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The Argument Culture: Moving from Debate to Dialogue

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... Related to the tendency in having collaboration and opposition among women and men, the previous researches showed that men were believed to be more aggressive and competitive than women; women were believed to be more yielding and cooperative than men (Kramarae & Treichler, 1990; Weinrich-Haste in Thomas, 1990;Miller, 1992;Coates, 1995;Tannen, 1998;de Klerk & Hunt, 2000). Tannen (1998) states her proposition that if ritual opposition exists more to men than women, it is just ordinary that public discourse tends to be oppositional. ...
... Related to the tendency in having collaboration and opposition among women and men, the previous researches showed that men were believed to be more aggressive and competitive than women; women were believed to be more yielding and cooperative than men (Kramarae & Treichler, 1990; Weinrich-Haste in Thomas, 1990;Miller, 1992;Coates, 1995;Tannen, 1998;de Klerk & Hunt, 2000). Tannen (1998) states her proposition that if ritual opposition exists more to men than women, it is just ordinary that public discourse tends to be oppositional. She explains that the difference of tendencies between boys and girls results in the difference of their competence in speaking up in public: ...
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The present paper aims at describing linguistic features of two women who have two different characteristics—feminine and less feminine—as apparent in “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” and “The Lover” dramas. Using Robin Lakoff’s (1975) women’s linguistic features, the research found out that not all features occur in the dialogues of the two female characters with other characters. Nine features were applied by Martha in “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” drama and seven features were used by Sarah in “The Lover.” Based on the analysis of the data, it is uncovered that the use of the women’s linguistic features reflects uncertainty and lacking of confidence on the part of the women in their conversation.
... Dialogue takes a different approach to talking and listening compared to negotiation, mediation, debate and argument (Saunders 2009). Rather than perpetuating one's own positions under the debate or negotiation mode, the dialogue mode allows people to step back and explore what other parties are actually trying to bring forward (Tannen 1998). Yankelovich (2001) has defined dialogue by three qualities: (1) equality and the absence of coercive influences; (2) listening with empathy; and (3) bringing assumptions into the open. ...
... Multi-Actor Dialogue Seminars (MADS) is an approach based on a comprehensive set of design principles (Table 1). Several of these have strong scientific support, like trust building by bridging organizations (Folke et al. 2005;Hahn et al. 2006) and fostering the listening mode rather than the negotiation mode (Tannen 1998;Yankelovich 2001;Saunders 2009). Handling power asymmetries (Berger 2003;Etty et al. 2013) and putting uncomfortable issues of divergence on the table (Rist et al. 2007;Cuppen et al. 2010) also seem to be key factors for thus type of dialogue. ...
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The format for formal international negotiations on environment and development sometimes prevents negotiators from truly listening to each other and adapt pre-existing positions to realize constructive conflict resolution. In this paper we present and analyse “Multi-Actor Dialogue Seminars” (MADS) as an approach to contribute to transformative social learning and conflict resolution, and the contribution to tangible and intangible outcomes in formal negotiations. Unlike negotiations, the objective of MADS is not to agree on a text, but to identify areas of agreement and disagreement, build trust and understanding and identify policy options that are tailored to different cultural-political and value systems. As a case study we use the breakdown of the negotiations at the formal Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Conference in 2010 regarding “innovative financial mechanisms,” and subsequent two international Quito Dialogues using the “MADS” approach. Through a composite of methods this article reveals the effects of the Quito Dialogues on formal CBD negotiations. The Quito Dialogues contributed to bringing actors out of their deadlock and thereby paving the way for constructive results in the formal CBD negotiations, evident by references in CBD Decisions adopted by 196 CBD Parties. We discuss key design and implementation factors which were decisive for these effects including the importance of a “bridging organization,” trust building, exploration of both convergences and divergences, involvement of participants with diverse and conflicting views early in the planning, promotion of active listening and addressing diverse knowledge systems and power asymmetries.
... In this section I specifically discuss how 'normative adversarialism' (Karlberg 2004) influences public discourse, particularly in the West. One associated phenomenon is that of 'argument culture' (Tannen 1998), which manifests a binary framing of issues and a chiefly persuasive approach to rhetoric. I discuss this adversarial emphasis, show how it perpetuates social conflict and propose that a cultural and ethical alternative could be useful in grounding public discourse. ...
... Karlberg's theory of normative adversarialism is particularly useful in understanding why so much of our mass-mediated public discourse plays out in conflictual ways. The idea of argument culture (Tannen 1998) can be seen as a specific expression of this. Argument culture "urges us to respond to the world-and the people in it-in an adversarial frame of mind. ...
Article
Democratic discourses are increasingly devolving into mudslinging matches where communicators attack their opponents—sometimes in crude and hostile ways. Underlying this type of discourse is the normative assumption that human affairs are inherently conflicting and best governed through struggles and contests. When considering why some discourses warrant re-examination and how this can be achieved, the role of culture and ethics becomes apparent. While our prevalent culture of adversarialism unearths many important facets of discussion, its discourses can also obscure valuable insights and foster division where collaboration is possible and quite possibly desirable. As such, contrasting normative approaches are worth considering. The African philosophy of ubuntu offers such an alternative as it espouses a harmonious and cohesive way of relating to fellow human beings that contrasts and complements individualist facets. It provides the space to evolve discourses in ways that support cooperative societal structures and practices.
... La investigación titulada "Negreaba de Zopilotes" se basa en indagaciones coordinadas por Ricardo Falla en el contexto de una investigación acción participativa, donde visibiliza los acontecimientos violentos en Guatemala durante la década de los '80. En este sentido es importante mencionar a Deborah Tannen (1998), quien expresa que aquellos hechos que involucran la muerte de inocentes, no tienen otro lado de la cuestión, lo que debe ser juzgado es el hecho mismo y no la opinión de quienes lo perpetraron (p. 11) ...
... Se sitúa, explica que su testimonio será divulgado desde los pies de los oprimidos. 4. Reconstrucción dialógica de los hechos: las voces silenciadas hablan de sus saberes, dan cuenta de los sucesos, de las emociones, de los contextos, las ingenuidades, dan cuenta de las voces de los otros que ya no están para ser escuchados, como dice Deborah Tannen (1998): "A menudo la verdad está en el complejo medio y no en los extremos simplificados. (Pág. ...
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p class="Pa24">El presente ensayo es un esfuerzo para visibilizar la evolución del pensamiento latinoamericano, recuperando los aportes metodológicos realizados por Ricardo Falla, durante el proceso de investigación que hiciera sobre la masacre perpetrada en la comunidad Chuj de San Francisco de Nentón, Guatemala, en 1982. Su estrategia se fundamenta en la Investigación Acción Participativa, enfocándose en dar validez al testimonio de tres indígenas sobrevivientes. Adquieren especial relevancia los aspectos jurídicos, los testigos deben ser quienes dicen ser, de lo contrario no es posible demandar justicia, el cuerpo del delito tiene que aparecer, en su defecto el delito no existe. La obra se constituye en un aporte literario, dar voz a las voces ausentes adquiera una connotación de arte. El testimonio es dar vida a la historia que no se contó, San Francisco de Nentón no murió, su tejido social fue disperso y lastimado, es urgente la necesidad de hacer justicia a las comunidades indígenas de Guatemala y América. Ricardo Falla nos dice que es posible hacer investigación situada desde la postura del oprimido. Revista Nicaragüense de Antropología Año 1 No.2 2017, p.114-119</p
... However, whereas confrontational modes of political language use have been studied extensively, the ways in which politicians and public figures apply cooperative and solidarity-oriented modes of communication remain on the margins of political discourse studies (Kampf 2015). Reasons vary and include a normative assumption about the role of confrontational communication in advancing political decision-making and opinion formation (Schudson 1997); a descriptive bias (when the analysis is based on media materials), resulting from a journalistic preference for reporting on political disagreement (Tannen 1998); and a critical stance taken by scholars who suspect the motives behind political solidarity, framing it as manipulative (Wilson 2002). Whatever the reason, communicative acts that aim at oiling social relationships in public discourse are part and parcel of politicians' linguistic behavior (Lakoff 2005). ...
Article
Communicating admiration and appreciation in public discourse are two important tasks for political actors who wish to secure relationships and advance models for civic behavior. Our goal in this study is to understand how political actors signal their desire to please addressees and advance political sociability by way of manifesting positive judgment towards others. On the basis of 241 utterances praising and complimenting others’ words and deeds, we identify the topics, patterns, and functions of these speech acts and the processes and struggles they evoke in Israeli public discourse. We conclude by discussing the role of positive evaluations in demarcating the boundaries of proper conduct in political communities and the ways the distinctive logic of politics is integrated with specific cultural speaking styles in influencing how members of the Israeli political community signal their appreciation and affect for other members’ skills, performances, and personalities.
... The interaction between culture and argument has instigated a plethora of intercultural rhetoric studies all over the world. To mention but a few examples, argument is reported to be indirect and inductive in Eastern cultures, such as China and Japan, whereas it is reported to be direct and deductive in Western cultures: Germany, Italy, Greece, France, and the United States (Connor, 1996;Tannen, 1998). In low-context cultures, arguments are reported to be linear and logically developed, while they are reported to be indirect and circular (non-reason based) in highcontext cultures (McCool, 2009;Suzuki, 2010). ...
... Language has become a flashpoint in the diversity discourse. We have seen in current times both in Canada and the Unites States, language has become a source of debate and dialogue (Tannen, 2012). As more immigrants whose first language is not English enter economically advanced countries or who do not speak what Paris and Alim (2014) refer to as Dominant American English (DEA) tensions have emerged. ...
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This chapter examines critical practices and agency of teachers as they wrestle with issues of diversity in the teaching and learning process. Using a framework of transcultural education and culturally responsive teaching it draws on research conducted in Southern Ontario, Canada and Central Florida, areas with large and growing diverse populations. We posit that schools are sites of social learning and cultural border crossing, where dominant discourses must be disrupted and the lived experiences of diverse students brought into the center of the teaching and learning process. Through the use of narratives and critical reflection teachers critically examined ways to develop agency and take action to create change. The findings highlighted in this chapter have significance for experienced and novice teachers, teacher educators and faculties of education and school leaders who are seeking to address issues of diversity and equity in critical ways.
... Such a dialogue virtually ignores the middle alternatives. 29 In many cases, dichotomy is often a self-defeating behavior since it represents "all-or-nothing" or "black-and-white" thinking, and there is no "middle ground" between the two. While dichotomy is also a theme in the Chinese culture, the Chinese understand it completely different from the West. ...
... In other words, politicians are not merely at the mercy of the contextual circumstances that regulate this speech activity, but instead, and at the same time, they are able to influence or even create the context of their interpersonal relations in interviews (on the variability of the concept of contextualization as developed by several fields in discourse analysis and its implications for studying political discourse, see Van Dijk 2004). The above-mentioned factors range from informal and friendly cooperation between journalists and politicians, to the most explicit and direct antagonism of other interviews in which verbal duels prevail, through a series of intermediate types in which the interviewer and interviewee confront one another to varying degrees on the scale of interactional cooperation (Blum-Kulka 1983;Tannen 1998;Clayman and Heritage 2002). Sometimes, these contextual factors may be of a historical nature and, hence, deep changes in the political and ideological makeup of a country also account for changes in preferences for certain types of interviews over others. ...
Chapter
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Despite the public and institutional nature of political discourse, few areas of human language are so heavily conditioned by factors associated with interpersonal relationships, like ties of power and involvement between interlocutors, the differences in status between them or persuasion strategies. The participants in the political scenario have to deal with several heterogeneous audiences every day in relations that are strongly conditioned by contextual, institutional and media factors. This chapter will examine the complexity of those interpersonal relationships in different instances of political discourse, both on the individual level as well as within the institutional structures that are at play.
... Ancona et al. (1996) called substantive conflict the "good" kind of conflict, and affective conflict the "bad" kind, however, the two types of conflict are likely to overlap and reinforce each other, one leading to the other. Distinctions between affective and substantive conflict are often impossible to make (Tannen, 1998;Adler, 2002). ...
... If litigation is so plentiful that it is the only way citizens with disputes relate to each other (a really litigious society!) I worry about that as creating a largely adversarial and disputatious culture (Tannen 1998). Courts, as I have argued repeatedly (Menkel-Meadow 1984) have "limited remedial imaginations" and very rigid permitted outcomes (monetary relief, backward facing liability judgments and only occasionally forward-facing outcomes 8 New York State has recently developed a policy that all civil cases will be presumptively referred to mediation (with some opt-out policies). ...
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This article reviews the claims about rates of litigation in the United States, as either “too much” or “too little” (e.g. “The Vanishing Trial”). While we need to understand aggregate litigation rates to assess access to justice, it may be more important to understand litigation rates in the context of differentiated case types. Litigation, in some cases, produces too “brittle” (binary) or costly outcomes, which is what led to the American “A” (alternative/appropriate) Dispute Resolution movement. This movement (now moving across the globe) may provide “process pluralism” with greater flexibility in outcome and cost variations, (now often called “a”ccesible dispute resolution”). However, litigation is still important in a variety of justice-seeking contexts (e.g. for new rights creation, old rights enforcement, and precedent elaboration). This article suggests that the question of how much litigation is appropriate in any legal culture is dependent on a variety of factors that goes beyond simple aggregate counting. The article concludes with a critique of recent American legal practices in restricting litigation through mandatory arbitration, non-disclosure agreements, class action limitations, privatized mass claim settlements, and restrictive jurisdictional interpretations in judicial decision making and legislation.
... look, wait a minute and I'll tell you what. As stated, the English-speaking politicians appear to be less straightforward in expressing disagreement in the corpus analysis, in which respect they are closer to the cultural pattern of speech communities such as Chinese and Japanese, as contended elsewhere (Tannen 1998 ...
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The paper explores the disagreement pragmeme as a culture-bound notion (Mey 2016a, 2016b, 2001) in the language use of English-speaking and Serbian-speaking politicians. The objectives are to establish the types, frequencies and cultural specificities of disagreement allopracts in political interviews. Furthermore, the research analyses allopracts in relation to the single and multiple dispute profiles (van Eemeren, Houtlosser and Henkemans 2007). The starting assumption is that allopracts will be realised in culturally specific ways despite the fact that the analysed pragmeme belongs to the same communication genre, which is the Immediately Relevant tertium comparationis (Krzeszowski 1990) of the research. The hypothesis to be verified is that the Serbian sub-corpus will yield more examples of strong disagreement. Another aim is to classify the obtained allopracts according to their degrees of strength. The analysis is based on the corpus of 50 political interviews, involving 30 politicians and 262 allopracts. Keywords: pragmeme, allopract, disagreement, English, political interview, Serbian
... These were qualities I could appreciate in both forms of self-expression before I ever began to write my way through them. I'd taught Rogerian argument in my writing classes as a means of encouraging students to question our society's "argument culture," as Deborah Tannen (1998) calls it, for instance, and I'd long admired disability studies writer Nancy Mairs for her pithy and often humorous reminders to become aware of our writing bodies. ...
... To take one example, the legitimacy of structured debate represents a context in which rivalrous content and differing perspectives may exist while the interaction is accepted by the parties because disagreement is understood and orderly (Tannen 1998). Formats such as high school debate institutionalize the legitimacy of back-and-forth contention, seeing it as integral to role-taking (Fine 2001). ...
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Micro-sociological theory has traditionally stressed interactional pressures towards alignment: actors’ attempts to co-construct a shared definition of the situation. We argue that this model provides an insufficient account of the coordination of action and of the emergence of intersubjectivity among actors. To complement the focus on alignment, we develop a theory of disruption—a perceived misalignment of the dramaturgical structure of interaction in coordinating expected lines of action. We develop a theory of the interaction order that takes the interplay between interactional alignment and disruption as a foundational challenge both for sociology and for actors in their everyday lives. We focus on the practical ways in which actors negotiate both interactional breaches and wider relational ruptures, and how they differentiate between disruptions-of relations and disruptions-for them. By doing so, we connect the interaction order to a wider relational order, providing a bridge between micro-level interactionism and the sociology of culture.
... Different styles in argumentation and reasoning may cause pragmatic failure in intercultural communication (Fisher, 1980;Walker, 1986) and particularly in academic writing. Writers from Europe and North America tend to be more direct in arguments while writers from collectivist cultures such as in East Asian countries are more likely to be indirect and ambiguous to maintain group harmony and pragmatic space (Connor, 1987;Dillard & Marshall, 2003;Hinkel, 1997;Tannen, 1998). ...
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The author discusses genre and rhetoric issues in second language academic writing through personal narrative of writing in Chinese (first language) and English (foreign/second language) and analysis of current writing instructions in China's high schools and universities. The goal is to lead up to discussions of the cross-cultural differences in rhetoric and genre classification, the deficiencies in writing instruction, and the concerns with the academic contexts across borders and disciplines. The author presents pedagogical considerations on how to view students' writing and their potentials when definitions of text types and evaluation criteria are different, when students' past curriculum focus and acquired skills are different, and when multiple sets of 'norms' encounter and differences in post-secondary education exist. Raising genre and rhetoric awareness early in students' tertiary studies and communication between professors and non-native students are recommended.
... 7 In the online article-cum-comments environment, the confirmation bias of readers mentioned above has an additional function in that it can lead to a more polarized discourse. Although the argument culture to which the media contributes has existed already before the internet (Tannen, 1998), online discourses tend to be particularly polarized (e.g. Caldwell, 2013;Pavasovic Trost & Kovacevic, 2013). ...
... The dialogue community was the key social context for the approach in action. Tannen, 1998). A model used by public dialogue groups such as the Study Circles (Pan & Mutchler, 2002) and Public Conversation movements used contrasting dialogue and debate which was specifically introduced early in each of the values exploration modules, and proved a popular tool for the community and for teachers in teaching values exploration in their classrooms. ...
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Research over a long period has suggested that professional development and learning for teachers often produces disappointing results. Recent theory suggests that teacher professional learning presented within a situated learning and community of practice framework is likely to be more effective than the more traditional forms of in-service professional development and learning. Further, recent technological developments since the mid 1990s have created increasingly sophisticated means of bringing widely distributed learners together, within flexible timeframe, online (virtual) discussion communities. This study set out to develop a workable approach to teacher professional development and learning (IPDL), using situated learning and community of practice learning theory and the opportunities afforded by Web 2 virtual learning environments. The literatures of learning theory, teacher professional development and communities of practice were reviewed and best practice principles identified. These principles were then used to design a virtual community of practice (VCoP) approach to teacher professional development and learning. The approach was then implemented as the underpinning framework for three virtual professional development modules for secondary school Geography and Social Studies teachers. The study used a grounded theory and action learning action research methodology, which enabled the researcher and the research participants to evaluate and fine tune the approach throughout the study. A mixed method research design resulted in the collection of rich quantitative and qualitative data during each module. Naturalistic data were drawn from the online module record and from semi-structured focus group discussions. More structured and reflective data were collected through a final post-module evaluative questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using a range of techniques, including narrative analysis, structural analysis, semantic analysis, and domain analysis. The results of these analyses are presented from three contrasting perspectives: a structural analysis narrative of each module (Chapter 5), a content and personal case study narrative of selected participants (Chapter 6), and a qualitative and quantitative analysis of a final post module reflective survey (Chapter 7)
... For instance, when we visit a department in the university that is new to us, our immediate impression is typically one of a homogeneous and sedate disciplinary world with wide agreements about such matters as methodology and epistemology. However, the more we get to know it, the more it seems to be fragmented and compartmentalized, and perhaps even fractious and adversative (Tannen 1998). To an outsider, a linguistics department, for instance, might seem to represent a collectivity of folks with a like-minded interest in language. ...
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This article reflects upon my thirty-year intermittent involvement with the concept of discourse community. It opens with a personal history of that involvement, focusing on a study of the communities in a single, small university building. It then moves to the way the concept has become co-opted by those who teach university-level writing in the United States. Then, three types of discourse community are introduced: local, focal, and “folocal”, this last having characteristics of the first two. Active academics are typically members of “folocal” communities, as they attempt to balance the demands of their local situation (teaching, administration) and the demands of active scholarship (presenting, publishing). In the second half of the paper, the original criteria as given in Genre Analysis (1990) are modified, extended, and brought more up to date, followed by some concluding observations.
... 7 In the online article-cum-comments environment, the confirmation bias of readers mentioned above has an additional function in that it can lead to a more polarized discourse. Although the argument culture to which the media contributes has existed already before the internet (Tannen, 1998), online discourses tend to be particularly polarized (e.g. Caldwell, 2013;Pavasovic Trost & Kovacevic, 2013). ...
Book
Social practice theories help challenge the often hidden paradigms, worldviews and values at the basis of many unsustainable practices. However, practice theoretical research can also struggle to provide useful results for policymaking. Connected to social practices, discourses and their boundaries define what is seen as possible, what the range of issues and their solutions are. By exploring the connections between practices and discourses - where paradigms, worldviews and values are represented through cognitive frames – this book develops, firstly, a conceptual approach to help enable purposive change in unsustainable social practices. This is done in an interdisciplinary manner integrating different literatures. Secondly, the book takes the current vastly unsustainable meat system as a central theme. Radical transformation towards new meatways, such as strong flexitarianism, is arguably necessary, yet complex psychological, ideological and power related mechanisms still inhibit change. Discourses around new solutions, such as cultivated meat, new generation plant-based meats, and insects, are explored for answers.
... 7 In the online article-cum-comments environment, the confirmation bias of readers mentioned above has an additional function in that it can lead to a more polarized discourse. Although the argument culture to which the media contributes has existed already before the internet (Tannen, 1998), online discourses tend to be particularly polarized (e.g. Caldwell, 2013;Pavasovic Trost & Kovacevic, 2013). ...
Book
Social practice theories help to challenge the often hidden paradigms, worldviews, and values at the basis of many unsustainable practices. Discourses and their boundaries define what is seen as possible, as well as the range of issues and their solutions. By exploring the connections between practices and discourses, Minna Kanerva develops a conceptual approach enabling purposive change in unsustainable social practices. Radical transformation towards new meatways is arguably necessary, yet complex psychological, ideological, and power-related mechanisms currently inhibit change.
... The role of culture in issues of counterargument integration may be particularly evident for issues such as myside bias. That is, in an English language setting, it is all too easy to filter the world through Western values, even assuming that Western values are themselves homogenous (Tannen, 1998;Tannen, 1999). As such, it is important to remember that not all cultures are likely to generate the same feelings about highlighting opposing views, nor are they likely to feel equally at ease with criticizing well-established positions Rusfandi, 2015). ...
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Incorporating counterarguments can be challenging for many student-writers, including those for whom English is a second or other language. In this study, we present findings that may lead to improvements in students’ understanding of the benefits of integrating counterarguments. In our study, expert readers were presented with excerpts of student academic writing in order to assess the degree to which counterarguments could be identified through student deployment of metadiscoursal features. The results suggest that student-writers deploy metadiscoursal features with insufficient frequency and consistency. The results further suggest that when metadiscoursal features are used in counterarguments, their deployment is largely restricted to the sentence-initial position. The study also considers the pedagogical and technological issues associated with the findings.
... Second, the zero-sum logic of dichotomies e i.e. if one side is right then the other is wrong e tends to give rise to an adversarial style of argumentation (Prokhovnik, 2001, pp. 33e36) or what Tannen (1998) calls "argument culture", in which "lust for opposition privileges extreme views and obscures complexity; … eagerness to find weaknesses blinds us to strengths; [and] … the atmosphere of animosity precludes respect and poisons our relations with one another" (Tannen, 1998, p. 25). ...
Article
Educational discourse is dominated by problematic dichotomies, for example, between teacher- and learner-centred pedagogies, and between teacher control and pupil autonomy. Such dichotomies impede attempts to understand and address complex educational problems, and thwart productive discussion among practitioners and the public. This article examines how teachers in one Israeli school addressed dichotomous discourse around classroom management in video-based post-observation debrief conversations. Three ways of coping with dichotomies are conceptualized: either/or, synthesis and both/and. Factors contributing to the emergence of non-dichotomous discourse are discussed, including ambivalent leadership, the use of video representations, flattened hierarchies, and a focus on issues and dilemmas.
... Of course, Level 3 and beyond can occur if learners are allowed to move beyond a strict adherence to their roles, or if learners decide to move beyond their roles anyway. While previous research (Jeong, 2006(Jeong, , 2007Tannen, 1999Tannen, , 2012 has found that it may be difficult for learners to disagree or share dissonance, the role play was successful in creating dissonance as disagreeing was expected. Perhaps creating a follow-up activity to allow learners to synthesize knowledge would encourage the depth of learning achieved in the role play to emerge into intersubjectivity as learners negotiate the construction of new knowledge. ...
... While this prescription is similar to the call for inclusiveness that is often repeated in the LMX literature (as discussed earlier), it is a little more specific than some in that it provides a mechanism (listening in a dedicated forum and acting on what is heard) to enable inclusion. The literature on dialogue (e.g., Buber, 1958;Bohm, 1996;Tannen, 1998;Gergen et al, 2001;Anderson et al, 2004;Franco, 2006;Cronin et al, 2014), which is specifically about two-way listening, could be useful in this context. ...
... Discourse analysts study the larger chunks of language as they flow together. In recent studies of textual unity and inter-sentential links small bits of language like "oh", "well" and interjections are also covered (Tannen, 1999). ...
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Turkish syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse is an undergraduate-level textbook on Turkish linguistics.
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An innovative course at James Madison University seeks to engage students in civic life by starting not with specific public and political issues but by engaging communication majors in creating spaces for public talk about complex and value-laden issues. This course supports a campus–community program whose goal is to help the campus and local communities productively address difficult issues. In this chapter, the authors illustrate how students research public issues, study design processes, and facilitate deliberative dialogue. As they engaged in shaping processes that encourage others to enact citizenship, students realized that they, themselves, play a vital role in civic life.
Chapter
This chapter reviews recent decades of theory, research, and practice on culture and conflict resolution, and frames these in the context of three waves: spreading Western innovations as universally applicable, recognizing cultural lenses and variations, and documenting specific conflict resolution cultures. It also makes the case for the need to explore how cultures interact and evolve, resulting in new conflict resolution models and new best practices. Last, it reviews the questions and analytical framework given to chapter authors, and introduces their cases.
Article
Intercultural contexts introduce unique sources of complexity into our theories of rhetoric and persuasion. This study examines one of the most successful cases of intercultural rhetoric concerning religion: the case of Swami Vivekananda, a Hindu monk from India who came to the United States in 1893 for the World’s Parliament of Religions. He arrived as an unknown monk, but he left America years later as the nationally known face of Hinduism. Facing a tense scene in 1893 that featured a plurality of religions and American organizers and audiences who judged Hinduism as inferior to Christianity, Vivekananda enacted a unique rhetoric of pluralism to assert the value of his form of Hinduism while simultaneously respecting other religions. This study extracts from Vivekananda’s popular performance at the parliament a pluralistic style of rhetorical advocacy, one that builds upon his unique reading of Hindu religious-philosophical traditions. This pluralistic style can be used to unravel some of the theoretical issues created by invitational rhetoric’s reading of persuasion as inherently violent to disagreeing others.
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Many people think that arguing interferes with learning, and that’s true for a certain type of oppositional argument that is increasingly prevalent in our media culture. Tannen (1998) analyzed the aggressive types of argument that are frequently seen on talk shows and in the political sphere, where representatives of two opposed viewpoints spout talking points at each other. In these forms of argument, the goal is not to work together toward a common position, but simply to score points. All teachers and parents have seen children engaged in this type of argumentation, and most would probably agree that it has little to contribute to education. The learning sciences is studying a different kind of argumentation, which we call collaborative argumentation. For example, collaborative argumentation plays a central role in science; science advances not by the accumulation of facts, but by debate and argumentation (Osborne, 2010). Even when two scientists disagree, they still share the common values of science and both of them are interested in achieving the same goals (determining what claim should be upheld). Argumentation in science should not be primarily oppositional and aggressive; it is a form of collaborative discussion in which both parties are working together to resolve an issue, and in which both scientists aim to reach agreement. Engagement in collaborative argumentation can help students learn to think critically and independently about important issues and contested values. Before students can successfully engage in collaborative argumentation, they must overcome the traditional and deep-seated opposition between reason and emotion (Baker, Andriessen, & Järvelä, 2013; Picard et al., 2004), stop being aggressively opposed to others, and instead orient their positive motivations and emotions toward the question being discussed and others’ views on it.
Chapter
The need to critically engage learners whether the classroom space is traditional, hybrid, or virtual is one of the most pressing educational issues teachers face today. Engaging learners specifically in an online environment requires the examination of both the content being taught as well as the methods or pedagogical models used to deliver the content. This chapter highlights how both the content, and the delivery can be filtered in ways that are relevant to the learners, that value their home and community assets, and that provide them with tangible touch points to transfer classroom information into the real world to maximize student engagement. The core of this chapter focuses on the use of Socratic Seminars as a means of engaging learning through targeted and purposeful conversations around social justice issues. This chapter demonstrates how the original tenets of Socratic Seminar can be used to present content in a manner that leverages students' cultural and linguistic wealth, develops personal and social identities, and builds critical competencies and global awareness in all learners. Specific connections between justice oriented Socratic Seminar, anti-bias teaching frameworks, and online learning environments are made.
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