... Modern psychiatry has witnessed a recent breakthrough in understanding autism. The rate of diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions has massively increased in recent decades (Baron-Cohen, 2008). The newest research has also begun to associate creativity with autism. ...
... It can be demonstrated that both the ADHD and autistic traits were high in her persona. Amy Winehouse had natural talent for music, which is often seen in persons with autism ( Baron-Cohen, 2008). She was the author of her most remarkable songs, which also indicate her poetic talent. ...
... During interviews she vented her dislike of other musicians openly, journalists often met the singer in caustic mood. She had difficulties in seeing others' point of view, which is an autistic trait ( Baron-Cohen, 2008). She committed frequent faux-pas, her impulsivity and social naivety even brought her to law enforcement. ...
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The link between great creativity and psychopathology remains highly debated, but still a firmly established finding by many studies during the last century. Whereas biographic evidence for psychotic affective disorders has often been reported for creative artists, the present study takes into account the recent discussions about the traits of autism spectrum and ADHD that are found in high creativity. The most recent book by the Irish psychiatrist Michael Fitzgerald, The Mind of the Artist serves as the frame of reference. The case under study is the British jazz singer Amy Winehouse (1983-2011). Two biographic narratives, one by each of her parents, are analysed for her cognitive and behavioural profile and personality traits. The cognitive strengths and weaknesses observed, as well as the descriptions of her social and non-social behaviours, closely match the ADHD and autistic symptoms. The identity diffusion that is a characteristic of highly creative artists according to Fitzgerald, also occurs as the prominent feature of singer’s persona with multifaceted ways of expression. Both autistic and ADHD traits were high in her persona which enhanced her creativity, but also caused problems in everyday life.
... ¶ÚfiÛÊ·Ù·, ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÔÚÔÏÔÁ›· ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÈ-Û·¯ı› Ô fiÚÔ˜ ·˘ÙÈÛÙÈÎfi Ê¿ÛÌ· ‹ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ ·˘ÙÈÛÙÈÎfi Ê¿ÛÌ· ("autism spectrum conditions/ ARC") (Wing, 2003. Baron-Cohen, 2006. Happé & Frith, 2006. Geschwind & Levitt, 2007. Baron-Cohen, 2008b. √ fiÚÔ˜ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÁÈ· Ó· Â-ÚÈÁÚ¿"ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ï˘ÛȉˆÙ‹ Û ‡Ó‰ÂÛË Ù˘ Û˘Óı‹ÎËà sperger, ÙÔ˘ ÎÏ·ÛÈÎÔ ‡ ·˘ÙÈÛÌÔ ‡, ÂÈÌÂÚÈṲ̂ÓÔÛ Â ¯·ÌËÏ¿-, ÌÂÛ·›·-Î·È ˘"ËÏ¿-ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÈÎfi ·˘-ÙÈÛÌfi, ÙÔ˘ ¿Ù˘Ô˘ ·˘ÙÈÛÌÔ ‡ Î·È ÙˆÓ ‰È¿¯˘ÙˆÓ ·Ó·Ù˘ÍÈ·ÎÒÓ ‰È·Ù·Ú·¯ÒÓ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÚÔÛ-‰ÈÔÚÈÛÙ› ·ÏÏÈÒ˜ (Wing, 2003. Baron-Cohen, 2006. Happé & Frith, 2006. Geschwi ...
... Geschwind & Levitt, 2007. ∫·ıÒ˜, Â›Û˘, Ó· ÙÔÓ›ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÈfiÙËÙ· ·˘ÙÒÓ fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ Ù· Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚÈο ÁÓˆÚ›-ÛÌ·Ù· Î·È Ó· ˘Ô‰ËÏÒÛÂÈ Ì ۯÂÙÈο Â˘Ú‹Ì·Ù· ÙËÓ ·ÚfiÌÔÈ· ÂÁÎÂÊ·ÏÈ΋ Î·È ÁÂÓÂÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ‚¿-ÛË ( Baron-Cohen, 2008b. Wing, 2003. ...
... ∏ ·ÓÙ›ÏË"Ë ÙÔ˘ Ê¿ÛÌ·ÙÔ˜ Ù›ÓÂÈ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤ÚÓ · ÂÂÎÙ·ı› ÛÙ· Ï·›ÛÈ· ÌÈ·˜ ‰˘Û‰È¿ÛÙ·ÙË ÚÔÔÙÈ΋˜, fiÔ˘ ÙË Ì›· ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ô ‰Â›ÎÙ˘ ÓÔËÌÔÛ ‡Ó˘ (¢¡) Î·È ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË Ë ÁψÛ-ÛÈ΋ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ· (Baron-Cohen, 2002, 2008b. ™ ‡Ì-ʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔÔÙÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹, ÔÈ ‰ ‡Ô ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂÈÙ ¤ÌÓÔÓÙ·È Î¿ıÂÙ·, Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ Ù¤ÛÛÂÚ· ÙÂ-Ù·ÚÙËÌfiÚÈ· Î·È Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈο ·ÚÓË-ÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ıÂÙÈΤ˜ ÙÈ̤˜ (Baron-Cohen, 2002, 2008b (Saemundsen et al., 2003) Î·È ADOS-G [Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule -Generic] (Lord et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Η αύξηση της συχνότητας του αυτισμού και των συναφών περιπτώσεων αποτελεί ξεκάθαρο εύρημα της σύγχρονης επιδημιολογικής έρευνας. Η αύξηση αυτή έχει αποδοθεί ποικιλοτρόπως σε γενετικούς και περιβαλλοντικούς αιτιώδεις παράγοντες. Λόγω του έντονου ερευνητικού ενδιαφέροντος για αυτούς τους παράγοντες, η εργασία αυτή έθεσε διττό σκοπό. Αφενός, την εν συντομία παράθεση των τεσσάρων πιο ολοκληρωμένων θεωρητικών μοντέλων ερμηνείας από το πεδίο της γνωστικής ψυχολογίας των αυτιστικών συμπεριφορικών χαρακτηριστικών: θεωρία του νου (“theory of mind”), αδύναμη συνοχή (“weak coherence”), αδυναμίες εκτελεστικών λειτουργιών (“executive dysfunctions”), ικανότητα για ενσυναίσθηση – ικανότητα για συστηματοποίηση (“empathizing – systemizing”). Αφετέρου, την αξιολόγησή τους σύμφωνα με πέντε παραμέτρους: κλινική αποτελεσματικότητα (“clinical competency”), ευαισθησία (“sensitivity”), σαφήνεια (“specificity”), εξειδίκευση (“modularity”) και τροποποιησιμότητα (“modifiability”). Η αξιολόγηση στηρίχθηκε σε πρόσφατα κλινικά, νευροψυχολογικά και νευροαπεικονιστικά ευρήματα. Η έμφαση δίνεται στις αλλαγές της έννοιας του όρου «αυτισμός» από τις πρώτες περιγραφικές έρευνες έως σήμερα, στην πληρότητα της συγκρότησης των τεσσάρων θεωρητικών μοντέλων και στη συμβολή της γνωστικής ψυχολογίας στην περαιτέρω έρευνα και παρέμβαση στον πληθυσμό που εμπίπτει στο αυτιστικό φάσμα.
... Masing revealed his observation that he cannot understand himself so well as normally do other people and he had cerebral restlessness that is more a characteristic of children than adults. All these traits were related to his autism spectrum condition in which he differed from others (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Fitzgerald, 2014). In the context of his autobiography, he suddenly noticed that there was not much coherence in his already written text: ...
... As a theologian, he thought of science fiction as a genre of religious literature (Paul, 1989). Interest in science fiction is often a feature in autism (Baron-Cohen, 2008). During the second half of his life he developed the literary character of a transgalactic missionary with whom he could identify himself -The Messenger from the Magellanic Clouds -which is also the title of his last collection of poetry (Masing, 2005). ...
... During the second half of his life he developed the literary character of a transgalactic missionary with whom he could identify himself -The Messenger from the Magellanic Clouds -which is also the title of his last collection of poetry (Masing, 2005). In this preoccupation of imagining himself as a stranger on earth Masing's identity diffusion is clearly discernible that is often found in autism (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Fitzgerald, 2018). Masing easily identified himself with other people sympathetic to him: real, historical or imaginary. ...
Article
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The poet and scholar of Estonian origin Uku Masing (1909-1985) possessed prodigious level skills in multiple domains and superior eidetic memory. A body of recently published texts and documents, especially the personal letters from the age of 18 to 25 years, allows an analysis of Masing's autistic traits and various forms of synaesthesia. The combination of these two conditions has been demonstrated to promote the potential talents of a given individual to the exceptional levels of savant syndrome. In retrospect, Masing can be shown to have been a child prodigy and prodigious savant who was capable of very fine artistic expression in poetry. He had a wide array of special interests that formed a unique assemblage. He displayed unusual ways of self-expression and language peculiarities that can be partly explained with his autistic traits. The scope of Masing's special interests, his literary and scholarly activities and achievements are analysed as well as various aspects of his everyday life difficulties, such as coping with the social world, anxiety and depression.
... 'Mind-blindness', a term first used by Simon Baron-Cohen (1995), referring to those with ASD who possess a fixed, non-permeable view and can therefore find it difficult to accept the state of flux, adjust to situations as they occur (Baron-Cohen, 1995). Individuals may find managing their social identity problematic as they are unlikely to be able to respond to social cues from non-verbal behaviour, such as facial expressions, the tone of voice, the look in the eyes, and posture (Boyd, 2004). ...
... 'Mind-blindness', a term first used by Simon Baron-Cohen (1995), referring to those with ASD who possess a fixed, non-permeable view and can therefore find it difficult to accept the state of flux, adjust to situations as they occur (Baron-Cohen, 1995). Individuals may find managing their social identity problematic as they are unlikely to be able to respond to social cues from non-verbal behaviour, such as facial expressions, the tone of voice, the look in the eyes, and posture (Boyd, 2004). ...
... For Vicky, the traits that demonstrated John was autistic were his inflexibility, inadaptability, his wheat intolerance and a defined rigidity in his thinking, all of which amplified in intensity during his early years. Baron-Cohen (2008) highlights "sensory systemising" (p. 67) as a common trait, which includes behaviours such as wearing the same clothes every day and insisting on the same foods each day. ...
Article
This project focuses on the emotional impact, inclusive of fatigue, stress and other inter-related symptoms, associated with the parenting of children on the autistic spectrum. As a theretical overlay, the research applies Hochschild's (1983) schema of 'emotional work' to the types of care parenting those with autistic spectrum disorders may create. This qualitative research applies inductive thematic analysis, grounded in human experience, focusing upon biographical, narrative data obtained through the interviwing of two parents, of whom have children with autism spectrum disorders (pseudonyms are employed throughout the narrative). Through interviewing the participants, rich thick descriptive data wasmobtained, providing a greater conceptual clarity of how parenting children with austism spectrum disorders / conditions affects. Moreover, the scope of this work has primarily illumined the participants' feelings and, thus, highlighted the psychological impact of attending to their children's needs; descriptions of how autism has drained emotional supplies of energy, with demands of rigidity of cognition, lack of social and emotional awareness and articulating with difficulty. This research paints a poignant picture of life thereof, as lived by the participating parents, offering some generalisability beyond the data elicited from this work. Against this background, the project examines the implications of, and possible context for the implementation of educational and social work intervention and practice. This includes: enhanced awareness of the implications of the triad of difficulties assciated with the autistic spectrum (social communication, social imagination and social interaction), release of carers for respite breaks and highlights the need for further training and research into the pscyhological impact of the emotional labour of love in parenting those with autism spectrum disorders. Finally, strategies are offered which aim towards the reduction of sensory overload and the creation of a calming environment, which individual needs can be understood with greater clarity for the benfit of teachers, social workers, parents and others involved the the lives of those with autistic spectrum disorders.
... Autism as defined by Baron-Cohen (2008), NAS (2018) (Boucher, 2017). Baron-Cohen (1997) discusses in detail the way in which the autistic mind operates and from this it can be deduced that there are differences in comparison with the neurotypical mind. ...
... Change as Baron-Cohen (2008) states is a particularly difficult challenge for autistic people and one form of change is transition (NAS 2018 (2007), Mitchell and Beresford (2014) and Van Hees, Moyson and Roeyers (2015) agree with Baron-Cohen (2008) Barnhill (2016) and Griffin et al (2014) discuss issues around autism and transition and these would suggest that having an understanding of autism as Adreon and Durocher (2007) state, its causes and how it affects those with the condition and those around them is essential if support in transition between further education and higher education establishments is to be developed and implemented effectively and with the minimum of disruption to the autistic student and their family and friends. ...
... Change as Baron-Cohen (2008) states is a particularly difficult challenge for autistic people and one form of change is transition (NAS 2018 (2007), Mitchell and Beresford (2014) and Van Hees, Moyson and Roeyers (2015) agree with Baron-Cohen (2008) Barnhill (2016) and Griffin et al (2014) discuss issues around autism and transition and these would suggest that having an understanding of autism as Adreon and Durocher (2007) state, its causes and how it affects those with the condition and those around them is essential if support in transition between further education and higher education establishments is to be developed and implemented effectively and with the minimum of disruption to the autistic student and their family and friends. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
An examination of the support of autistic students in transition from further education to higher education
... The difficulty with the theory of mind (the understanding that other people have thoughts, feelings, behaviours and perspectives that are different from our own; e.g. Baron-Cohen, 2008;Korkmaz, 2011) is also a feature, and, as such, people on the autistic spectrum see and make sense of the world differently to their neurotypical counterparts (Attwood, 2015;Baron-Cohen, 2008). Lifelong outcomes are both wide and varied for this population, and can differ significantly between individuals ( Underwood et al., 2013;Palermo, 2004). ...
... The difficulty with the theory of mind (the understanding that other people have thoughts, feelings, behaviours and perspectives that are different from our own; e.g. Baron-Cohen, 2008;Korkmaz, 2011) is also a feature, and, as such, people on the autistic spectrum see and make sense of the world differently to their neurotypical counterparts (Attwood, 2015;Baron-Cohen, 2008). Lifelong outcomes are both wide and varied for this population, and can differ significantly between individuals ( Underwood et al., 2013;Palermo, 2004). ...
... Lastly, the preoccupation with particular interests has been thought to make those with ASD vulnerable to offending behaviour (e.g. Baron-Cohen, 2008;Barry-Walsh and Mullen, 2004;Chen et al., 2003;Silva et al., 2002;Lerner et al., 2012). But it is important to point out that it may not be the preoccupation that is directly related to the behaviour (Woodbury-Smith et al., 2010), but rather the intensity or focus of the interest that may become problematic when it interferes with social and daily functioning (Baron-Cohen, 2008). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper to synthesise much of the existing research on autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and offending behaviour. Design/methodology/approach It considers three key areas, namely, first, a discussion about the nature of ASD and how it might be related to offending behaviour; second, a brief commentary about the prevalence of this population; and, finally, an exploration of the effective management and possible treatment outcomes. Findings Methodological limitations have resulted in variable findings which has hindered our understanding of this population. Some of the research is based on small, highly specialist samples making prevalence difficult to measure. The link between ASD and offending is still not well understood, and despite advances in staff training, awareness amongst practitioners remains an underdeveloped area, thus yielding variable treatment outcomes. Originality/value This review continues to demonstrate the urgent need for robust research in order to better understand the link between ASD and offending behaviour, to provide tailored, needs-led interventions, and reduce the risk of offending amongst this group as a whole.
... ¶ÚfiÛÊ·Ù·, ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÔÚÔÏÔÁ›· ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÈ-Û·¯ı› Ô fiÚÔ˜ ·˘ÙÈÛÙÈÎfi Ê¿ÛÌ· ‹ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ ·˘ÙÈÛÙÈÎfi Ê¿ÛÌ· ("autism spectrum conditions/ ARC") (Wing, 2003. Baron-Cohen, 2006. Happé & Frith, 2006. Geschwind & Levitt, 2007. Baron-Cohen, 2008b. √ fiÚÔ˜ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÁÈ· Ó· Â-ÚÈÁÚ¿"ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ï˘ÛȉˆÙ‹ Û ‡Ó‰ÂÛË Ù˘ Û˘Óı‹ÎËà sperger, ÙÔ˘ ÎÏ·ÛÈÎÔ ‡ ·˘ÙÈÛÌÔ ‡, ÂÈÌÂÚÈṲ̂ÓÔÛ Â ¯·ÌËÏ¿-, ÌÂÛ·›·-Î·È ˘"ËÏ¿-ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÈÎfi ·˘-ÙÈÛÌfi, ÙÔ˘ ¿Ù˘Ô˘ ·˘ÙÈÛÌÔ ‡ Î·È ÙˆÓ ‰È¿¯˘ÙˆÓ ·Ó·Ù˘ÍÈ·ÎÒÓ ‰È·Ù·Ú·¯ÒÓ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÚÔÛ-‰ÈÔÚÈÛÙ› ·ÏÏÈÒ˜ (Wing, 2003. Baron-Cohen, 2006. Happé & Frith, 2006. Geschwi ...
... Geschwind & Levitt, 2007. ∫·ıÒ˜, Â›Û˘, Ó· ÙÔÓ›ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÈfiÙËÙ· ·˘ÙÒÓ fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ Ù· Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚÈο ÁÓˆÚ›-ÛÌ·Ù· Î·È Ó· ˘Ô‰ËÏÒÛÂÈ Ì ۯÂÙÈο Â˘Ú‹Ì·Ù· ÙËÓ ·ÚfiÌÔÈ· ÂÁÎÂÊ·ÏÈ΋ Î·È ÁÂÓÂÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ‚¿-ÛË ( Baron-Cohen, 2008b. Wing, 2003. ...
... ∏ ·ÓÙ›ÏË"Ë ÙÔ˘ Ê¿ÛÌ·ÙÔ˜ Ù›ÓÂÈ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤ÚÓ · ÂÂÎÙ·ı› ÛÙ· Ï·›ÛÈ· ÌÈ·˜ ‰˘Û‰È¿ÛÙ·ÙË ÚÔÔÙÈ΋˜, fiÔ˘ ÙË Ì›· ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ô ‰Â›ÎÙ˘ ÓÔËÌÔÛ ‡Ó˘ (¢¡) Î·È ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË Ë ÁψÛ-ÛÈ΋ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ· (Baron-Cohen, 2002, 2008b. ™ ‡Ì-ʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔÔÙÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹, ÔÈ ‰ ‡Ô ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂÈÙ ¤ÌÓÔÓÙ·È Î¿ıÂÙ·, Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ Ù¤ÛÛÂÚ· ÙÂ-Ù·ÚÙËÌfiÚÈ· Î·È Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈο ·ÚÓË-ÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ıÂÙÈΤ˜ ÙÈ̤˜ (Baron-Cohen, 2002, 2008b (Saemundsen et al., 2003) Î·È ADOS-G [Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule -Generic] (Lord et al., 2000). ...
... Modern psychiatry has witnessed a recent breakthrough in understanding autism. The rate of diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions has massively increased in recent decades (Baron-Cohen, 2008). The newest research has also begun to associate creativity with autism. ...
... It can be demonstrated that both the ADHD and autistic traits were high in her persona. Amy Winehouse had natural talent for music, which is often seen in persons with autism ( Baron-Cohen, 2008). She was the author of her most remarkable songs, which also indicate her poetic talent. ...
... During interviews she vented her dislike of other musicians openly, journalists often met the singer in caustic mood. She had difficulties in seeing others' point of view, which is an autistic trait ( Baron-Cohen, 2008). She committed frequent faux-pas, her impulsivity and social naivety even brought her to law enforcement. ...
Article
Full-text available
The link between great creativity and psychopathology remains highly debated, but still a firmly established finding by many studies during the last century. Whereas biographic evidence for psychotic affective disorders has often been reported for creative artists, the present study takes into account the recent discussions about the traits of autism spectrum and ADHD that are found in high creativity. The most recent book by the Irish psychiatrist Michael Fitzgerald, The Mind of the Artist serves as the frame of reference. The case under study is the British jazz singer Amy Winehouse (1983-2011). Two biographic narratives, one by each of her parents, are analysed for her cognitive and behavioural profile and personality traits. The cognitive strengths and weaknesses observed, as well as the descriptions of her social and non-social behaviours, closely match the ADHD and autistic symptoms. The identity diffusion that is a characteristic of highly creative artists according to Fitzgerald, also occurs as the prominent feature of singer’s persona with multifaceted ways of expression. Both autistic and ADHD traits were high in her persona which enhanced her creativity, but also caused problems in everyday life.
... Frith, 1991) original definitions. Much literature suggests that people with ASD often have difficulties processing everyday sensory information and in focusing attentional resources which can be detrimental to social function- ing (e.g., Baron-Cohen, 2008;Frith & Mira, 1992;Laurie, 2014). There have been a number of recent advances in the field of selective attention in ASD. ...
... This suggests that individuals with ASD may process more information and stimuli from their environment from multiple senses than NT populations. With the evidence that individuals with ASD often become over- whelmed by too much sensory stimulation (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Laurie, 2014), it may be suggested that although ASD individuals show an enhanced perceptual capacity, it may be the cause of some distress seen in ASD individuals as this potentially exhausts other necessary concurrent cognitive resources or capacities. This is unclear from the design of the present study, but future research could employ an added measure of stress levels and see if ASD individuals present higher levels of stress when detecting stimuli at a higher perceptual load. ...
... The findings from the present study further support the evidence that processing sensory information functions somewhat differ- ently in ASD compared to NT people (e.g., Baron-Cohen, 2008;Frith & Mira, 1992;Laurie, 2014). By showing that ASD individuals have an enhanced perceptual capacity, or are less able to filter out Non-socially Meaningful stimuli, it suggests that they may be un- der more cognitive strain processing such information. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined whether increasing visual perceptual load differentially affected both Socially Meaningful and Non-socially Meaningful auditory stimulus awareness in neurotypical (NT, n = 59) adults and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 57) adults. On a target trial, an unexpected critical auditory stimulus (CAS), either a Non-socially Meaningful (‘beep’ sound) or Socially Meaningful (‘hi’) stimulus, was played concurrently with the presentation of the visual task. Under conditions of low visual perceptual load both NT and ASD samples reliably noticed the CAS at similar rates (77%-81%), whether the CAS was Socially Meaningful or Non-socially Meaningful. However, during high visual perceptual load NT and ASD participants reliably noticed the meaningful CAS (NT = 71%, ASD = 67%), but NT participants were unlikely to notice the Non-meaningful CAS (20%), whereas ASD participants reliably noticed it (80%), suggesting an inability to engage selective attention to ignore non-salient irrelevant distractor stimuli in ASD
... Desde hace aproximadamente dos décadas, se ha comenzado a denominar TEA, en lugar de Autismo Infantil Precoz (Kanner, 1943), a aquellos que afectan a sujetos que comparten manifestaciones conductuales y cognitivas en común, pero en distintos grados, y, esencialmente, con una condición/factor cerebral particular de base. Es por este último motivo que están incluidos en los Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo (Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales: DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association 1994), como Trastorno Autista, contra poniéndose al factor ambiental/familiar que durante muchos años se creyó el preponderante para su aparición y mantenimiento (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Feinstein 2010). ...
... El descubrimiento de Hans Asperger (1944) de personas que presentaban dichas características pero en otro grado, a las que agrupó bajo el nombre "Síndrome de Asperger", comenzó a dar luz sobre la posibilidad de un espectro de síntomas de misma base, más que de una especificidad. El síndrome de Asperger mostraba lo siguiente: aproximación social inadecuada e ingenua; intereses restringidos a determinadas materias u objetos; correcta gramática y vocabulario, pero pobre uso de éstas en conversación; falta de sentido común; déficit en coordinación motriz; dificultades de aprendizaje en una o dos áreas, y opcional nivel superior en otras (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Feinstein 2010). ...
... En fin, las habilidades que están tanto en déficit como en exceso en el espectro autista, y que son susceptibles de aumentar, mejorar y/o ajustar a través de un tratamiento, una vez hecho un diagnóstico exhaustivo, son variadas y pueden alcanzar un número considerable. En la actualidad ha habido un aumento en la producción científica para la identificación de las causas del TEA (Nemirovsky et al, 2015) así como recopilaciones sobre la evolución y desarrollo de terapéuticas (Riviere 1997, Baron-Cohen 2008Feinstein 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to neurodevelopmental problems characterized by difficulties in social interaction, especially verbal or nonverbal communication. Research on ASD focuses in finding appropriate solutions for a patient, using all available resources (virtual interfaces, virtual reality, 3D environments, robotics, etc.) in order to develop therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the use of technologies to improve and stimulate communication, particularly in children with ASD, has increased exponentially in recent years. When used in therapeutic contexts, these tools allow a generalization of a child’s behavior towards a natural context. Hence, the use of customized softwares for mobile devices will allow progress in treating ASD beyond a clinical setting and may be used at home/school to communicate with their close social peers.
... Desde hace aproximadamente dos décadas, se ha comenzado a denominar TEA, en lugar de Autismo Infantil Precoz (Kanner, 1943), a aquellos que afectan a sujetos que comparten manifestaciones conductuales y cognitivas en común, pero en distintos grados, y, esencialmente, con una condición/factor cerebral particular de base. Es por este último motivo que están incluidos en los Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo (Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales: DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association 1994), como Trastorno Autista, contra poniéndose al factor ambiental/familiar que durante muchos años se creyó el preponderante para su aparición y mantenimiento (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Feinstein 2010). ...
... El descubrimiento de Hans Asperger (1944) de personas que presentaban dichas características pero en otro grado, a las que agrupó bajo el nombre "Síndrome de Asperger", comenzó a dar luz sobre la posibilidad de un espectro de síntomas de misma base, más que de una especificidad. El síndrome de Asperger mostraba lo siguiente: aproximación social inadecuada e ingenua; intereses restringidos a determinadas materias u objetos; correcta gramática y vocabulario, pero pobre uso de éstas en conversación; falta de sentido común; déficit en coordinación motriz; dificultades de aprendizaje en una o dos áreas, y opcional nivel superior en otras (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Feinstein 2010). ...
... En fin, las habilidades que están tanto en déficit como en exceso en el espectro autista, y que son susceptibles de aumentar, mejorar y/o ajustar a través de un tratamiento, una vez hecho un diagnóstico exhaustivo, son variadas y pueden alcanzar un número considerable. En la actualidad ha habido un aumento en la producción científica para la identificación de las causas del TEA (Nemirovsky et al, 2015) así como recopilaciones sobre la evolución y desarrollo de terapéuticas (Riviere 1997, Baron-Cohen 2008Feinstein 2010). ...
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Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) son alteraciones del neurodesarrollo caracterizados por dificultades en interacción social, con principal hincapié en la comunicación, sea esta verbal y no verbal. La investigación y desarrollo aplicada en TEA se centra en hallar estrategias terapéuticas adecuadas y que sean focalizadas en el individuo, valiéndose de todos los recursos que estén al alcance (interfaces virtuales, realidad virtual, entornos 3D, robótica, etc). Así, el uso de tecnologías para mejorar y estimular particularmente la comunicación de los niños con TEA ha aumentado en los últimos tiempos de manera exponencial. Estas herramientas en contextos terapéuticos posibilitan una generalización del comportamiento hacia contextos naturales del niño. Por lo tanto, el uso de un software personalizado en dispositivos móviles permitirá que se avance con su tratamiento fuera del ámbito clínico pudiendo utilizarlo en su casa/escuela para comunicarse con sus vínculos sociales cercanos.Palabras clave: Autismo, comunicación, tecnología, comunicación alternativa y aumentada, Apptismo. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to neurodevelopmental problems characterized by difficulties in social interaction, especially verbal or nonverbal communication. Research on ASD focuses in finding appropriate solutions for a patient, using all available resources (virtual interfaces, virtual reality, 3D environments, robotics, etc.) in order to develop therapeutic strategies.Therefore, the use of technologies to improve and stimulate communication, particularly in children with ASD, has increased exponentially in recent years. When used in therapeutic contexts, these tools allow a generalization of a child’s behavior towards a natural context. Hence, the use of customized softwares for mobile devices will allow progress in treating ASD beyond a clinical setting and may be used at home/school to communicate with their close social peers.Key words:Autism, communication, technology, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Apptismo.
... Since the pioneering work of Leo Kanner (Kanner 1943), the diagnosis of autism has been based on the so-called autistic triad, that is, the reunion of three types of features: impairment of social development, impairment of communication, and display of rigid and repetitive behavior (Baron-Cohen 2008). This mix of deficiency and oddity has been the basis on which autism has been identified as a developmental disorder. ...
... Again, dysfunction, in this sense, is not defined in reference to an evolutionary background, and harm is not judged according to social values. Notes 1. Baron-Cohen, 2008: "The official terminology is to use the acronym ASD, for autism spectrum disorder. I prefer the acronym ASC [Autistic Spectrum Condition], since individuals in the high-functioning subgroup are certainly different [.…] but it is arguable whether these differences should be seen as a disorder" (p. ...
... For example, prior to confirmation of Asperger's theory as to the biological basis for the cluster of symptoms bearing his name today, the cause of autism spectrum conditions was considered to be poor parenting (e.g. Baron-Cohen, 2008). Indeed, 'parentectomy', the removal of the child from the family environment in order for him to be 'properly' socialized, was a common form of treatment for such social impairment (e.g. ...
... Indeed, 'parentectomy', the removal of the child from the family environment in order for him to be 'properly' socialized, was a common form of treatment for such social impairment (e.g. Baron-Cohen, 2008). As pointed out by Stoddart (2005) and Attwood (2015), the vestiges of this early theory remains, contributing to delays in seeking a diagnosis as parents may fear the stigma of being challenged about their parenting skills. ...
... School and various moments in the remainder of education. As an adult I came to realise that one of the reasons why I didn't enjoy school was because I had Asperger syndrome (AS), part of the "autistic spectrum" of social and communication "disorders" (Baron-Cohen 2008). Attwood (undated) defines it as a way of thinking and perceiving the world "differently to other people" and goes on to remark that it is an "important and valuable characteristic of our species throughout evolution." ...
... The use of a diagnostic term and reference to Asperger's clinical descriptions help to convince the presentation of girls with AS may mean they are missed in diagnosis). AS can often be debilitating precisely because the individual affected appears, on the surface, to be "normal", i.e., there is no obvious intellectual impairment and indeed they are often gifted in certain areas; yet the same individual can present as being eccentric, socially inappropriate or inept, insensitive to others, and unable or unwilling to adapt to a social group.There are a number of psychological theories that attempt to explain the particular ways that people with AS think and behave(Baron-Cohen 2008). Weak central coherence, developed by the researcher Uta Frith, suggest that the difficulties are in terms of not being able to see the big picture, but instead, focusing on details. ...
Thesis
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This case study research analysed the use of a GeoCapabilities approach for a group of students with Asperger syndrome (AS). AS is a different way of perceiving the world and traditional educational approaches are not always successful for these individuals. Teachers need to be aware of the different ways that these individuals think and feel and respond accordingly. Educational approaches for students with Additional Support Needs (ASN) tend to emphasise social skills training, however the researcher (an adult with AS as well as a teacher) has attempted to use geography to aid the students’ social development. Michael Young’s social realist concept of “powerful knowledge” is proposed as an alternative to standard ASN practice. Through a process of triangulation, the researcher has aimed to allow the students’ views to be at the forefront. The research has shown that these innovative thinkers often feel marginalised and struggle with self-doubt, however their unique way of considering and solving problems means that they bring valuable, creative contributions to geography. They are also deeply concerned about the plight of oppressed people and the planet, and geography, using a GeoCapabilities approach, is an excellent vehicle for these students to gain a deeper understanding of issues that concern them. Finally, it is proposed that this research continues and is extended to include academic specialists from geography, geography education and ASN.
... ASD has been also classified with regard to the level of intellectual functioning of the affected individuasl, where one distinguishes between "low-functioning" ASD (LFA) and "high-functioning" ASD (HFA) (Baron-Cohen, 2008). Individuals with LFA have intellectual abilities below a normal range as usually indicated by the intelligence quotient (IQ) below 85, while HFA refers to individuals with intellectual abilities within or above the normal range (IQ > 85) (Baron-Cohen, 2008). ...
... ASD has been also classified with regard to the level of intellectual functioning of the affected individuasl, where one distinguishes between "low-functioning" ASD (LFA) and "high-functioning" ASD (HFA) (Baron-Cohen, 2008). Individuals with LFA have intellectual abilities below a normal range as usually indicated by the intelligence quotient (IQ) below 85, while HFA refers to individuals with intellectual abilities within or above the normal range (IQ > 85) (Baron-Cohen, 2008). This classification has been widely adopted for research purposes. ...
Thesis
Kommunikation ist allgegenwärtig in unserem Alltag. Personen mit einer Autismus-Spektrum-Störung (ASS) zeigen soziale Schwierigkeiten und beim Erkennen von Kommunikationssignalen von Gesicht und Stimme. Da derartige Schwierigkeiten die Lebensqualität beeinträchtigen können, ist ein tiefgreifendes Verständnis der zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen von großer Bedeutung. In der vorliegenden Dissertation befasste ich mich mit sensorischen Gehirnmechanismen, die der Verarbeitung von Kommunikationssignalen zugrunde liegen und, die in der Forschung zu ASS bisher wenig Beachtung fanden. Erstens untersuchte ich, ob eine intranasale Gabe von Oxytocin die Erkennung der Stimmenidentität beeinflussen, und ihre Auffälligkeiten bei Personen mit ASS mildern kann. Zweitens erforschte ich, welche neuronalen Prozesse den Schwierigkeiten in der Wahrnehmung visueller Sprache in ASS zugrunde liegen, da bisherige Evidenz nur auf Verhaltensdaten basierte. Diese Fragestellungen beantwortete ich mit Hilfe von funktioneller Magnetresonanztomographie, Eyetracking und Verhaltenstestungen. Die Ergebnisse der Dissertation liefern neuartige Erkenntnisse, die für Personen mit ASS und typisch entwickelte Personen von hoher Relevanz sind. Erstens bestätigen sie die Annahmen, dass atypische sensorische Mechanismen für unser Verständnis der sozialen Schwierigkeiten in ASS grundlegend sind. Sie zeigen, dass atypische Funktionen sensorischer Gehirnregionen den Kommunikationseinschränkungen in ASS zugrunde liegen und die Effektivität von Interventionen beeinflussen, die jene Schwierigkeiten vermindern sollen. Zweitens liefern die Ergebnisse empirische Evidenz für theoretische Annahmen darüber, wie das typisch entwickelte Gehirn visuelle Kommunikationssignale verarbeitet. Diese Erkenntnisse erweitern maßgeblich unser aktuelles Wissen und zukünftige Forschungsansätze zur zwischenmenschlichen Kommunikation. Außerdem können sie neue Interventionsansätze zur Förderung von Kommunikationsfähigkeiten hervorbringen.
... Inconsistencies of this type reflect an awareness that the friendship is not reciprocated by the other party. Certain capacities of interpersonal perception and social comparison are necessary in order to make this sort of judgment; in light of the theory of the mind, it is possible that these capacities are not present in students with autism (Baron- Cohen 2008). Locally aggregated structures reflected the self-reported relationships of the participating classmates. ...
Article
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This mixed-methods study examined differences in social interaction patterns between a school-age boy with autism and his friends, non-reciprocal friends, and non-friends during recess time at a mainstream school (third grade of elementary school). Through a combination of observational methodology and social network analysis with an idiographic, follow-up and multidimensional design approach, we used lag sequential and polar coordinate analysis to ascertain the associations between various interactive behaviors as a function of type of friendship relation. After 40 sessions, we found that the non-reciprocal friendship relations of the boy with autism could have significantly greater potential than his reciprocal friendships to increase active engagement and reduce the time he spent alone during recess.
... (2) restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities; (3) symptoms must be present in the early developmental period; and (4) symptoms cause clinically signi cant impairments in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning. Baron-Cohen (2008) noted that scores indicating ASD traits in typically developing adults were normally distributed, and all adults have ASD traits to some extent. erefore, early diagno-sis of ASD is di cult, and early detection of behavioral indicators tends to be delayed in the absence of knowledge about ASD children acquired from both training and clinical experiences. ...
Article
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We investigated the relationships between early social-communication behaviors and maladaptive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Fifty-three children with both intellectual disabilities and developmental disorders including ASD participated in the current study. The results of a stepwise multiple regression showed that frequency of initiating joint attention and rate of positive affect expression were independent negative predictors of internalizing problems; severity of ASD symptom and frequency of requests were positive predictors, and rate of positive affect expression was a negative predictor, of v-scale score for externalizing problems. These results demonstrated that different types of early social-communication behaviors influence different kinds of maladaptive behaviors in children with ASD. In particular, positive affect expression with communication was a negative predictor of both internalizing and externalizing problems. It is critical that we explore how maladaptive behaviors develop in children with ASD, with a particular focus on the development of early social-communication.
... Attention to the impact of diagnosis on those diagnosed in adulthood has been comparatively small as a proportionate of the overall research literature on autism (Pellicano, Dinsmore, & Charman, 2013); however, there are indications from social research (Bagatell, 2007;Huws & Jones, 2008;Molloy & Vasil, 2004;Singh, 2011), as well as clinical (Baron-Cohen, 2008Tantam, 2012) and autobiographical sources authored by adults who have received a diagnosis (Birch, 2003;Gerland, 1997;Hadcroft, 2005;Lawson, 1998;Robison, 2008;Willey, 1999) that this can have a range of implications in terms of understanding oneself, relations with others, and gaining access to resources for meeting existing needs. The first priority was therefore to explore in general terms whether or not everyday life had changed since participants had received their diagnosis. ...
Research
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This is the second of two documents detailing the findings of phases 1 & 2 of the ADRC Ser-vice Evaluation and Development Project 2014. In this report, the findings of phase 2, the Post-diagnostic service development study, are discussed. The aims of this phase were: o To evaluate adult patient experiences of the assessment. o To explore the post-diagnostic experiences and needs of adult patients. o To highlight potential areas for service improvement, with particular attention to post-diagnostic support needs.  The investigation involved 11 adults (10 male, 1 female – mean age = 38.7 years) who were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without co-present learning disability. Par-ticipants completed two survey instruments (the WHO Quality of Life Brief survey, and the four ONS wellbeing questions) designed to measure wellbeing, followed by a semi-structured interview.
... 48% of constituents were mentally ill and 52% were not mentally ill. Baron-Cohen (2008) considers diagnosis only of value when not just a label but a "passport into accessing all the necessary support services that each individual may need" (37). Paradoxically, it is only with this passport, if and when diagnosis is settled (my diagnoses took over two years to be determined), that risk medication becomes part of a patient's life-style and the condition-entwined community of their families, friends and colleagues, who live with the ongoing consequences of illness. ...
... Throughout the years, despite variations in diagnostic criteria and classification, descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include impairments in language and communication [1]. Identifying effective methods for stimulating language and communication in children with ASD is fundamental to the adequate use of resources, such as specialized intervention and education, especially in regions of the world where this population is underserved or where geographic distances impede access to appropriate intervention. ...
Article
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Aims: Identifying effective methods for stimulating language and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to the effective use of available resources to support these children. This pilot study was designed to explore the potential benefits of a program of stimulation of executive functions (SEF) on the functional aspects of language and communication through the assessment of the functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance. Methods: Twenty children, aged 5-12 years, with a diagnosis of ASD participated in the study. Two stimulation programs were offered over a 10- to 12-week period as part of the regular services offered to these children through a University's speech and language therapy outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Children either received SEF intervention in their home implemented by their parent/s, with close monitoring by the speech-language pathologist (SLP) (group 1), or they received SEF by the SLP during regular speech-language therapy individual sessions (group 2). Results: The findings suggested that there were differences between the children's pre- and posttest performance. Significantly different performances were observed in the areas of occupation of communication space, proportion of communicative interactivity, and social-cognitive performance. Conclusion: The inclusion of activities to stimulate executive function abilities in language intervention for children with ASD warrants further investigation.
... Thinking inside the box: A pocketbook for living with your Autism -Mark Thurston [6] -Arrange an appointment with your general medical practitioner where you can request a referral to a specialist. Take evidence along with you such as the RDOS test (http://rdos.net/eng/Aspie-quiz.php) and the social recognition test (http://www.alexithymia.us/test.html) ...
... This study focuses on well-being in order to explain the way that many autistic people, academics, practitioners, and family members understand autism. Polarized understandings, contrasting fields of autism research, and stakeholders' competing opinions expose areas neglected or oversimplified areas of autism advocacy (Baron-Cohen 2008). ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/174705/1/dafi.pdf
... Repetitive behaviors of children with ASD negatively affect their interactions with their parents (Wilke et al., 2012), while the temper tantrums, self-harming behaviors (Dominick et al., 2007), and problem behaviors of these children that make it difficult for them to adapt to their surroundings, which may negatively affect parents. Children with ASD often experience difficulties in being understood by their parents because of their sensory sensitivities (Leekam et al., 2007;Stewart et al., 2009), repetitive behaviors and interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2013;Losh et al., 2009) and serious deficiencies in verbal and nonverbal communication as well as social interaction skills (Baron-Cohen, 2008;Dodd, 2005;Lubetsky et al., 2011;Whitaker et al., 1998;Wing, 2012). Establishing a relationship with childrenwith ASD, understanding their various behaviors, and addressing their behavioral problems can also be emotionally challenging for parents. ...
Article
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Parental emotion regulation plays a vital role in the parent–child relationship. This study examines the mediating role of mindful parenting in the relationship between parental emotion regulation difficulties and problem behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was conducted with 273 parents of children with ASD in Istanbul. The study findings revealed a significant yet negative correlation between mindful parenting and emotion regulation difficulty and problem behaviors. The study model highlighted that emotion regulation difficulties significantly predicted mindful parenting and the child’s problem behavior, whereas mindful parenting significantly predicted the child’s problem behavior. Additionally, the study findings indicated that mindful parenting was a partial mediator.
... ψ 7 años: Mantienen en tiempo una mentira y son capaces de distinguir entre mentiras y bromas (Talwar & Lee, 2002). ψ 8 años: Se inicia la comprensión correcta del lenguaje figurado (Baron-Cohen, 2008). ψ 11 años: Esta actividad mentalista ya se ha desarrollado casi por completo. ...
Article
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La Teoría de la Mente (ToM) es uno de los dominios de la cognición social. Es definida como una capacidad heterometacognitiva que permite inferir los estados mentales (intenciones, creencias, deseos, etc.) de otras personas; con ella es posible comprender, predecir y explicar el comportamiento de otros para actuar en consecuencia y con cierto grado de seguridad sobre los posibles efectos en el entorno social. Aunque su estudio data de la última década del siglo IX, el término se atribuye a los primatólogos Premack y Woodruff, quienes comprobaron que los chimpancés poseen una ToM que les permite entender a los seres humanos; posteriormente, el descubrimiento de las neuronas espejo en el cerebro humano permitió establecer sus correlatos neurofisiológicos. El estudio de las afectaciones en ToM ha llevado a considerarla una capacidad vital para el desarrollo de habilidades socioemocionales, llegando a proponerla como un endofenotipo de diversas enfermedades neuropsiquiátricas. El objetivo de este ensayo teórico es conceptualizar la ToM abordando sus antecedentes históricos, teorías explicativas, hitos del desarrollo, correlatos neuroanatómicos, y métodos de evaluación.
... Dimensiones de la teoría del cerebro masculino extremo (Baron-Cohen, 2008a). ...
Thesis
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Based on the distinction between "hot" and "cool" executive functions (Zelazo & Müller, 2002), a research line that aims to study the relationship between executive functions related to emotions (―hot") and socio-emotional deficits observed in ASD, began. The main objective of this study is to analyze the psychopathological correlates of emotional deficits in ASD. This work arises in this theoretical framework and aims to study socioemotional deficits in adults with autism, in relation to both "hot" and ―cool‖ executive dysfunctions, social maturity, autistic traits and comorbid psychopathology, specifying which variables influence or explain the perception of emotions in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Four experiments were designed, linked to the 4 general objectives of the research: 1. Confirm the presence of emotional perception deficits in adults with ASD, compared to the control group (no TEA). 2. Confirm the presence of deficits in executive functions attributed to the ASD group, compared to the control group (no TEA). 3. Specify which variables influence, or explain, the perception of emotions in adults with autism, in order to find out the nature of emotional deficits in people with autism. 4. Establish if certain emotional permeability exists in the experimental group (TEA), through a task of emotion induction.
... La incertidumbre y el aislamiento han generado una serie de respuestas negativas en la población autista. El autismo en una condición del neurodesarrollo (Baron-Cohen, 2008) que se caracteriza por presentar un tipo de mente más preparada para sistematizar información y que encuentra dificultades en el aprendizaje de las habilidades sociales típicas necesarias para interactuar con el entorno. El tipo de mente autista requiere de altos grados de predictibilidad en su funcionamiento. ...
Article
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Pensar la conectividad y la electronalidad en tiempos de la COVID-19: el WhatsApp y el modelo comunicativo del autismo Thinking about connectivity and electronality in the days of COVID-19: WhatsApp and the communicative model of autism RESUMEN La teoría de la electronalidad tal como ha sido vinculada con el autismo, establece que esta etapa de nuestra historia comunicacional, donde prima el uso de la palabra electrónica a través de las tecnologías nacidas de la cibernética y de la internet, ofrece herramientas que no sólo favorecen una mayor fluidez para un tipo de mente autista sino que benefician a la población en general. En estos tiempos de cuarentena producto de la COVID-19, ha sido necesario potenciar un mayor uso de herramientas y aplicaciones que favorecen la comunicación a distancia, uso para el cual hemos notado que las personas autistas parecen estar mejor preparadas debido a las formas de procesamiento que les son propias. Esto lleva a pensar en las relaciones entre la mente autista y las nuevas tecnologías de la información. Este artículo mostrará las relaciones entre esta y la configuración de los modelos comunicativos actuales centrados más en la conectividad que en el diálogo. Se propone, también una reflexión sobre lo que nos enseña la mente autista sobre las nuevas maneras de interactuar. ABSTRACT The theory of electronality as it has been linked to autism, establishes that this stage of our communicational history, where the use of the electronic word prevails through technologies born from cybernetics and the internet, offers tools that not only favor greater fluidity for an autistic type of mind but benefit the general population. In these times of quarantine as a result of the COVID-19, it has been necessary to promote a greater use of tools and applications that favor remote communication, an use for which we have noticed that autistic people seem to be better prepared due to the forms of processing. This leads to thinking about the relationships between the autistic mind and the new information technologies. This article will show the relationships between the autistic mind and the configuration of current communication models focused more on connectivity than dialogue. It also proposes a reflection on what the autistic mind teaches us about new ways of interacting.
... Baron-Cohen points out that there are individual differences in AQ scores. 10) In fact, if we focus on the distribution of AQ scores for the SM group and ASD group (Figure 4), there were variations in the scores in each area for both groups. These facts suggest that children with SM and showing ASD traits exhibit behavioral traits of ASD in general, and not in a particular area. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Selective Mutism (SM) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We conducted an individual questionnaire survey of kindergarten and elementary school teachers about the children with SM (n=17), children with ASD (n=12) and children with Typical Development (TD) (n=12) in their classes. The questionnaire included screening tests for SM, using the Selective Mutism Questionnaire-Revised (SMQ-R), and ASD, using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The results showed that in the SMQ-R, the scores for children with SM were significantly higher than those for other children. Meanwhile, in the AQ, the children with SM and ASD scored significantly higher than the children with TD, but no difference was observed between the two. This suggests that many children with SM are likely to show ASD traits. In future, to support children with SM, we need to find effective approaches to both the SM and ASD aspects of their condition.
... Exceptionally good memorizing, enthusiasm and knowledge regarding certain interests, original thinking and a unique way to visual thinking can be taken as strengths of those with ASD (See e.g., APA, 2013, pp. 50−59;Baron-Cohen, 2008;Baron-Cohen & Belmonte, 2005;Bogdashina, 2005;Frith, 2003;Happé, 1994;Courchesne, Townsend, & Saitoh, 1994;World Health Organization, WHO, 2010;Wing, 1992). ...
Article
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Many children may need the help of another person to attend school. It is common for children with disabilities to receive help from a teaching assistant at school. Assistants are provided in many countries as a legal right and are often publicly funded. It is also widely assumed that having teaching assistants in the class is an effective and cost-efficient way to support students with disabilities. In this study, the research task was to monitor and document the development process carried out by the teacher, with the aim of making visible the development of a more dynamic classroom interaction. The focus in this development process was the teacher’s idea of minimizing the contacts between students and assistants to increase students’ opportunities to optimize interaction and learning. This was to happen by strengthening commitment to their activities and taking responsibility. The data include video excerpts, which originate from video recordings from a special education class, and transcripts of three stimulated recall-type interviews with the teacher of this class. In this article, the experimental development process is described as presenting an unorthodox approach to teaching assistants and their position in special education.
Article
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The claim that autistic people lack a theory of mind—that they fail to understand that other people have a mind or that they themselves have a mind—pervades psychology. This article (a) reviews empirical evidence that fails to support the claim that autistic people are uniquely impaired, much less that all autistic people are universally impaired, on theory-of-mind tasks; (b) highlights original findings that have failed to replicate; (c) documents multiple instances in which the various theory-of-mind tasks fail to relate to each other and fail to account for autistic traits, social interaction, and empathy; (c) summarizes a large body of data, collected by researchers working outside the theory-of-mind rubric, that fails to support assertions made by researchers working inside the theory-of-mind rubric; and (d) concludes that the claim that autistic people lack a theory of mind is empirically questionable and societally harmful.
Book
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Examining a decade of research and practice, this book makes the case for a radical reappraisal of leadership, learning, and their interrelationship in educational policy. Discussing whether policy direction is progressively constraining the professionalism and initiative of teachers and school leaders, it challenges conventional understanding and argues the case for thinking differently about the way to lead learning. Based on the Leadership for Learning (LfL) Project, the book clarifies, extends, and refines LfL principles and practices, and their contribution to ameliorating some of the difficult conditions encountered in the contemporary educational policy environment. It starts by discussing the direction and influence of current education policy and its subsequent consequences; chapters then move on to explore the framing values informing the LfL Projects, particularly focusing on what they imply for commitments to social justice, children’s rights and breadth in student learning, and considering how to create favourable conditions for learning. Identifying a disconnect between seminal principles and the nature of day-to-day practice, Strengthening the Connections between Leadership and Learning challenges school policy and practice at national and local levels. It is an essential read for postgraduate students, especially those studying leadership in education, as well as for teachers and policymakers in schools.
Article
ABSTRACT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder. It shows an imbalance in social interaction, characterized by repetition of certain behavioral patterns and challenges in verbal and nonverbal communication with others. Over the last few decades, its prevalence showed a dramatic rise; an observation that encouraged many researchers across the world to try to explore all its aspects and find the best ways of the treatment of persons who have autism. The current study investigates the effects of learning foreign language (which is English language in the present study) on the development of the linguistic abilities of Iraqi autistic children. This study consists of five sections: the preliminaries (which present the fundamentals of the study), the second section is the theoretical background (which states the theoretical bases of the study), the third section is the methodology and data collection (which present the basic parts of the experiment), the fourth section is the results and their analysis (which show the outcomes of the experiment in every linguistic area and their analysis), finally chapter five offers the conclusions which could be drawn from the results.
Thesis
Research indicates that autistic individuals are no more likely to offend than anyone else in the general population. However, it has been suggested that when autistic individuals do offend, their offending behaviour can be contextualised by their autism. One of the most common forms of offending reported to be committed by autistic individuals are sexual offences, and research has outlined how autism can contribute to those offences. Additionally, recent research has also indicated that autistic prisoners may experience unique challenges and have specific support needs during their prison sentences, which potentially differ from their non-autistic peers. Despite this, little research has specifically explored how to work with, support and manage autistic individuals with sexual offence convictions (ISOCs) in prison-based interventions to address sexual offending. This thesis details an exploratory sequential mixed method approach used to explore effective work practices with autistic ISOCs in prison-based interventions to address sexual offending. Specifically, this thesis explored the following research questions; 'How appropriate are current prison-based sexual offending interventions for autistic ISOCs?' And 'What is best practice when working with autistic ISOCs in prison-based sexual offending interventions?'. To answer these research questions, the thesis sought to: (i) identify challenges associated with prison-based sexual offending interventions for autistic ISOCs; (ii) identify beneficial features of prison-based sexual interventions for autistic ISOCs; and (iii) to generate evidence-based, practical recommendations on how to work with autistic ISOCs in prison-based sexual offending interventions. This thesis is constructed of six chapters. Chapter 1 provides a broad introduction to the topic background and rationale of the thesis, concluding with the overarching research questions and aims. Chapter 2 provides a discussion of the methodological issues that were relevant to the empirical studies of the thesis, including a rationale for the mixed method design. Chapter 3 reports Study 1, which was a qualitative narrative exploration of the life stories of autistic ISOCs (N= 4). This study incorporated an inclusive, participatory autism research approach, and discusses how diversity and similarities in those life stories may be relevant for interventions. Chapter 4 reports Study 2, a multi-perspective qualitative study that utilised a phenomenologically informed thematic analysis to explore the issues surrounding working with autistic ISOCS in prison-based interventions to address sexual offending, from the perspectives of autistic ISOCs (N= 12) and staff (N= 13). Chapter 5 details Study 3, a quantitative study that sought to confirm qualitative findings reported in Chapter 4; relating to the relationships between autistic traits, the prison social climate, mental wellbeing and readiness to 6 engage with interventions in a sample of ISOCs serving prison sentences (N= 177). Finally, Chapter 6 provides a synthesis and general discussion of the collective findings from the empirical studies. Chapter 6 also details practical recommendations for working with autistic ISOCs in prison-based sexual offending interventions, directions for future research, highlights the original contributions of the thesis, considers broader limitations of the research, and offers a final conclusion.
Article
We compared the maternal reports on mothering and family processes between 160 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 160 age and gender-matched typically developing (TD) youth stratified by personal characteristics from Taiwan. The ASD groups consisted of 51 ‘typical autism’ (TA), 52 ‘high-functioning autism’ (HFA), and 57 ‘Asperger syndrome (AS).’ Maternal reports showed that youth with ASD obtained less affection and more protection from the mother, and had less active mother-child interactions and more behavioral problems at home. Their mothers perceived less family support when compared to mothers of TD youth. Moreover, both TA and AS groups had more maternal protection and less maternal perceived family support, whereas HFA and co-occurring ADHD were only associated with more behavioral problems at home. The maternal and family process may vary across different ASD subgroups.
Article
The study examined the subjective experiences of autistic youth regarding the role of peer interactions and relationships in feelings of belonging in integrated physical education classes. The term integrated is used to describe a setting in which all students, regardless of educational needs, are educated in the same physical space. Eight autistic youth (all male, aged 13–18 years) who had received most of their physical education in integrated classes acted as participants. Semi-structured interviews were used to generate qualitative data, which were analyzed using a reflexive thematic approach. Findings are presented in three themes: (a) bullying can lead to self-harm and self-isolation, (b) peer interactions and relationships in the locker room, and (c) peer relationships are based on shared interests and take time to develop. Even though autistic students were educated in the same spaces as their non-autistic peers, feelings of belonging were largely unavailable to them.
Thesis
L’utilisation des robots comme médiation thérapeutique pour les personnes présentant un Trouble du Spectre Autistique (TSA) est une pratique en plein essor. C’est en effet une méthode encourageante pour favoriser le développement de compétences sociales. De nombreuses expériences sont actuellement menées. Cependant, dans toutes les approches existantes, le paradigme du robot-compagnon est utilisé : le robot est programmé pour présenter des comportements pré-établis. Le projet Rob’Autisme propose une approche alternative : le robot est utilisé comme extension pour faire ou dire des choses. Les sujets présentant un TSA le programment et, par son truchement, agissent librement sur leur environnement social.De plus, ce projet inclut l’idée qu’ils pourront ensuite interagir avec les autres sans le robot. Cette thèse vise à comprendre l’intérêt de cette approche et évaluer les effets de la participation sur les interactions sociales. Durant deux ans, des groupes avec six adolescents ont été organisés et analysés à partir de méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives. Ces analyses montrent que cette approche favorise la tendance à aller vers les autres et interagir avec eux. Ce résultat est en outre généralisé à l’extérieur.
Chapter
Autismus ist ein Phänomen, das bekannt ist, aber dennoch fremd und unbegreiflich erscheint. In der Gesellschaft gibt es zwei extreme Vorstellungen darüber, was Autismus kennzeichnet: auf der einen Seite die Unfähigkeit, in einem sozialen Kontext zu funktionieren, auf der anderen der Besitz außergewöhnlicher Fähigkeiten und Intelligenz. Doch diese Vorstellungen sind sehr schematisch, denn beide können zutreffen, nur eine davon oder auch keine. Mit meiner Masterarbeit will ich durch den persönlichen Zugang eine neue vermittelnde Perspektive auf Autismus ermöglichen. Autistische Verhaltensweisen sollen mittels visueller und funktioneller Umsetzungen auf das Medium Buch übertragen werden und so den Autismus erfahrbar machen.
Article
While scholarship has increased on the topic of neurodiversity in organizations, which refers to individuals with pervasive developmental disorders in the workforce, leadership theory and research has not yet integrated this perspective. Consistent with conventional conceptualizations of disability as an impairment, the few relevant leadership studies tend to approach these differences as special cases, rather than as a population to which theory may be generalized. As a result, management scholars have yet to develop theories and models that are inclusive of neurodiversity. Using the critical disability theory as a lens for reframing assumptions about leadership behavior as described in existing theory and research, we postulate that neurodiversity may serve as a cognitive strength from which leadership derives. We offer a conceptual model that articulates how cognitive characteristics associated with neurodiversity may lead to task-based leadership behavior, and we trace the influence of such behaviors on leader and follower outcomes. The model also includes enabling conditions that may positively influence the emergence and recognition of neurodiverse individuals as leaders. We conclude by proposing directions for future research to better integrate the neurodiversity and leadership literatures and reflecting on the associated practical implications.
Article
Zusammenfassung Gegenstand und Ziel: Depressionen zählen zu den häufigsten Komorbiditäten von Autismus im Erwachsenenalter und gehen insbesondere bei Erwachsenen mit hochfunktionalem Autismus (HFA) mit einer hohen Suizidrate einher. Welche Risikofaktoren hierbei relevant sind, ist unklar. Material und Methoden: In einer Stichprobe von 186 autistischen Erwachsenen aus der Ambulanz bzw. Tagklinik für Störungen der sozialen Interaktion des Max-Planck-Instituts für Psychiatrie wurden epidemiologische, psychometrische und psychosoziale Daten mit Einverständnis der Patienten wissenschaftlich ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: 50% der Patienten litten neben einer ASS an einer depressiven Episode. Als Risikofaktoren für eine depressive Erkrankung wurden das Alter der Patienten sowie Arbeitslosigkeit identifiziert. Schlussfolgerungen und klinische Relevanz: Aufgrund der hohen Rate von Depressionen und Suiziden bei Erwachsenen mit ASS ist eine sorgfältige Exploration dahingehend mit Abklärung von Suizidalität zu empfehlen. Weiterhin besteht ein großer Bedarf bei der Weiterentwicklung von störungsspezifischen Behandlungsmaßnahmen sowie Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten bei der beruflichen Integration. Hier liegen für spätdiagnostizierte Personen mit HFA erste psychotherapeutische und teilstationäre Behandlungskonzepte vor.
Preprint
This draft of "Thinking Inside The Box - A pocketbook on living with your Autism" is currently under consideration with a publisher.
Article
Trans people are those people who are not content to remain in the gender assigned at birth. They are a group who are increasingly being researched, however the method and findings of such research are often used as a means or ‘lens’ to buttress a particular theoretical stance such as queer theory, psychoanalysis, or medical positivism. This discussion considers the ethics of continued research of this group which have been historically marginalised and are still often at the edges of the academy. In particular it examines the power implications of ‘giving a voice’ as the ethical centre of such research; alongside issues of the intelligibility of trans people being mediated by the academy, and the voice of the academic expert. It also briefly considers the inherent problems associated with reflexivity; whether through its absence or though the positioning of the reflexive researcher as inside or outside the group being researched. It then proceeds to outline some methodological means by which trans people may be engaged in research in a way in which the method, and not merely the outcome, is inherently ethical.
Article
Full-text available
Many adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC) desire outpatient psychotherapy (PT). This study compared reasons for seeking PT, experiences with PT, and modifications preferred with respect to PT of individuals with ASC to non-autistic individuals with depression (MDD). Furthermore, factors predictive for treatment satisfaction were identified in individuals with ASC. A total of 262 adults with ASC without intellectual impairment and 304 non-autistic controls with MDD were surveyed. In this pilot study both groups predominantly sought treatment for depressiveness. A low level of expertise with autism was the main reason for being declined by therapists and a contributing factor to the overall treatment dissatisfaction of patients with ASC. ASC patients desire adjustments such as written communication, and clearly structured sessions.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we argue that the exclusion of autistic people from meaningful involvement in research is both ethically and epistemologically problematic, and constitutes a significant barrier to research impact. By the term 'meaningful', we refer to the inclusion of different autistic voices not merely as sources of empirical material, but as active participants in the production of knowledge on autism. We discuss two trends in research that are of concern: firstly, the failure to explore and engage fully with the lived experiences of participants in social research; secondly, imposition of problematic narratives on autistic experiences, linked to partial or complete absence of engagement with the diverse work of autistic authors. We conclude by pointing to some contemporary developments and intellectual exchanges that serve as exemplars which increase the ethical and epistemological integrity of research on the lived experiences of autistic people.
Article
The use of dance/movement therapy (DMT) as a treatment modality for children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied extensively since the 1970s. This systematic review of studies published between 1970 and 2018 aims to (a) verify the quality of DMT and ASD studies using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of DMT interventions for individuals with ASD. Keyword analyses of four electronic databases—Medline, Pubmed, Cinahl, and Springer Link—were used to select the studies examined in this research study, with seven selected according to specific conditions. Two studies after 2016 were identified as having the highest level of evidence at level 2b on the scale of The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence. Two studies conducted before 1985 were lower than level 4. Five studies after 2015 were found to have either fair or low risk of bias according to the Assessment of Controlled Intervention Studies developed by National Institutes of Health. Two pre-1985 studies were evaluated as having a high risk of bias. While this study found that the quality of DMT and ASD studies has improved in recent years, future research must demonstrate greater scientific rigor in documenting the efficacy of DMT treatment interventions. It also found that imitation (mirroring) interventions helped individuals with ASD improve their social skills.
Chapter
This chapter outlines a broad view of information processing systems based on the research findings presented in the previous chapters. This broad view develops the generalisations of learning and memory processes that were based in the commonalities of matter and energy pathways between organisms or structures and their environment. This view is described in terms of novel conceptualisations of information and information processing systems, and these conceptualisations serve as an infrastructure for the development of an overarching framework that may be applied universally to learning and memory processes. This framework is then applied specifically to descriptions of human interaction with the environment in a broad context that includes input and output of environmental information and its processing within the entire human organism. Human cognitive processes are accommodated within this framework through consideration of the human nervous system, inclusive of the brain, as a component information processing system of the human organism.
Thesis
Full-text available
Quality of life as a concept has become a fundamental construct in both theoretical and applied research, to the extent that it is now considered a basic reference framework to design and assess supports and services. Likewise, it also operates as a theoretical research model, a principle to develop evidence-based practices and a means to implement and redefine professional practices for people with disabilities and their families. However, despite the headway made in recent decades in the implementation and assessment of the construct of quality of life in the field of disability, its application to children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been scarce and limited. Most research on quality of life in children and adolescents with ASD has narrowly equated the concept of quality of life to health and has focused on individuals who do not have intellectual disability. In this line, the few existing studies agree that children with ASD show lower quality of life scores than their typically developing peers or than those with other associated conditions. Scarcer still are studies focusing on individual quality of life in this group; this is a construct that includes not just health-related aspects like the previous one, but all domains affecting a person’s life in a comprehensive way. The existing scientific literature shows an absence of adequate instruments that consider the particularities and specific needs of adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability and with enough evidence to prove their reliability and validity. In fact, the development and validation of instruments to comprehensibly assess quality of life has been a constant and growing demand from families, professionals and organisations working with people with ASD in Spain to assess the effectiveness of their interventions, to develop person-centered planning and the delivery of customised support for this group. In this context, the main objective of this PhD dissertation is to assess individual quality of life in children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability. To achieve this goal, we conducted a broad study leading to the publication of four articles with the following specific objectives: (a) to test whether adolescents with a comorbid ASD diagnosis and intellectual disabilities in Spain showed worse quality of life outcomes than peers with intellectual disability but no ASD; (b) to adapt the KidsLife Scale (Gómez et al., 2016), developed to assess the quality of life of adolescents with intellectual disability and important support needs, to the community of children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability; (c) to analyse in our large sample of adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability in Spain, which quality of life domains show strengths and which ones are likely to be xliv significantly improved; and (d) to further analyse the results obtained in the “social inclusion” domain in this sample from a gender perspective. The most important landmark described in this PhD dissertation is the validation and publication of the ASD-KidsLife Scale (Gómez et al., 2018), the first internationally available instrument to assess the quality of life of children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability, taking into account their particularities and needs, from a comprehensive quality of life perspective. Therefore, this PhD dissertation has led to important implications, as it shows the need to consider personal and environmental variables in the supply of supports and services and it becomes useful when developing, implementing and assessing the effectiveness of person-centered planning, organisational strategies and social policies targeting the quality of life of this group.
Article
Teachers who demonstrate a high degree of empathy are said to have more positive attitudes towards pupils with disabilities. Therefore, this article sought to explore the influence of a special school placement on prospective teachers’ self-perceptions of empathy. Thirty-two final year undergraduate students participated in focus group interviews and were selected because they aspired to be a physical education teacher and had attended a placement in a special school. Interview transcripts were analysed and the following themes constructed: Stepping into the shoes of the Other; Frustrated ‘for’ not ‘with’ pupils with disabilities; Empathy for planning inclusive lessons and ‘reading’ pupil body language; and Knowing when not to show empathy. All prospective teachers felt that: (a) they could empathise with pupils with disabilities; (b) situated learning experiences within the placement enabled them to reflect on the ways in which their empathy influences their teaching now and could continue to do so in the future; and (c) it was important that teachers demonstrated empathy. Thus, it is recommended that all prospective teachers gain some experience teaching in special schools. Our research also warns against teachers claiming the last, conclusive word about who children with disabilities are, what they think, how they feel and what they want, in myriad contexts and situations.
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