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The Darker Side of Social Anxiety: When Aggressive Impulsivity Prevails Over Shy Inhibition

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Abstract

The majority of definitions, research studies, and treatment programs that focus on social anxiety characterize the prototypical person with the disorder as shy, submissive, inhibited, and risk averse. This stereotype, however, has been challenged recently. Specifically, a subset of people with social anxiety who are aggressive, impulsive novelty seekers deviate from that prototype. People with this atypical profile show greater functional impairment and are less likely to complete or fare well in treatment compared with inhibited socially anxious people. The difference between these two groups of people with social anxiety cannot be explained by the severity, type, or number of social fears, nor by co-occurring anxiety and mood disorders. Conclusions about the nature, course, and treatment of social anxiety may be compromised by not attending to diverse behaviors and self-regulatory styles. These concerns may be compounded in neurobiological and clinical studies of people with social anxiety problems that rely on smaller samples to make claims about brain patterns and the efficacy of particular treatments.

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... Comparing the BIS-11 scores of the groups the mean total BIS-11 scores of the SAD group were found to be significantly higher than the mean total BIS-11 scores of the control group. Several studies in the literature suggest that some subgroups of patients with SAD have higher impulsivity characteristics than others (24)(25)(26)(27). Del Carlo et al. examined the characteristics of impulsivity and additional psychiatric disorders in patients with anxiety disorders and found that the impulsivity characteristics of the anxiety disorders (Agoraphobia, Panic Disorder, and SAD) were higher than those of healthy controls (24). ...
... A more robust examination of this causal relationship may be possible in future studies with larger samples and longer patient follow-ups. However, the findings of the present study support the current literature, which suggests that SAD is an anxiety disorder, which might have impulsivity characteristics (24)(25)(26)(27). ...
... Impulsivity can also affect symptom severity and treatment outcomes of patients with any kind of mental disorders (16)(17)(18)26). Therefore, one main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and symptom severity levels of patients with SAD. ...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of impulsivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and to investigate relationships between these characteristics and the severity of SAD. Method: The sample consisted of outpatients (n=42) who had been diagnosed with only SAD based on the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, in addition to healthy individuals (n=51) serving as the control group. Data collection tools were the sociodemographic form, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Results: The mean total score of the BIS-11 in the SAD group was found to be significantly higher than the mean total BIS-11 score in the control group (p <0.001). Compared to the mean total ASI-3 score, the SAD group's mean score was significantly higher than the control groups mean scores (p <0.001). The analysis of variance revealed that the cognitive and social dimensions and total ASI-3 scores were positively correlated with total LSAS scores (r=0.434, r=0.427, and r=0.351, respectively). Additionally, there was a negative correlation between the attention impulsivity subscore and the LSAS avoidance subscore (r=- 0.353). Discussion: Patients with SAD have more impulsivity and anxiety sensitivity characteristics than healthy individuals. Moreover, anxiety sensitivity and attention impulsivity characteristics of patients with SAD are associated with symptom severity.
... A growing literature has identified a small and uncharacteristic subgroup of highly socially anxious individuals who are also impulsive among clinical adults (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Kashdan et al., 2009;Mörtberg et al., 2014), and subclinical early adolescents (Tillfors, Mörtberg, et al., 2013; as well as adults Nicholls et al., 2014). Using a subclinical longitudinal sample of Swedish early adolescents (N T1 = 2,509, M age = 14.80; 52.6% girls), we expected to identify similar subgroups of social anxiety-impulsivity, including the atypical Anxious-Impulsive subgroup. ...
... Importantly, being socially anxious and impulsive appears to be linked to various negative outcomes over time. Riskprone behavior can be adaptive in the short term by helping to reduce anxiety via for instance taking drugs, but can be detrimental in the long term and compromise individual's well-being and social adjustment (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). Because of the (expectedly) small number of people in the atypical anxious-impulsive subgroup, it is likely to go undetected by those whose job it is to help alleviate anxiety, such as mental health professionals (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). ...
... Riskprone behavior can be adaptive in the short term by helping to reduce anxiety via for instance taking drugs, but can be detrimental in the long term and compromise individual's well-being and social adjustment (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). Because of the (expectedly) small number of people in the atypical anxious-impulsive subgroup, it is likely to go undetected by those whose job it is to help alleviate anxiety, such as mental health professionals (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). Understanding heterogeneous behavior patterns of young people with elevated levels of social anxiety and impulsivity is therefore crucial if we are to help prevent potentially negative consequences of this counterintuitive trait combination. ...
Article
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A growing body of research has acknowledged the heterogeneity of subclinical social anxiety, identifying a subgroup of individuals who exhibit high levels of impulsivity. In a sample of Swedish early adolescents ( N = 2,509, M age = 13.64; 52.8% girls), we conducted latent transition analyses (LTA) to identify four classes of subclinical social anxiety-impulsivity across three time points. We identified a Low Social Anxiety-Low Impulsivity class, as well as a High Anxiety-High Impulsivity class for girls and boys, which had high levels of Time-4 internalizing problems. The latter class was less stable but larger for boys. There was also a more typical High Anxiety-Low Impulsivity class for both genders. Nevertheless, Low Anxiety-High Impulsivity girls and boys fared the worst in terms of both internalizing and externalizing problems later on. To our knowledge, this is the first study to adopt an LTA framework to investigate trajectories of early adolescent social anxiety-impulsivity over time.
... However, these same behaviors appear to detract from quality of life in the longer term, perhaps by not helping develop enduring sources of pleasure like social relationships (Kashdan, McKnight, Richey, & Hofmann, 2009;Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). It is worth noting that research has yet to clarify whether these impulsive approach behaviors are a distinctive atypical pattern of social anxiety or if they occur in people who are severely depleted in self-regulatory resources due to biological predispositions or severity of emotion regulation or attention control impairments discussed earlier in this chapter. ...
... A subset of socially anxious people appear to engage in excitable, impulsive, and novelty-seeking behavior patterns, perhaps as a result of similar underlying self-regulatory problems. While this subset reports short-term pleasures such as increased sexual activity and socializing, these experiences fail to translate into lasting satisfaction or well-being POSITIVITY DEFICITS IN SOCIAL ANXIETY 24 Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). Consequently, positivity deficits for people with social anxiety appear to be on multiple levels (e.g., generation of positive events, in-the-moment experience of such events, and later reflection on these events), but the degree of impairment at these various levels may differ by person. ...
Chapter
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The primary purpose of this chapter is to review neglected, under-appreciated elements of positivity that are relevant to the phenomenology and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and distinguish SAD from other emotional disorders. We present theory and research on infrequent positive events, attenuated positive experiences, impaired attention to positive stimuli, atypical reactions to overtly positive social situations, and a meaningful subset of individuals who show signs of impulsive, short-lived positive events. Methodological advances are introduced along with new avenues for enhancing positive experiences, positive events, and a sense of meaning and purpose in life in individuals with social anxiety difficulties. Taken together, this chapter broadens theory, research, and treatment efforts to encapsulate the positive spectrum of human functioning.
... Perhaps individuals with higher scores on the FNE scale felt a stronger drive to defend themselves against the perceived attack or insult, using anger and aggression, than participants with higher scores on the social phobia scale in the current study. Moreover, some research has shown two distinct subgroups of social phobia (see Kashdan and McKnight 2010), one characterised by shy, submissive behaviour, and the second characterised by aggressive and impulsive behaviour. It is possible that the two different measures used, or perhaps other factors related to the studies discussed here, captured the different subgroups of social phobia found by Kashdan and McKnight (2010). ...
... Moreover, some research has shown two distinct subgroups of social phobia (see Kashdan and McKnight 2010), one characterised by shy, submissive behaviour, and the second characterised by aggressive and impulsive behaviour. It is possible that the two different measures used, or perhaps other factors related to the studies discussed here, captured the different subgroups of social phobia found by Kashdan and McKnight (2010). The current research adds to the literature by examining the relationships between symptoms of discrete internalising disorders and anger and aggression in an adolescent sample. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the role of anger in the relationships between various internalising symptoms and direct and indirect aggression. A sample of 241 adolescents aged 12–17 years completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Buss–Warren Aggression Questionnaire (AQ-15). Symptoms of panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and depression, but not social phobia, were positively correlated with anger, direct aggression and indirect aggression. When considered simultaneously in regression analyses, only symptoms of depression contributed to variance in the anger and aggression variables. However, using indirect effect modelling, no direct relationships were found between the internalising symptom variables and the aggression variables. Instead, the data suggested that the relationship between internalising symptoms and aggression is mediated by the emotion of anger. These findings suggest that the degree to which anger co-occurs with internalising symptoms may play an important role in an individual’s propensity to engage in aggressive behaviour.
... SD = 2.11), laughter ("I laughed"; M = 5.79, SD = 2.47), and other people's laughter ("The other people in the interaction laughed"; M = 5.87, SD = 2.49). These 10 characteristics (enjoyment, intimacy, acceptance, relaxation, self-assurance, playfulness, idea contribution, conversation follow-up, laughter, and others' laughter) captured salient features of most social interactions and those that are particularly challenging for individuals suffering from social anxiety symptoms (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Trower & Gilbert, 1989;Walters & Hope, 1998). ...
... There are also social costs that may be particularly relevant to social anxiety (e.g., acting aggressively towards someone). At least a subset of individuals with SAD deviate from the prototypical avoidance orientation and are characterized by risky, disinhibited behavior (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Kashdan, McKnight, Richey, & Hofmann, 2009;Nicholls, Staiger, Williams, Richardson, & Kambouropoulos, 2014). More research is needed to determine thresholds at which alcohol use becomes problematic and identify relevant individual differences that increase susceptibility to risky drinking behavior among individuals high in social anxiety. ...
Article
Most research on the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has examined problematic outcomes without consideration of potential adaptive functions. Alcohol is an anxiolytic that has the short-term benefit of reducing anxiety; consumption may act as a social lubricant that facilitates higher quality social interactions. Using experience-sampling methodology, we examined how consuming alcohol attenuates the adverse effects of social anxiety in naturally occurring social interactions. Participants (N = 160) completed demographic and trait measures, then completed daily assessments for 14 consecutive days. Results from multilevel model analyses revealed that during face-to-face social interactions, state social anxiety was inversely related to 10 indicators of healthy social interactions (e.g., enjoyment, laughter, feelings of acceptance). Alcohol consumption moderated seven of these associations, such that when participants consumed alcohol in social situations, state social anxiety was no longer associated with social interaction quality. The quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed moderated two of these associations. Furthermore, we found evidence for directionality, such that social anxiety in a given social interaction predicted alcohol consumption in a subsequent social interaction, but not the reverse (i.e., alcohol consumption did not prospectively predict state social anxiety). In social situations that involved alcohol, experiences of social anxiety no longer thwarted one's ability to derive social benefits. These results should be interpreted in the context of a participant sample with relatively low levels of trait social anxiety and frequency of alcohol use. Nonetheless, obtaining social rewards may be a reinforcement mechanism that maintains the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption.
... Typically, many individuals with social anxiety (59-79%) are classified as behaviorally inhibited, withdrawn, and risk averse. However, studies indicate a subgroup of socially anxious individuals are less inhibited (21-41%; Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). Within the disinhibited group, socially anxious adults tend to seek out new experiences and engage in higher levels of risky behaviors (e.g., frequent unsafe sexual activity, aggression, substance use). ...
... As such, patterns amongst the constructs may be different from clinical samples of socially anxious adolescents. Literature assessing social anxiety and aggressive behavior suggests that socially anxious adults in both clinical and community samples show aggressive/risky behaviors (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). However, it is unclear whether this pattern would be present in an adolescent sample. ...
Article
Social anxiety is linked to more covert forms of aggressive behavior, particularly reactive and relational aggression in early adolescent and young adult samples. Adolescents with social anxiety and those who engage in reactive relational aggression are also more likely to have difficulties regulating emotions (e.g., anger) and show maladaptive cognitive coping styles (e.g., rumination). The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between social anxiety and reactive relational aggression in adolescents (14-17 years), combining the form and function of aggression, and to examine trait anger and anger rumination as underlying factors that may explain the relationship between social anxiety and reactive relational aggression. The current study hypothesized that adolescents with social anxiety would engage in reactive relational aggression through the use of anger rumination, and this relationship would only be present in adolescents with higher levels of trait anger. High school adolescents in grades 9 to 12 (N=105; Mage = 15.43; 61% female) were recruited through their local school and community to complete a 30-minute, battery of questionnaires examining social anxiety, trait anger, anger rumination, and reactive relational aggression. Adolescents completed questionnaires anonymously via an online survey platform, Qualtrics, and were subsequently compensated for their time. Results supported study hypotheses. Simple regression analyses found that social anxiety was positively related to trait anger, anger rumination and reactive relational aggression. Trait anger and anger rumination were also positively correlated with reactive relational aggression. A conditional process analysis was conducted to test the major study hypothesis. Adolescents with social anxiety were more likely to engage in reactive relational aggression if they ruminated about experiences that created anger, and this relationship was present in adolescents with higher levels of trait anger. Gender differences were also explored. Higher rates of social anxiety and anger rumination were found in females. No other gender differences were found. Overall, socially anxious adolescents showed a greater tendency to engage in reactive relational aggression adding to the current literature. Difficulties regulating negative emotions, like anger, and ineffective cognitive coping strategies, such as anger rumination, were precipitating factors that likely maintained socially anxious and aggressive behaviors.
... In the present study, the impulsivity characteristics of patients with agoraphobia and social phobia were found to be significantly higher than those of the simple and control groups. Several studies in the literature have investigated the impulsivity characteristics of anxiety disorders 6,[25][26][27][28][29][30] . Studies in the field of impulsivity characteristics of anxiety disorders have demonstrated that some of the patients with anxiety disorders have high impulsivity characteristics regardless of the additional symptoms of mood disorder or personality disorder 6,[25][26][27][28][29][30] . ...
... Several studies in the literature have investigated the impulsivity characteristics of anxiety disorders 6,[25][26][27][28][29][30] . Studies in the field of impulsivity characteristics of anxiety disorders have demonstrated that some of the patients with anxiety disorders have high impulsivity characteristics regardless of the additional symptoms of mood disorder or personality disorder 6,[25][26][27][28][29][30] . In a study by Summerfeldt et al., the impulsivity characteristics of patients with various anxiety disorders were examined by administering the BIS-11 scale, and patients with social phobia and those with panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) found to have a significantly higher BIS-11 total score and attention and non-planning sub-scores than other groups including healthy controls 28 . ...
Article
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Abstract Background: The relationship between impulsivity and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been revealed in several mental disorders other than phobias. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among impulsivity, anxiety sensitivity, and NSSI characteristics in patients with phobias, and to compare these relationships with healthy controls. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of outpatients (n = 109) who had been diagnosed with social phobia, agoraphobia or simple phobia in addition to healthy individuals (n = 51) serving as the control group. Data collection tools were the socio-demographic form, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS), and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3). Results: Mean BIS-11 and ASI-3 scores in the social phobia and agoraphobia groups were found to be significantly higher than those in the control group. In addition, a positive correlation was found between ISAS and cognitive anxiety sensitivity scores in the agoraphobia and simple phobia groups. Discussion: The study revealed a positive correlation between cognitive anxiety sensitivity and NSSI in both the agoraphobia and simple phobia groups. The results of this study indicate that anxiety sensitivity may play a regulatory role between impulsivity and NSSI in some sub-groups of phobia.
... People with social interaction anxiety are likelier to feel distressed regarding emotional experiences, avoid or suppress emotions, avoid emotion expression, and express negative emotions more than positive emotions (Spokas et al. 2009;Turk et al. 2005). Emotional difficulties relate to challenges with regulating impulsivity and engagement in potentially harmful behaviors, including HRSB (Kashdan et al. 2009;Kashdan and Hofmann 2008;Kashdan and McKnight 2010). Regarding sexual satisfaction, difficulties with emotions among men are associated with increased solitary sexual behavior and decreased partnered sexual behavior, perhaps to distract from negative emotions (Dosch et al. 2016). ...
... Thus, although the effect sizes did not directly replicate, the significance and direction of differences in indicator means did. The present study's results also support other findings regarding the heterogeneity of social interaction anxiety (see Kashdan and McKnight 2010). The second goal of the present study was to replicate the Rahm-Knigge et al. (2018) study finding that the HSHU profile would be more likely than the HSLU profile to engage in HRSB. ...
Article
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Social anxiety disorder is prevalent and negatively impacts adolescents and young adults. People with social interaction anxiety, a presentation category of social anxiety disorder pertaining to social relationships, tend to be more withdrawn, avoidant, and sexually dissatisfied. Some individuals with social interaction anxiety are more likely to engage in health-risk sexual behavior (HRSB), likely associated with individual differences. The present study used finite mixture modeling to discern profiles comprised of social interaction anxiety and individual differences previously associated with HRSB, replicating and extending previous findings (Rahm-Knigge et al. 2018). We also examined differences in sexual satisfaction among profiles. We replicated identifying two profiles high in social interaction anxiety that substantively differed in response to positive and negative emotions, emotion-regulation strategies, risk seeking, and non-acceptance of emotions. The profile high in social interaction anxiety and these individual differences was likelier to engage in HRSB than the other high social anxiety profile. Both high social interaction anxiety profiles were similarly low in sexual satisfaction. Despite differences in individual differences and engagement in HRSB, profiles high in social interaction anxiety reported similarly lower sexual satisfaction than the profiles low in social interaction anxiety.
... The observed decreased [ 3 H]citalopram binding in the PCC and PINS in alcoholics could be linked with a dysfunctional serotonergic regulation of social cognitive processes, possibly resulting in social anxiety. Similar to the differences in behavioural traits observed in Cloninger type 1 and type 2 alcoholics (Cloninger, 1987) also in social-anxiety patients, two types of behaviour are observed: social withdrawal and antisocial behaviour (Kashdan and McKnight, 2010). Moreover, the present finding of decreased [ 3 H]citalopram binding to SERT in the PHG, only in type 2 alcoholics is the first observation of type 2 specific changes in the serotonergic system (figure 5). ...
Thesis
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Alcohol (ethanol) consumption is one of the leading risk factors for many serious diseases. The pharmacology of ethanol is extremely complex, affecting many of the signaling systems not only in the brain but widely throughout the body. Alcoholics are a heterogeneous group of subjects suffering a wide spectrum of problems. Cloninger’s typology divides the spectrum of alcoholics into two subgroups: anxiety-prone late onset type 1 alcoholics and early onset, impulsive and antisocial type 2 alcoholics. Here the post-mortem brain samples of Cloninger type 1 (N=9) and type 2 (N=8) alcoholics have been studied and compared to non-alcoholic controls (N=10). The first sub-study evaluated [3H]AMPA binding to AMPA receptors. Increased binding was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex of type 2 alcoholics in comparison with controls. This elevated [3H]AMPA binding could be associated with increased impulsivity in these individuals. The second study investigated the endocannabinoid levels in the post-mortem samples of hippocampus and amygdala. Increased docosahexaenoylethanolamide levels were observed in late-onset type 1 alcoholics in the amygdala. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed between anandamide levels and previously published metabotropic glutamate receptor 1/5 levels in the hippocampus in type 1 alcoholics, but not in controls or type 2 alcoholics. These observations could be associated with the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 mediated synaptic plasticity which is dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and anandamide function. In the third study, [3H]citalopram binding to serotonin transporters was measured in brain regions associated with social cognition. Decreased [3H]citalopram binding was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and posterior insula in all alcoholics when compared to non-alcoholic controls. Furthermore, decreased [3H]citalopram binding in the parahippocampal gyrus was seen only in the antisocial type 2 alcoholics. The decreased serotonin transporter binding in alcoholics could be associated with altered social cognitive processes. The fourth study examined levels of neuroactive steroids in the post-mortem brain samples. Increased dehydroepiandrosterone levels were seen in all alcoholics compared to controls. There were also negative correlations detected between pregnenolone levels and the previously published [3H]naloxone binding to µ-opioid receptors and similarly, increased pregnenolone levels were observed only in a sub-group of alcoholics with decreased [3H]naloxone binding in comparison with the controls. Overall, the findings of the present thesis improve our understanding of the differences between the brains of alcoholics and controls. Furthermore, they highlight the need to recognize the spectrum of alcoholics in research which hopefully will be translated into improvements in the treatment of alcoholism.
... Although avoidance is a central diagnostic feature across anxiety disorders, there is heterogeneity in the frequency and function of avoidance. For example, there is evidence to suggest that at least a subset of individuals with SAD engage in approach-oriented and exploratory behavior (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010), a profile that deviates from the prototypical inhibited person with SAD. A host of other themes is potentially relevant to the phenomenology of anxiety disorders, and SAD in particular. ...
Article
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People with anxiety disorders tend to make decisions on the basis of avoiding threat rather than obtaining rewards. Despite a robust literature examining approach-avoidance motivation, less is known about goal pursuit. The present study examined the content, motives, consequences, and daily correlates of strivings among adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Participants generated six strivings along with the motives and consequences of their pursuit. Compared with controls, people with social anxiety disorder were less strongly driven by autonomous motives and reported greater difficulty pursuing strivings. Coders analyzed strivings for the presence of 10 themes: achievement, affiliation, avoidance, emotion regulation, generativity, interpersonal, intimacy, power, self-presentation, and self-sufficiency. People with social anxiety disorder constructed more emotion regulation strivings than did controls, but they did not differ across other themes. This research illustrates how studying personality at different levels of analysis (traits, strivings) can yield novel information for understanding anxiety disorders.
... ADs were assessed using the CIDI criteria for DSM-IV. Based on prior research on the overlap of anger expression and ADs (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Moscovitch et al., 2008), four specific lifetime ADs were assessed: GAD, panic disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia. ...
Article
We examined the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders (ADs) among adolescents with lifetime intermittent explosive disorder (IED), as well as the impact of co‐occurring ADs on anger attack frequency and persistence, additional comorbidity, impairment, and treatment utilization among adolescents with IED. IED was defined by the occurrence of at least three anger attacks that were disproportionate to the provocation within a single year. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey‐Adolescent Supplement (N = 6,140), and diagnoses were based on structured lay‐administered interviews. Over half (51.89%) of adolescents with IED had an AD, compared to only 22.88% of adolescents without IED. Compared to adolescents with IED alone, adolescents with IED and comorbid ADs: (a) were more likely to be female; (b) reported greater impairment in work/school, social, and overall functioning; (c) were more likely to receive an additional psychiatric diagnosis, a depressive or drug abuse diagnosis, or diagnoses of three or more additional disorders; and (d) had higher odds of receiving any mental/behavioral health treatment as well as treatment specifically focused on aggression. Adolescents with IED alone and those with comorbid ADs did not differ in the number of years experiencing anger attacks or the highest number of anger attacks in a given year. ADs frequently co‐occur with IED and are associated with elevated comorbidity and greater impairment compared to IED alone. Gaining a better understanding of this comorbidity is essential for developing specialized and effective methods to screen and treat comorbid anxiety in adolescents with aggressive behavior problems.
... Pese a la gran contribución científica internacional respecto del tema, sin embargo, aún queda un vacío en las investigaciones asociadas al bullying, especialmente con respecto al rol víctima/agresor, ya que la ansiedad generalmente se asocia a las personas tímidas y socialmente rechazadas, es decir, a las víctimas puras (Kashdan y McKnight, 2010). Lo anterior hace necesario conocer si también se asocia al alumnado con doble rol (víctima-acosador), dado que este perfil comparte algunos de los factores de riesgo individuales con el perfil de víctima (Mendoza y Maldonado, 2017). ...
Article
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The purpose of the research presented was to study differences among groups of students participating in bullying in relation to the variable of anxiety. Participating in the study were 1,190 students (599 females and 591 males) between 9 and 16 years of age (M =11.44; DT = 1.7), with 574 from elementary education and 616 from secondary education, enrolled in 11 public schools in the state of Mexico. Two instruments were applied, the first to measure bullying and the second to evaluate anxiety (CMAS-R). The results identified five roles of participation in violence and bullying. Differences in the means calculated indicate significant differences among the groups of victims of bullying and victims-bullies in relation to the anxiety variable. The results demonstrate that the group of students exhibiting greater anxiety are the victims-bullies and the victims, and the students exhibiting less anxiety are those not involved in bullying.
... Anxiety is a persistent problem in multiple fields of study (Daniel .M. 2012). In 1980, SAD (social anxiety disorder) was legitimately documented as a psychiatric condition -defined by an extreme fear and prevention of social situations, where there is probable for valuation or denial by others (Kashdan B. T. & McKnight, 2010). Depression is common now in youth and it has many reasons and all of those one of them is social media. ...
... Hostile impulses have been included among known risk-prone activities for social anxiety disorder in response to impulsive decision-making [16]. Impulsivity has been linked to 2 different classes of social anxiety disorder, one of which is associated with higher levels of anger, aggression, sexual impulsivity and substance abuse [17] [18]. ...
Article
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Abstract Evidence is growing that aggressive behavior and impulsivity have subgroups. The subscales of the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation seeking (UPPS) impulsivity scale and the Bryant and Smith shortened and refined version of the Aggression Questionnaire were used to describe and compare impulsive and aggressive behavior in extremely violent and aggressive male inmates and non-violent healthy male controls. The Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0. 006) in the total UPPS impulsivity scale scores between the aggressive inmates and the controls. The subscales revealed that this difference was based mainly on the urgency score (p < 0. 003). On the aggression subscales, the inmates scored significantly higher for physical aggression than the controls (p < 0.001), but no significant difference was seen between inmates and controls for verbal aggression, anger and hostility, although the exact pvalue was very close to statistical significance at 0.054. Regression analysis revealed a strong relationship between urgency and the aggression subscales hostility (p = 0.0004) and anger (p = 0.003) and that urgency was also linked to symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.008). Finally, a statistically significant link was found between both hostility (p = 0.0003) and anger (p = 0.002) and symptoms of anxiety. The highly selected subgroup of extremely violent criminals in this study were more physically aggressive than non-violent controls, with urgency as the driving feature in their impulsive behavior, and hostility, anger and symptoms of anxiety as underlying traits.
... In a review of studies linking social anxiety to aggression, Kashdan and McKnight (2010) argue that these anxious/aggressive individuals experience more negative outcomes including increased risky behavior, problems managing negative emotions, less social support, and failing to respond to treatment (Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen 2008;Kashdan & Hoffman, 2008;Kashdan, Zvolensky, & McLeish, 2009). Given the multifaceted nature of aggression, this link to anxiety is likely even more complicated. ...
Thesis
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Although internalizing and externalizing problems are often considered in isolation from one another, the frequently co-occur in individuals leading to unique behavior profiles. The current study examined the associations between the forms, functions, and subtypes of aggression, anxiety, hostile attributional bias (HAB), and perceived (proactive or reactive) provocateur motivation in a sample of youth (mean age = 13.84 years, 51% male, 37.5% Caucasian). Results indicated that only reactive relational aggression significantly predicted anxiety, while relational and reactive aggression did not. HAB was not significantly associated with either anxiety or any type of aggression. Perceived proactive provocateur motivation was significantly associated with anxiety, but not aggression, and reactive motivation was not significantly associated with either. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
... That is, even though the most common action tendency associated with hypervigilance, fear, and anxiety is avoidance of threat, these states do not necessarily disinhibit the motivation to aggress against deviants. The link between these emotions and aggression was alluded to long ago by Thomas Hobbes (1651 (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). ...
... Although these data support the LPP as an index of aberrance in emotion processing in pediatric anxiety, there are a few noteworthy limitations to the available literature. Most relevant to the present research, and recent theoretical and empirical models of anxiety indicate considerable within-group heterogeneity [e.g., 52,53], and characteristics redolent of externalizing behaviors are one manifestation of such heterogeneity [e.g., 54]. Although it has been established that individuals with anxiety exhibit abnormalities in threat processing [e.g., [55][56][57], little is known about the role of processing negative and positive socio-emotional signals in the above heterogeneity or about the combined relation of externalizing behaviors and social problems and differences in neural activity while processing socio-emotional signals above and beyond the effects of anxiety. ...
Article
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Pediatric anxiety is associated with comorbid externalizing behaviors and social problems, and these associations may be related to altered emotion processing. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component, is a neural marker of emotion processing, and there is evidence that anxious youth exhibits enhanced LPPs to threatening signals. It is unknown, however, if differences in the LPP are related to externalizing behaviors and social problems co-occurring with anxiety and if these associations are driven by altered processing of threatening (angry or fearful faces) or rewarding (happy faces) socio-emotional signals. Thus, in the present study, we examined, in a sample of 39 anxious youth, the association between LPPs, following socio-emotional signals and externalizing behaviors and social problems. Results indicated an association between attenuated LPPs in response to happy faces and greater rule-breaking and social problems. These findings suggest that differences in positive socio-emotional signal processing are related to heterogeneity in pediatric anxiety and that LPPs are a sensitive index of such heterogeneity.
... O medo de avaliação negativa, como substrato cognitivo, parece estar mais relacionado com a resposta emocional de ansiedade e dificuldades de interação, enquanto que nem todos os sujeitos que têm elevados valores de ansiedade social apresentam, obrigatoriamente, altos valores de evitamento de situações sociais, enquanto resposta comportamental (Beck et al., 1985;Clark, 2005). Pelo contrário, os sujeitos com elevado medo de avaliação negativa e ansiedade em situações sociais, podem apresentar diferentes respostas comportamentais como por exemplo, agressividade e impulsividade (Kashdan & Hofmann, 2008;Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Kashdan, Collins, & Elhai, 2006), consumo de substâncias (Rapee & Spence, 2004), entre outros comportamentos de segurança. ...
... Previously, heterogeneity in social anxiety has been identified but typically the groups have been distinguished by the type and number of social situations feared or avoided (i.e., generalized or nongeneralized subtypes; Furmark, Tillfors, Stattin, Ekselius, & Fredrikson, 2000). Researchers also have explored the idea of qualitatively different groups rooted in interpersonal dimensions (e.g., Hofmann, Heinrichs, & Moscovitch, 2004;Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). More specifically, several research groups have identified groups of individuals with social anxiety that differ on approach-motivation (i.e., impulsivity, risk-prone behavior, disinhibition, or novelty-seeking) in both clinical (e.g., Kashdan & Hofmann, 2008) and nonclinical populations (e.g., of varying ages (e.g., Nicholls, Staiger, Williams, Richardson, & Kambouropoulos, 2014). ...
Article
University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the mixed findings in the literature but indicate that 1 group of socially anxious students may be particularly vulnerable to negative adjustment difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record
... It may be that these episodes of aggressive behavior represent an important expression of distress for teens, and may be linked to the experience of anxiety or mood problems (Coccaro et al., 1998;Olvera et al., 2001). For example, Kashdan and colleagues (Breen & Kashdan, 2011;Kashdan & McKnight; have discussed a subset of disinhibited individuals with social anxiety disorder who exhibit risk-taking, impulsivity, and hostile outbursts. Therefore, future research is necessary to disentangle IED from this form of social anxiety. ...
Article
Little is known about the epidemiology of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) intermittent explosive disorder (IED) in adolescents, and no information is currently available regarding the relationship between race/ethnicity and IED among Black youth in the United States. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Adolescent Version), we estimated the prevalence, severity, and disability of IED in a national, probability sample of African American and Caribbean Black youth (ages 13-17) from the National Survey of American Life, Adolescent Supplement. Face-to-face surveys of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth were conducted between 2001 and 2003. We calculated lifetime and 12-month diagnoses of IED using diagnostic algorithms based on DSM-IV and assessed IED disability using a modified Sheehan Disability Scale. Overall findings indicated lifetime and 12-month IED prevalence rates of 9.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Lifetime prevalence rates of IED were 9.0% for African American and 12.4% for Caribbean Black teens. Within the past 12 months, 6.7% of African American and 11.5% of Caribbean Black adolescents met diagnostic criteria for IED. Lifetime and 12-month IED were associated with anxiety disorders. In addition, few teens with lifetime IED received any treatment. Findings are consistent with recent evidence that intermittent explosive disorder may be more common than previously considered, especially among adolescents. Significant acts of aggression and impairment are associated with IED, and low treatment rates indicate that more research on this disorder and intervention options is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Individuals with moderate to severe social anxiety symptoms are not a homogenous group (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). Some individuals fit the stereotype of being overly submissive, warm, and withdrawn and others are cold, aggressive, and hypersexual. ...
Article
Physical touch is central to the emotional intimacy that separates romantic relationships from other social contexts. In this study of 256 adults (128 heterosexual couples, mean relationship length = 20.5 months), we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety influenced comfort with and avoidance of physical touch. Because of prior work on sex difference in touch use, touch comfort, and social anxiety symptoms and impairment, we explored sex-specific findings. We found evidence that women with greater social anxiety were less comfortable with touch and more avoidant of touch in same-sex friendships. Additionally, a woman’s social anxiety had a bigger effect on a man’s comfort with touch and avoidance of touch in the romantic relationship than a man’s social anxiety had on the woman’s endorsement of touch-related problems. These effects were uninfluenced by the length of romantic relationships. Touch is a neglected emotional experience that offers new insights into the difficulties of individuals suffering from social anxiety problems, and their romantic partners.
... Previously, heterogeneity in social anxiety has been identified but typically the groups have been distinguished by the type and number of social situations feared or avoided (i.e., generalized or nongeneralized subtypes; Furmark, Tillfors, Stattin, Ekselius, & Fredrikson, 2000). Researchers also have explored the idea of qualitatively different groups rooted in interpersonal dimensions (e.g., Hofmann, Heinrichs, & Moscovitch, 2004;Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). More specifically, several research groups have identified groups of individuals with social anxiety that differ on approach-motivation (i.e., impulsivity, risk-prone behavior, disinhibition, or novelty-seeking) in both clinical (e.g., Kashdan & Hofmann, 2008) and nonclinical populations (e.g., of varying ages (e.g., Nicholls, Staiger, Williams, Richardson, & Kambouropoulos, 2014). ...
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University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N 1132, 70.5% female, Mage 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reac- tivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the mixed findings in the literature but indicate that 1 group of socially anxious students may be particularly vulnerable to negative adjustment difficulties.
... The results of this study contribute to the literature on the relation of social anxiety to aggression and impulsivity (Kashdan et al., 2009;Nicholls et al., 2014), suggesting that some individuals with elevated social anxiety may struggle to manage urges to engage in impulsive behaviors in the context of intense anxiety or other forms of distress, increasing the likelihood of aggression in the form of anger, hostility, and verbal and physical aggression. Although no other studies have examined the relevance of this particular emotion regulation dimension to SOCIAL ANXIETY AND AGGRESSION 13 aggression among individuals with social anxiety, impulsivity more broadly has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes within this population, including risk-taking, interpersonal problems, risky sexual behaviors, psychological inflexibility, and co-occurring substance use problems (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Nicholls et al., 2014). Further research examining the precise emotion regulation difficulties most relevant to other problematic outcomes among individuals with social anxiety may inform our understanding of an impulsive-aggressive subtype of social anxiety disorder and the maladaptive behaviors associated with this subtype. ...
Article
Objectives: To enhance our understanding of the factors that may account for increased aggression in socially anxious individuals, this study examined associations among emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, social anxiety, and dimensions of aggression (i.e., hostility, anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression). Method: Individuals (N = 107; 73.8% male; Mage = 40.8 years) receiving residential substance abuse treatment participated in this cross-sectional study. Results: Social anxiety symptoms were significantly positively correlated with emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, anger, and hostility, but not verbal or physical aggression. Separate models for each aggression facet were examined to test the direct and indirect paths. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated a significant indirect path from social anxiety symptoms to each facet of aggression through emotion-driven impulse control difficulties (ps < .05). Conclusions: Results highlight the potential utility of targeting emotion-driven impulse control difficulties to decrease aggression among socially anxious individuals.
... While correlational findings revealed a significant positive correlation between interaction anxiety and the impulsiveness facet, regression analyses showed the relationship between these variables was negative once other variables were controlled. Overall, these findings suggest that although sensation-seeking components of impulsiveness may be associated with higher levels of social anxiety (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010), the impulsiveness assessed by the NEO-PI-R is predictive of lower levels of interaction anxiety. Although these findings warrant further replication, they emphasize the importance of recognizing the multi-faceted nature of impulsiveness and highlight the potential risk of relying exclusively on correlational findings. ...
Article
Prior research has demonstrated relationships between neuroticism, perfectionism, and social anxiety. This study examined whether trait perfectionism (particularly socially prescribed perfectionism [SPP]) and perfectionistic self-presentation predicted social interaction and evaluation anxiety while controlling for neuroticism. It also explored which neuroticism facets uniquely predicted social anxiety. Participants (N = 271) completed self-report measures assessing: social anxiety, trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and neuroticism.
... It involves the perceived self-efficacy in expressing the positive affect, managing anger and irritation, and managing despondency and distress (Caprara et al., 2008). Kashdan and McKnight (2010) found that some individuals with social anxiety have poor emotion regulation ability, face difficulty in adapting to environmental changes, and experience varied negative emotions and strong hostile impulses. Individuals with social anxiety are emotionally instable, impatient, and impulsive; they express their emotions through repression and concealing and exhibit poor emotion regulation ability (Kashdan et al., 2011). ...
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The present study explores the underlying mechanism of the relationship between college students’ social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. Adopting college students’ social anxiety scale, regulatory emotional self-efficacy scale, subjective well-being scale and mobile phone addiction scale, this research tested valid samples of 680 Chinese college students. The results indicated that social anxiety exerted a significant and positive impact on mobile phone addiction. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy played a partial mediating role between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. Subjective well-being also played a partial mediating role between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. Moreover, both regulatory emotional self-efficacy and subjective well-being were found to play a chain mediating role between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction. The study provides valuable insights into the impact of college students’ social anxiety on mobile phone addiction.
... Modest trait-state convergence raises questions about if and how trait and state measures assess different constructs (or different components of the same construct). Third, a subset of people with SAD deviate from the avoidance-oriented prototype and more frequently use approach-oriented strategies to manage anxiety (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). People with this atypical profile demonstrate more difficulty managing emotions and adapting to situational demands (Kashdan et al., 2008), suggesting that a broader assessment of regulatory strategies may better capture the breadth of regulatory dysfunction in SAD. ...
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Background Emotion regulation flexibility is a person's tendency to shift their use of emotion regulation strategies in response to contextual demands. A lack of flexibility is thought to underlie affective disorders, yet conceptualizations of “flexibility” vary widely, and few studies have empirically assessed flexibility. In this study, we outline methods for measuring emotion regulation flexibility and then examine evidence for inflexibility in people with a common affective disorder: social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods Participants were community adults diagnosed with SAD and a psychologically healthycontrol group who completed a 14-day experience-sampling study. Participants recorded their most anxiety-provoking event each day, how they evaluated contextual demands (i.e., perceived controllability, emotional intensity) of these events, and their use of seven emotion regulation strategies to manage anxiety. Hypotheses and analyses were preregistered with the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/s7kqj/). Results Participants with SAD demonstrated some evidence of inflexibility. They used three disengagement strategies (rumination, thought suppression, expressive suppression) more often than controls and did so independently of contextual demands (specifically, perceived controllability). Nonetheless, participants with SAD largely demonstrated similar regulatory patterns as controls, most notably in their use of engagement strategies (acceptance, cognitive, reappraisal, problem-solving). Limitations We measured two of many possible contextual demands, did not compare to a mixed clinical group or other affective disorders (e.g., depression), and did not assess temporal sequences of strategy use. Conclusions People with SAD demonstrate some inflexibility in their use of disengagement regulation strategies.
... Thus, they feel that others in their environment treat them unfairly and are hostile towards them. For example, some students deliberately damage the private belongings of shy students or mock them, which only fuels their aggression (Kashdan & Mcknight, 2010). Specifically, when they find themselves in tense interpersonal relationships, particularly when they are attacked by peers, such experiences strengthen their hostility and aggression towards others. ...
Article
Many people empirically believe that shyness, as a withdrawn personality trait, is not correlated or is negatively correlated with aggression, however, previous studies have found that shy individuals show higher levels of aggression. According to the social fitness model, shy children are more likely to be excluded from the outside world and to exist in an internal state of unease. From this perspective, the present study investigated the effects of shyness on aggression by considering peer victimization and security and by finding moderating factors (parent–child attachment) to improve this phenomenon. The sample consisted of 689 children. Questionnaires were utilized to investigate the mediating mechanism of shyness on aggression from the perspective of peer victimization and security in children and the possible moderating effect of parent–child attachment. The results showed that shyness not only directly predicts aggression but also can influence aggression through the multiple mediating effects of peer victimization and security. In addition, we found that mother–child attachment moderated the relationship between shyness and peer victimization and between shyness and security. Father–child attachment moderated the relationship between security and aggression and between shyness and aggression.
... Both constructs share certain underlying characteristics such as the fear of negative evaluation, shyness, increased attention to social threats, and social withdrawal (Mattick & Clarke, 1998;Ruch et al., 2014). Empirically, this notion converges well with their convergent correlates, such as, among others, introverted neurotic personality (Ďurka & Ruch, 2015;Kotov et al., 2007), increased anger-proneness (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Papousek et al., 2014), victim of bullying-type behaviors (occurring both in young children and in adolescents; Navarro et al., 2011;Proyer et al., 2012), and poor emotional regulation (Goldin et al., 2014;Weiss et al., 2012). ...
Article
The GELOPH-15 is a self-report measure that assesses individual differences in the fear of being laughed at (i.e., gelotophobia), a relatively understudied but important trait that is closely related to social anxiety. Using a multitrait–multimethod (MTMM) approach, the convergent and discriminant validity of the GELOPH-15 scale was examined based on 217 self- and 651 peer ratings (of three close acquaintances per target) of the traits gelotophobia, social anxiety, and paranoid ideation. Participants completed the Spanish versions of the GELOPH-15, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, and the Paranoia Scale. Applying MTMM models of multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (ML-CFA-MTMM) revealed relatively high associations between the self- and peer ratings, supporting the convergent validity of the GELOPH-15. Discriminant validity analyses confirmed the expected relationship patterns of gelotophobia with social anxiety and paranoid ideation (i.e., strong, but not perfect associations). The results showed that the ML-CFA-MTMM models might be a useful tool for analyzing the convergent and discriminant validity based on self- and peer ratings.
... Impulsive behavior has also been associated with social anxiety (Helbig-Lang, 2014;Hoffman, 2007). Some studies have even found evidence of an impulsive sub-type of social anxiety, finding that individuals with social anxiety and higher levels of impulsive behavior also exhibit higher rates of negative behavioral responses to situations that elicit anxiety (e.g., anger, substance use) and experience greater problems managing emotions than individuals with social anxiety disorder who are lower in impulsive behavior (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Nicholls et al., 2014). As a result, when high levels of social anxiety and impulsivity co-occur, DPDR may occur as an unconscious strategy for regulating intense emotions. ...
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Social anxiety is associated with dissociative experiences, which are thought to occur when coping or avoidance is unavailable, and distress is experienced. Emotion regulation difficulties maintain social anxiety. The current study examined the moderating effect of emotion regulation on social anxiety and dissociation. It was hypothesized that social anxiety would be positively associated with dissociation and that emotion regulation difficulties would moderate the relationship between social anxiety and dissociation such that the relationship would be stronger at higher levels of emotion regulation difficulties. College students aged 18 or older (n = 572) were recruited from a large public university. All participants completed measures of social anxiety, emotion regulation, and dissociation as part of a larger online study. Results supported both hypotheses. Future studies should investigate dissociative symptoms during times of acute stress or anxiety in social anxiety, how emotion regulation difficulties are associated with the genesis of dissociative symptoms, and how these variables are related in more diverse community samples.
... Here, social anxiety appears to be associated with lower evidence accumulation suggesting more rapid impulsive decision making irrespective of the decision-making scenario. Classically, patients with SAD display behaviours linked to being shy, submissive, behaviourally inhibited, and risk-aversive 46,47 . Our findings suggest social anxiety may be related to inadequate evaluation of evidence. ...
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Doubt can modulate our decision-making process. Although conceptually different, conflict (choice similarity: difficult or easy) and uncertainty (individual reward-likelihoods: uncertain or certain) are commonly related and often conflated. By posing as an evidence-accumulation problem, we assessed doubt, dissociating contextual conflict, and uncertainty and showed obsessive-compulsive disorder patients have specific impairments while processing difficult-uncertain contexts. It remains unclear whether this deficit is disorder-specific or a reflection of broader mental-health dimension. Multi-dimensional trans-diagnostic approaches help to tease out the mechanistic nature (specific or usual) of clinical observations and their validity in sub-clinical populations. Here, we first aimed to validate our conflict-uncertainty analysis approach in a larger non-clinical cohort (n>1300). Second, we assessed the relationship between decisional-parameters of difficult-uncertain contexts and a trans-diagnostic factor capturing individual differences in ‘compulsive-behavior and intrusive-thoughts’. We replicate our previous findings in a large, general population sample and highlight that the amount of evidence accumulated in difficult–uncertain scenarios increases functionally with compulsive-behavior and intrusive-thought emphasizing greater cautiousness. We further show that those with high social-withdrawal tendencies gather less evidence irrespective of context reflecting a ‘jumping to conclusions’ tendency in judgment. We attempt to bridge the gap between behavior and psychological markers by integrating trans-diagnostic and computational methods.
... These challenges are particularly important for understanding anxious youths who will exhibit heightened risk taking (e.g., substance use, unprotected sex, impulsive decisions), which is often theorized to serve as a strategy for regulating affective distress (108)(109)(110)(111)(112)(113)(114). Whether the tendency toward heightened risk taking is specific to some anxiety disorders versus others and whether it is modulated by age and/or contextual factors also remains unclear. ...
Article
Avoidant behavior is a defining feature of pediatric anxiety disorders. Although prior research has examined it from the perspective of early information processing events, there has been relatively less consideration of the processes by which anxious youth make avoidant decisions and how these choices are reinforced over time. Studies of risk taking are valuable in this regard as they consider how individuals identify the pros and cons of their choices, how they weight potential gains and losses and estimate their respective probabilities, and how they tolerate the uncertainty intrinsic to any decision. In this review, we place risk taking within existing models of information processing in pediatric anxiety disorders and highlight the particular value of this construct for informing models of developmental psychopathology and individual differences in outcome over time. We review existing behavioral and neurobiological studies of risk taking in anxious youth and conclude by identifying directions for future research.
... Generally, ODD and CD are especially strongly associated with externalizing disorders (such as ADHD) as well as with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders [9,[32][33][34]. The presence of anxiety symptoms alongside disruptive and aggressive behavior has been relatively well studied [35][36][37][38][39], with some consensus on the existence of distinct variants of psychopathy based on the presence of anxiety symptoms. Despite some differences, most studies agree on the existence of two distinct subgroups of individuals with high levels of CU traits and either low (primary variant) or high (secondary variant) anxiety who differ in their levels of psychopathology, personality traits, severity of behavioral problems and gender [13,16,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]. ...
Article
Disruptive behavior during childhood and adolescence is heterogeneous and associated with several psychiatric disorders. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups might help identify different underlying pathways and tailor treatment strategies. Children and adolescents (aged 8-18) with disruptive behaviors (N = 121) and healthy controls (N = 100) were included in a European multi-center cognition and brain imaging study. They were assessed via a battery of standardized semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. K-means cluster-model analysis was carried out to identify subgroups within the group with disruptive behaviors, based on clinical symptom profiles, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and proactive and reactive aggression. The resulting subgroups were then compared to healthy controls with regard to these clinical variables. Three distinct subgroups were found within the group with disruptive behaviors. The High CU Traits subgroup presented elevated scores for CU traits, proactive aggression and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of comorbidities (CD + oppositional defiant disorder + attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup showed elevated scores for internalizing and ADHD symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of females. The Low Severity subgroup had relatively low levels of psychopathology and aggressive behavior compared to the other two subgroups. The High CU Traits subgroup displayed more antisocial behaviors than the Low Severity subgroup, but did not differ when compared to the ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup. All three subgroups differed significantly from the healthy controls in all the variables analyzed. The present study extends previous findings on subgrouping children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors using a multidimensional approach and describes levels of anxiety, affective problems, ADHD, proactive aggression and CU traits as key factors that differentiate conclusively between subgroups.
... Generally, ODD and CD are especially strongly associated with externalizing disorders (such as ADHD) as well as with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders [9,[32][33][34]. The presence of anxiety symptoms alongside disruptive and aggressive behavior has been relatively well studied [35][36][37][38][39], with some consensus on the existence of distinct variants of psychopathy based on the presence of anxiety symptoms. Despite some differences, most studies agree on the existence of two distinct subgroups of individuals with high levels of CU traits and either low (primary variant) or high (secondary variant) anxiety who differ in their levels of psychopathology, personality traits, severity of behavioral problems and gender [13,16,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Disruptive behavior during childhood and adolescence is heterogeneous and associated with several psychiatric disorders. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups might help identify different underlying pathways and tailor treatment strategies. Children and adolescents (aged 8–18) with disruptive behaviors (N = 121) and healthy controls (N = 100) were included in a European multi-center cognition and brain imaging study. They were assessed via a battery of standardized semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. K-means cluster-model analysis was carried out to identify subgroups within the group with disruptive behaviors, based on clinical symptom profiles, callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and proactive and reactive aggression. The resulting subgroups were then compared to healthy controls with regard to these clinical variables. Three distinct subgroups were found within the group with disruptive behaviors. The High CU Traits subgroup presented elevated scores for CU traits, proactive aggression and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of comorbidities (CD + oppositional defiant disorder + attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup showed elevated scores for internalizing and ADHD symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of females. The Low Severity subgroup had relatively low levels of psychopathology and aggressive behavior compared to the other two subgroups. The High CU Traits subgroup displayed more antisocial behaviors than the Low Severity subgroup, but did not differ when compared to the ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup. All three subgroups differed significantly from the healthy controls in all the variables analyzed. The present study extends previous findings on subgrouping children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors using a multidimensional approach and describes levels of anxiety, affective problems, ADHD, proactive aggression and CU traits as key factors that differentiate conclusively between subgroups.
... In general, socially anxious individuals will emphasize avoidance behaviors to minimize the potential for social rejection, embarrassment, and negative outcomes. However, some individuals may use alternative strategies that are more approach-focused, which tend to fall into categories of impulsive or risk-taking behavior (Kashdan, 2007;Kashdan & Hofmann, 2008;Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). For example, some individuals with high social anxiety and disinhibition are more likely to have problems managing negative emotions, report less psychological flexibility (e.g., adapting to change), and engage in higher rates of substance misuse . ...
Article
Individuals may drink or use cannabis to cope with social anxiety, and drinking or using cannabis prior to social situations (e.g., pregaming) may be a way to limit the experience of anxiety when entering social settings. However, theoretical and empirical work has reported mixed associations between social anxiety and substance use, specifically alcohol and cannabis. Little work has looked at how other variables, such as impulsivity (a central component to high risk drinking such as pregaming), may shed light onto these mixed findings. College students who reported past year pregaming (n = 363) completed self-report surveys. Supporting prior work, we found that social anxiety was associated with fewer pregaming days, even among those high in sensation seeking. However, those reporting higher social anxiety also reported higher cannabis use during pregaming, specifically among those who reported high sensation seeking and high positive urgency. Results suggest specific facets of impulsivity may affect the association between social anxiety and cannabis use during high risk drinking events.
... Kaygı bozukluğu bulunan birey, kendisini reddeden ve/veya engelleyen diğerlerinin kendisine saldıracağı ve zarar vereceği düşüncesiyle onlardan önce saldırıya geçebilir. Sosyal kaygı bozukluğu olan bireyin bu tür stratejileri onun kendisini savunmasında başarılı sonuçlar elde ederse, bu başarılı sonuç sosyal öğrenme kuramı çerçevesinde ele alındığında saldırgan stratejileri pekiştirebilir (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). Başka bir ifadeyle, sürekli kaygı düzeyi yüksek olan bireyler sosyal ilişkilerinde, sürekli reddedildiği ve/veya eleştirildiği hissine kapılır. ...
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, dindarlık, sürekli kaygı ve saldırganlık arasındaki ilişki ve etkileşimleri tasvir ve tespit etmektir. Ayrıca, cinsiyetin dindarlık, sürekli kaygı ve saldırganlık bakımından fark oluşturup oluşturmadığı bu araştırma çerçevesinde ele alınmıştır. Araştırmaya, 2017 -2018 yıllarında, farklı üniversite ve çeşitli fakülte ve bölümlerinde, farklı sınıf seviyelerinde öğrenim gören toplam 415 gönüllü öğrenci katılmıştır. Veriler tesadüfi örnekleme yöntemi ile toplanmıştır. Araştırmada Hellmeister ve Zwingmann tarafından geliştirilen ve Apaydın (2010) tarafından Türkçeye tercüme edilen Münchner Motivasyonel Dindarlık Envanteri, Buss-Perry Saldırganlık Ölçeği (BPSÖ) ve Sürekli Kaygı Ölçeği-16 (STAI FORM TX-2) kullanılmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesi sürecinde t-test ve regresyon analizleri uygulanmıştır. Örneklemin dindarlık ve saldırganlık bakımından genel profili çıkarılmış, katılımcıların dindarlık düzeylerinin yüksek olduğu, saldırganlık ölçeğinin ise sözel saldırganlık ve şüpheci-düşünsel düşmanlık alt ölçeklerinden ölçek ortalamasının üzerinde bir değer alırken, diğer alt ölçeklerde saldırgan eğilimlerin düşük olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kadınlar, dindarlığın Tanrıyla ilişki alt ölçeğinde erkeklerden farklılaşmıştır. Erkekler sürekli kaygı ölçeğinin mutlu ve memnun olmama alt ölçeğinde daha yüksek ortalama elde ederken, kadınlar yorgunluk ve kaçınma alt ölçeğinden daha yüksek ortalama almışlardır. Saldırganlığın alt ölçeklerinde de cinsiyet fark oluşturmuştur. Erkekler fiziksel saldırganlık, duygusal düşmanlık ve öfke boyutlarında kadınlara nazaran daha yüksek ortalamalara sahiptir. Sürekli kaygı, saldırganlığın duygusal-bilişsel düşmanlık, duygusal-tepkisel öfke ve şüpheci ve düşmanlık boyutlarını; dindarlığın Tanrı ile ilişki boyutu, şüpheci ve düşünsel düşmanlık dışındaki diğer boyutlarını yordamaktadır. Bununla birlikte dindarlığın, dini inanç ve yardımlaşma alt ölçeği, saldırganlığın duygusal-tepkisel öfke boyutunu açıklamaktadır.
... Ignore any of these elements and you will be misled about how they operate together. For instance, there is a subgroup of people with social anxiety disorder (as high as one out of five diagnosed with the condition; Kashdan, McKnight, Richey, & Hofmann, 2009) who instead of trying to escape anxious situations and experiences, tend to be novelty seeking, impulsive, and risk-prone (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). These people might take over a conversation to demonstrate social dominance or engage in risky sexual behavior to control, instead of being controlled by, their anxiety. ...
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For decades, researchers and practitioners have theorized psychological disorder and health as opposite ends of a single continuum. We offer a more nuanced, data driven examination into the various ways that people with psychological disorders experience well-being. We review research on the positive emotions, meaning and purpose in life, and social relationships of people diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and trauma-related disorders. We also discuss when and how friends, family members, and caregivers of these people are adversely impacted in terms of their well-being. Throughout, we highlight important, often overlooked findings that not all people with mental illness are devoid of well-being. This review is meant to be illustrative as opposed to comprehensive, synthesizing existing knowledge and inspiring explorations of unclear or undiscovered territory.
... For example, although there is only one combination of symptoms for a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) according to the DSM-5, meaningful subtypes have emerged based on clinical features. A subset of people with SAD are characterized by elevated levels of aggression and impulsive behaviors, a profile that deviates from the prototypical person with SAD as inhibited, shy, and risk averse (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). A person with prototypical SAD might appraise anxiety as harmful and believe it signals weakness. ...
... Si la FS incluye periles heterogéneos (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010), no todos los individuos que presentan FS, cumplen con el estereotipo del grupo prototípico, por lo tanto, las diferencias en las estrategias de procesamiento cognitivo y de regulación emocional, entre los distintos grupos de fóbicos sociales, podrían conducir a diferentes resultados. De acuerdo con esta clasiicación, exclusivamente el grupo desinhibido podría presentar riesgo de consumo excesivo de alcohol y en el presente estudio, no fueron considerados los subtipos de ansiosos sociales. ...
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p>Gradualmente se incrementa la investigación acerca de la fobia social, argumentando asociación entre ésta y diversas medidas de disfuncionalidad. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, mediciones de ansiedad social y de consumo de alcohol, de 3164 adolescentes mexicanos escolarizados voluntarios (hombres y mujeres) entre 12 y 18 años de edad ( = 14.7, DE 1.7), turno escolar (matutino o vespertino) y actividades extracurriculares (realizar o no actividades deportivas, artísticas y tener o no una relación de noviazgo). Se formaron dos grupos: el primero con bajo y el segundo con alto grado de ansiedad social, y se compararon sus niveles de consumo de alcohol, encontrando que: contrario a lo que establece la literatura del tema en adultos, el patrón de consumo de alcohol en los grupos de adolescentes de alta y baja ansiedad social, no presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (X<sup>2 </sup>= 1.201, gl = 2, p = .361). Probablemente, las diferencias reportadas en el consumo de alcohol entre adultos social y no socialmente ansiosos, surjan sólo en ciertas variantes de la fobia social, o bien, se requiere de otras variables mediadoras, entre fobia social y el consumo abusivo de alcohol.</p
... Rejection sensitivity and interpersonal sensitivity are highly correlated with each other (Downey & Feldman, 1996), and while other distal factors may play a role, both in part appear to stem from ACE (Figueroa, Silk, Huth, & Lohr, 1997;Richmond, Elliott, Pierce, Aspelmeier, & Alexander, 2009;Romero-Canyas, Downey, Berenson, et al., 2010;Surrey, Swett, Michaels, & Levin, 1990;Swett, Surrey, & Cohen, 1990). Further indirect evidence of this is offered by the findings that interpersonal sensitivity is highly correlated with hostility and with such disorders as depression and social anxiety, and these disorders are related to a sensitivity to rejection and subsume hostile subtypes (Gilbert, 2000;Gilbert et al., 2006;Gilbert & Miles, 2000;Kashdan & McKnight, 2010;Kennedy, Morris, Pedley, & Schwab, 2001;Wolfe, Wekerle, Reitzel-Jaffe, & Lefebvre, 1998). Thus, interpersonal sensitivity as measured by the SCL-90-R may potentially elucidate IPV perpetration and victimization and prove useful both as a broader concept and as a more widely used screening and research measure. ...
Article
The present study examined interpersonal sensitivity and hostility as separate and sequential mediators in the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the conflict tactic of negotiation (e.g., a strategy utilized to resolve conflict with a romantic partner) among female inmates. Participants were 258 female inmates recruited from three Southern California jails. After statistically controlling for partner-negotiation, results from a sequential mediation model revealed that the association between ACE and negotiation was mediated through three separate pathways. The first single mediational pathway indicated that ACE was positively associated with interpersonal sensitivity, which in turn had a positive association with negotiation. The second single mediational pathway revealed that ACE was positively associated with hostility, which in turn had a negative association with negotiation. Finally, the sequential meditational path revealed that interpersonal sensitivity through hostility mediated the ACE and negotiation relationship. The present results suggest that ACE may result in increased interpersonal sensitivity, which may paradoxically result in both more and less negotiation with romantic partners. That is, ACE through interpersonal sensitivity alone may result in more negotiation, and ACE through interpersonal sensitivity and then hostility may result in less negotiation with romantic partners. We explicate how the psychopathological construct of interpersonal sensitivity may lead to increased and decreased rates of the positively construed conflict tacit of negotiation. In addition, the present findings are discussed in light of the high rates of both revictimization and perpetration of violence among female inmates.
Article
Background: Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, are heterogeneous with respect to approaching or avoiding risky behaviors, including substance use. Additionally, the relation between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency has been inconsistent in the literature. Objective: The present study aimed to clarify the relation between social interaction anxiety and cannabis use by examining the effects of personality traits known to differentially predict substance use, including sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, urgency, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition. Methods: We explored heterogeneity in social interaction anxiety using finite mixture modeling to discern profiles differing in mean scores on measures of social interaction anxiety and personality. We then examined how profiles differed in their likelihood of cannabis use. Results: The profile with low social interaction anxiety and high scores on personality measures was the most likely to use cannabis at all time periods. Two profiles with high social interaction anxiety scores were discerned. Between these two profiles, the profile with the highest levels of social interaction anxiety and most measured personality traits was more likely to use cannabis across all measured time periods. The profile with the high social interaction anxiety and low scores on personality measures was the least likely to use cannabis. Conclusions: Results of the present study identified personality traits most associated with increased risk of cannabis use for people high and low in social interaction anxiety, including facets of emotion regulation, urgency, and sensation seeking.
Article
Somewhat surprisingly, social anxiety has been linked with aggressive behavior in adults. Among youth, this connection has been demonstrated with anxiety symptoms more broadly. This review extends previous work by evaluating this association specifically with social anxiety in the child and adolescent literature. Given the complexities of aggressive behavior, the review is organized by its various forms (relational and physical) and functions (reactive and proactive). Findings from sixteen identified studies are suggestive of links between social anxiety and reactive and relational forms of aggression. Albeit more tenuous, there appear to be associations with physical aggression as well. Overall, though suggestive of connections between social anxiety and aggression, confidence in the findings is attenuated by the relatively small number of relevant studies combined with inconsistent gender findings. Before suggesting directions for further study, we propose putative dysfunctional biological, emotional, and cognitive processes as factors that may underlie associations between social anxiety and these particular forms of aggression. Future research should target differences in age, gender, relationship type, and anxiety subtype. Determining the extent to which these associations may be attributable to comorbid pathology such as depression or a broader internalizing syndrome is also important.
Article
This study was intended to examine the relationship between children’s shyness and play behaviour during peer play, and the moderating effect of the level of children’s language development. Participants were 229 South Korean children aged 48–53 months. The results of the study are as follows. Children's shyness was negatively associated with their positive play interactions and positively associated with their play disconnection. Children's receptive language skills moderated the relationships between their shyness and positive play interactions, as well as between their shyness and play disconnection. However, their expressive language skills did not work as a moderator. The findings of the study indicate that receptive language helps shy children join peer play better than expressive language does, because verbal conversations only become more important later in childhood. Interventions for shy children, particularly those with low language skills, should be tailored to improve their receptive language abilities.
Article
In the last decade, increasing literature focused on camouflaging as a strategy adopted to cope with social environment by patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A better understanding of this phenomenon may shed more light on cognitive mechanisms and coping strategies of patients in the autism continuum, eventually leading to reconsider some previous "dogmas" in this field, such as the gender discrepancy in ASD diagnosis. Moreover, shared features can be observed in the camouflaging strategies adopted among the general population, among patients of the autism spectrum, and among patients with different kinds of psychiatric disorders, further challenging our perspectives. Camouflaging behaviors might be considered as a transdiagnostic element, closely associated with the continuous distribution of the autism spectrum among the general and the clinical population.
Article
Social anxiety (SA) is thought to relate to alcohol misuse. However, current evidence is inconsistent - especially in young adulthood. Recent non-experimental data show that trait impulsivity moderates the effect of SA on alcohol misuse. Specifically, this work suggests that concurrently elevated impulsivity may draw attention to the immediate, anxiolytic effects of drinking - thus promoting alcohol misuse among those high in SA. Otherwise, without elevated impulsivity, a socially anxious person may not drink due to focusing on alcohol's possible negative outcomes (e.g., embarrassing behaviours). The next step in this research is to examine if impulsivity impacts in-the-moment subjective craving among socially anxious individuals. This was the goal of the present experiment. After baseline measures, undergraduate participants (N = 110) completed the Trier Social Stress Test followed by an alcohol (versus neutral) cue exposure. Subjective craving ratings were collected at both baseline and post-cue exposure. Moderation analyses revealed that socially anxious individuals endorsed strong cravings following an alcohol (but not a neutral) cue exposure, but only if they also had elevated impulsivity. In-lab craving was positively correlated with retrospective reports of alcohol misuse. Our findings demonstrate that impulsivity contributes to SA-related risk for alcohol misuse.
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Stress can precipitate the onset of mood and anxiety disorders. This may occur, at least in part, via a modulatory effect of stress on decision-making. Some individuals are, however, more resilient to the effects of stress than others. The mechanisms underlying such vulnerability differences are nevertheless unknown. In this study we attempted to begin quantifying individual differences in vulnerability by exploring the effect of experimentally induced stress on decision-making. Threat of unpredictable shock was used to induce stress in healthy volunteers (N=47) using a within-subjects, within-session design, and its impact on a financial decision-making task (the Iowa Gambling Task) was assessed alongside anxious and depressive symptomatology. As expected, participants learned to select advantageous decks and avoid disadvantageous decks. Importantly, we found that stress provoked a pattern of harm-avoidant behaviour (decreased selection of disadvantageous decks) in individuals with low levels of trait anxiety. By contrast, individuals with high trait anxiety demonstrated the opposite pattern: stress-induced risk-seeking (increased selection of disadvantageous decks). These contrasting influences of stress depending on mood and anxiety symptoms might provide insight into vulnerability to common mental illness. In particular, we speculate that those who adopt a more harm-avoidant strategy may be better able to regulate their exposure to further environmental stress, reducing their susceptibility to mood and anxiety disorders. The threat of shock paradigm we employed might therefore hold promise as a ‘stress-test’ for determining individual vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders.
Article
Emotion dysregulation has been identified as a transdiagnostic mechanism underlying social phobia and depression; however, there is much to learn about how emotion dysregulation leads to these specific outcomes. Thus, this study examined the relationship pattern between anger dysregulation and depression and how it is mediated by social phobia. Anger dysregulation was examined specifically considering anger as a significant emotional feature of both social phobia and depression. The mediation hypothesis within this study was empirically established. The data was drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (2001–2003), in which 2,827 participants met DSM-IV criteria for lifetime major depressive disorder (14.3%), and 1,905 participants met criteria for DSM-IV lifetime social anxiety disorder (9.6%). Among participants, 4,250 (21.5%) reported that they perceived their anger as out of control and either broke items or hit (or tried to hit) others. The mediation hypothesis was tested with logistic regression models. Anger dysregulation was significantly related to social phobia and depression. A significant indirect effect of social phobia was detected through bootstrap analysis, supporting the partial mediation hypothesis. This study represents the first attempt to examine the mediating role of social phobia in the relationship between anger dysregulation and depression. The findings of this study suggest that anger dysregulation may be a transdiagnostic factor across social phobia and depression.
Chapter
Die psychische Gesundheit, Selbstverwirklichung und Lebensqualität von Menschen hängen vielfach von ihren Fähigkeiten ab, Interaktionen mit Mitmenschen in Gang zu setzen und bedürfnisgerecht und zielführend (mit) zu gestalten. Gibt es bei diesen sozialen Kompetenzen Defizite oder Probleme, kann das auch schon bei Kindern und Jugendlichen kurz- und langfristig erhebliche negative Folgen haben, z. B. wenn dadurch die schulische, berufliche oder psychosoziale Entwicklung beeinträchtigt wird. Aus diesem Grunde wurden mittlerweile zahlreiche Interventionen zur Förderung sozialer Kompetenzen entwickelt. Dabei dominieren inzwischen multimodale Gruppentrainings, in denen v. a. Rollenspiele und Verhaltensübungen eingesetzt werden, aber auch z. B. klientengerechte Entspannungstechniken, Wahrnehmungs- und Diskriminationsübungen sowie Übungen zum Transfer in den Alltag. Es gibt universelle Programme (z. B. für ganze Schulklassen), aber auch Interventionen, die sich an spezielle Risikogruppen wenden oder an Kinder/Jugendliche, die bereits eine klinische Störung mit sozialen Kompetenzproblemen aufweisen (z. B. bestimmte Angststörungen oder Depressionen). Im Artikel werden exemplarisch einige Beispiele für diese verschiedenen Trainingskonzeptionen dargestellt.
Article
A growing body of literature has begun to examine anger, hostility, and aggression using the psychological flexibility model among both youth and adults. This manuscript provides the first overview of this research. Papers were included in this review if they were published in English, peer-reviewed, published throughDecember 8th 2017 on PsycInfo and PubMed, or were recommended during the review process. The research reviewed examines anger, hostility, and aggression in a variety of contexts, such as interpersonal difficulties, emotional difficulties (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder), impulse control, and externalizing. The article also reviews Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based interventions targeting problems related to anger and aggression. Generally, there is support for the psychological flexibility model in this domain and treatment studies have been demonstrated a beneficial impact of ACT on aggression and domestic violence in adults. The literature in youth is extremely limited, although some supportive findings were demonstrated. More extensive and methodologically stronger examinations would strengthen this area of study and are discussed.
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Aggressive behavior in childhood has long been separated into that which is proactively motivated and that which is reactive. We report a meta-analytic review of the existing empirical literature that examines the associations of each type of aggression with six indices of psychosocial adjustment: internalizing problems, emotional dysregulation and ADHD-type symptoms, delinquent behaviors, prosocial behavior, sociometric status, and peer victimization. Even though not detectable in most single studies, meta-analytic combination revealed that reactive aggression was more strongly related to most of the indices of adjustment than was proactive aggression. This difference was small, however, and we argue that the difficulty in detecting differential correlates is due to the high intercorrelation between the functions of aggression, which appears to be an artifact of traditional measurement procedures. It is recommended that future research use measures that provide distinct assessment of the functions in order to more clearly distinguish the correlates of proactive and reactive aggression.
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People high in rejection sensitivity (RS) anxiously expect rejection and are at risk for interpersonal and personal distress. Two studies examined the role of self-regulation through strategic attention deployment in moderating the link between RS and maladaptive outcomes. Self-regulation was assessed by the delay of gratification (DG) paradigm in childhood. In Study 1, preschoolers from the Stanford University community who participated in the DG paradigm were assessed 20 years later. Study 2 assessed low-income, minority middle school children on comparable measures. DG ability buffered high-RS people from interpersonal difficulties (aggression, peer rejection) and diminished well-being (e.g., low self-worth, higher drug use). The protective effect of DG ability on high-RS children's self-worth is explained by reduced interpersonal problems. Attentional mechanisms underlying the interaction between RS and strategic self-regulation are discussed.
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Self-presentation may require self-regulation, especially when familiar or dispositional tendencies must be overridden in service of the desired impression. Studies 1-4 showed that self-presentation under challenging conditions or according to counter-normative patterns (presenting oneself modestly to strangers, boastfully to friends, contrary to gender norms, to a skeptical audience, or while being a racial token) led to impaired self-regulation later, suggesting that those self-presentations depleted self-regulatory resources. When self-presentation conformed to familiar, normative, or dispositional patterns, self-regulation was less implicated. Studies 5-8 showed that when resources for self-regulation had been depleted by prior acts of self-control, self-presentation drifted toward less-effective patterns (talking too much, overly or insufficiently intimate disclosures, or egotistical arrogance). Thus, inner processes may serve interpersonal functions, although optimal interpersonal activity exacts a short-term cost.
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This article reviews the literature on the relationship between interpersonal rejection and aggression. Four bodies of research are summarized: laboratory experiments that manipulate rejection, rejection among adults in everyday life, rejection in childhood, and individual differences that may moderate the relationship. The theoretical mechanisms behind the effect are then explored. Possible explanations for why rejection leads to anger and aggression include: rejection as a source of pain, rejection as a source of frustration, rejection as a threat to self-esteem, mood improvement following aggression, aggression as social influence, aggression as a means of reestablishing control, retribution, disinhibition, and loss of self-control.
Article
This book describes the clinical presentation of social anxiety disorder, presents theoretical perspectives on its etiology, and examines the latest empirical data with respect to both pharmacological and behavioral interventions. Social anxiety disorder occurs in children, adolescents, and adults, but its manifestation and treatment differ depending on developmental factors. Drawing from a broad literature base as well as their extensive clinical experience, the authors illustrate the impact of developmental stage on all aspects of the disorder. They also provide practical implementation guidelines, enhanced by case examples; tips on patient management; lists of assessment instruments; and sample forms to use with clients. Since publication of the first edition in 1998, knowledge about social anxiety disorder has advanced on several fronts. The new edition includes information from new studies differentiating patterns of distress characteristic of social anxiety disorder versus shyness. It draws on more substantive data bases to support firmer conclusions about the presentation of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents as well as across various ethnocultural groups. New assessment strategies reviewed in this book include neuroanatomical assessment using magnetic resonance imaging and well-validated self-report instruments and clinician rating scales. The authors review a greatly expanded literature addressing pharmacological treatment and psychosocial treatments. New case descriptions and clinical materials are also included. This highly informative and comprehensive volume will be illuminating reading for practitioners, researchers, and students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the clinical presentation of social phobia, discusses theoretical perspectives on etiology, and surveys empirically supported treatments used to treat the disorder. Although social phobia occurs in children and adults, its manifestation and treatment differ in various age groups. The authors describe the similarities and differences in the syndrome across all ages. Drawing from the clinical, social, and developmental literatures, as well as from their own extensive clinical experience, the authors illustrate the impact of developmental stage on phenomenology, diagnoses, and assessment and treatment of social phobia. Within the different age groups, issues of etiology, prevalence, and clinical management are presented. The volume includes many case illustrations and practical information. This book will be useful for practitioners, researchers, and students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We examined the hypothesis that under specific conditions, socially anxious individuals may be risk-prone as opposed to risk-averse in domains such as heavy drinking, illicit drug use, unsafe sexual practices, and aggression. A college-aged sample, predominantly women, completed a series of questionnaires on social anxiety and risk-taking behavioral intentions. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive outcome expectancies moderated relationships between social anxiety and sexual risk-taking and aggression. Socially anxious individuals expecting desirable outcomes reported the greatest risk-taking behavioral intentions. Socially anxious individuals expecting less desirable outcomes reported the least risk-taking intentions. Social anxiety interaction effects were not accounted for by other anxiety and depressive symptoms. Data suggested that social anxiety was also positively related to illicit drug use. Although preliminary, these significant findings suggest that a subset of socially anxious individuals may engage in risky activities that likely serve the purpose of regulating emotions.
Article
The present study examined social anxiety, anger, and depression among 234 persons with social anxiety disorder and 36 nonanxious controls. In addition to greater social anxiety, persons with social anxiety disorder exhibited more severe depression, greater anger, and poorer anger expression skills than did nonanxious control participants. Analyses investigating attrition and response to cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) among a subset of 68 persons treated for social anxiety disorder indicated that patients who experienced anger frequently, perceived unfair treatment, and were quick-tempered were less likely to complete a 12-session course of CBGT. Among treatment completers, significant reductions in the frequent experience of anger to perceived negative evaluation and in anger suppression were noted. However, those who suppressed anger responded less favorably to CBGT. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.
Article
The goal of the present study was to determine whether the investigation of interpersonal problems in social phobia would lead to qualitatively different subgroups, subgroups that would provide additional nonoverlapping information to the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) classification. 30 generalized socially phobic (college students, aged 18-29 yrs old), 30 nongeneralized socially phobic, and 30 nondisordered control participants were selected based on dual structured interviews. All participants completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (IIP-C). Results showed that when social phobia subtypes were classified using the DSM-IV definition, the IIP-C reflected subgroup differences in global severity of interpersonal problems, with the generalized social phobia group evidencing the greatest difficulty. However, the subgroups could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. In contrast, when an interpersonal analysis of subtype classification was employed, 2 groups were formed, each with discriminating core unifying features suggesting qualitatively different problematic reactions to interpersonal situations. The potential clinical relevance of an assessment of interpersonal dysfunction to the treatment of social phobia is discussed.
Article
Little is known about people with social anxiety disorder (SAD) who are not behaviorally inhibited. To advance knowledge on phenomenology, functional impairment, and treatment seeking, we investigated whether engaging in risk-prone behaviors accounts for heterogeneous outcomes in people with SAD. Using the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) dataset, our analyses focused on people with current (N = 679) or lifetime (N = 1143) SAD diagnoses. Using latent class analysis on NCS-R risk-prone behavior items, results supported two SAD classes: (1) a pattern of behavioral inhibition and risk aversion and (2) an atypical pattern of high anger and aggression, and moderate/high sexual impulsivity and substance use problems. An atypical pattern of risk-prone behaviors was associated with greater functional impairment, less education and income, younger age, and particular psychiatric comorbidities. Results could not be subsumed by the severity, type, or number of social fears, or comorbid anxiety or mood disorders. Conclusions about the nature, course, and treatment of SAD may be compromised by not attending to heterogeneity in behavior patterns.
Article
A meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatments for social phobia was conducted to evaluate whether the various treatments differ in their efficacy for treating social phobia, whether they are more effective than wait-list and placebo controls, whether rates of attrition differ, and whether treatment gains are maintained at follow-up. A total of 108 treatment-outcome trials for social phobia met inclusion/exclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Eleven treatment conditions were compared: wait-list control, pill placebo, benzodiazepines (BDZs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors, attention placebo, exposure (EXP), cognitive restructuring (CR), EXP plus CR, social skills training, and applied relaxation. The most consistently effective treatments for social phobia were pharmacotherapies. BDZs and SSRIs were equally effective and more effective than control conditions. Dropout rates were similar among all the active treatment conditions. Assessment of the durability of treatment gains for pharmacotherapies was not possible because an insufficient number of drug studies included follow-up data. The treatment gains of psychological therapies, although moderate, continued during the follow-up period. BDZs and SSRIs seem to be effective treatments for social phobia, at least in the short term. Recommendations for future research include assessing the long-term outcome for pharmacotherapies and evaluating the inclusion of a cognitive-behavioral treatment during the drug tapering period.
Article
Self-regulation is a highly adaptive, distinctively human trait that enables people to override and alter their responses, including changing themselves so as to live up to social and other standards. Recent evidence indicates that self-regulation often consumes a limited resource, akin to energy or strength, thereby creating a temporary state of ego depletion. This article summarizes recent evidence indicating that regular exercises in self-regulation can produce broad improvements in self-regulation (like strengthening a muscle), making people less vulnerable to ego depletion. Furthermore, it shows that ego depletion moderates the effects of many traits on behavior, particularly such that wide differences in socially disapproved motivations produce greater differences in behavior when ego depletion weakens the customary inner restraints.
Article
Until recently, there has been limited recognition that diminished positive psychological experiences are important to understanding the nature of social anxiety. Meta-analytic techniques were used to evaluate the strength, consistency, and construct specificity of relations between the social anxiety spectrum with positive affect and curiosity. The social anxiety spectrum had significant inverse relations with positive affect (r=-.36; 95% CI: -.31 to -.40) and curiosity (r=-.24; 95% CI: -.20 to -.28). Relations between social anxiety and positive affect were stronger in studies sampling from clinical populations. Specificity findings (e.g., statistically controlling for depressive symptoms and disorders) further confirmed negative associations with positive affect (r=-.21; 95% CI: -.16 to -.26) and curiosity (r=-.21; 95% CI: -.08 to -.32). The literature on social rank, self-presentation concerns, self-regulatory resources, and experiential avoidance is reviewed and integrated to elaborate a framework of how, why, and when social anxiety may be inversely related to positive experiences. The specificity of theory and data to social interaction anxiety is supported by an examination of existing work on social performance/observation fears and other anxiety conditions. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of diminished positive psychological experiences in understanding excessive social anxiety.
Article
This study examined potential subgroups of patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) based on novelty-seeking tendencies. Eighty-two outpatients with DSM-IV generalized SAD were recruited from an outpatient anxiety clinic and assessed with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. The novelty-seeking subscales, reflecting risk-prone and disinhibited behavior tendencies, served as dependent measures in a series of cluster analysis procedures. Two qualitatively different SAD subgroups were identified: (1) low novelty-seeking tendencies and (2) high-novelty-seeking tendencies. These groups did not differ in social anxiety symptom severity. Women were less likely to be classified in the high-novelty-seeking group. Clinician severity ratings for comorbid substance use disorders were greater in the high-novelty-seeking group. These findings contribute to growing evidence for the heterogeneity of SAD. High-novelty-seeking, risk-prone, and disinhibited behavior tendencies are a characteristic feature of a distinct subgroup.
Article
We examined how social anxiety is related to appraisals for various disinhibited behaviors and sought to identify potential subgroups of socially anxious people. College students completed trait measures and appraised disinhibited behaviors on their potential for threat, opportunity to satisfy curiosity, and ability to enhance social status. Three months later, participants were asked to report on their frequency of disinhibited behaviors since the initial assessment. People with greater social anxiety demonstrated frequent approach-avoidance conflicts - co-existing recognition of threats and rewards - about social interactions and disinhibited behaviors. Even when asked about the activity most likely to be avoided, participants with greater social anxiety evaluated these as having potential to satisfy curiosity and advance their social status. Three qualitatively different groups of people were identified based on social anxiety tendencies and approach-avoidance appraisal patterns. Groups differed on the degree of approach-avoidance conflicts, measures of psychological and social well-being, and frequency of social interactions and disinhibited behaviors. Moderately socially anxious people who were approach oriented reported the most difficulties. Results suggest that social anxiety is associated with tension between competing desires to avoid anxiety and explore. However, there appears to be important variability in the regulatory orientation, behavior, and well-being of socially anxious people. Conclusions about the nature of social anxiety may be compromised by not attending to existing differences in self-regulatory orientation and strategies.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text rev.) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
International handbook of social anxiety: Concepts, research and interventions relating to the self and shyness
  • W R Crozier
  • L E Alden
Crozier, W.R., & Alden, L.E. (2001). International handbook of social anxiety: Concepts, research and interventions relating to the self and shyness. New York: Wiley.