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Appearance Management Behavior and the Five Factor Model of Personality

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Abstract

Personality and appearance management variables such as clothing interest and appearance orientation have been the topic of previous studies. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship between personality and appearance emphasis. A sample of undergraduate female college students completed a questionnaire measuring five personality factors and accompanying facets. Students also completed a questionnaire that included nine appearance emphasis items. Linear regression demonstrated a relationship exists between certain personality variables and appearance emphasis variables. Neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience were found to be moderate predictors for appearance emphasis. The findings of this investigation have theoretical implications regarding the social-psychological aspects of appearance and dress and personality research.

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... As early as 1949, the link between clothing, emotions and mood revealed that the emotionally and socially maladjusted were more concerned about their clothing choices and appearance than those who were not (Stepat, 1949, in Johnson et al., 2007. Humphrey et al. (1971), and Worrell (1977, cited in Dubler and Gurel, 1984 showed how clothing can be used to express positive emotions or as a coping mechanism to overcome negative self-concepts. ...
... The Five Factor Model of personality based on traits, derived from Cattell's (1943) 35 bipolar clusters, is currently viewed as the most comprehensive model. It is strongly supported by empirical evidence (Digman, 1990;Goldberg, 1993;McCrae and Costa, 1996;O'Connor, 2002), and is used in clinical, organisational and other applied research (Bozionelos, 2004;Johnson et al., 2007). This model consists of five major dimensions of personality (NEOAC): ...
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Purpose – This study sets out to explore the application of psychological research methods (as yet not applied) in the fashion arena. The aim of this project is to quantify, formalise and explore the causal relationships between clothing style, preference, personality factors, emotions and mood with a view to a better understanding of the psychological profile of the fashion consumer. Design/methodology/approach – Using a uniformly composed sample of females, explorative quantitative research was carried out. Two sets of questionnaires were administered to the sample to examine emotion, mood and personality before trying on a set of eight garments categorized according to style; and again afterwards to examine emotion and mood while wearing each outfit. Photographs of participants were taken wearing each of the outfits. Participants then ranked the eight outfits in order of preference. SPSS analysis identified relationships and preference indicators. Findings – The results indicated strong relationships between mood and significant relationships between three out of five personality factors and clothing style preference; mood was a significant predictor of preference, whilst personality was moderate. Research limitations/implications – The research methodology necessitated lengthy time commitments from the participants and therefore limited the sample size, making generalization difficult. Based on the findings, the research requires further exploration of methods for practical application with a larger sample size. Practical implications – Personality, emotion and mood were shown to be managed and reflected through clothing with implications for assistance in consumer clothing decisions, service training, and strategies for personal shoppers, market segmentation and design. Originality/value – The methodology derived from a combination of research methods coupled with actual wearing experience, previously not studied together. This is original and demonstrates how important this combination is in order to fully appreciate the psychological profile of the fashion consumer.
... As early as 1949, the link between clothing, emotions and mood revealed that the emotionally and socially maladjusted were more concerned about their clothing choices and appearance than those who were not (Stepat, 1949, in Johnson et al., 2007. Humphrey et al. (1971), and Worrell (1977, cited in Dubler and Gurel, 1984 showed how clothing can be used to express positive emotions or as a coping mechanism to overcome negative self-concepts. ...
... The Five Factor Model of personality based on traits, derived from Cattell's (1943) 35 bipolar clusters, is currently viewed as the most comprehensive model. It is strongly supported by empirical evidence (Digman, 1990;Goldberg, 1993;McCrae and Costa, 1996;O'Connor, 2002), and is used in clinical, organisational and other applied research (Bozionelos, 2004;Johnson et al., 2007). This model consists of five major dimensions of personality (NEOAC): ...
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The aim of the study was to quantify and explore the causal relationships of appearance management through an analysis of one's own clothing and wearing experience, namely clothing preference, personality factors, emotion and mood, newness, familiarity of one's own clothing, and social interaction. Explorative quantitative and qualitative research was carried out using a uniformly composed sample of 10 size 12 females. A personality questionnaire was completed a short while prior to the study. A 10 day 'wearing diary' was administered to record where and when outfits were worn. Two questionnaires were completed measure emotion and mood, prior to changing into clothing (a daily baseline), and when they were wearing or changed clothing (dynamic mood). Qualitative information was recorded and included their thoughts and feelings other than the questionnaires, along with photographs that were taken by participants. Preference, social and newness ratings for each outfit worn were recorded after the 10 day period. SPSS analysis identified relationships and linear regression analysis identified preference indicators. Thematic analysis identified 9 themes regarding the management of mood, personality and social factors when wearing one's own clothing. The results indicated strong relationships between emotion, mood, personality and preference and how much newness and different levels of social interaction influence these factors. Participants tended to match their mood and personality with their clothing choices but in some cases also compensated. This research recognises the value of consumer psychological processes involved in appearance management, and has implications for further research into product involvement, post-purchase behaviour and retail strategies for personal shoppers.
... As women age, their appearance management behaviors tend to accelerate in response to the physical changes they undergo, such as thickening waistline, effects of gravity, inelasticity of skin, wrinkles, and age spots. The relationship between self-image and appearance has been documented by Fawkner and McMurray (2002), Johnson, Francis, and Burns (2007), Lennon and Rudd (1994), Reilly and Rudd (2007), Rudd (1996), and Rudd andLennon (2000, 2001) with appearance management behaviors employed as means to enhance feelings of self-worth. ...
... A plethora of psychological and social influences causing individuals to dress in particular ways have been previously identified. These include personality (Johnson et al., 2007), body image (Reilly & Rudd, 2008), social anxiety (Reilly & Rudd, 2007), and age and sexual orientation (Fawkner & McMurray, 2002). ...
... The Ghanaian apparel retail market is growing in contemporary times, and young adults are an integral segment. Generally, young adults have been found to be concerned with their appearance (Johnson et al., 2007). With young adult Ghanaians, this stage of life presents some level of independence with regards to appearance management. ...
... Although several concepts of consumer behaviour have been studied among Ghanaian consumers, the case of shopping styles within the decision-making style context has not yet been explored. Moreover, the beliefs, perceptions and attitudes of consumers in different countries are significantly different (Rathnayake, 2011), and the level of involvement and concerns related to appearance management differ among individuals (Kaiser, 1997) and cultures (Johnson et al., 2007). Therefore, the present study sought to identify apparel shopping styles in a section of the Ghanaian populace (female young adults) while examining the applicability of Sproles and Kendall's (1986) widely-used CSI within the Ghanaian context. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify the apparel shopping styles of Ghanaian female young adults and to assess the applicability of the consumer styles inventory (CSI) within the Ghanaian context. Design/methodology/approach A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 405 Ghanaian female undergraduate students aged 18–25 years from the University of Ghana. The CSI was used to collect data and these were analyzed using principal component analysis. Findings The results showed that the subjects adopted multiple shopping styles when scouting for stores and selecting apparel for managing their appearance. Seven of the CSI dimensions were confirmed (perfectionism, brand consciousness, novelty-fashion consciousness, confused by over-choice, impulsive carelessness, recreational hedonism and habitual brand loyalty). A new shopping style, indifference shopping orientation was identified. Practical implications Market segmentation, product development and marketing strategies should be tailored to the shopping styles of female young consumers in Ghana. Originality/value This study, for the first time, uses the consumer characteristic approach and the CSI to identify the apparel decision-making styles of young adult female Ghanaians. This fulfils the need for the study of shopping styles, which is vital for producers and marketers to enable them to make informed decisions to meet specific needs and expectations of these cohorts of consumers.
... Gradul în care un individ este preocupat de impresia transmisă prin vestimentaţie şi personalitate a fost pus în evidenţă într-un experiment proiectat de Tricia W. Johnson, Sally K. Francis şi Levis D. Burns (2007). În acest sens, autorii au gândit un instrument de măsurare a preocupării subiecţilor de a transmite impresii pozitive celorlalţi, propunând o scală cu 9 itemi, primii cinci măsurând interesul vestimentar şi ceilalţi patru, sensibilitatea cu privire la opiniile altora. ...
... She noted that appearance management included attention, 1 planning, organising, decisions, and acts related to one's personal appearance. Johnson, Francis, and Burn (2007) extended Kaiser's definition to include the idea that appearance management takes into consideration an outsider's perspective and aspects of communication of the self. These researchers defined appearance management as 'a process enacted with others in mind that involves experimentation and self-expression' (p. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore viewpoints on factors that could prevent engagement in risky appearance-management behaviours (AMBs). A convenience sample of 92 undergraduate women completed a questionnaire that contained a measure of AMBs and four open-ended questions. Participants identified individual, social, and cultural factors underlying their non-engagement in risky behaviours. They also compensated for not practicing risky behaviours. Factors internal to an individual (e.g. low self-esteem) and external to an individual (e.g. media exposure) were identified as possible inducements to risky behaviours. Findings provide information useful for incorporation into strategies designed to deter risky AMBs with young adults.
... Those who score low on this trait are calm, relaxed, unemotional, secure, selfsatisfied, even-tempered, and unflappable (McCrae & John, 1992;Pervin, 1996). Researchers have found that one of the predictors of placing a significant emphasis on appearance is neuroticism (Johnson, Francis, & Burns, 2007). High scores on neuroticism have also been linked to negative appearance evaluations, a high importance being placed on appearance and presentation (Davis, Dionne, & Shuster, 2001;Kvalem, von Soest, Roald, & Skolleborg, 2006), and linked to dissatisfaction with facial appearance (Thomas & Goldberg, 1995). ...
Article
page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. The purpose of our study was to examine the antecedents to use of clothing to alter mood by identifying personality traits, social appearance anxiety, clothing in relation to self as structure (CSS), and clothing functions. Undergraduate women participated (n = 310) in the study. Path analysis using structural equation modelling was used to test our hypothesised model. Perfectionism was related to social appearance anxiety and CSS. Neuroticism was related to social appearance anxiety. Individuals who experienced social appearance anxiety tended to select clothing for its ability to provide comfort, camouflage flaws in appearance, and provide assurance. Individuals who felt a close connection between clothing and the self (CSS) tended to select clothing for its ability to camouflage flaws in appearance and provide assurance, fashionability, and individuality. CSS in combination with the camouflage clothing function played the most important role in predicting the use of clothing to alter mood.
... 에 따른 복장이미지 형용사 쌍을 선정하였다(I. Kim & Yoo, 1997; Park, 1985) 그 (Chung & Rhee, 1992; Chung & Rhee, 1993 패션비즈니스 제 권 호 17 5 172 Lee & Johnson, 2009; Johnson, Francis, & Burns, 2007). ...
Article
This study conducts a survey based on 425 Chinese females in their twenties to thirties in order to examine the relevance between the cognitions of appearance effectiveness, ideal appearance seeking behavior and clothing image preference which have effects on their self-identity and interpersonal relations. The results of this study are as follows ; First, from the factor analysis for cognition of appearance effectiveness, and ideal appearance seeking behavior, a total of 4 factors such as psychological benefits, social benefits factors, pursuit of plastic surgery and pursuit of beauty treatment are being were drawn. As a result, there are significant correlations between heights of demographic variables and the cognition of appearance effectiveness, together with the ideal appearance seeking behavior. Respondents with higher heights represent the higher cognitions of appearance effectiveness, while the respondents with lower heights show more pursuits of beauty treatment behavior to reach the ideal image. Second, factor analysis of the clothing images are 4 factors such as classic-trendy, natural-dynamic, casual-formal, and masculine-feminine images. There are significant correlations between the four factors from clothing preference images and four factors from the cognition of appearance effectiveness, and ideal appearance seeking behavior. This suggests that higher social status such as job, income, residential district, and age among the demographic factors has greater effects on the clothing image preference.
... In another study, Johnson, Francis, and Burns, (2007) investigated the relationship between personality and appearance emphasis by means of questionnaires. Two questionnaires, one measuring five personality factors and the other including nine appearance emphasis items were administered to a sample of undergraduate female college students. ...
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This paper sets out to examine the differences in people's reactions to each other as a function of dress style to see how a stranger clothed in different modes of dress is reacted against. Effects of two dress conditions, the former normally worn by upper-middle class members of society and the latter often worn by lower-class members (style A and style B, hereafter), were investigated under controlled conditions. To this end, three female housewives clothed in the two sets of polar garment styles were selected as buyers to have shopping experiences in different settings. Results indicated that participants (clients) of the study received different reactions from their respondents (sellers) in the two different conditions of dressing. In other words, participants in style A were accepted more readily than when they were dressed in the style B. This seems to indicate that clothing has a great impact on social interaction and impression management.
... ough irrelevant, the impression of good-looking dress might get admiration from the colleagues, subordinate staff, and even outsiders. An individual's personality can be revealed through appearance depending on importance of clothing [1], and choice in clothing can communicate responsibility, status, power, and the ability to be successful [2]. In students' judgments, teachers' formal dress represents competency and e dress allows the person's speaking to take more authorization of ideas [4]. ...
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Dress which has had the influences on the perceptions of viewers whether students or outsiders, is more than just a wearing. At first instance, the outlook imposes a very positive expectation subjective to the likeliness and behavior pattern of the students. A positive impression ultimately imposes a positive atmosphere of learning toward the students’ mind. How the dress usually influences the learning of students depending on students’ attitude is the prime concern of this study. For validation of ideas, 405 respondents' judgments were justified from eight private universities of Bangladesh through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Depending on their relationship, three hypotheses such as students’ attitude to students’ learning, dress to students’ attitude, and finally dress to students’ learning were strongly supported, with path coefficients of 0.483, 0.533, and 0.425, respectively. These rationalizations finally signify the new mood of appearance in student learning paradigms in context to influential role-playing foundation of teachers into the mind of learners.
... In the modern era clothes have developed beyond the merely functional and now provide a rich source of information about the wearer including sex, age, social status, profession, cultural background, sub-culture and even personality ( Jackson, 1992;Johnson, 2007). Indeed, it "is impossible to wear clothes without transmitting social signals. ...
Article
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Clothing and make-up signal a wide range of characteristics including age, sex and sexual motivation. The present study examined the change from daywear to clothing/make-up worn in preparation for a ‘night out’ that would include a visit to a nightclub in over one hundred young women living in the UK. Amounts of flesh exposed were derived from photographs of participants and intensity of make-up products used determined using the ‘Methuen handbook of colour’. Results showed marked increases in amounts of flesh exposed, heel heights of shoes, use of a wider range of makeup products and increases in the colour intensity of many of those products, particularly those used on the lips and eyes. It is concluded that the young women in this study prepared themselves for a ‘night out’ that would include a visit to a nightclub in ways designed to maximise the rich opportunities to attract the attention of potential sexual partners provided by such venues
... Indeed, a large body of literature has already examined the effect of clothing as a signal shaping impressions, but only a marginal amount of research has been done on the function of dress as an embodiment practice by the wearer. For example, there is evidence for a clear relationship between one's emphasis on appearance and both neuroticism and extraversion (Johnson, Francis, & Burns, 2007), as well as on the strategic choice of dress to manipulate appearance with the aim of meeting cultural ideals of masculinity (Frith & Gleeson, 2004). Further evidence reveals that individuals in public service feel more competent, authoritative, trustworthy, and productive when wearing either formal or casual business attire (Karl et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Sneakers at a product launch, a leather jacket when heads of state meet, sunglasses at a formal reception. While popular media relishes leaders who catch the eye by way of such distinctive fashion, we know little about how this salient daily practice of dress specifically affects perceptions of leaders in their daily business. Addressing this gap, we investigated how dress impacts perceptions and approval of a leader. Firstly, we found formal attire to lead to ascriptions of prototypicality but not charisma (Study 1). Secondly, leaders’ charisma and approval were higher when a person’s clothing style contrasted their organization’s culture (Study 2). Lastly, we replicated the impact of informal clothing on both leader approval and charisma in a sample of CEOs of Fortune 1000 companies (Studies 3 and 4). Findings lend support to the notion that leaders can manipulate their style of attire to actively shape their followers’ impressions of themselves.
... Appearance is another feature that has been related to personality and behavior in [42]. Appearance management has been defined as all activities and thought process leading to the purchase and wear of clothing items. ...
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This work presents a model based on Deep Neural Networks for the prediction of apparent personality. It can quantify personality traits with the Five-Factor model (Big Five) from a Portrait image. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach, a new corpus of 30,935 portraits with their associated personality trait was extracted from an existing resource of videos (First Impressions, ChaLearn) tagged with redundant pairwise comparisons to ensure consistency. We propose several models using Convolutional Neural Networks to automatically extract features from a portrait that are indicators of personality traits; then the models classify these characteristics into a binary class for each Big Five factor: openness to experience (O), conscientiousness (C), extraversion (E), agreeableness (A), and neuroticism (N). In addition, we experiment with feature encoding and transfer learning to enrich the representation of images with additional untagged portraits (~45,000 and ~200M), reaching a percentage of accuracy within the state of the art (albeit not directly comparable), obtaining 65.86% as a classifier averaging the 5 factors (O=61.48%, C=69.56%, E=73.23%, A=60.68%, N=64.35%). Compared to human judgment (mean accuracy of 56.66%), the model obtained higher average performance and higher accuracy in 4 of the 5 factors of the Big Five model. In addition, in comparison with the state of the art this model shows several advantages: (1) it requires only a single portrait to make the prediction, being this a non-invasive and easily accessible resource (e.g. selfies) (2) the extraction of features from the portrait is done automatically, (3) a single model performs the extraction of characteristics and classification.
... Increasing public self-awareness may increase concern about one's personal appearance as that is one aspect of the self that is visible to the public. The level of concern that a student has for their appearance may be due to a number of different psychological and social factors that are beyond the control of the instructor, including aspects of personality (Johnson et al., 2007), culture, gender, and relationship status (Aune & Aune, 1994). As all these factors cannot possibly be addressed by an instructor, we speculate that if students are expecting to turn on their cameras, they will more likely prepare their appearance in a manner that assuages their individual concerns about being seen. ...
Article
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Enrollment in courses taught remotely in higher education has been on the rise, with a recent surge in response to a global pandemic. While adapting this form of teaching, instructors familiar with traditional face-to-face methods are now met with a new set of challenges, including students not turning on their cameras during synchronous class meetings held via videoconferencing. After transitioning to emergency remote instruction in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our introductory biology course shifted all in-person laboratory sections into synchronous class meetings held via the Zoom videoconferencing program. Out of consideration for students, we established a policy that video camera use during class was optional, but encouraged. However, by the end of the semester, several of our instructors and students reported lower than desired camera use that diminished the educational experience. We surveyed students to better understand why they did not turn on their cameras. We confirmed several predicted reasons including the most frequently reported: being concerned about personal appearance. Other reasons included being concerned about other people and the physical location being seen in the background and having a weak internet connection, all of which our exploratory analyses suggest may disproportionately influence underrepresented minorities. Additionally, some students revealed to us that social norms also play a role in camera use. This information was used to develop strategies to encourage –without requiring– camera use while promoting equity and inclusion. Broadly, these strategies are to not require camera use, explicitly encourage usage while establishing norms, address potential distractions, engage students with active learning, and understand your students’ challenges through surveys. While the demographics and needs of students vary by course and institution, our recommendations will likely be directly helpful to many instructors and also serve as a model for gathering data to develop strategies more tailored for other student populations.
Chapter
Why in the same situations different consumers do not act similarly? And if they behave differently, then they should feel and reason differently as well. One of the most salient features of emotion is the pronounced variability among individuals in their reactions to emotional incentives and in their dispositional mood. Collectively, these individual differences have been described as the affective style (Davidson 2004). At issue, however, are not just the emotional reactions but the emotional memory and perception as well. Individual differences in the form of experience, perception, and attention impact the nature of information recorded in associative memories and lead to different perspectives on a person’s inner and outer world.
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This study aims to examine the effect of talent types on the purchasing behaviour of beauty-service products in 367 adults(female and male). The present study is the first to consider both talent types and the purchasing behaviour of beauty-service products correlates to appearance management behaviour. Frequency analysis showed that the mean of 8 talent types of 367 participants was 3.324. The highest talent type of 367 participants was interpersonal talent, the lowest talent type was logical-mathematical talent among 8 talent types. There were statistically significant relationships between the talent types(specially, bodily-kinesthetic talent and interpersonal talent) and the purchasing criteria of beauty-service products on the correlation analysis. And the effects of 8 talent types on the purchasing frequency of 4 beauty-service products were significant on the regression analysis, specifically, the results showed that the most significant among 8 talent factors was the interpersonal talent, next, the bodily-kinesthetic was. Thus, the more purchasing frequency of beauty-services products, the higher interpersonal talent were, and the better affinity with others were. As a results, the interpersonal talent factor and bodily-kinesthetic talent factor among 8 talent factors were ultimately affecting the appearance management behaviour. The higher the score, it was concluded that the subject was more active in beauty-related behavior. Conclusively, the appearance is a form of personal asset for one's self-fulfillment, and strong and beautiful appearance is a medium to improve self-esteem and dominance. It is possessing a significant influence in personal satisfaction, self-identity, and social success.
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This study aims to define the influences of an individual's talent types and body consciousness factors on high((intense)-level appearance management behavior in 367 adults(female 172 and male 195). The present study is the first to consider both human talent type and the body consciousness on the high level-appearance management behavior correlates to appearance management behaviour. According to the result of the analysis, plastic surgery on body forms or faces are done by few people. However, straightening teeth, ear piercing, removal of spots or imperfections, and eyebrow tattoos are conducted by many consumers without much resistance. It is rather widely accepted, despite the fact that it can cause pain, discomfort, and side-effects. Furthermore, although excessive acts such as muscle training, dieting, weight managing, and oriental treatments can lead to side-effects, the standardized efficient beta value turned out to be high for these treatments. Thus, this study suggests that both the interpersonal talent among 8 talent factors and 2 body consciousness factors contributes to the reinforcement of the self-identity through high level-appearance management behaviors, but except risky plastic surgery. Therefore, this study supports the previous researches that body consciousness composed of self-source, which is desires and efforts to achieve the ideal body, and external-source, which is the internalization of other people's feedbacks.
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Graduation date: 2009 Presentation date: 2008-06-05 This study investigated the relationships among the individual’s chronological age, personality, perceived social support, appearance schema, appearance appraisal and the resultant coping strategies to overcome body dissatisfaction. Thirty four hypotheses were developed to meet the objectives of this study. The objectives were achieved by conducting two studies. Each of the two studies collected data utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods of survey and semi structured interviews respectively. Study 1 tested six hypotheses, investigating the relationship between self esteem, personality, social support and appearance appraisal. The survey included a sample size of 260 female undergraduate students each completing four standardized measures of self esteem, personality, perceived social support and appearance appraisal. The quantitative data were analyzed using multiple regression. The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 students. The respondents in this study were in the age range of 18-25 years. The multiple regression analysis indicated that self esteem and neuroticism demonstrated significant effect on appearance appraisal. Although the results were inconsistent regarding the moderating effect perceived social support. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed by coding the transcribed interviews thematically, and identifying common patterns of behavior, reasons, and expectations of the respondents. The findings from interviews indicated that perceived social support had an influence on how women appraised their appearance. The interviews also illustrated that appraisal of the social environment as stressful or non stressful was dependent to some extent on the individual’s self esteem. Study 2 tested twenty eight hypotheses, investigating the relationship between age, personality, appearance schema, appearance appraisal and the resultant coping strategies to overcome body dissatisfaction. This survey included a sample size of 277 female respondents in the age range of 18-86 years each completing four standardized measures of personality, appearance schema, appearance appraisal and body image coping strategies. The data analysis of the quantitative data was conducted using path analysis. The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women between the ages of 24- 65 years. The path analysis showed that neuroticism and age significantly predicted the appearance schema, appearance appraisal and body image coping strategy. The analysis also demonstrated that appearance schema and appearance appraisal mediated the relationship between independent variables (personality and age) and dependent variable (body image coping strategies). The interviews illustrate that women perceptions and behavior towards appearance are defined and modified through individual experiences and events across life. The findings of Study 1 (utilizing analysis of qualitative and quantitative data) demonstrated that self esteem and Neuroticism significantly and substantively predicted appearance appraisal, whereas the findings related to interaction effect of perceived social support failed to demonstrate significance. The direct effect of perceived social support on appearance appraisal was found to be inconsistent. Nevertheless, findings of Study 2 failed to demonstrated direct effect of Neuroticism on appearance schema and body image strategies. Although significant indirect effects of Neuroticism on the coping strategies through appearance schema, as well as indirect effect of Neuroticism on the coping strategies through appearance appraisal were found. Although the study aimed to test the mediating effect of appearance schema and appearance appraisal, it was found that appearance schema demonstrated both mediating and moderating effect whereas, appearance appraisal demonstrated only mediating effects on the relationship between personality and body image coping strategies. Increase in chronological age was found to have a significant negative relationship with appearance schema. The effect of age on coping strategies demonstrated that increase in age was strongly associated with increase in use of appearance fixing strategy. This study has implications for the field of social psychology of appearance and personality psychology. The findings of the present study imply that a relationship does exist between self esteem and appearance appraisal, as well as personality traits of neuroticism and appearance appraisal. Hence, the results have implications for counselors to encourage women and their family to emphasize on the protective effect of self esteem that can prevent women from negatively appraising their appearance and use harmful strategies to overcome their body dissatisfaction. Furthermore, in case of future studies investigating the role of personality it would be valuable to investigate the relationship of appearance behavior with individual traits rather than the five factors. We also recommend including self efficacy in studies investigating cohort effect or age effects on appearance related behavior. Finally for future research it would be valuable to utilize longitudinal designs and a heterogeneous population which will assist in observing if these findings could be generalized to a larger population across U.S.A. pdf document
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A battery of tests and a multioariate approach are used to inoestigate the relationships between dress and personality for both males and females. Clothing, an important aspect of nonverbal behavior, serves a wide variety of communicative functions. Rosencrantz (12) found that working women high in clothing awareness were of an upper social class, belonged to many organizations , attained a higher level of education, had higher incomes and verbal intelligence, and, for the most part, were married to white-collar workers. Compton (4) found several important relationships between design and color preferences and personality and occupational interests, and concluded that people select fabric and color to help them conform to their image of the ideal self. One of the most extensive and widely cited clothing studies which looked at wearer characteristics was conducted by Aiken (1). One hundred and sixty women completed a battery of individual examinations and a clothing questionnaire , from which the following conclusions were drawn: decoration in dress correlated positively with such traits as conformity, sociability, and non-in-tellectualism; comfort in dress correlated positively with self-control and ex-troversion; interest in dress correlated positively with compliance, stereotypic thinking, social conscientiousness, and insecurity; conformity in dress correlated positively with social conformity, restraint, and submissiveness; and, last, economy in dress was found to correlate positively with responsibility, alertness, efficiency, and precision.
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Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits combining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at both levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of NEO-PI-R facet scales. Facet analysis-the interpretation of a scale in terms of the specific facets with which it correlates-is illustrated using alternative measures of the five-factor model and occupational scales. Finally, the hierarchical interpretation of personality profiles is discussed. Interpretation on the domain level yields a rapid understanding of the individual interpretation of specific facet scales gives a more detailed assessment.
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The objective of the study is to understand the relationships between each of the Big Five Personality Traits and the concept of brand evangelism. The hypotheses tested are whether brand evangelism relates to each of the Big 5 Personality Traits consisting of extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and agreeableness. A brand evangelist frequently exhibits a strong desire to influence consumption behavior. The research method of this study was based on the implementation of 528 self-administered questionnaires. The results include descriptive characteristics, Cronbach’s alphas, correlations and a multivariate regression model for testing the hypotheses. The results of the overall regression model show significance. Brand evangelism is significantly related to extraversion, openness and neuroticism. Future research is also discussed as understanding these personality traits and what drives individuals with these traits to become brand evangelists can strengthen a company’s success with its brand(s).
Article
This study examined several personal characteristics of frequent clothing buyers. The data came from a survey of 533 adult consumers including college students and non-students. As shown in prior studies of clothing as well as other products, the heavy users in this study described themselves as involved, innovative, and knowledgeable, and as opinion leaders. They were also more likely to view new fashions as a means of expressing social and personal identity than light users. These traits were consistent for both men and women of all ages. Moreover, the psychological constructs were more strongly associated with usage than were levels of age, education, and income. The findings extend a profile of frequent clothing buyers and support an argument that heavy usage of many product categories is associated with similar psychological traits.
Article
Focuses on the field of personality psychology as it is studied by researchers. This book offers students a picture of the field and of the challenges faced by personality psychologists. It also explores how research is put to use in the real world. The book examines the structure of personality--including traits, motives, and cognition--and the determinants of the unfolding of personality over time. In addition, it provides in-depth consideration of contemporary areas of research such as the self, unconscious processes, mind-body connections, and reasons why people do and do not change. Cross-cultural research, positive psychology and the biological foundations of personality are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A classic in the field of personality since 1968, "Personality Theories: A Comparative Analysis," Fifth Edition, retains its highly successful comparative approach. The book discusses and analyzes modern and classic theories of personality and compares and contrasts them in order to illuminate the overall models of human behavior they express. Differences between the models highlight the issue at the forefront in the field today. Professor Maddi draws upon his extensive coverage of theory and research to attempt to resolve these issues and point toward promising future approaches. The fifth edition presents a new Chapter Two on methods in Personality Study and Chapter Fifteen on Psychotherapy: An Assessment. These new materials bring the concreteness of procedure and application to the revision. The more informal writing style of the "new edition" makes the material more accessible to the reader. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Objectification theory posits that the sexualization of women in our culture socializes them to ‘self-objectify’ — that is, to place considerable emphasis on their appearance and to have diminished confidence in competence-related activities. Recent studies have found that self-objectification is associated with a number of negative consequences for women such as symptoms of disordered eating, body shame, and poor math performance. The present study is the first to consider both physical and personality correlates of self-objectification. In a sample of young women, we investigated, using multiple regression procedures, whether certain physical and personality traits would predict the variance in a measure of appearance orientation. We found that narcissistic and neurotic traits were positively related to the dependent variable, and that women who had higher facial-attractiveness ratings were also more appearance focused, but only if they had low perfectionism scores. Results are discussed in the context of expectancy effects on personality development.
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Abstracted in Dissertation abstracts, v. 24 (1964) no. 7, p. 2887-2888. Vita. Microfilm copy (positive) of typescript. Microfilm. s Thesis--Ohio State University. Bibliography: leaves 133-136.
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The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Research using both natural language adjectives and theoretically based personality questionnaires supports the comprehensiveness of the model and its applicability across observers and cultures. This article summarizes the history of the model and its supporting evidence; discusses conceptions of the nature of the factors; and outlines an agenda for theorizing about the origins and operation of the factors. We argue that the model should prove useful both for individual assessment and for the elucidation of a number of topics of interest to personality psychologists.
Type talk: Or how to determine your personality type and change your life
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Knapper, C. K. (1969). The relationship between per-sonality and style of dress. Unpublished doctoral dis-sertation, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
Affect and cognition in appearance management: A review
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