Article

Emotion Regulation in Adulthood: Timing Is Everything

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Abstract

Emotions seem to come and go as they please. However, we actually hold considerable sway over our emotions: We influence which emotions we have and how we experience and express these emotions. The process model of emotion regulation described here suggests that how we regulate our emotions matters. Regulatory strategies that act early in the emotion-generative process should have quite different outcomes than strategies that act later. This review focuses on two widely used strategies for down-regulating emotion. The first, reappraisal, comes early in the emotion-generative process. It consists of changing how we think about a situation in order to decrease its emotional impact. The second, suppression, comes later in the emotion-generative process. It involves inhibiting the outward signs of emotion. Theory and research suggest that reappraisal is more effective than suppression. Reappraisal decreases the experience and behavioral expression of emotion, and has no impact on memory. By contrast, suppression decreases behavioral expression, but fails to decrease the experience of emotion, and actually impairs memory. Suppression also increases physiological responding in both the suppressors and their social partners.

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... Diversos modelos teóricos han sido propuestos para explicar el manejo de las emociones. Entre ellos, el modelo procesual de la regulación emocional creado por Gross (1998bGross ( , 2001 se destaca por su alcance y relevancia. Este modelo se fundamenta en tres componentes: ...
... El modelo de Gross describe cinco etapas a través de las cuales transitan las respuestas emocionales. Mientras que las cuatro primeras (la selección de la situación, la modificación de la situación, la modulación de la atención y el cambio cognitivo) pertenecen a los antecedentes de la experiencia emocional, la última (modulación de la respuesta) forma parte de las respuestas emocionales (Gross, 1998b(Gross, , 1999(Gross, , 2001. ...
... La última etapa es la modulación de la respuesta, la cual es posterior a la respuesta emocional. El propósito de esta etapa es influir sobre la experiencia emocional que ya ocurrió para conseguir un cambio conductual o una modificación en la activación fisiológica (Gross, 1998b(Gross, , 1999(Gross, , 2001. ...
... These five families of strategies are then broadly split into antecedent focused (i.e., things people do before the emotion is generated) and response focused (i.e., strategies for when the emotion is already underway). The practical application of this model to date has largely been on identifying what individual strategies are, if they are adaptive or maladaptive, and identifying their relationship to psychological distress and functioning [1,[21][22][23]. Much of the research on this model to date has been focused on two strategies: reappraisal (antecedent focused) and suppression (response focused). ...
... The Downs and Black is a widely used checklist and has strength in being able to accommodate different study designs [56,57,59]. Score ranges are given corresponding quality levels: excellent (34)(35)(36)(37)(38); good (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33); fair (19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25); and poor (≤19) based on Hooper et al.'s (2008) [60] description of quality level ratings. ...
... Total possible for non-randomised with no comparator/control group: 28. Score ranges are given corresponding quality levels: excellent (35)(36)(37)(38); good (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34); fair (21)(22)(23)(24)(25); and poor (≤19) modified from [60] quality level ratings. ...
Article
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Emotional regulation (ER) as a concept is not clearly defined, and there is a lack of clarity about how individuals can improve their ability to regulate emotions. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence of the importance of ER as a transdiagnostic treatment target across mental health problems. This review examines the impact of ER group interventions on ER ability compared with no intervention, other comparable group interventions, or control conditions. A systematic review was conducted, in which 15 studies were included. Although types of ER intervention were mixed, the interventions had a considerable overlap in skills taught and how ER was measured. In all but one study, the ER intervention improved ER ability. ER interventions were superior to waitlist or treatment as usual, but there was limited evidence to suggest they were superior to other active treatments. Data from some studies suggest that improved ER was sustained at follow-up. Across the studies, there was generally poor linking of theory to practice, which hampers understanding of how interventions were constructed and why different skills were included. Although the results need to be interpreted with caution due to issues with methodological quality with the included papers, there is promising evidence that ER group interventions significantly improve ER ability.
... Avoidance is particularly important for the goal directed regulation of emotion and functions to reduce, maintain, or increase, negative and positive aspects of experiential and/or expressional forms of emotion (Gross, 1998;2001. According to the Process Model of emotion regulation (e.g. ...
... While the UHC method has been shown to modulate emotional and motivational behaviours (Harmon-Jones 2006;Peterson et al. 2008), it is uncertain which antecedent-focused component of emotion regulation was modulated to influence approach motivation. As discussed previously, emotions can be regulated at situational selection, situational modification, attentional deployment, and appraisal stages before experiential, behavioural, or physiological responses occur (Gross 1998(Gross , 2001(Gross , 2002. Given that the situation was controlled in the Peterson et al. study (2008) it can be assumed that the increased approach related behaviour following RHCs may have been a result of modifications in the attentional deployment stage of emotion regulation. ...
... While the UHC method has been shown to modulate emotional and motivational behaviours (Harmon-Jones 2006;Peterson et al. 2008), it is uncertain which antecedent-focused components of emotion regulation were modulated to increases anger. As discussed in Chapter 1, emotions can be regulated at situational selection, situational modification, attentional deployment, and appraisal stages before experiential, behavioural, or physiological responses occur (Gross 1998(Gross , 2001(Gross , 2002. Given that the situation was controlled in the Peterson et al. (2008) study it can be assumed that the increased anger behaviour following RHCs was a result of modifications in attentional deployment or appraisal stages of emotion regulation. ...
Thesis
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Substantial evidence shows that attentional bias towards threat plays a fundamental role in anxiety and that deficits in frontal brain functioning might explain this. However, a paucity of research on anger related attentional bias leaves unanswered questions about whether similar mechanisms underpin aggression. This has led to a lack of theoretical explanations for anger related attentional bias and effective interventions to reduce anger. Electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence suggests that the hemispheric specialisation of the frontal brain predicts differential responding to emotional stimuli in anger and anxiety. Manipulating motivational direction, via unilateral hand contractions (UHCs), provides a means to explore the causal relationship between anger and attentional bias to threat. Previously, this method has only been used to change experiential and expressional aspects of emotion and its effectiveness in modulating attentional components of emotion regulation are unknown. Therefore, this Thesis aims to explore whether UHCs effectively modulate attentional bias to threat in relation to, and independent of trait anger. It also aims to discover the underlying neural effects of the UHC method to examine whether threat-related attentional changes reflect modulations in cognitive control and/or approach motivation. Finally, this Thesis aims to bridge the gap between the attentional bias and frontal brain asymmetry literature. These aims will be addressed by employing Emotional Stroop and Dot Probe paradigms as well as event related potentials measures. The findings provide evidence that UHCs provides an effective technique to modulate attentional bias to threat. Specifically, RHCs reduce attentional bias to threat independent of trait anger and in individuals with low trait anger but they do not modify attentional bias to threat in high anger individuals. In contrast, LHCs increase attentional bias to threat and this reduced task relevant processing, independent of trait anger. The implications of these novel findings and future directions of research are discussed.
... It refers to all means, intrinsic or extrinsic, of appraising and adjusting emotion reactions in order to establish and maintain good relationships. 3 Gross, (2001) 4 defines emotion regulation as a conscious and non-conscious strategies employed to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotional response. Gross, Richards, and John, (2006) 5 defined emotion regulation as "all the processes that help to attain culturally appropriate (or functional) emotional experiences". ...
... It refers to all means, intrinsic or extrinsic, of appraising and adjusting emotion reactions in order to establish and maintain good relationships. 3 Gross, (2001) 4 defines emotion regulation as a conscious and non-conscious strategies employed to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotional response. Gross, Richards, and John, (2006) 5 defined emotion regulation as "all the processes that help to attain culturally appropriate (or functional) emotional experiences". ...
Article
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A systematic review of literature on emotion regulation is carried out with the aim to identify, analyze and compare the commonly used emotion regulatory strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) in individualistic and collectivistic cultures including Pakistan and to study outcomes of different emotion regulation strategies in culture specific context. A systematic search has been conducted for required articles which have been published between 1990 and 2015. Only those studies have been included in the review which reported either cognitive reap-praisal or expressive suppression in their findings. Review indicates that individualistic cultures prefer emotional expression to regulate emotions while colle-ctivistic cultures, such as in Pakistan, focus more on expressive suppression. Emotional suppression can cause mental disease, physiological illness, and poor social and psychological adjustment. To sum up, culture predicts whether individuals are motivated to express or suppress their emotions. Collectivist culture encourages greatest control on emotion expression
... Personality traits and emotion regulation may play important roles in the development of psychological problems within this context. According to the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (Gross, 2001), emotion regulation refers to the processes whereby individuals decide which emotions they have, when they have them, and the ways in which they experience and/or disclose them, whereas emotion dysregulation refers to a cluster of difficulties including the inability to understand, accept emotional experiences, modulate their intensity or duration, and manage them. This model shows how specific strategies are used when a particular emotional response is given (Gross, 2001). ...
... According to the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (Gross, 2001), emotion regulation refers to the processes whereby individuals decide which emotions they have, when they have them, and the ways in which they experience and/or disclose them, whereas emotion dysregulation refers to a cluster of difficulties including the inability to understand, accept emotional experiences, modulate their intensity or duration, and manage them. This model shows how specific strategies are used when a particular emotional response is given (Gross, 2001). The Five-Factor Model of Personality (McCrae & Costa, 1990) postulates that there are five traits of personality: extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic negatively influenced mental health and the music industry. The present study examined the relationship of between personality traits and emotional regulation with emotional problems and compared this relationship across three groups of individuals living in Türkiye during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 542 participants (238 musicians, 97 artists excluding musicians, and 207 participants who engaged in no form of art). The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-Brief Form (DERS-16), and Basic Personality Traits Inventory were used. Findings showed that difficulties in emotion regulation were positively associated with stress, depression, and anxiety in all groups. The pattern of the relationship between personality traits and outcome measures was similar across musicians and participants who engaged in no form of art, whereas that of difficulties in emotional regulation with personality traits was almost the same across the three groups. Except for the personality traits of extraversion and openness, group comparisons showed no differences across different measures. These findings suggest that difficulties in emotional regulation need to be a target for psychological interventions to reduce emotional problems for all three groups. Being a musician did not make any difference in terms of emotional regulation or the experience of psychological problems.
... Emotion Regulation Strategies and Sense of Life Meaning Masters (1991) believed that emotion regulation strategies are the methods used by people to regulate their emotions in a conscious and planned manner. Gross (1999Gross ( , 2001 proposed that affects the kind of emotion an individual feels, when it occurs, and how to experience and express it. ...
... The two have different effects on the adjustment of emotion, cognition and social behavior. Expression suppression is associated with negative outcomes and cognitive reappraisal is associated with positive outcomes (Gross, 1998a(Gross, ,b, 1999(Gross, , 2001. ...
Article
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This study aimed to explore the mechanism of college students’ meaning of life. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form, the General Wellbeing Schedule, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as measurement instruments. In total, 1,312 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression strategies were significantly positively and negatively correlated with gratitude, subjective wellbeing, and the sense of life meaning, respectively. Further, Emotion regulation strategies can affect college students’ sense of life meaning through three paths: the mediating effect of gratitude; the mediating effect of subjective wellbeing; the chain mediating effect of gratitude and subjective wellbeing. This study illuminated the roles of gratitude, and subjective wellbeing in influencing the sense of life meaning among the Chinese college students. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
... Some such interactions might be said to regulate the course of grief over time. "Emotion regulation" is sometimes conceived of primarily in terms of internal psychological processes that influence the initiation, course, and conclusion of brief emotional episodes (e.g., Gross 1999;2001;2014). However, it has been suggested that emotion regulation in humans is reliant to a considerable extent on processes that are interpersonal in nature, from patterns of interaction in early attachment to relationships between adults (e.g., Thompson 1994;Mikulincer et al., 2003;Campos et al., 2011;Kappas, 2011;Varga & Krueger, 2013). ...
... Emotion regulation has been defined specifically as the direct or indirect regulation of emotion, in contrast to the regulation of something else by emotion (Gross, 1999(Gross, , 2001. But, in the case of grief, the two cannot be cleanly distinguished. ...
Article
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This paper addresses how and why social restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic have affected people’s experiences of grief. To do so, I adopt a broadly phenomenological approach, one that emphasizes how our experiences, thoughts, and activities are shaped by relations with other people. Drawing on first-person accounts of grief during the pandemic, I identify two principal (and overlapping) themes: (a) deprivation and disruption of interpersonal processes that play important roles in comprehending and adapting to bereavement; (b) disturbance of an experiential world in the context of which loss is more usually recognized and negotiated. The combination, I suggest, can amount to a sort of “grief within grief”, involving a sense of stasis consistent with clinical descriptions of prolonged grief disorder.
... According to the Process Model of Emotion Regulation [27], different strategies may be enacted in different moments during the emotion generation process: The antecedent-focused strategies modify the perception and interpretation of emotional cues at an early stage of this process, whereas response-focused strategies modify behavioral and physiological responses to an ongoing emotion [26,27]. Two emotion regulation strategies have received major attention in research [28][29][30]: ...
... These two strategies may have very different impacts on well-being [31,32] in consideration of different aspects [26,33]. Cognitive reappraisal has been often considered an adaptive strategy because it intervenes early in the process, altering the development of negative emotions and successfully reducing their impact on individual experience [28,29]. Conversely, expressive suppression is generally considered maladaptive, as it enacts on the behavioral expression of emotions, but cannot avoid their inner experience: Individuals high in expressive suppression accumulate unresolved negative emotions and perceive a sense of incongruence between their feelings and behaviors, which may lead to psychological distress in the short and long term [31,32]. ...
Article
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Background: Although metacognition processes are a core feature of restrictive eating and alcohol cravings and entail an individual to control both of his/her emotions and thoughts, yet, to our knowledge, a scarcity of research has examined their potential role in drunkorexia as cognitive and emotional predictors. The following study investigates the different associations between two emotion regulation strategies (i.e. emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal) and drunkorexia behaviors in a sample of Lebanese adults, exploring the possible indirect effects of positive and negative alcohol-related metacognitions. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 335 participants (March-July 2021). Results: Higher problematic alcohol use (beta=5.56), higher physical activity index (beta=0.08), higher expressive suppression (beta=0.23), higher negative metacognitive beliefs about cognitive harm due to drinking (beta=0.75) and higher cognitive reappraisal (beta= 0.20) were significantly associated with more drunkorexic behaviors. The positive metacognitive beliefs about cognitive self-regulation significantly mediated the association between cognitive reappraisal and drunkorexia behaviors. Both the positive metacognitive beliefs about cognitive self-regulation and the negative metacognitive beliefs about the uncontrollability of drinking significantly mediated the association between expressive suppression and drunkorexia behaviors. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that emotional and metacognitive processes are associated with drunkorexia, addressing as well the mediating effect between deficient emotional regulation and risky behavioral patterns. Overall, our results would speculate that the lack of emotional and cognitive assets might enhance internal distress perceived out of control, leading individuals to indulge in maladaptive behavioral patterns for managing the underlying impairment.
... Emotional regulation (ER) refers to strategies that people use in order to amplify, maintain or reduce the intensity of emotions (Koole, 2009). Influential ER model proposes five broader groups of ER strategies that differ depending on the possibility of their usage during the emotion generative process (Gross, 1998(Gross, , 1999(Gross, , 2001. Strategies can be used at the point of selecting or avoiding situations that provoke a particular emotion, modifying these situations, redirecting attention from emotions, changing the way of thinking about situations that caused emotions or changing the concrete behaviour that emotions caused. ...
Conference Paper
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Perfectionism, operationalized by the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, consists of 6 factors: Concern over Mistakes, Organization, Parental Expectations, Personal Standards, Doubts about Actions, and Parental Criticism. The study aims to examine the predictor contribution of perfectionism factors to the occurrence of anxiety. The sample consisted of 189 subjects (37% with an anxiety disorder), aged 38 ± 9.3. The results revealed that only 2 predictors make a significant independent contribution (Concern over Mistakes and Doubts about Actions). The characteristics of anxious people are negative thoughts and preoccupation with oneself, reflected in Concern over Mistakes and Doubts about Actions. The results suggest that the influence of significant others isn't significant predictor to the onset of anxiety. These results imply that in psychotherapy, we should focus on the client's negative thoughts, self-confidence, and acceptance of his mistakes.
... drawing on social support) or cognitive change (e.g. trying to think more positively about things) (Gross, 2001). Others were response focused, involving the use of hobbies, exercise or substances to cope. ...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had substantial impacts on lives across the globe. Job losses have been widespread, and individuals have experienced significant restrictions on their usual activities, including extended isolation from family and friends. While studies suggest population mental health worsened from before the pandemic, not all individuals appear to have experienced poorer mental health. This raises the question of how people managed to cope during the pandemic. Methods To understand the coping strategies individuals employed during the COVID-19 pandemic, we used structural topic modelling, a text mining technique, to extract themes from free-text data on coping from over 11,000 UK adults, collected between 14 October and 26 November 2020. Results We identified 16 topics. The most discussed coping strategy was ‘thinking positively’ and involved themes of gratefulness and positivity. Other strategies included engaging in activities and hobbies (such as doing DIY, exercising, walking and spending time in nature), keeping routines, and focusing on one day at a time. Some participants reported more avoidant coping strategies, such as drinking alcohol and binge eating. Coping strategies varied by respondent characteristics including age, personality traits and sociodemographic characteristics and some coping strategies, such as engaging in creative activities, were associated with more positive lockdown experiences. Conclusion A variety of coping strategies were employed by individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The coping strategy an individual adopted was related to their overall lockdown experiences. This may be useful for helping individuals prepare for future lockdowns or other events resulting in self-isolation.
... Considering the fact that nurses and physicians are working in environments where the death and life and the health of patients are paramount, their well-being and hope can help them with the health of themselves and their patients (Zadhasan et al., 2017). In the field of emotion regulation and resilience, (Gross, 2001) defined emotion regulation as the application of conscious and unconscious strategies to reduce, maintain, or increase positive or negative feelings. Emotion regulation plays an important role in the adaptation of physicians and nurses to stressful life events (Sun et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Doctors are the first to fight COVID-19 and their mental health is at risk. This article aimed to investigate the psychological experiences of physicians recovered from COVID-19 disease. Phenomenological method was carried out to analyze the obtained data. Participants were 16 physicians recovered from COVID-19 disease in Yazd City from January 20th to March 1st, 2020. Samples were selected via pur-posive sampling and the subjects participated in-depth semi-structured interviews. Twelve main themes and 48 sub-themes were extracted, including 1-Adaptive emotional reactions, 2-Adaptive cognitive reactions, 3-Adaptive behavioral reactions, 4-Adaptive communicative reactions, 5-Adaptive spiritual reactions, 6-Adaptive copings, 7-Maladaptive Emotional reactions, 8-Maladaptive Cognitive reactions, 9-Maladaptive Behavioral reactions, 10-Maladaptive Communicative reactions, 11-Maladaptive spiritual reactions, and 12-Maladaptive Copings. According to the findings, adaptive psychological reactions and maladaptive psychological reactions can affect the psychological well-being of physicians.
... Antecedentfocused emotion regulation targets changing psychological processes arising early in the emotion generation process, before the emotional response is fully developed. Such strategies include changing the situation (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984), redirecting one's attention (Rodriguez et al., 1989), or reinterpreting the meaning or impact of the emotional elicitor (Gross, 2001). In contrast, response-focused emotion regulation targets changing the emotional response that is generated by these antecedent psychological processes. ...
Article
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This research demonstrates that interpersonal emotion regulation—attempts to manage others’ feelings—influences consumer perceptions during sales and service interactions impacting brand trust and loyalty. Building on previous research linking interpersonal emotion regulation to improved outcomes between people, across five experiments, we demonstrate that antecedent-focused interpersonal emotion regulation strategies result in enhanced brand loyalty and brand trust compared to response-focused interpersonal emotion regulation strategies. Analysis of mediation models reveals this effect is explained by changes in the consumer’s emotions, which in turn influence evaluations of the service interaction and subsequently impacts brand outcomes. We identify reactance as a moderator of this effect, such that customers with low (high) reactance to interpersonal regulation attempts exhibit more (less) favorable brand trust and loyalty evaluations. Further, we demonstrate that the visibility of interpersonal emotion regulation represents an important boundary condition. These findings support the process model of interpersonal emotion regulation and generate important insights for both theory and practice.
... Modes Impulsive Child Mode Enraged Child Mode Condescending Mode child and other coping modes also create an unhealthy coping while trying to prevent the child from being affected by the inner parental thoughts/voices. Furthermore, many studies emphasize the mediating role of emotion regulation between schemas/schema modes and psychopathology (Akhun, 2012;Çelik, 2021;Gross, 2001;Salgo et al., 2021;Sapmaz, 2014). According to these studies, schemas and schema modes can cause dysregulated emotions and dysregulation strategies through creating problems in emotional awareness, emotional clarity, impulse control, emotional expression, developing goal-oriented cognition and behavior under stress, and developing strategies to feel positive (Arıcı et al., 2021;Bitmiş, 2019;Sajadi et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to investigate how the schema modes defined in Schema Theory group together and accordingly question the conceptualization of schema modes considering the theories combining evolutionary, neuroscientific, and psychological point of views in psychology literature. It was hypothesized that there would be differences in the categorization and conceptualization of schema modes conceptualized by Schema Theory based on Polyvagal Theory. The sample of the study consists of 2032 participants aged between 18 and 71 years old (M = 36.00, SD = 14.312) who applied to a psychotherapy center in Istanbul working with the approach of Schema Therapy. Short Schema Mode Inventory was applied to the participants. According to the results of the second-order factor analysis, compliant surrenderer, healthy adult, punitive parent, happy child, and detached protector modes were clustered in the first factor. Impulsive child, enraged child, condescending, and easily bored child modes were loaded under the second factor while demanding parent, detached self-soother, and status-seeking modes were loaded under the third factor. When the results were evaluated with respect to Polyvagal Theory, it was determined that the first factor represented the parasympathetic nervous system activation and consisted of schema modes that include surrender, freezing, and socialization responses while the second factor consisting of schema modes related to flight or fight responses represented the sympathetic nervous system activation. Moreover, the third factor consisted of the schema modes of the sympathetic nervous system, which included flight or fight responses with parasympathetic inhibition (vagal brake). The results were discussed in line with the literature.
... Although these physiological associations have been related to diverse team processes such as shared regulation of collaborative learning (Pijeira-Díaz et al. 2018), several affective team emergent states (Häkonsson et al. 2016;Mitkidis et al. 2015), team coordination (Fusaroli et al. 2016), social presence Ekman et al. 2012), and team performance (Elkins et al. 2009;Henning et al. 2009), they have seldom been linked to team stress emergence. This seems odd, due to the close association already found between the reappraisal process and adaptive physiological stress responses within members (e.g., Bonifazi et al. 2006;Gaab et al. 2005;Gross 2001;Hammerfald et al. 2006;Jamieson et al. 2011;Mauss et al. 2005;Roberts et al. 2009). Notwithstanding, this close association even remained when lower perceived stress was reported by the participants (Gaab et al. 2005). ...
Article
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Team stress is an emergent cognition in which members jointly appraise their current task situations. The sharedness of stress appraisals has been elaborately studied in social groups such as couples, families, friends, and small communities. However, insights into teams have been rather limited. Keeping in mind the effects of stress on teams, it is essential to understand how team stress will form in teams over time. Seven dyad teams were observed during a 13-min flight simulation task. Researchers used the course of action analysis to reconstruct and distinguish one top-down (i.e., the shared stress configuration) and three bottom-up configuration types (i.e., the mimic, interactive, and independent stress configurations). Our findings suggest that especially the bottom-up influence of social stressors plays an important role in the team stress, especially when members verbally interact with one another. This proposes that, in comparison to the influence of contextual factors, diverse empathic processes play a more distinct role in the formation of team stress than initially thought in teams. This article also intends to illustrate how team stress can be studied over time, and how this type of output can contribute to a more fine-grained theoretical understanding of how team stress forms over time in teams. Last, it also provides some basic practical insights into the design of stress feedback systems.
... Before initiating these sessions, a pretest (Resilience Scale and Psychological Well-Being Inventory) was conducted on both experimental and control groups, and a posttest (Resilience Scale and Psychological Well-Being Inventory) was carried out one-month after the completion of experimental sessions. The contents and objectives of these sessions were the process model proposed by Gross [33]. The main objectives of carrying out these sessions were improving the subjects' levels of resilience and psychological well-being. ...
Article
Introduction: Nurses constitute the largest part of human resources in the health system and play critical roles in taking care of and improving patients' health. This study aimed to examine the effect of training emotion regulation techniques on resilience and psychological well-being among nurses. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study that was followed by a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The statistical population of the study included nurses in Zahedan. Forty nurses were selected using the convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to the two groups. During the training sessions, the subjects were reduced to 19 ones, and the pretest was conducted on both groups. Then eight 90-minute sessions of training emotion regulation techniques were carried out on the experimental group for two months. The posttest was conducted, one-month after the training. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and the Reef Psychological Well-Being Inventory were used to collect the data. The data analyses were carried out using the Analysis of Covariance. Results: The results indicated that training emotion regulation techniques were effective in increasing resilience and psychological well-being. Moreover, the results showed that .40 of the variances in resilience (P ≥ 0.001) and .20 of the variances in psychological well-being (P ≥ 0.001) were determined in the posttest via the independent variable. Conclusions: Therefore, holding intervention programs based on the emotion regulation techniques are recommended to improve resilience and psychological well-being among nurses.
... Basic axioms of attachment theory (Hazan & Shaver, 1987) and models of emotion regulation (Gross, 2001) suggest associations between emotion regulation strategies and mental representations of romantic partners. Empirical studies demonstrate that the use of emotion regulation strategies (e.g., reappraisal) is linked to marital stability (Gottman et al., 1998), greater relationship satisfaction (Bloch et al., 2014;Gottman & Levenson, 1992), higher levels of partners' conversation memories after couple conflict (Richards et al., 2003), more constructive perceived criticism (Klein et al., 2016), and positive dyadic coping (Rusu et al., 2019). ...
Article
High positive affect and low negative affect have been repeatedly tied to better individual and interpersonal well-being. However, research has focused on mean levels whereas the day-to-day unfolding of affect and its impact on romantic relationships remain largely understudied. Here, we examined the links between mean levels and variability in affect and changes in perceptions of partner regard —the extent to which people believe that their partners value and accept them. One hundred twenty-five African American couples ( N = 250 individuals) reported how positively they thought their partners viewed them across two sessions (T1 and T2), separated by a 3-week daily diary study in which participants reported on their positive and negative affect each day for 21 consecutive days. Using dyadic analysis, we found that higher actor negative affect variability was associated with lower perceived regard at T2 controlling for perceived regard at T1. This finding held when controlling for mean levels of actor and partner negative affect. By contrast, PA variability was curvilinearly associated with perceived regard, with moderate levels of variability associated with higher subsequent perceived regard. These results highlight the importance of accounting for mean levels and curvilinear effects when examining links between affect dynamics and relational well-being.
... O conceito de regulação emocional é uma conceito muito amplo que abrange todas as estratégias que os indivíduos usam para reduzir, manter ou aumentar as suas emoções. Abarca vários processos fisiológicos, comportamentais e cognitivos, conscientes e inconscientes (Gross, 2001). Por exemplo, algumas estratégias são implementadas ao nível cognitivo (através de pensamentos), enquanto outras são através das mudanças comportamentais (fazendo coisas diferentes); sendo que a maior parte das estratégias envolvem uma combinação das duas (mudar pensamentos e agir de forma diferente) (Parkinson & Totterdell, 1999). ...
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Resumo: A regulação emocional refere-se a todas as estratégias usada para reduzir, manter ou aumentar uma emoção (Gross, 2001). As estratégias de regulação emocional estão implicadas na personalidade, nas emoções na cognição no desenvolvimento social (incluindo a resiliência). Gross and John (2003) mostraram que as estratégias de regulação emocional quando usadas cedo no processo de produção da emoções estão associadas a melhores níveis de bem estar e saúde, incluindo a resiliência. Pelo que medidas adaptadas para a população portuguesa nesta área tenham a sua pertinência Dai que um dos principais objectivos deste estudo seja a tradução e adequação deste questionário de regulação emocional. A amostra deste estudo integrou 182 indivíduos de ambos os sexos do distrito do Funchal com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 51 anos e de diferentes culturas. INTRODUÇÃO As emoções nem sempre foram encaradas como sendo agradáveis para a vida dos sujeitos, uma vez que eram tidas como algo que tinha vida própria, que podia irromper e desaparecer sem que os indivíduos assim o quisessem, pondo a nu pensamentos e descontrolando comportamentos, tornado os indivíduos, na sua perspectiva, mais frágeis. Hoje em dia tem-se vindo a valorizar cada vez mais a importância das emoções para a integração e adaptação social (Damasio, 1995; Lazarus, 1980; Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Sabe-se também que os indivíduos podem modificar as suas emoções, usando uma série de estratégias que servem para evocar, manter ou
... Emotional regulation processes could be defined as the strategies used by an individual to modulate his/her emotional response to a given stimulus or situation, making it possible to modulate the intensity, duration and/or quality of the emotional experience and expression (Gross, 2014). In the process of emotion regulation, the cognitive reappraisal consists in modifying the cognitive meaning attributed to a situation, whereas the expressive suppression consists in inhibiting or reducing ongoing emotion-expressive behavior (Gross, 2001). There is evidence that the use of adaptive strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, problem solving and acceptance are associated with less anxiety and depressive symptoms, while the contrary holds for maladaptive strategies such as expressive suppression, avoidance and rumination (Aldao et al., 2010;Schäfer et al., 2017). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic is increasing negative consequences on mental health around the globe. To date, research on what psychological factors could influence individuals' distress is still scarce. The current study aims to test a multiple mediation model to examine the role of Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) and emotional regulation (i.e., expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal) as joint factors, which can increase understanding of psychological distress due to the COVID-19 outbreak. An online survey measuring fear of COVID-19, IU, emotional regulation, and psychological distress was administered to 3863 Italian adults (females 73.3%; M age = 36.44; SD = 14.74) during lockdown. Results showed that IU partially mediated the effect of fear of COVID-19 on depression, anxiety and stress. Moreover, individuals with difficulties in managing the uncertainties due to their fear of COVID-19 may be at risk for heightened use of expressive suppression and depression. However, individuals with both higher IU and expressive suppression showed lower level of stress. High cognitive reappraisal has a mediational effect on the relationship between fear of COVID-19, IU, and lower psychological distress. Findings suggest that IU and emotional regulation should be targeted for informing the development of tailored treatments to reduce the negative consequences of the outbreak. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03071-5.
... Unlike suppression, which targets the expressive component of the emotional response, reappraisal targets the experiential component of the emotional response. It thus occurs earlier in the emotion regulation process by changing how people view upcoming emotional events (Gross, 1998(Gross, , 2001. ...
Article
Drawing on emotion regulation theory, this study investigates if and how emotion suppression informs relationship viability within new venture teams (NVTs) when such teams face obstacles. In particular, we use a dyadic approach to examine the suppressor’s authenticity and team members’ perceptions of appropriateness as mediators in the link between emotion suppression and relationship viability. A round-robin study with 93 respondents nested in 37 NVTs, which generated 167 observations, provides empirical support for the theoretically derived model by showing that both authenticity and appropriateness fully mediate the relationship between emotion suppression and relationship viability. In particular, the findings show that the negative indirect effect of emotion suppression on relationship viability via authenticity is larger than the positive indirect effect via appropriateness. A follow-up study after two years indicates that relationship viability and emotion suppression significantly predict venture survival. Together, these findings make ample contributions to the literature and provide interesting opportunities for further research.
... However, emotions can at times be harmful rather than helpful, and at such times, individuals may seek to regulate how these emotions are experienced and expressed (Gross, 1998(Gross, , 2007. More specifically, emotion regulation can be defined as a set of strategies that individuals may adopt to increase, maintain, or decrease the intensity of the feeling, behavior, and physiological response related to a specific emotion (Gross, 2001). ...
Article
Many researchers suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic may have more negative effects on women than men. Accordingly, we hypothesized that women would experience greater COVID-19 related distress and more psychopathological symptoms than men during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. Moreover, we expected emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, as protective and risk factors respectively) to interact with gender in shaping psychological health. We administered an online questionnaire to 1519 participants during the first national COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. As predicted, women reported greater COVID-19 related distress and more psychopathological symptoms than men. Furthermore, women who made greater use of reappraisal reported lower levels of distress and fewer psychopathological symptoms. Suppression was associated with more psychopathological symptoms, but there were no interaction effects with gender. Our findings have implications for policymakers wishing to sustain women’s health during stressful situations such as the COVID-19 outbreak and beyond.
... Based on the tenets of the ego-depletion theory, the key element of self-control to reduce the exhaustion of personal resources is the individual's ability to control and regulate emotion. Emotional regulation refers to how individuals try to influence the emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express those emotions (Diefendorff, Richard, and Yang 2008;Gross 2001). Research on emotional regulation has now largely focused on deploying this self-emotional regulation ability in influencing emotions, especially in workplace (Matta et al. 2014;Peña-Sarrionandia, Mikolajczak, and Gross 2015). ...
... When asked to describe how they manage their emotions on a daily basis, principals in this study reported utilizing strategies associated with all five families of ER found within Gross' (2001;2014) process model for ER. These five families of ER include situation selection; situation modification; attentional deployment; cognitive change; and response modulation. ...
... Additionally, the field currently lacks research on the validity of single-item measures used in intensive longitudinal designs. The current study derived state-level items (e.g., cognitive reappraisal) from theoretical models (Gross, 2001;Gross & John, 2003), past research (Brockman et al., 2017;Kashdan & Steger, 2006), and validated trait-level measures (e.g., ERQ; Gross & John, 2003). Although the trait-level and state-level measures we assessed in the study were positively associated, future research is required to specifically investigate the validity of the state-level measures used in daily diary research. ...
Article
In contrast to traditional classifications of emotion regulation (ER) strategies as either uniformly maladaptive or adaptive, recent theoretical models emphasize that adaptability is determined by greater ER flexibility (i.e., the ability to flexibly implement and adjust ER strategies based on the context). This study is the first to empirically test the two central perspectives of ER flexibility on affect. A sample of 384 adults (M age=38.58 years, SD=13.82) residing predominantly in North America completed daily diaries for 14 days. We found evidence that theoretical components of ER flexibility, as defined by greater context sensitivity in the selection of ER strategies, greater ER strategy repertoire, enhanced responsivity to affective feedback, and ER-environmental covariation, were associated with adaptive affective outcomes (i.e., reduced negative affect and/or increased positive affect). This study highlights the importance of examining ER flexibility and its consequences as a critical component of ER. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42761-022-00132-7.
... Stratejilerin öncül odaklı olması, tepkilerin tam olarak aktif olmadan, davranışlarımızı değiştirmeden önce yaptıklarımızdır. Bunun yanında tepki eğilimleri ortaya çıktıktan sonra duygu hali hazırda başlamışsa yaptığımız şey tepki odaklı stratejidir (Gross, 2001). ...
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Referees have to regulate the psychological pressure and variable emotional states theyexperience during a competition. In this context, the emotional regulation levels of thereferees and some variables that are thought to affect this level were discussed in thisstudy. The research is descriptive in with a survey model. The sample for the researchconsists of field referees who have been actively refereeing in Turkish basketball,handball, volleyball and football leagues in 2021-2022, selected with the accessiblesampling method. A personal information form and Referee Emotion Regulation Scaledeveloped by Karaçam et al. (2021) were used as data collection tools in the study. Theanalysis of the data was done using the SPSS 21 program. No significant differenceswere found between the sub-dimensions of the emotion regulation status of thereferees and their gender, refereeing levels or branches. A significant difference wasfound between the sub-dimensions of the emotion regulation status of the refereesand their graduation status in favor of those with a graduate degree[F (2, 267) = 2.94/ 11.96]. There was no significant relationship between Cognitive Reappraisal, which isone of the emotion regulation sub-dimensions, and age and experience, and betweenthe Suppression sub-dimension and experience. A significant negative relationshipwas found between suppression sub-dimension and age(r= -.15).As a result of theresearch, it can be said that the gender, refereeing levels, branches and experiencesof the referees are not important variables on the emotion regulation levels. In addition,it was observed that the level of emotion regulation of the postgraduate graduateswas higher than the other referees. This situation can be interpreted as the emotionregulation skills of the referees increase as the education level increases., theysuppress their emotions less during the competition
... Therefore, moral incrementalism may be linked to more positive moral emotions (e.g., pride) and fewer negative moral emotions such as shame and guilt. Psychological elaborations and rich descriptions of emotions in narrative accounts are associated with numerous benefits including higher self-esteem (McLean & Breen 2009), happiness and well-being (e.g., Bird & Reese 2006), inasmuch as they serve as an antithesis of suppression by allowing the narrator to express their emotions and thoughts associated with difficult experiences (e.g., Gross 2001). Contrarily, grappling with their own thoughts, intentions, and feelings in relation to an act that is inconsistent with their moral self-view might be particularly difficult for adolescents who perceive moral character as unchanging across time and situations. ...
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Past work on moral mindsets has largely overlooked the adolescent developmental period, a time when adolescents are navigating the complexities of moral life and experiencing tensions between important moral principles and their own actions. This study investigated how moral incrementalism and essentialism are linked to how adolescents construct meanings about their moral experiences. The sample included 96 Canadian adolescents (12–15-years of age; M = 13.5 years). Adolescents generated written narratives of times when they acted inconsistently and consistently with a moral value, and completed a vignette-based measure of moral mindsets. Moral incrementalism was associated with references to the psychological and emotional facets of experiences and engaging in meaning-making processes in narratives. Adolescents who endorsed incrementalism disengaged less only when narrating a self-discrepant experience, indicating some context-specificity across moral event types. Overall, results contribute to scholarship on moral mindset and narrative identity construction. Findings illuminate how individual differences in youth’s views of moral traits and behavior may be associated with important aspects of moral identity development such as delving into the psychological and emotional aspects of their experiences and engaging in meaning-making processes.
... Emotion regulation includes all of the conscious and non-conscious strategies we use to increase, to maintain or decrease one or more components of an emotional response (Gross, 1998). Originally, trying to bring together ideas from psychoanalysis and the field of stress and coping behaviours, Gross developed a process or time model of emotion regulation, in which emotions can be modulated in five different stages: selecting a situation, modifying a situation, deployment of attention, changing cognition (cognitive reappraisal), and modulating the experience, behaviour or physiological response (Gross, 2001). Gross and John in a correlational study demonstrated that individual differences in the usage of these strategies (more cognitive reappraisal) were related to better emotional health, well-being and interpersonal functioning (Gross and John, 2003). ...
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Mindfulness is the status of being alert to the present and functioning with complete focus on immediate sensations and situations that is happening both within and in the immediate environment of a person. Emotional distress and emotionally aroused state is primarily associated with the past events the person has experienced in his life or anticipation related the future. The aim of the study was to investigate The Relationship between Mindfulness (5 factors of Mindfulness) and Emotional regulation among young adults. The research design was correlational. Data was collected using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire a sample size of 129 participants between the age of 17-23 years in a paper pen test format. The data collected was analysed using a statistical package for social science (SPSS) to find the relationship between the 2 variables. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between Mindfulness 4 factors observing, describe, acting and awareness and nonreactive was found to have significant relationship and Emotional Regulation, while it was found that the 5th factor non-judging did not have a significant relationship with mindfulness
... In the case of emotions, individuals may utilize their learned emotional responses ( schemes ) and their basic ideologies ( schemas ) to develop their reactions. According the Gross (2001), "emotions call forth a coordinated set of behavioral, experiential, and physiological response tendencies that together influence how we respond to perceived challenges and opportunities" (p. 281). ...
Article
This article will present an integrated approach for treating emotional distress. The authors review the purposes of emotions and explore how they operate in individuals’ lives based on learned responses and inaccurate perceptions. Distinct categories of emotions are identified, including both maladaptive and adaptive forms. Basic ideologies and negative evaluations will also be reviewed to illustrate how these patterns develop and maintain disturbing conditions. The authors will examine the complimentary association between affective and cognitive material and how treating both in therapy can be beneficial. Emotion and cognitive-based interventions will be presented through the use of a case study.
... Emotional regulation accounts for the processes that align with the internal and external stimuli to either maintain or increase/decrease any dimension of the emotional response. 24 These processes direct all those efforts that the individual makes to manage the underlying responses to any alarming stimuli; corresponding to decision about what emotions are to be dealt with. 25 It is crucial for an individual to regulate the emotions they encounter on a daily basis for effective psychosocial interactions. ...
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Background The existing structural framework of defining gender and sexuality based on heteronormative ideology led to the succession of the notions of stigma, prejudice, and hate towards the sexual and gender minority population. The presence of strong scientific evidence for the negative consequences of discriminatory and violent events has directed the association with mental and emotional distress. This study aims to comprehend the role of minority stress in emotional regulation and suppression among the sexual minority population globally using systematic review of literature through elaborate Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Summary The analyses of the sorted literature premised on the PRISMA guidelines revealed that minority stress mediates the emotion regulation processes among the individuals who witness continuous episodes of discrimination and violence leading to emotional dysregulation and emotion suppression. Studies also reported the dominance of various health-risk behaviors such as alcohol addiction, drug abuse, and other forms of intoxication among sexual minority individuals. Increased instances of anxiety, stress, depression, and suicidal ideations were prominent in the findings of the empirical research suggesting an intricate role of minority stress in advancing the faulty emotion suppression and mental health concerns among the sexual and gender minority population. Key message Minority stressors among sexual and gender minority individuals mediate emotion suppression and mental distress.
... The results revealed obviously lower processing speed in MDD patients than in HCs, as has been demonstrated previously by other researchers [21]. Information processing has been shown to enable focus on goal-relevant information while ignoring goal-irrelevant information [22]. Processing speed is reported to be correlated with depressive symptom load [23], which is consistent with our results. ...
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Background: Middle-aged (45-59 years old) patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have a predilection for dementia and cognitive disorders (CDs); however, the characteristics and mechanisms of CDs in these patients remain unclear. There are also known connections between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), brain biochemical metabolism, and cognitive function (CF); however, there is scanty of information about these connections in middle-aged MDD patients. Methods: Cognitive assessment was performed on 30 first-episode, untreated middle-aged patients with MDD and 30 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebellum were also obtained via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the TSH level was measured by chemiluminescence analysis. Results: MDD patients presented significantly lower processing speed, working memory, verbal learning, reasoning problem-solving, visual learning, and composite cognition scores than controls, with a statistically lower NAA/Cr ratio in the right cerebellum. Age was positively related to reasoning problem-solving in the MDD group (r = 0.6249, p = 0.0220). Education also showed a positive association with visual learning, social cognition, and composite cognition. The 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-24) score was negatively related to all domains of CF. TSH levels were markedly decreased in the MDD group, and a positive connection was determined between the NAA/Cr ratio in the right PFC and the TSH level. Conclusions: Middle-aged MDD patients have multidimensional CDs. There are changes in PFC and cerebellar biochemical metabolism in middle-aged patients with MDD, which may be related to CDs or altered TSH levels.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel werden Interventionen zur Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit, Selbstregulation und Emotionsregulation im Arbeitskontext im Überblick dargestellt. Dafür werden zunächst die theoretischen Grundlagen als Basis für die Interventionsgestaltung vorgestellt, wie der sequenzielle Prozess der Selbstregulation und das Prozessmodel der Emotionsregulation. Anschließend werden der aktuelle Forschungsstand und exemplarische Interventionsstudien. Kapitel schließt mit Implikationen für zukünftige Forschung und Empfehlungen zur Umsetzung von Interventionen zur Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit, Emotions- und Selbstregulation.
Chapter
In contrast with the cognitive and physical declines associated with aging, the emotional aspects of later life are characterized by maintenance and improvement. Emotional experience becomes more positive with age, with people in their 60s reporting the highest well-being. The ability to regulate emotions is largely maintained with age, a feat likely accomplished through experience and a shift toward prioritizing emotional well-being. Older adults are worse than younger adults at emotion perception but can compensate by using contextual cues when available. Adults shape these trajectories as they respond to changes in resources by selecting goals, optimizing performance, and compensating for losses.
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Dans ce travail, nous avons souhaité explorer la dimension émotionnelle du conditionnement évaluatif. Nous postulons que celui-ci provient d’un processus de double évaluation, d’une part émotionnelle et d’autre part cognitive. Nous nous sommes focalisés sur l’étude des processus émotionnels à travers la régulation émotionnelle. Pour cela nous avons réalisé trois séries d’études. Dans la première, nous avons mis en évidence que la dérégulation émotionnelle diminuait le conditionnement positif. Dans deux autres études visant à explorer les stratégies de régulation, nous avons observé qu’un mésusage des stratégies engendrait un conditionnement négatif plus fort et un conditionnement positif plus faible. Ces premiers résultats sont appuyés par deux études utilisant la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque comme indicateur des capacités d’autorégulation. Le conditionnement évaluatif paraît associé à la dérégulation émotionnelle à travers des difficultés d’adaptation durant le stress et de récupération post-stress. Enfin, deux études ont essayé d’observer les effets d’un prédicteur de la régulation émotionnelle : la pleine conscience. Dans aucune des deux études nous n’avons trouvé de lien entre la pleine conscience et le conditionnement évaluatif. Nous avons donc pu observer à travers différentes méthodes un lien entre le conditionnement évaluatif et la régulation émotionnelle. Celui-ci est discuté et des pistes de recherches sont envisagées.
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Background: Researchers have investigated the relationship between the effect of emotional self-regulation with academic motivation, but the causal model of the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, socioeconomic status with academic motivation: the mediating role of self-disability has been neglected. Aims: of the model was to model the relationships between cognitive emotion regulation, socioeconomic status, and academic motivation with the mediating role of self-expression among students. Method: The research was correlation and structural equation modeling. The statistical population consisted of all female high school students in district 2 of Tehran. The sample consisted of 270 individuals who were selected by simple random cluster sampling. 2009), Schwinger & Steinmeister Plasterer (ASHS) Academic Self-Disability Questionnaire (2011) and the Social Economic Database Questionnaire (1995-2007). Data were analyzed using skewness and elongation indices and correlation between model variables with correlation matrix. Results: Cognitive emotion regulation adjustment had a negative effect on self�handicapping and had a positive effect on socioeconomic status. It has a negative effect on intrinsic motivation and a positive effect on extrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and socioeconomic status has a negative effect on self�disability (P< 0/05). Conclusions: Self-disability in the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, social base - Economic and academic motivation play a mediating role, in general the findings show that fashion The model presented in this study fits well with the model test results and can be used in research
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Background: It is important to pay attention to the self-injury behaviors in adolescence as one of the high-risk behaviors with adverse consequences for the individual and society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the mediating role of emotion regulation strategies in the relationship between emotional abuse in childhood and self-injury behaviors in female adolescents. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study. Participants were 200 female high school students in Rasht, Iran in the academic year 2020-2021 who were selected using a convenience sampling method. Data collection tools included the self-harm inventory (SHI), childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ), and emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ). The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) and path analysis in SPSS Software v. 23 and Amos v. 26. Results: There was a significant relationship between emotional abuse and self-injury behaviors (P<0.001). The reappraisal domain had a significant negative relationship with emotional abuse and self-injury behaviors, and the suppression domain had a significant positive relationship with emotional abuse and self-injury behaviors. Emotion regulation strategies had partial mediating role in the relationship between emotional abuse and self-injury behaviors (P<0.001). Conclusion: Considering the mediating role of emotion regulation strategies, more attention to the use of these strategies should be paid to reduce the occurrence of self-injury behaviors in female adolescents.
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هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على مستوى اليقظة العقلية والتسويف الأكاديمي والتنظيم الانفعالي عند طلاب المرحلة الثانوية (العام والفني) (ذكور، إناث) والتعرف على الفروق بينهما، بالإضافة إلى الكشف عن علاقة اليقظة العقلية بكلاً من التسويف الأكاديمي، والتنظيم الانفعالي، وعلى امكانية التنبؤ بكل من التسويف الاكاديمي والتنظيم الانفعالي من خلال اليقظة العقلية، وتكونت عينة الدراسة من (140) طالب وطالبة، (70) من طلاب التعليم الثانوي العام ، و(70) من طلاب التعليم الفني، واستخدمت الباحثة مقاييس ( اليقظة العقلية، التسويف الاكاديمي، التنظيم الانفعالي)، وأسفرت نتائج الدراسة عن وجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائية بين طلاب التعليم الثانوي العام( ذكور واناث) في ( اليقظة العقلية، التسويف الأكاديمي، التنظيم الانفعالي) لصالح الاناث، ووجود فروق دالة احصائياً بين طلاب التعليم الفني (ذكور واناث) في (اليقظة العقلية، التسويف الأكاديمي) لصالح الذكور، وعدم وجود فروق بين الذكور والاناث في التنظيم الانفعالي، ووجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائية بين طلاب ( التعليم العام، التعليم الفني) (ذكور واناث) في اليقظة العقلية لصالح (التعليم الفني) " ذكور"، ووجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائيًا في التسويف الاكاديمي لصالح (التعليم العام) "اناث"، ووجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائياً في التنظيم الانفعالي لصالح التعليم الفني ( ذكور واناث)، كما يمكن التنبؤ بكلا من ( التسويف الاكاديمي والتنظيم الانفعالي) من خلال اليقظة العقلية لدى كلا من التعليم الثانوي العام والفني.
Article
Research into emotion regulation (ER) has focused primarily on the intra-personal process through which we regulate our own emotions intrinsically. More recently, however, studies have begun to explore the inter-personal nature of intrinsic ER – that is, how we regulate our emotions under the guidance of others. Preliminary evidence suggests that ER might be more effective when implemented in an inter- compared with an intra-personal manner, but these findings are based almost exclusively on self-reported ratings that capture only the subjective experience of emotions. The current study therefore investigated whether this apparent superiority of inter-personal intrinsic ER could be replicated and extended to physiological measures of affective reactions – namely, various metrics of electrodermal activity. In a within-subjects design, a sufficiently powered sample (N = 146) were required to down-regulate their emotional reactions to negatively valenced images using an ER strategy they had chosen themselves intra-personally or one that had been recommended to them inter-personally. Physiological responses converged to demonstrate the greater effectiveness of inter- over intra-personal ER in decreasing negative affective reactions, despite subjective ratings suggesting that participants perceived the opposite to be true. The superiority of inter- over intra-personal ER in physiological recordings was unrelated to individuals' perceptions of their ability to regulate their own emotions, however, and so it remains to be seen if and how such benefits extend to clinical populations.
Article
Emotion regulation (ER) abilities involve the capacity to manage the onset and course of emotions in service of situational goals, which facilitates affective changes dependent upon the contextual parameters. Despite the importance of ER abilities to psychopathology, understanding ER abilities across days, and how daily fluctuations in ER abilities relate to mood, is limited. This study examined the role of state ER in predicting positive and negative affect using a daily diary design (2812 daily surveys). Participants differed in within-individual variability for each domain of perceived state ER, and within- and between-individual fluctuations in perceived ER abilities predicted positive and negative affect. Findings support ER theory, given the importance of contextual, momentary changes in informing theoretical ER models. Implications for momentary assessment and intervention are discussed, focusing on contextual behavioral science.
Chapter
Drawing on fieldwork in the Diocese of Quibdó in Colombia, Sandra Milena Rios Oyola considers how religious initiatives to transform negative emotions can contribute to peacebuilding. Emotional regulation is essential if communities are to survive and flourish amid and after conflict. In particular, the conflict in Colombia has engendered widespread feelings of fear and distrust amongst victims. Through its narratives and rituals, the local Catholic Church has offered mental and bodily means to manage these emotions. Particularly important have been their initiatives of social memorialisation for victims (though some victims are unwilling or unready to discuss their past). As well as countering negative emotions, religion offers a means to foster positive emotions. This does not only mean forgiveness but also community happiness and ilusión (wishful hoping). Such positive emotions form a basis for productive peacebuilding.
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We investigate how a leader's perception of a follower's behaviours may impact the follower's perception of a leader's behaviours which in turn may relate to a leader's rating of the LMX quality. Multilevel multisource data were collected from 315 leader–member dyads in 27 military teams. At the dyadic level, a leader's perception of a follower was related to the follower's assessment of a leader's behaviours, which in turn, was positively related to how the leader rated their LMX quality. Finally, the leaders' emotional reappraisal moderated the link between a follower's perception of the leader's behaviours and leader rated LMX quality. LMX research continues to interrogate the role of the follower in the leader–follower process. The study sheds further light on how followers contribute to the leadership process.
Chapter
The information technology sector plays a critical role in driving the growth and innovation of a country and helps nations to sustain their national competitiveness. While the industry has significant headroom for growth, it is battling with a few issues at present. The work environment of an IT industry is characterized by long and odd working shifts, critical time deadlines, monotonous types of jobs, etc. Hence, it is evident that a sharp focus on the workplace emotions and the related emotional competencies of the IT employees is the need of the hour. From the review of previous research, it was evident that there is a dearth of emotional intelligence research in India. Specifically, the IT sector was not focused on a holistic approach. With this lacuna in mind, the present study focused on assessing the emotional competencies of the employees of the IT sector in Tamil Nadu and bringing out the impact of emotional competencies on their team effectiveness, career satisfaction, person-organisation fit, and well-being.
Article
Background xxx Aim The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of virtual reality on pain and anxiety in patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Method The study was conducted between September 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019, in the surgical intensive care unit at a government hospital. The participants were 110 patients who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. According to the study procedure, while the control group received standard care, the intervention group watched a virtual reality video. Data were collected with a personal information form, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale, and the Faces Anxiety Scale. Results The mean post-test Numeric Pain Rating Scale score was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p < .001). However, the mean Faces Anxiety Scale scores did not differ significantly between the groups (p = .087). Conclusions Virtual reality can effectively reduce pain and anxiety in patients who have undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in intensive care units.
Article
The objective of this study was to understand if and for whom anger regulation relates to later reading and math achievement. The sample included 267 upper elementary school students from two schools (5% Asian, 10% Black, 6% Latinx, 17% Multiethnic/Other, and 62% White; 36% dual language learner; 60% female; average age = 9.7 years). Self-reported anger regulation and self- and teacher-reported emotional engagement were assessed. Then, reading and math standardized achievement were tested by the schools approximately three months later. Latent variable path analyzes suggested that withdrawal when experiencing anger (“anger withdraw”) had a significant, positive relation with later reading and math achievement outcomes, when controlling for other anger regulation strategies and demographics. Latent student- and teacher-reported emotional engagement moderated the relation of anger withdraw with later reading achievement. Discussion centers on anger regulation, moderation, and implications of anger regulation for school psychologists.
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The reliability of individual trial event-related potential (ERP) components extracted from electroencephalogram has been consistently questioned since ERP research began. This ambivalence is based on misunderstood assumptions stemming from Cronbach and Classical Test Theory. Contemporary methods allow for the reliability of individual ERP trials to be estimated and for analyses of these trial-level ERP components to be meaningfully parsed. We illustrate the use of Generalizability Theory procedures in estimating the reliability of trial-level ERPs using the late positive potential (LPP), a neural measure of motivated attention toward emotionally evocative stimuli. Individuals (N = 88) completed a passive viewing task while continuous EEG was recorded. Variability in trial-level LPP responses was decomposed into facets corresponding to individual differences, chronological trial within block, stimulus type, their two-way interactions, and specific stimuli. We estimated various reliability coefficients and found that both overall and category-specific person-level LPP estimates have good-to-excellent reliability, while the reliability of within-person differences (i.e., change) between arousal categories was fair for the early LPP. These results were generally consistent across time windows, but were highest early in the LPP time course. We argue that investigating reliability using trial-level data allows researchers to pursue hypotheses focused on neurophysiological dynamics that unfold over the course of an experiment and not risk false inferences (i.e., ecological fallacy) when using person-level aggregates to deduce such processes. Moreover, such analyses provide information that allows researchers to optimize their protocols by potentially reducing the number of individual trials, burden on participants, and cost, while retaining sufficient reliability.
Article
The aim of this study is to examine how much emotion regulation, coping and cognitive flexibility variables predict adolescents' subjective well-being at school. For this purpose, the research was conducted based on the relational screening model. The study group of this study consisted of a total of 389 students, 184 (%47.3) boys and 205 (%52.7) girls, studying at state secondary education institutions in the Bucak district of Burdur province in the academic year of the 2021-2022. The average age of the adolescents in the research group is 15.70. “Brief Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School Scale - Özdemir and Sağkal (2016)”, “Emotion Regulation Questionnaire - Ulaşan Özgüle and Sümer (2017)”, “The Coping Strategies for Adolescents Scale - Bedel, Işık and Hamarta (2014)”, “Cognitive Flexibility Scale - Çelikkaleli (2014)” and “Personal Information Form” were used as data collection tools. The data obtained from the research were analyzed with the multiple regression analysis (stepwise) method. As a result of the research, it was determined that the variables of emotion regulation, coping and cognitive flexibility significantly predicted subjective well-being at school. Finally, the findings obtained in the study were discussed and suggestions were made for future research.
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An emerging literature has begun to document the affective consequences of emotion regulation. Little is known, however, about whether emotion regulation also has cognitive consequences. A process model of emotion suggests that expressive suppression should reduce memory for emotional events but that reappraisal should not. Three studies tested this hypothesis. Study 1 experimentally manipulated expressive suppression during film viewing, showing that suppression led to poorer memory for the details of the film. Study 2 manipulated expressive suppression and reappraisal during slide viewing. Only suppression led to poorer slide memory. Study 3 examined individual differences in typical expressive suppression and reappraisal and found that suppression was associated with poorer self-reported and objective memory but that reappraisal was not. Together, these studies suggest that the cognitive costs of keeping one's cool may vary according to how this is done.
The social consequences of emotion regulation
  • E A Egloff
  • B Wilhelm
  • F H Smith
  • N C Gross
The term "reappraisal" has a long history. Although some research-References Butler, E.A., Egloff, B., Wilhelm, F.H., Smith, N.C., & Gross, J.J. (2001). The social consequences of emotion regulation. Manuscript submitted for publication.