Article

High-intensity intermittent exercise attenuates ad-libitum energy intake

School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
International journal of obesity (2005) (Impact Factor: 5). 06/2013; 38(3). DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2013.102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objective:
To examine the acute effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on energy intake, perceptions of appetite and appetite-related hormones in sedentary, overweight men.

Design:
Seventeen overweight men (body mass index: 27.7±1.6 kg m(-2); body mass: 89.8±10.1 kg; body fat: 30.0±4.3%; VO(2peak): 39.2±4.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four 30-min experimental conditions using a randomised counterbalanced design. CON: resting control, MC: continuous moderate-intensity exercise (60% VO(2peak)), HI: high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 60 s at 100% VO(2peak) and 240 s at 50% VO(2peak)), VHI: very-high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 15 s at 170% VO(2peak) and 60 s at 32% VO(2peak)). Participants consumed a standard caloric meal following exercise/CON and an ad-libitum meal 70 min later. Capillary blood was sampled and perceived appetite assessed at regular time intervals throughout the session. Free-living energy intake and physical activity levels for the experimental day and the day after were also assessed.

Results:
Ad-libitum energy intake was lower after HI and VHI compared with CON (P=0.038 and P=0.004, respectively), and VHI was also lower than MC (P=0.028). Free-living energy intake in the subsequent 38 h remained less after VHI compared with CON and MC (P≤0.050). These observations were associated with lower active ghrelin (P≤0.050), higher blood lactate (P≤0.014) and higher blood glucose (P≤0.020) after VHI compared with all other trials. Despite higher heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during HI and VHI compared with MC (P≤0.004), ratings of physical activity enjoyment were similar between all the exercise trials (P=0.593). No differences were found in perceived appetite between trials.

Conclusions:
High-intensity intermittent exercise suppresses subsequent ad-libitum energy intake in overweight inactive men. This format of exercise was found to be well tolerated in an overweight population.

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    • "In young healthy males subjects two studies have observed a clear 'anorexic' effect of HIT on appetite-regulating hormones as well as subjective appetite ratings immediately post exercise, but this did not translate into a reduction in caloric intake during laboratory controlled ad libitum buffet meals (Deighton et al. 2013; Beaulieu et al. 2015). On the other hand, in a group of overweight men, there was a less robust effect of HIT on gut hormone responses and no effect on subjective appetite ratings, yet ad libitum energy intake during a laboratory-controlled breakfast meal and over the following day were both substantially reduced (Sim et al. 2013 "
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    • "Recent studies on SIE (six 30-s Wingate tests) in young healthy men (Deighton et al. 2013) and high-intensity interval exercise (1046 kJ of 8-s " all out " intervals interspersed with 12 s of recovery) in overweight/obese sedentary individuals (Martins et al. 2014) found no impact on energy intake, supporting the results from a meta-analysis suggesting that acute exercise (up to 81% maximal oxygen consumption (V ˙ O 2max )) has little effect on subsequent energy intake (Schubert et al. 2013). Contradictory to these results, Sim et al. (2014) observed a lower energy intake in overweight sedentary men shortly following 2 distinct 30- min cycling protocols of 60-s intervals at 100% peak oxygen consumption (V ˙ O 2peak ) and 15-s intervals at 170% V ˙ O 2peak compared with rest, in addition to food records indicating a lower 48-h energy intake in the 15-s interval protocol compared with rest and 30-min of continuous exercise at 60% V ˙ O 2peak . Unfortunately, none of these studies assessed energy intake prior to the high-intensity interval exercise, which may be reduced in anticipation of the very intense exercise to be performed (Westerterp-Plantenga et al. 1997). "
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    • "While there is some evidence examining the effects of exercise on appetite and subsequent caloric consumption in adults and adolescents123 we are not aware of any previous investigation that has examined the effect of exercise on controlling postprandial appetite in children who consume meals of differing caloric contents. The present results indicated that children performing a bout of self-paced exercise after eating a LC meal resulted in a four-hour post-prandial appetite score that was similar to eating a HC meal followed by a similar bout of exercise. "

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