As newer EI assessment
tools are developed and older tests are rened with cri-
teria prediction in mind, it could be expected that valid-
ities will improve. Indeed, it has been pointed out that it
is unfair to judge the current state of research in EI using
results from early measures (Ashkanasy & Daus, 2005).
Nevertheless, these results do reect the current state of
research aimed at linking EI to both transformational and
transactional leadership.
It must also be noted that this meta-analysis has limi-
tations that may have affected the results. One poten-
tial problem is that, to date, there exists no well-designed
study that validates the proposed EI–leadership relation-
ship (Antonakis et al., 2009). For example, the majority of
the studies that were used in this meta-analysis relied on
self-reports as both predictors and criteria. As shown in the
results of this study, this has resulted in greatly inated va-
lidity estimates of the EI–leadership relationship compared
with studies that used a more rigorous multimethod ap-
proach and the passive forms of leadership, management-
emotion a l intel l i g enCe a n d tr a n sfor m ati o n al a n d tr a nsaC t i o na l le a d e rsHip 13
by-exception (passive) and laissez-faire leadership were
negatively related to EI. In addition to this, the majority of
studies used in this investigation were from unpublished
sources such as dissertations and may have lacked the
methodological rigor seen in peer-reviewed publications.
Although this is a potential concern, we did not nd sub-
stantially different validity estimates across the two types
of sources. A related concern is that there may be a num-
ber of unpublished studies that we were unable to include
in this study and that these studies may have shown diver-
gent effects from those reported here. Although this is also
a concern, we note again that the majority of studies in this
meta-analysis were from unpublished sources and that no
substantial difference was found between published and
unpublished sources.
Despite these generally weak results, this study does
suggest a number of theoretical implications for further
research on the topic of the potential effect of EI on trans-
formational leadership or any number of other leader-
ship outcomes. First, it is essential that researchers select
their criteria appropriately (Landy, 2005) and assess phe-
nomena using the most relevant source (Roberts, Harms,
Smith, Wood, & Webb, 2006). EI, which occurs mostly
within the individual, should be assessed using self-re-
ports or performance data. Transformational leadership
measures, on the other hand, are behavioral in nature
and best studied from the point of view of those who are
meant to be affected by them. As a consequence, further
research needs to focus more on using multiple ratings
sources to establish an accurate picture of the nature
of this relationship. Second, only in rare cases was EI
tested for incremental validity above and beyond mea-
sures of intelligence and personality. Given that previ-
ous research has demonstrated that measures of EI often
fail to add validity beyond such measures (Antonakis,
2004; Antonakis et al., 2009), further research aiming to
test the relationship between EI and leadership would
benet from such controls. Third, only a few of the stud-
ies included in this meta-analysis were conducted out-
side the United States and almost none outside the Eng-
lish-speaking world. Further research needs to make
efforts to test the validity of EI and related constructs
in different cultural contexts to establish the universal-
ity and possible cultural moderators of the phenomena
under investigation (Sadri, Weber, & Gentry, 2008). Fi-
nally, further research should look for possible modera-
tors of the relationship between EI and transformational
leadership such as the intensity of emotional displays or
the role of gender and age of leaders and followers.
In terms of practical implications, this study suggests
that the claims made by EI proponents are largely over-
stated, in particular those who market EI assessment tools
as management screening or training devices. It has even
been suggested that “given the sparse empirical evidence,
it is unethical and unconscionable to use these measures
in applied settings” (Antonakis et al., 2009, p. 248). In
fact, even noted proponents of EI have stated that “man-
agement practitioners need to take care that they do not
overemphasize the predictive value of emotional intelli-
gence in workplace settings” (Jordan, Ashton-James, &
Ashkanasy, 2006, p. 205). Given these concerns and the
limited evidence of the effectiveness of EI instruments as
predictors of effective leadership styles, we would sug-
gest that EI assessment devices be limited to usage for en-
couraging self-awareness and self-reection in managers
until better EI measures can be developed and validated.
In summary, the results of this study provide the rst
meta-analytic estimate of the relationship between EI and
transformational and transactional leadership behaviors.
Results indicate generally moderate validities when com-
mon method variance is present and low validities when
common method variance is absent. EI was positively re-
lated to the various dimensions of transformational lead-
ership and contingent reward behaviors but was either
unrelated or negatively related to management-by-excep-
tion or laissez-faire leadership behaviors. Furthermore,
we found that trait-based assessments of EI demonstrated
higher levels of validity than did ability-based measures
and that there was little agreement across raters for rat-
ings of either EI or transformational leadership. Given the
preponderance of evidence, it is evident that claims of EI
being the core of transformational leadership were over-
stated, but this study does demonstrate that EI may con-
tribute to successful leadership at some level.
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P. D. Harms is an Assistant Professor of Management at the
University of Nebraska–Lincoln. His primary research in-
terests include personality and leadership development,
status attainment, power motivation, and the psychologi-
cal experience of leadership.
Marcus Credé is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the
State University of New York at Albany. His primary re-
search interests include non-cognitive predictor of perfor-
mance in academic and work settings, the structure of such
non-cognitive predictors and the nature of performance, as
well as issues relating to the measurement of non-cognitive
attributes and performance.
... The trait of emotional intelligence can be developed, and it is the type of bene it over the Intelligence Quotient, as the emotional intelligence of the individuals can be changed (Harms & Crede, 2010). Parents, by nurturing their kids, play an important role in acquiring their emotional intelligence (Fonte, 2009;Hsieh, 2006). ...
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Parenting style has a great in luence on child development. Researchers are progressively aware of the importance of parenting style and its impact on children's upbringing. The current study was meant to examine the effect of authoritative parenting styles versus authoritarian, permissive and lexible parenting styles on medical students' emotional intelligence and personality traits. The study was a cross-sectional survey piloted at the University of Haripur from Nov 2021 to May 2022. Ensuing purposive sampling, two hundred medical students, both males and females, without any limitation of age, were approached at medical colleges of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The parental authority questionnaire, Emotional intelligence scale and Big ive personality inventory were used for data gathering. Pearson correlation analysis was computed to get association amid study variables. Linear regression analysis depicted that authoritarian parenting style has a signi icant negative effect on emotional intelligence (β=.50, p<.001), extraversion (β=-.57, p<.001), agreeableness (β=-.53, p<.001) and conscientiousness. Results also depicted that authoritative parenting style has a signi icant positive effect on emotional intelligence (β= .48, p<.001), extraversion (β= .40, p<.001), agreeableness (β= .45, p<.001), and on conscientiousness (β= .45, p<.001). Whereas authoritarian parenting style has a signi icant positive impact on neuroticism (β= .47, p<.001) and authoritative parenting has a signi icant negative effect on neuroticism (β=-.52, p<.001). Parenting style has been proven to be a signi icant contributor to enhancing emotional intelligence and promoting positive personality traits. The authoritative parenting style promotes emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Authoritarian parenting style is highly responsible for the rise in neuroticism and decreased emotional intelligence.
... Finally, EI might translate into greater self-confidence, self-awareness and empathy, which are essential components of interpersonal influence and, therefore, leadership performance (Harms & Credé, 2010). An overview of the evidence presented suggests that EI is likely to be related to all five performance dimensions, namely in-role, extra-role, adaptive, leadership and counterproductive performance. ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) plays an important role in the prediction of important work-related outcomes, such as work performance. Southern African scholars frequently deploy total scores of EI without considering its hierarchical structure. This study investigated the presence of a general factor, as manifested among the subscales of the EQ-i 2.0, using an archival dataset of 16 581 employees in Southern Africa. Orthogonal first-order, single-factor, higher-order, oblique lower-order and bifactor models were specified to investigate the hierarchical structure of EI. The evidence supports the notion that a total score could be calculated for EI based on the EQ-i 2.0. A total EI score also appears to be predictive of employees’ individual work performance, as measured by their managers. It might, therefore, be practically meaningful for practitioners to calculate or use a total score when making selection decisions about employees based on the EQ-i. 2.0.
... Findings have indicated a positive correlation between EI, performance, and leadership (Radhakrishnan and Udaya-Suriyan 2010;Cherniss 2001;Harms and Credé 2010;Vivian-Tang et al. 2010;Shipley et al. 2010;Hur et al. 2011;Lopez-Zafra et al. 2012;Boyatzis et al. 2012). EI is closely associated with transformational leaderships as its baseline components consist of empathy, self-confidence, and self-awareness, creating a systematic moral alteration in individuals and communities existing in social systems (Alston et al. 2010;Riaz and Haider 2010). ...
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Organisations have shifted from traditional beliefs to the incorporation of agile methods for attaining high levels of performance through its established goals and objectives. Emotional intelligence (EI) is envisaged to contribute to the achievement of higher levels of performance. With the current global economic crisis and the pandemic situation, it has become very critical to achieve higher levels of performance with limited resources. Countries confront challenges by way of attaining a higher level of emotional maturity and realisation in order to sail through the current economic storm. The Administrative and Diplomatic Officers (ADOs) are seen to shoulder a heavy responsibility in materialising this shift. This study analyses the impact of EI on organisational performance (OP) in the Malaysian public sector. A survey instrumentation was distributed to 700 ADOs based in Putrajaya, within five selected ministries, obtaining 375 valid responses. The results attained, analysed using the SMART-PLS method, affirm the significant positive effect of EI on OP, suggesting the need for an increase in the EI of civil servants by including EI indicators and measures in the areas of recruitment, learning and development, workforce planning, succession planning, and organisational development. EI should actively be adopted to increase awareness and maturity, which would thus enable civil servants to embrace the current challenging agile environment.
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Leadership is pivotal to the success of any organization being the engine that drives employee motivational process and employee performance. Based on this notion, this study examined leadership styles and employeesperformance in Dangote Nigeria plc, Lagos State, Nigeria with the objective of determining the relationship between transformational leadership style and employee performance in Dangote Nigeria plc; investigating the effect of autocratic leadership style on employees' performance in Dangote Nigeria plc; and Investigating the relationship between transactional leadership style and employees' performance in Dangote Nigeria plc. The study was underpinned by the trait and contingency theories respectively. Data were obtained from 220 respondents' through the primary mode and respondents were selected using the purposive, stratified and simple random sampling techniques from a population of 617. Findings revealed that all the three leadership styles examined in the study significantly affect and share connections with employees' performance but at varying degrees. The study concluded that leadership is the engine which drives the developmental process of any organisation; hence, absolute scrutiny of personnel's traits will go a long way in assisting the organisations make informed decisions on the style of leadership to be adopted, to achieve desired results towards enhancing organisational development and stability; thus, a well-articulated leadership style that will transcend into employee behavioural change should be adopted to allow for optimal performance.
Major events and unconventional circumstances impose a series of challenges on leaders around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic crisis which is characterized by constant change and improbability, forced the countries’ leadership to ramp up risk communication efforts. Under this condition, social media platforms played a critical role for quick dissemination of information. Consequently, the current study aims to understand the role of the Saudi Monarchy King Salman bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud on visual health risk communication during the COVID-19 pandemic through social media platforms like Twitter. It explores how virtual space builds an emotional connection to deal with the COVID-19 situation with the local and international community. The research incorporates a multidisciplinary perspective to understand the role of virtual space in constructing an emotional connection with the local and international community in the critical period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study uses Lasswell’s communication model and Goffman’s dramaturgical framework to review and analyze the official Twitter account “@KingSalman” of King Salman bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud. It explores how social media interaction supports the Saudi Monarchy’s leadership role, comparing front and backstage scripts. The findings indicate that Saudi Monarchy leadership’s influence on virtual space plays an essential part in coping with the COVID-19 crisis and building an emotional connection with the community. It supports enhancing the social capital through bonding, bridging, and linking across Saudi Arabia regions to fight against the Covid-19 pandemic. This study contributes to understanding leadership influence on virtual space and supports dealing with the COVID-19 crisis.
The issue of poor ethics and integrity among students as well as in the working communities is an alarming issue that needs to be addressed. The value of ethics can be built and instill during the school days especially during the tertiary level because entering the workforce will be their next milestone. Nevertheless, the issue of online academic cheating has been rampant in most universities, mostly due to the advancement of technologies and there are various creative methods to cheating these days and these students have improvised from the usual traditional cheating methods. Traditional classroom learning also has transcend to online learning these days due to COVID-19 pandemic that swept across the world since end of year 2019 till today. This chapter will discuss the concept of online learning, definitions of academic cheating, reasons for online cheating by students, various online cheating methods as well as the ways to mitigate the problems of online academic cheating among students in the twenty-first century.
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Growing competition in the field of culture, the need to compete in the leisure entertainment market forces museums to adapt to new conditions and rethink the structure of the institution, how exhibitions are created and presented, and other accompanying programs services. Meanwhile, museums still lack visitor satisfaction surveys, they are rarely conducted, and questionnaires help to understand the sociodemographic and social aspects of the audience but do not help the museum to find out what the visitor expected and whether the services met their expectations. Therefore, to stay creative and competitive in the marketplace, museums must consider the needs of their visitors, but at the same time keep in mind their emotional intelligence as a product and service provider. The organization’s emotional intelligence is a very important factor that can affect visitor satisfaction. The emotional intelligence of the museum employees has not yet been studied in museums with the aim of calculating whether it can correlate with visitor satisfaction with the museum. All research conducted so far has analyzed visitor satisfaction but did not consider museum staff as the most important link in the process.
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I examine the feasibility of developing emotional intelligence (EI) from the vantage point of organizational endeavor versus individual initiative. I challenge the view that organizations can readily develop the EI of individuals. I articulate a number of barriers that impair these endeavors. I propose a conceptual map, which illustrates the process of organizations attempting to develop EI, as well as the impact of these barriers. Instead of organizational endeavors to develop EI, I advocate a self-initiated modification of attitudes in order to foster enhanced self-awareness. I argue that this can give rise to the emotional and intellectual growth that lies at the heart of the ability conceptualization of EI. I conclude that the barriers identified can considerably impair the prospect of developing EI in an organizational context. Conversely, encouraging individuals to foster their EI using a personal development initiative may have great remedial effects, transcending the dichotomy of private and organizational life.
I conducted exploratory research that examined the relationships between psychological and behavioral attributes and charismatic leadership emergence in nascent leaders using a leadership service-learning project to provide the supportive context and tested hypotheses using partial least squares. Fully 45.2% of the variance in charismatic leadership emergence was explained by the psychological and behavioral attribute constructs. 1 found emotional intelligence and individual and collective behavioral attributes to be significantly related to charismatic leadership emergence in developing leaders. Contrary to expectations, the collective behavioral attributes construct was negatively related to their expected emergence, suggesting the collective influence of the group and any shared leader behaviors may actually work against the emergence of the charismatic leader.
Conference Paper
Each of several Monte Carlo simulations generated 100 sets of observed study correlations based on normal, heteroscedastic, or slightly nonlinear bivariate distributions, with one population correlation coefficient and true variance of 0. A version of J. E. Hunter and F. L. Schmidt's (1990b) meta-analysis was applied to each study set. Within simulations, <(rho)over cap> was accurate on average. <(sigma)over cap>(2)(rho) was biased; one would correctly conclude more than half the time that no moderator effects existed. However, cases of variation in <(rho)over cap> and especially in <(sigma)over cap>(2)(rho) indicated that results from individual meta-analyses could deviate substantially from what was found on average. Findings for these no-moderator cases offer applied psychologists some guidelines and cautions when drawing conclusions about true population correlations and true moderator effects (e.g., situational specificity, validity generalization) from meta-analytic results.
This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.