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The Architecture Of Cognition

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... Smartphones are symbolic products consisting of components made in multiple countries, offering an excellent opportunity to examine IBAs in the form of component branding (Newmeyer et al., 2018) and to answer the research questions. We drew on Anderson's (1983) associative network memory model, Anderson's (1981) information integration theory, and the literature on brand attachment, attachment, consumer affinity and IBAs to guide our investigation. ...
... attitudes toward an IBA, post-attachment to the host brand, intention to buy the IBA product and willingness to buy the IBA product). Anderson's (1983) associative network memory model sees one's memory or knowledge about an object (e.g. a partner brand, an IBA) as a network consisting of some nodes (i.e. stored information about the object) and links connecting these nodes whose strengths are decided by the strengths of associations or relevancy between the information stored in the nodes (Keller, 1993). ...
... It is expected that pre-attachment to the host brand positively influences attitudes toward the IBA. Consistent with Anderson's (1983) model, the knowledge about an IBA can be conceptualized as a network consisting of the IBA node (stored information about the IBA like the IBA's name) and some relevant nodes (e.g. the host-brand node, the foreign-partnerbrand node, the IBA-association node and the IBA-product-brand node). Because the IBA consists of components of both partner brands, both brand names are relevant to the IBA. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore how two affective factors (i.e. brand attachment and consumer affinity) influence host country consumers' responses to an international brand alliance (IBA). Design/methodology/approach A two (brand attachment: high vs low) × two (consumer affinity: high vs low) factorial experiment was conducted with 336 US university students. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method was used to test the conceptual model. Findings (1) Pre-attachment to the host brand and consumer affinity for the country-of-origin (COO) of the foreign partner brand positively influence attitudes toward the IBA. (2) Attitudes toward the IBA positively influence post-attachment to the host brand, intention to buy the IBA product and willingness to recommend the IBA product. (3) Pre-attachment to the host brand positively influences post-attachment to the host brand. Originality/value This study extends the literature on factors influencing attitudes toward IBAs by finding the significant influences of pre-attachment to the host brand and consumer affinity for the COO of the foreign partner brand on host country consumers' responses to IBAs.
... La théorie des réseaux sémantiques a été développée par Collins et Loftus (1975) puis reprise par Anderson (1983). Elle est à la base de nombreux travaux sur la marque (Changeur et Dans ce processus, les noeuds stimulés en premier sont appelés « associations primaires » et ceux qui sont stimulés ultérieurement, « associations secondaires ». ...
... Cette partie va nous permettre de développer la structuration de la mémoire de l'électeur afin de mieux comprendre comment il interprète les informations liées au leader politique. Cette approche perceptuelle est fondée sur des théories de psychologie cognitive (Collins et Loftus, 1975 ;Anderson, 1983), notamment sur le modèle du réseau associatif ou « associative network memory model » (Anderson, 1983) (expliqué en détail dans le chapitre précèdent), qui présente la mémoire comme un réseau d'associations composé de noeuds et de liens (Keller, 1993). Les informations sur le leader politique sont stockées dans la mémoire de l'électeur comme des pièces d'informations ou noeuds qui sont liés pour former un réseau associatif complexe. ...
... Cette partie va nous permettre de développer la structuration de la mémoire de l'électeur afin de mieux comprendre comment il interprète les informations liées au leader politique. Cette approche perceptuelle est fondée sur des théories de psychologie cognitive (Collins et Loftus, 1975 ;Anderson, 1983), notamment sur le modèle du réseau associatif ou « associative network memory model » (Anderson, 1983) (expliqué en détail dans le chapitre précèdent), qui présente la mémoire comme un réseau d'associations composé de noeuds et de liens (Keller, 1993). Les informations sur le leader politique sont stockées dans la mémoire de l'électeur comme des pièces d'informations ou noeuds qui sont liés pour former un réseau associatif complexe. ...
Thesis
Durant les deux dernières décennies, de nombreuses recherches insistent sur l'importance du rôle joué par l'homme politique dans la détermination du comportement de vote, y compris dans sa dimension de personnalité. Dans cette thèse, nous soulignons le rôle du leader politique dans les démocraties parlementaires au-delà de l'influence des déterminants classiques du vote, tel que : l'identification partisane de l'électeur et l'adhésion aux politiques préconisées par un parti. Plus récemment, la notion de marque fut introduite dans le domaine politique, et appliquée aux leaders politiques pour prendre en compte des déterminants non rationnels du vote, tels que ceux liés aux caractéristiques personnels du leader ou à l'affect pour celui-ci. Toutefois, les mesures de ce concept sont souvent limitées et ne reflètent pas tous les aspects souhaités. Une revue de littérature en sciences politiques portant sur les modèles explicatifs du vote et une autre en marketing portant sur le capital-marque et l'influence de l'image de marque sur le choix nous ont permis de mieux positionner le leader politique dans ces modèles au travers de l'exploration du contenu de l'image de ce dernier. L'objectif principal de cette thèse est de proposer un modèle où figurent les différents déterminants de vote, l'image du leader étant au centre de ce modèle. Pour y parvenir, un deuxième objectif est de développer une échelle de mesure de l'image du leader politique sur la base des mesures d'image de marque. C'est en s'appuyant sur la théorie des réseaux sémantiques développée en psychologie cognitive que nous explorons le contenu de l'image du leader politique et identifions quatre dimensions de cette image : la capacité du leader politique à résoudre les problématiques du pays, la capacité du leader politique à l'international, la capacité du leader à piloter son parti et la réputation du leader politique dans sa vie privée. Ces dimensions ont un effet à la fois sur l’attitude vis-à-vis du leader politique et sur l’intention de vote pour son parti. Cet effet est supposé être modéré par l’expertise de l’électeur. La relation entre ces dimensions et l’intention de vote de l’électeur, ainsi que les autres variables du modèle (identification partisane, préférence pour les politiques préconisées par le parti, attitude vis-à-vis du leader et expertise de l’électeur) se traduit par 20 hypothèses de recherche dont 10 sont corroborées par l'étude empirique. Cette recherche propose une meilleure compréhension du comportement de vote dans les démocraties parlementaires au travers du concept de l’image de marque appliqué au leader politique. Elle propose également des nouvelles perspectives sur une mesure plus complète de l’image de marque et de ses effets en politique
... The facilitative effect of formulaic sequences on oral fluency could be illustrated from a cognitive perspective, concentrating on proceduralization. Anderson's (1983) ACT model emphasizes the importance of proceduralization (see Figure 1 for details). This model regards working memory as crucial to language development. ...
... Some formulaic sequences seemed to be retrieved and processed as wholes (Pawley and Syder, 1983;Peters, 1983;Weinert, 1995;Wray, 2002), in line with the psycholinguistic research evidence indicating that formulaic language is usually stored and retrieved as individual units, allowing for the quick and convenient processing of information (Ellis, 2002;Siyanova-Chanturia and Van Lancker Sidtis, 2018). The use of formulaic sequences was actually proceduralized (Anderson, 1983). Then, unnecessary and cognitively expensive syntactic operations could be bypassed (Pawley and Syder, 1983;Nattinger and DeCarrico, 1992;Wray, 2002). ...
... Sometimes, the processing load for a formulaic sequence could be similar to that for a single word. Component words of these formulaic sequences were retrieved and processed autonomously, showcasing proceduralization (Anderson, 1983). When speakers strung together several formulaic sequences, the effects of proceduralization could be strengthened, and the retrieval of that string could save even more time and effort, further contributing to speed fluency. ...
Article
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Psycholinguistics has provided numerous theories that explain how a person acquires a language, produces and perceives both spoken and written language, including theories of proceduralization. Learners of English as a foreign language (hereafter referred to as EFL learners) often find it difficult to achieve oral fluency, a key construct closely related to the mental state or even mental health of learners. According to previous research, this problem could be addressed by the mastery of formulaic sequences, since the employment of formulaic sequences could often promote oral fluency in the long run, reflected in the positive relationship between formulaic sequence use and oral fluency. However, there are also findings contradicting the abovementioned ones, without adequate explanations. This study aims to explore the roles of formulaic sequences in oral fluency, taking into account the relationship between formulaic sequence use and oral fluency. This study investigated 120 pieces of spoken narratives by Chinese EFL learners, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, combined with artificial intelligence techniques. Results of canonical correlation analysis showed that the frequency of formulaic sequences was significantly related to speed fluency (r = 0.563, p = 0.000) and breakdown fluency (r = 0.360, p = 0.001), while the variety of formulaic sequences was significantly related to repair fluency (r = 0.292, p = 0.035). Case studies further demonstrated that formulaic sequences could contribute to oral fluency development by promoting speed and reducing pausing when retrieved holistically, but they sometimes lost processing advantages when retrieved and processed in a word-by-word manner. The inappropriate use of formulaic sequences also neutralized the facilitative effects of formulaic sequences on repair fluency and could mirror speakers’ occasional tendency to sacrifice repair fluency for the improvement of speed and breakdown fluency when using formulaic sequences. Pedagogical implications were provided accordingly to promote sustainable oral fluency development through the use of formulaic sequences.
... To close this gap, this study adopted two theoretical approachesappraisal tendency framework (Lerner and Keltner, 2001) and associative network memory theory (Anderson, 1983). The appraisal tendency framework explains the moral reasoning process where emotions aroused by situations against a moral standard play a critical role in enhancing moral judgments (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). ...
... Also, the associative network memory theory explains that a memory (i.e. brand crisis event) can be linked to different sets of information directly or indirectly associated with them (Anderson, 1983). Thus, the theory incorporated within the appraisal tendency framework would provide theoretical foundation that explains how and why emotion-laden response spillovers into negative behaviors across different brand moral crises. ...
... The spillover effect has been examined at various network levels across associated sectors in brands or industries (Lee and Rim, 2017;Chen and Tao, 2020). To provide a theoretical foundation for the concept of spillover, the present study draws on insights from the associative network memory theory (Anderson, 1983), which explains a conceptual representation of memory consisting of a set of nodes and interconnecting links (Anderson, 1983). In this model, nodes represent stored information and links indicate the strength of association between the nodes. ...
Article
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Purpose: As one of the largest industries in the global economy, the fashion industry has emphasized the symbolic and aspirational features of its products while maximizing the efficiency of its manufacturing processes. However, the labor-intensive and competitive nature of the industry has meant that brand moral transgressions often occur. This study aims to understand the role of moral emotions and concerns (i.e. perceived spillover) caused by different moral transgressions and explain consumer anti-brand behaviors (i.e. negative word of mouth [WOM] and patronage cessation). Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine group differences (ethical vs social transgressions) in Study 1 (n = 584). Also, the moderation effect of moral disengagement was examined in Study 2 (n = 324). Findings: The results indicate that, for ethical transgressions, both moral emotions and perceived spillovers explain negative behaviors while moral emotions alone explain negative WOM on social media for social transgressions. Additionally, for social transgressions, the results of Study 2 indicate a negative interaction effect of moral emotions and moral disengagement on anti-brand behavior of patronage cessation. Originality/value: Based on the literature's theoretical approach to moral crises, this paper examines the emotional and cognitive reactions of consumers to the fashion industry's moral transgressions.
... Other theories of skill acquisition have subsequently been developed, all of them based on the initial model put forward by Fitts (1962Fitts ( , 1964. Anderson's (1982Anderson's ( , 1983Anderson's ( , 1995 ACT Theory ...
... The compensation perspective suggests that the negative effects of ageing on sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes may be offset by the accumulation of domain-specific declarative and procedural knowledge (Anderson, 1983). Further, this acquisition of expert knowledge enables the older adult to either consciously or unconsciously develop effective strategies in order to achieve the same level of performance as younger adults. ...
... The lower accuracy rates and d' scores found for non-Bingo players are characteristic of performance during the early stages of skill acquisition (e.g. Fitts and Posner, 1962,64;Anderson, 1982Anderson, , 1983Rasmussen, 1979). ...
Thesis
p>The purpose of this thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying skilled performance and to explore the effects of skilled behaviour on age-cognition relations. Examination of the literature in this area led to the construction of several hypotheses. The first was that Bingo players would exhibit superior performance to non-Bingo players on a domain-specific task of visual search. The second hypothesis was that older Bingo players would demonstrate comparable levels of performance to younger Bingo players on a test of the molar (overall) skill. The third hypothesis predicted that Bingo players would be able to positively transfer the cognitive skills used in Bingo to a new task comprising the same contextual information. A final hypothesis predicted that Bingo players would demonstrate superior performance to non-Bingo players on domain-general cognitive tasks comprising familiar stimuli (supporting the maintenance theory of cognitive ageing). Bingo players were found to be both more efficient and proficient at the domain-specific task of visual search. Further, older Bingo players performed as well as their younger counterparts on this task. Bingo players also positively transferred some of the skills underlying Bingo performance to a new task, although, the effect was not so great for older Bingo players. Bingo players also performed better than non-Bingo players on visual search tasks that did not follow the same rules as Bingo. However, the performance of older Bingo players was found to be negatively affected by age on many of the general cognitive ability measures. In conclusion, the experiments presented in this thesis provided some support for the notion that certain cognitive abilities are maintained into older adulthood through continued practice. However, the tasks that produced comparable levels of skill for both younger and older Bingo players were specifically related to the molar skill. It is therefore suggested that the older Bingo players implemented a compensatory strategy in order to maintain performance. Further research will seek to determine the nature of this compensatory mechanism.</p
... An essential element in understanding how expert knowledge works and is acquired, is the distinction between declarative and procedural (or operative) knowledge made by Anderson (1983) 5 . On the one hand, declarative knowledge consists of knowing what: it is easily verbalised; it is acquired by being exposed to information and its use is normally controlled (e.g., knowing the addresses of web pages that are useful for translator documentation). ...
... Notes 1 See, for example, Nord (1997). 2 See, for example, Wilss (1988Wilss ( , 1996. 3 For our model, the most relevant studies of communicative competence are those by Hymes (1971), Canale and Swain (1980), Canale (1983), Widdowson (1989), Spolsky (1989), Bachman (1990), etc. 4 Also important are the studies of expert knowledge and learning processes by Ryle (1949), Anderson (1983), Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986), Lesgold and Glaser (1989), Pozo and Postigo (1993), Pozo (1996), Ellis (1997), Puente Ferreras (1998 This distinction is based on the difference established by Ryle (1949) between knowing what and knowing how, i.e. the procedures by which this knowledge is acquired. 6 Proposals related to the functioning of translation competence were made by authors such as Lowe (1987), Bell (1991), Hewson y Martin (1991), Nord (1992), Pym (1992), Presas (1996), Hurtado Albir (1996a, 1996b), Beeby (1996, Hansen (1997), Hatim and Mason (1997), etc. ...
Article
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This chapter presents the translation competence model that is being worked on by the PACTE group and that is the basis for designing the hypotheses of an empirical-experimental study of translation competence. This research is the first stage in a larger project to investigate the process of translation competence acquisition. The first part of the chapter describes our theoretical framework and the first models that we designed in 1998. This is followed by a brief presentation of the design of the research project. The last part of the chapter deals with the modification we have introduced in our 1998 translation competence model as a result of the first exploratory studies.
... A goal tree must sustain a constant level of motivational activation, roughly equivalent to the strength of the person's need (Kruglanski et al., , 2021, which gets shared or subdivided across the various connections in the network. A network of associations between goals and means is analogous to a hydraulic system of pressure: If there are multiple means connected to a goal, any increase in association strength between one means and the goal requires a hydraulic weakening of association strengths between the other means associated with that goal (Shah & Kruglanski, 2008; see also Anderson, 1983). A consequence, of this constant sum principle, is that a network with a higher quantity of interconnected goals and means does not offer any more motivating potential than one with fewer interconnections. ...
... A means-shift is impossible if one has run out of available and accessible alternatives. Even if one still has multiple means available, the constant sum principle implies that having a larger means-set weakens the activation strength of any single means in the set ("dilution effects", Anderson, 1983;Bélanger et al., 2015;Shifts, Jumps, Leaps 6 Kruglanski et al., 2002;2015b;Kruglanksi, Pierro, & Sheveland, 2011;Zhang et al., 2007). This may create efficiency losses in goal pursuit: In one experiment, participants were asked to list multiple means (vs. ...
Book
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The shifts-jumps-leaps (SJL) perspective of means substitution, accepted for publication in an edited book by Arie Kruglanski and others on goal systems theory research.
... B. das Schema ‚Grundrechnen' für alle Aufgabenstellungen, die durch mindestens zwei Zahlen und einen Grundrechnen-Operator gekennzeichnet sind). Nach Anderson (1983) sind Bausteine von Schemata Variablen, wobei jede Variable einen (eingeschränkten) Bereich von Variablenwerten annehmen kann, um die Merkmale einer einzelnen oder mehrerer Instanzen darzustellen (z. B. kann die Variable ‚Grundrechnen-Operator' die Variablenwerte Addition, Subtraktion, Multiplikation und Division annehmen). ...
... Die meisten kognitiven Gedächtnistheorien gehen davon aus, dass Wissen im Langzeitgedächtnis symbolisch repräsentiert wird, und zwar unabhängig von der Art und Weise, wie die Eingangsinformationen ursprünglich dargestellt wurden. Dies ist auch eine Grundannahme der weiter unten beschriebenen kognitiven Architektur ACT-R (Anderson, 1983;Anderson & Lebiere, 1998). Autoren wie Kosslyn (1994) und Paivio (1991) haben diese Ansicht durch ihre Annahmen in Frage gestellt, dass sich je nach Modalität der eingehenden Informationen qualitativ unterschiedliche interne Repräsentationen ergeben können. ...
Chapter
Die empirische Lehr-Lern-Forschung geht davon aus, dass eine lernförderliche Gestaltung digitaler Lern- und Lehr-Medien auf die Art und Weise abgestimmt sein muss, wie Menschen Informationen verarbeiten und im Gedächtnis speichern.
... Yet, these bundles of language skills are the most demanding to develop both for the second and foreign language learners. With the recognition of this fact, many writers endeavored into characterizing these bundles of language skills with the ultimate goal of formulating better instructional methods (Anderson, 1983(Anderson, , 1985Cummins, 1986Cummins, , 1996Cummins, , 2000Schelppegrell, 2004;Shih, 1986). Cummins (1986) in his characterization of these skills makes a distinction between cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) and other language skills which he calls basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS). ...
Article
Full-text available
With the advent of the distinctive characterization of academic language in the past thirty years, there has been a tremendous move in the ESL/EFL world towards formulating instructional techniques compatible with the very nature of these skills. As a part of this effort, this study investigated the role of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) approach in achieving these ends. The study employed quantitative tools of data collection and analysis. The results of the study revealed that this pedagogical approach is far better than the conventional approaches to the teaching of English for academic purposes (EAP) in raising academic genre awareness and thereby fostering writing skills indispensable for learners in the learning context at hand. Also, the procedures followed in the investigation process have important pedagogical implications in targeting academic language skills across various disciplines.
... In addition to visual methods, LISPITS and LISP Tutor adopt a different approach that focuses on the logical structure of recursive programs by bringing a student through the reasoning behind the termination case and recursive cases (Pirolli, 1986;Corbett & Anderson, 1992). LISPITS and LISP Tutor are based on a cognitive model of human psychology called ACT* (Anderson, 1983) and use production rules organized in a goal tree to arrange the steps used in solving problems. The production rules, however, only specify a set of conditions under which a particular action should be taken, but do not contain visual information as to why that action is effective (Reiser et al. 1992). ...
Preprint
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VSR 1 is a program visualization system which is designed to produce VSR representations of step-by step execution of Scheme programs. This article presents a new approach of teaching recursion using VSR 1. Experimental evaluation indicates that viewing SVR-produced visual traces and requiring students to use visual code to generate visual evaluation steps of recursive programs can enhance the learners' ability to evaluate recursive programs as well as to solve recursive programming problems and as one of the ways to conquer difficulties of students' inner motivation and their cognitive activities.
... To further elaborate the impacts of the pedagogic intervention on L2 fluency in this study, we argue that providing eff instruction and creating practice opportunities facilitated the process of proceduralisation of students' interlanguage, which may have contributed positively to the students' preparedness for enhancing a degree of automatisation in their performance (Segalowitz, 2010). Based on Anderson's (1983) adaptive control in terms of thought theory, it might be plausible to argue that automatisation was facilitated in the experimental group by the awareness-raising activities, and by creating fruitful opportunities for practice (e.g., fluency strategy training). ...
Article
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The present study examines the effect of fluency training on the speech fluency of interpreter trainees using a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest design. Moreover, it investigates whether content familiarity influences the students’ speech fluency or not. Two groups of 34 interpreter trainees at a University in Iran took part in the study, receiving the same amount of instruction (24 hours over 8 weeks, 90 minutes per session). The control group listened to/viewed authentic audio recordings and movies in English, discussed their contents, and completed a variety of speaking skills tasks but received no fluency training. The experimental group spent one-third of the time on fluency strategy training, encouraging the memorization, repetition, and retelling the audio and video materials discussed. Systematic interviews were run to assess the interpreter trainees’ speech fluency in two tasks. In one task the students were familiar with the contents they were asked to talk about; in the other one, they were not. The findings revealed that the fluency training significantly enhanced the interpreter trainees’ speech fluency. Furthermore, speech fluency was better when the students were familiar with the content compared with the condition in which they were not. Importantly, the positive effect of the dedicated fluency training program was larger when the students had to talk about familiar than about unfamiliar content. These results have pedagogical implications for practitioners in EFL settings, material designers, and interpreter training programs in training qualified future interpreters. Keywords: Fluency training, Interpreter trainees, Speech fluency, Content familiarity
... All trainings were based on cognitive theories as recommended by Collins et al. (1988), Klauer (1988), and Renkl (2010). The theory of adaptive control of thought (ACT; Anderson, 1983) recommends to teaching declarative knowledge (e.g., facts, ideas, and rules) followed by procedural knowledge (knowledge of how an activity is performed) to acquire competence in a certain process. Based on this, all trainings began with a 25-min introduction to concept mapping. ...
Article
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Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. They are recommended for biology learning to support conceptual thinking. In this study, we compare concept map construction (CM-c, i.e., creating concept maps) and concept map study (CM-s, i.e., observing concept maps). Existing theories and indirect empirical evidence suggest distinct effects of both formats on cognitive, metacognitive and emotional aspects of learning. We developed a CM-c training, a CM-s training, and a brief introduction to concept maps (control training) for junior high school students. We investigated effects on learning performance, concept map quality, cognitive load (cognitive effects), accuracy of self-evaluation (metacognitive effects) and enjoyment (emotional effects) of these trainings in a subsequent learning phase (CM-c learning vs. CM-s learning) in a quasi-experimental two-factorial study with 3 × 2 groups (N = 167), involving the factors training type and learning type. Results reveal that CM-c training increased learning performance and concept map quality. Effects of CM-c training on learning performance transferred onto learning with CM-s. Self-evaluation was slightly more accurate after CM-c training than CM-s training. Students reported moderate, and highly varying enjoyment during CM-c and CM-s learning. The superiority of CM-c over CM-s in learning performance and concept map quality probably lies in its characteristic of being an active learning strategy. We recommend practitioners to favor CM-c training over CM-s training, and foster students’ active engagement and enjoyment.
... Yet, these bundles of language skills are the most demanding to develop both for the second and foreign language learners. With the recognition of this fact, many writers endeavored into characterizing these bundles of language skills with the ultimate goal of formulating better instructional methods (Anderson, 1983(Anderson, , 1985Cummins, 1986Cummins, , 1996Cummins, , 2000Schelppegrell, 2004;Shih, 1986). Cummins (1986) in his characterization of these skills makes a distinction between cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) and other language skills which he calls basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS). ...
Article
Full-text available
With the advent of the distinctive characterization of academic language in the past thirty years, there has been a tremendous move in the ESL/EFL world towards formulating instructional techniques compatible with the very nature of these skills. As a part of this effort, this study investigated the role of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) approach in achieving these ends. The study employed quantitative tools of data collection and analysis. The results of the study revealed that this pedagogical approach is far better than the conventional approaches to the teaching of English for academic purposes (EAP) in raising academic genre awareness and thereby fostering writing skills indispensable for learners in the learning context at hand. Also, the procedures followed in the investigation process have important pedagogical implications in targeting academic language skills across various disciplines.
... Skill acquisition theory postulates the existence of declarative ("static information such as historical or geographical facts encoded in memory") and procedural ("knowing how to do things, including the ability to apply rule-based knowledge to cognitive as well as motor operations") knowledge (Lyster et al. 2013, 72). A central tenet of skill acquisition theory is that through practice, declarative knowledge can be transformed into procedural knowledge (Anderson 1983(Anderson , 2005, the latter of which featuring automaticity and less/no effort (Lyster et al. 2013). In language learning, for instance, as a result of multiple practices, a learner may transform from having to think about grammatical rules (e.g. ...
Article
Completing homework is a highly common task shared by nearly all primary-and secondary-level learners throughout their compulsory education globally. This mixed-methods study examined whether the estimated amount of homework completed (HW) in primary and secondary education is related to learners' academic achievement (AA), and what learners' perceptions of the value of homework are. 434 tertiary-level students completed a survey and 24 of them also attended follow-up individual interviews. The findings revealed no statistically significant relationships between HW and AA. Although HW was associated with school banding, we found no relationship between HW and AA when grouping the participants by banding and gender. Two themes emerged from the interviews, namely the presence/absence of the perceived value of homework and positive/negative emotions associated with homework. The findings pose some challenges to beliefs (or 'conventional wisdom') such as homework having an unquestionably positive impact on learning, and the more homework the better.
... It has transpired that, in terms of language acquisition, not only does quantity matter, but also the quality of linguistic knowledge, which presents a determinant that exerts a profound impact on the use of knowledge. This seems to be illustrated in the attempts of researchers (e.g., Anderson, 1983;Bialystok, 1978;DeKeyser, 1997;Krashen, 1981) to name and analyse different types of linguistic knowledge, concerning the way in which the knowledge is gained, accessed, and used. One such dichotomous classification has been made between implicit and explicit knowledge (Ellis, 2005, p. 151), the former not being verbalizable, but seen in its actual use, implying only intuitive awareness of linguistic norms, no declarative knowledge of grammar rules, yet presenting systematic and easily accessed knowledge, and the latter being verbalizable, but entailing conscious awareness of linguistic norms, declarative knowledge marked by inconsistent responses, and slow and more difficult access. ...
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The linguistic knowledge of foreign language learners appears to be partly implicit and partly explicit. Learners rely on implicit knowledge when involved in spontaneous everyday com- munication, while explicit knowledge enables them to reflect on language structures and reco- gnise or use metalanguage. The present study investigated the explicit and implicit foreign language learners’ knowledge of English tenses in the Bosnian context at the end of the first educational cycle, i.e., primary school, by means of a metalinguistic test, an untimed gram- maticality judgement test and an elicited imitation test. The study aimed at exploring the var- iability in the quantity and quality of EFL learners’ knowledge and the relationship between different types of knowledge based on three factors, namely gender, average grade, and start- ing age. While revealing quite limited knowledge of the target structures, the findings showed no significant difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, while the correlation co- efficients between them were relatively high. Out of the three factors, a three-way ANOVA showed that only average grade proved to have a significant main effect on EFL knowledge. The interaction effect of gender and grade was significant on the participants’ overall EFL knowledge and their explicit knowledge, whereas a significant interaction effect of all three factors was confirmed only on explicit knowledge.
... The meaning of the separate skills is crucial for the optimal continuation of the listening process, which consists of three interrelated processes: perceptual processing, parsing, and utilization (Anderson, 1983(Anderson, , 1985. The processes are recursive; they flow one into the other, are recycled, and may be modified based on what occurs in prior or subsequent processes ( Figure 1). ...
Article
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This exploratory study reports on the results of a survey on the tertiary language lecturers' preferences regarding the access of EFL listening materials by Internet resources. A total of 80 EFL lecturers participated in the study. The data were gathered using an online survey that included short-answer questions. Moreover, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 10 participants. The study demonstrated that the participants used the Internet mainly for preparing extra materials for their learners so that they could also practice listening outside the classroom. The materials selected were mainly educational videos on a variety of topics, which were spoken by EFL speakers representing different native languages. The participants used these materials outside the class to support their autonomous L2 learning.
... The various sub-competences can be approached from the concept of expert knowledge, which consists of both declarative and procedural knowledge [43]. Declarative knowledge represents "knowing what", which is learnt through exposure to information, both extrinsic and translational. ...
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In this era of globalisation, translation technologies have become more popular in daily communication, the education sector, and the translation industry. It is observed that there is a prevalent use of machine translation (MT) among translation learners. The proper use versus abuse of MT can be a critical issue regarding its role in and impact on translation teaching. This exploratory study aims at investigating learners’ and instructors’ knowledge of MT, experience in MT use, perceived MT quality, ethics of MT use, and the perceived relationship between MT and translation training, in order to figure out the usefulness of MT in translation competence acquisition and the necessity of MT training. To this end, we conducted surveys and semi-structured interviews and found that the influence of MT in translation competence acquisition is determined by the properties of MT and learners’ quality. MT is particularly helpful in gaining lexical knowledge and knowledge to ensure translation efficiency, but not in bicultural knowledge. However, such usefulness builds on learners’ language proficiency, analytic ability, and learning motivation. In light of the findings, issues including the sustainability of MT from ethical and linguistic perspectives, and the potential and proper use of MT to inform translator training, are discussed.
... Operant conditioning accounts for all learning (including language learning) as a result of the connection between stimuli and response (Greene, 1972). Likewise, Anderson (1976Anderson ( , 1983 develops the three frameworks for learning processes as Information Processing, Connectionism and Complexity theory. These suggest that learning language is same like learning other domain of knowledge. ...
... Is it eminently theoretical or practical, conscious or automatic, declarative or operative? Anderson (1983) defines declarative knowledge as knowing what. It is easy to verbalise, you have it or you do not have it, it is explicitly defined and its processing is essentially controlled. ...
Chapter
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The empirical-experimental approach is relatively new in translation studies and this lack of tradition makes it very difficult to set up an empirical research project. The natural sciences, and more recently, the social sciences, can rely on established theoretical and methodological criteria, whereas in translation studies we cannot. There is little consensus on how to formulate working hypotheses, design experiments, choose subjects, define experimental and control groups, control random variables, and so on. Perhaps the most difficult problem is how to create reliable instruments to measure the parameters we are interested in and to provide data for analysis. Despite the difficulties, some empirical studies have been carried out and some isolated hypotheses have been confirmed. In our opinion, these studies are important for three main reasons. They have opened up new perspectives to understanding translation.
... Results of semantic priming experiments have often been interpreted in terms of spreading-activation theory (Anderson, 1983;Collins & Loftus, 1975;McNamara, 1992). In this account, recognizing a word involves activating its corresponding node in a hierarchically structured semantic network. ...
... A symbol of fair play / A symbol of sportsmanship / Cares about its players / Cares about its employees / High ethical standards / Does a good job of preventing deviant behaviors of its players / Cares about its economic transparency / Cares about its legal transparency / Cares about its community members / Great CSR programs / Cares about environmental issues / Cares about ESG issues / Prompt in understanding the needs and wants of its fans / Open mind about what fans want / Honest with fans / Honestly responds to what fans really want / Always cares about close relationships with fans / Excellent CRM / Highly committed to fans / Gives back to fans / Devotion to fans / Extremely loyal to fans / Communicates with fans in an honest way. (Anderson, 1983;Keller, 1993 Brand(Professional Sport Team) Authenticity Scale ...
Article
PURPOSE This study aimed to identify the underlying dimensions of brand (professional sport team) authenticity and to develop a valid, reliable scale to measure these dimensions.METHODS A pool of 67 potential items was drawn through a literature review, content analysis, qualitative research (n=43), and an expert evaluation. The identified items were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (n=248) and confirmatory factor analysis (n=285). In addition, multiple regressions were conducted to examine the criterion validity of the scale.RESULTS The results showed that the brand authenticity scale for professional sport teams consists of 42 items representing 8 dimensions: continuity, originality, quality commitment, heritage, symbolism, credibility, stakeholder-related integrity, and consumer-related integrity. The study has proven evidences of internal consistency and convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity of the scale.CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that the scale developed in this study offers a vital foundation to understand the structure of brand authenticity in the context of sport fans and its impact on sport consumer behavior.
... Both of these definitions have relevance for language learning and for language teacher education. Anderson (1985) proposes three types of memory involved in skill learning: short-term memory, declarative memory and procedural memory. He argues that skills move from the declarative memory, which is under conscious control, to the procedural memory, which is carried out unconsciously, through three different stages: cognitive, associative, and autonomous. ...
Thesis
p>This study investigates how parallels between the different contexts of language teaching and language teacher education influence student teachers and teacher educators. It argues that the concept of parallel process, though widely referred to in the literature of language teacher education, has not yet been fully investigated or described. It sets out to investigate the effects on student teachers and teacher educators of articulating these parallels explicitly. The study presents a holistic view of the operation of parallels on a language teaching methodology course using data from journals, interviews and class observations. The data were collected from student teachers and teacher educators at a university in North America. The study concludes by suggesting that reflection on parallels offers a valuable link between theoretical and experiential course components, helping to refine skills of critical reflection and observation, and provides valuable insights into how teachers and teacher educators learn and develop. It argues for explicit attention to parallel process as a path of development for both student teachers and teacher educators.</p
... Frequent reference to children as 'architects of their own knowledge' (Driver 1989), for example, are far from helpful for all of the reasons described. Children learning with reference to 'the architecture of cognition', a similarly expressed but profoundly different metaphor in meaning introduced by Anderson (1983) to describe the constraints of learning imposed by the mind, may have been more appropriate. ...
Thesis
p>The research presented here, a quasi-experimental study of knowledge acquisition and concept learning in the upper primary years of schooling, systematically identifies, categorises and describes children's ideas and mental models in the 'traditional' content areas of astronomy (the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, Earth-Sun-Moon System phenomena and the Solar System and wider Universe) and measures and maps the changes in those ideas and mental models as a result of exposure to a ten week period of formal astronomy teaching in one English primary school setting. In total, 62 children in two vertically grouped Year 5/6 classes were involved (9 to 11 years of age). Within the context of the quasi-experimental design employed, one class was designated the experimental group (n=31), the other the control group (n=31). Initially, only the children in the experimental group were taught astronomy and by their own class teacher, a highly experienced practitioner with a positive attitude and orientation towards science. Within the limitations of the work undertaken, research findings indicate that among children in the experimental group, and in most of the content areas investigated at least, progression was evident in many different forms and levels of scientific conceptualisations were high suggesting that an acceptable scientific knowledge and understanding of sometimes complex and abstract astronomical information is attainable in the upper primary years of schooling and can be retained over time. Research findings also draw attention to the individuality, commonality, non-linearity and dynamic nature of astronomy learning as a whole and a new, if tentative, perspective on astronomy learning involving chaos theory is presented. The place of astronomy education provision in primary schools is reconsidered and concerns are expressed over the need for extreme care at a time when classroom practices and expectations are increasingly driven by curriculum guidelines and science curricula which remain to be fully informed.</p
... Declarative knowledge is the factual information an individual is able to retain and recall from the videogame-based training [39,40]. While some studies have shown that individuals demonstrate superior performance when compared to individuals trained as a team [41], other researchers have found that interactions with other players during a game create a beneficial environment in which players can guide, explain or clarify things that are misunderstood in the game [42]. ...
Article
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Videogame research needs to identify how game features impact learning outcomes. This study explored the impact of the game feature–human interaction on training outcomes (i.e., affective states and declarative knowledge), and examined possible mechanisms (i.e., perceived value and active learning) that mediate this relationship. Participants included 385 undergraduate students: 122 trained alone and 263 trained with a team. All participants completed a computer-based training with four learning objectives (i.e., accessing the game, using the main controls, playing the game scenarios, knowing the game stations) prior to playing the game. After accounting for the indirect effects in the model, human interaction (i.e., playing with a team) had a significant direct effect on affective states, but not declarative knowledge. Learners who trained with a team reported greater positive affective states (indicated by psychological meaning, perceived enjoyment, motivation, and emotional engagement), but no difference in declarative knowledge (i.e., participants knowledge of team roles and responsibilities). Further analyses showed game-based training with a team impacted the affective states of learners through mechanisms of perceived value and active learning, while only active learning mediated the relationship between human interaction and declarative knowledge.
... Simply put, Mace et al. (2019) and Mace and Unlu (2020) argued that generic information processing involves both spreading activation in the semantic memory system as well as the autobiographical memory system such that relevant and related knowledge are routinely accessed in both systems. They further added that the autobiographical component may be functional to cognitive processing, as has been argued in traditional spreading activation views (e.g., Anderson, 1983a). Additionally, Mace et al. (2019) argued that semantic-to-autobiographical priming can be accounted for with Conway's model of autobiographical memory, as well as Barsalou's model of semantic memory (e.g., Barsalou, 1999;Conway, 2005; see further discussion in Mace et al., 2019). ...
Article
It has recently been demonstrated that the activation of semantic memories primes involuntary autobiographical memories on a laboratory measure of involuntary memories (i.e., the vigilance task), suggesting that this form of priming (known as semantic-to-autobiographical) plays a role in the production of involuntary autobiographical memories in everyday life. Our goal in the current study was to replicate those priming effects, and show that they can have long durations. In a single experiment, semantic-to-autobiographical memory priming was obtained on the vigilance task following delays of several minutes and seven days. We argue that the results support the idea that semantic-to-autobiographical memory priming plays a role in the production of involuntary memories in everyday life. The full implications of delayed semantic-to-autobiographical priming are discussed.
... Perceived usefulness is defined as the extent to which an employee believes that using an IT will enhance their productivity on the job and perceived ease of use is defined as the extent to which an employee believes that using an IT will require minimum effort (Davis et al., 1989;Venkatesh & Bala, 2008;Venkatesh et al., 2003). Different theoretical perspectives that view mental representations as drivers of behavior-i.e., action identification theory (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987;Vallacher & Kaufman, 1996), behavioral decisionmaking theories (e.g., image theory) (Beach & Mitchell, 1996, 1998, motivational theories (workmotivation theory; Locke & Latham, 1990;Vroom, 1964; motivational model of technology acceptance and use; Davis et al., 1992;Ke et al., 2013), and knowledge and learning theories (e.g., Anderson, 1983)-have been used in prior research to justify TAM relationships. ...
Article
As information technology (IT) continues to be an integral yet evolving component in work settings, organizations need to ensure that they realize value from IT. Prior studies examining the post-adoption consequences of IT use in terms of employee job outcomes have been inconclusive with respect to the magnitude and direction of these impacts—i.e., the positive, negative, and nonsignificant impacts of IT use on job outcomes. The question of under what conditions IT use leads to favorable job outcomes over time thus remains largely unanswered. We develop a model of IT-related contingencies that integrates core constructs from the IT adoption research with two key job outcomes: job satisfaction and job performance. We hypothesize that in the post-adoption phase, technology-job fit is a key moderator of the relationships between IT use for supporting sales operations and job outcomes. Further, we suggest a theoretical extension of the classical predictors of IT adoption—perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use—as we expect them to moderate the effect of IT use on job performance over time. We tested our model in a longitudinal field study among 295 field sales personnel over a 24-month period. We found that although IT use had a negative effect on job satisfaction during the post-adoption phase, this effect was moderated by technology-job fit such that the negative effect was significantly attenuated by technology-job fit. We also found that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and technology-job fit enhanced the positive effect of IT use on job performance. Our findings offer insights into the mechanisms and conditions related to the post-adoption impacts of IT use on key job outcomes.
... Instead, long-term memory (LTM), or the declarative part of it (Squire 1987;Schachter and Tulving 1994), is that vast knowledge base where cognitive agents store, or encode, their beliefs and knowledge about specific events (the so-called episodic memory) as well as general laws and principles (the so-called semantic memory). There's a divide in cognitive psychology, on whether WM and LTM are separate (contents are stored in LTM and retrieved from it for use in WM), or the former is just the activated part of the latter (Anderson 1983;Crowder 1993;Miyake and Shah 1999). We can be neutral on this as well. ...
Book
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When one thinks—knows, believes, imagines—that something is the case, one’s thought has a topic: it is about something, towards which one’s mind is directed. What is the logic of thought, so understood? This book begins to explore the idea that, to answer the question, we should take topics seriously. It proposes a hyperintensional account of the propositional contents of thought, arguing that these are individuated not only by the set of possible worlds at which they are true, but also by their topic: what they are about. The book then builds epistemic, doxastic, probabilistic, and conditional logics based on this view. It applies them to issues ranging from dogmatism, scepticism, and epistemic fallibilism, to imagination and suppositional reasoning, belief revision, framing effects, and the acceptability of indicative conditionals.
... All the definitions above have grounded the study of learning strategies within the information-processing model of learning developed by Andersen (1980;1983in Radjab, 2002. Andersen distinguished three stages of skill-learning: (1) the cognitive stage, ...
Thesis
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This study aimed at identifying learning strategies that were most frequently used by three groups of students, high vocabulary mastery achievers, average vocabulary mastery achievers, and low vocabulary mastery achievers. It provided the information needed for helping students use effective learning strategies to learn vocabulary. The samples of this study were 37 students. The instruments were a test on vocabulary, a SILL questionnaire developed by Oxford which elicited the students’ learning strategies used in developing their vocabulary mastery, and interviews to recheck the data obtained from the questionnaire. Based on the data analysis, it was concluded that the high vocabulary achievers employed various learning strategies more often than the average and the low achievers. The major findings were that the reported frequency of strategy used by the students was moderate overall, with the students reporting the most frequent use of compensation strategies (80%) and the least of memory strategies (28%). Thus, it might be said that there was a positive tendency in using learning strategies: the high vocabulary achievers employed various learning strategies with high total frequency of use, the average vocabulary achievers employed various learning strategies but in very low frequency of use, and the low vocabulary achievers employed very limited learning strategies with low frequency of use. This was probably due to the fact that differences in achievement in foreign language learning were often related to differences in learning strategies. It was also revealed that the environmental factors, which might possibly influence the students’ vocabulary achievement, were students’ different social backgrounds, gender, visitors of native speakers, available facilities, and learning resources.
... The idea of mental networks has a long history in psychology and linguistics [62,63]. In these early publications, human memory is described as a network where nodes and connections exist. ...
Article
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Brands can be defined as psychological constructs residing in our minds. By analyzing brand associations, we can study the mental constructs around them. In this paper, we study brands as parts of an associative network based on a word association database. We explore the communities–closely-knit groups in the mind–around brand names in this structure using two community detection algorithms in the Hungarian word association database ConnectYourMind. We identify brand names inside the communities of a word association network and explain why these brand names are part of the community. Several detected communities contain brand names from the same product category, and the words in these categories were connected either to brands in the category or to words describing the product category. Based on our findings, we describe the mental position of brand names. We show that brand knowledge, product knowledge and real word knowledge interact with each other. We also show how the meaning of a product category arises and how this meaning is related to brand meaning. Our results suggest that words sharing the same community with brand names can be used in brand communication and brand positioning.
... Significantly effective PJDM is contingent on declarative (the what), and procedural (the doing) forms of knowledge (Anderson, 1983), which lie at the heart of the options available to the instructor. However, both are operationally dependent on conditional knowledge (the why) (Abraham & Collins, 2011a) derived from the context via a high degree of situational awareness. ...
... As its name implies, lesson planning is assigned a central role in the transformation process. To describe this process, Stender et al. [21] use the three phases according to Anderson [22]: interpretation, compilation and fine tuning. PSTs initially interpret and replicate their knowledge in a domain-unspecific and generic way without a practical reference. ...
Conference Paper
Fostering digitization-related competencies among teachers represents an educational policy concern in the context of digital transformation. A central challenge of teacher education is to develop learning opportunities and learning pathways that enable teachers to achieve the necessary competencies. Few studies exist to date that explicitly examine learning opportunities linking theoretical digitization-related concepts with authentic implementation in the classroom. To address the challenge, we developed a theoretically founded intervention to foster pre-service science teachers' subject specific digital competencies focused on the use of a specific media: student-generated explanatory videos in biology class. The intervention combines empirical findings on the implementation of Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge (TPACK) with a model of pre-service teachers' professional development and consists of two phases. In the preparation phase, the pre-service teachers acquire the necessary declarative knowledge at university, whereas in the application phase they apply this knowledge by planning, implementing and reflecting on lessons in real teaching situations. Therefore, the existence of pre-service teachers' semester internships in school provides an opportunity to explore learning pathways in more detail.
Article
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The quality control of wood products is often only checked at the end of the production process so that countermeasures can only be taken with a time delay in the event of fluctuations in product quality. This often leads to unnecessary and cost-intensive rejects. Furthermore, since quality control often requires additional procedural steps to be performed by a skilled worker, testing is time-consuming and costly. While traditional machine learning (ML) methods based on supervised learning have been used in the field with some success, the limited availability of labeled data is the major hurdle for further improving model performance. In the present study, the potential of enhancing the performance of the ML methods random forest (RF) and support vector machines (SVM) for quality classification by using semi-supervised learning (SSL) was investigated. Labeled and unlabeled data were provided by Swiss Wood Solutions AG, which produces densified wood for high-value wood products such as musical instruments. The developed approach includes labeling of the unlabeled data using SSL, training and 10k cross-validation of the ML algorithms RF and SVM, and determining the generalization ability using the hold-out test set. Based on the evaluation indices such as accuracy, F1-score, recall, false-positive-rate and confusion matrices, it was shown that SSL could enhance the prediction performance of the quality classification of ML models compared to the conventional supervised learning method. Despite having a small dataset, the work paves the way for future applications of SSL for wood quality assessment.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the detailed design of SeisTutor and the adaptive features incorporated in the pedagogy model. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of the adaptive features: Custom-Tailored Curriculum Sequencing module, Tutoring Strategy recommendation module, and Learner Performance Analyzer module (Emotion Recognition Module and the degree of understandability). The Emotion Recognition Module is used to keep track of learner emotions. In contrast, the degree of understandability module is used to determine the learner’s degree of understanding after completing the learning session. The overall performance and activity of the learner are visualized in the form of a progress report.
Article
Unlike truth-tellers’ statements that show forgetting, lie-tellers’ statements appear less sensitive to delay. For lie-tellers, this failure to correctly simulate forgetting has been referred to as a stability bias. This experiment tests two explanations for this stability bias: the “miscalibration” hypothesis and the “strategic” hypothesis. Using a 2 (Task Type: Recall Estimate vs. Strategic Estimate) × 2 (Delay: Immediate vs. 3-week delay) design, participants (n = 142) either estimated how much detail a truth-teller might remember from an intelligence briefing (testing the miscalibration hypothesis), or how much detail was necessary to make a fabricated statement about the same intelligence briefing appear convincing to others (testing the strategic hypothesis). Before making these estimates, participants were informed that the briefing occurred immediately beforehand, or 3 weeks beforehand. Recall estimates correctly predicted forgetting would occur after a 3-week delay. Strategic estimates did not vary as a function of statement-time. No differences in subjective beliefs emerged.
Chapter
Acquiring and representing data in ITS is a time-consuming and challenging endeavor that requires considerable expertise. This has been the subject of a flurry of studies on artificial intelligence. It is the purpose of this chapter to examine various approaches and procedures. As a result of domain knowledge engineering, a major epistemological dilemma has arisen, which is discussed in detail in the first section of this work. Following that, a range of knowledge representation languages considers factors such as expressiveness, inferential power, cognition plausibility, and pedagogical emphasis.
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Although there have been a lot of studies on Bloom's taxonomy's use in the evaluation of language learning in Indonesia, there has never been any research on Bloom's taxonomy's use in the training and evaluation content of Indonesian language textbooks in vocational schools. The objectives of this study are to describe the reading material, cognitive level, and relationship between the material and other aspects in forty items of reading material from Indonesian language textbooks for vocational schools. To achieve this goal, this research uses descriptive qualitative research methods with content analysis design using primary data sources from textbooks. The results of this qualitative study using a content analysis design revealed that the choice of reading material topics is very diverse and represents textual genres. The level of cognition is not evenly distributed and is dominated by Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) with a total of 24 questions (60%), and there are even 2 levels of cognition that are not accommodated at all. The findings of this study defined the distribution of the level of understanding of the items in the textbook, which is very useful for Indonesian language teachers and textbook writers to complete the items evenly according to the level of cognition dispersal, ensuring that students' mastery of the subject matter is broad. Copyright@2022, Erikson S, Samuel S, Bethesda B, Vanny W This is an open access article under the CC-BY-3.0 license
Article
El Análisis de ítems (A.I.) es un paso importante en la construcción de pruebas de conocimiento y de aptitud, que son muy utilizadas en Educación y Psicología. Dado el caso, que en estas disciplinas la medición suele hacerse por definición, se hace necesario determinar con precisión: los dominios de conocimientos o las destrezas y rasgos; ya que éstos deben ser conceptos bien elaborados en las pruebas de conocimiento, o construcciones bien definidas en las pruebas de aptitud. Este artículo intenta presentar una síntesis de los diversos procesos que hay que tener en cuenta para todo análisis de ítems, utilizando (para visualizar mejor) una prueba de conocimiento en Matemáticas, la cual se aplicó a 1,496 alumnos que solicitaron ingresar en el Instituto Superior de Formación Docente Salomé Ureña (ISFODOSU) en junio del 2013. Esta prueba consta de 40 ítems, extraídos del banco de ítems de las “Pruebas Nacionales”, del Ministerio de Educación de República Dominicana. En tal sentido, urge señalar que el valor de la media teórica de esta prueba sería de 20, suponiendo que sus ítems han sido debidamente calibrados a través de un buen Análisis de ítems.
Chapter
Within the domain of L2 pragmatics, investigations are often conducted to address a research topic, which then refers to existing theories. The theoretical underpinning for pragmatic competence of routines will be reviewed in this chapter from many angles, including L2 pragmatics, second language acquisition (SLA), and the socio-cognitive approach.
Chapter
Computational modeling is a powerful tool for studying reading and other complex behaviors. This chapter focuses on the role of computational modeling. It begins by showing that simulations presented as supporting the dual‐route cascade (DRC) model differed from the corresponding behavioral studies. The DRC models were succeeded by a series of hybrid, “connectionist dual process” models. These models replaced the grapheme‐phoneme correspondence rules with connectionist networks, but retained a separate lexical route. The dual‐route theory remains influential in areas where computational modeling results are not well known. These include reading acquisition and instruction, where research and pedagogy still focus on learning pronunciation rules and adding sight words to the lexicon, and in some areas of cognitive neuroscience. The chapter concludes by considering the relevance of computational modeling for understanding how children learn to read.
Article
This study aims to investigate how the extent of skepticism toward a firm's overall CSR practices spills over to consumers' evaluations of an actual incident, through examining recent crises involving Gucci and H&M. A total of 531 responses obtained through an online survey method were analyzed, and the results revealed that a low level of consumer skepticism toward a firm's corporate social responsibilities (CSR) practices increased trust, which in turn encouraged resilience (forgiveness) intentions for the firm's misconduct. Moreover, the resilience intention mitigated the extent to which consumers attributed the incident to the firm, perceived the severity of the incident, and perceptions of the firm's self‐interest motives. The findings suggest that a firm's continuous and consistent CSR engagement can play a buffering role in alleviating negative consequences when brand crises occur. Therefore, the findings of this study will inform risk management by highlighting the protective effect of a firm's continuous CSR efforts.
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This book is intended for readers who seek information on issues related to plurilingualism and the integration of subject content teaching with additional languages such as heritage, autochthonous, regional and foreign languages that are taught in school contexts. The book provides information on recent theoretical and pedagogical paradigm shifts in applied linguistics and highlights the links between research, theory and pedagogy. It provides a comprehensive review of concepts and epistemologies related to AL pedagogies and plurilingualism. The last part of the book presents various interaction types used in AL classrooms and proposes interaction analysis as a research method and teacher education tool.
Thesis
p>This study analyses the Undergraduate conversation class from two different perspectives: firstly as a social setting with its own characteristics. Secondly, the interactions between the Native-Speaker and the Non-Native speakers, occurring within this particular setting have been investigated. Even though the conversation class is normally a formal part of the language teaching curriculum in Modem Languages Departments in England, very httie is known about it as a setting, and about its usefulness in terms of linguistic development. To this author's knowledge, no study has been carried out to investigate how the conversation class works, and what its benefits might be for advanced learners. This study explores one main hypothesis concerning the potential hybridism of this setting, with features belonging to the casual conversation, and to the traditional language class. This hypothesis is linked to the claim in the literature that in order to become a proficient language user, learners need to engage in complex normal speech encounters. The conversation class could thus be one of the very few settings in a university context, where opportunities for speech-encounters, aiming to reflect language authenticity, arise. Chapter One presents the two theoretical frameworks used in the study: the Ethnography of Communication, and the Input and interaction theory. The first one reviews the literature on features of casual talk and of formal lessons, while the second framework focuses on aspects and patterns of NS-NNS interaction. Chapter Two introduces the study carried out, the data collection, and the procedures for data analysis. The study focuses on three groups of undergraduates in their first or second year of studies; twenty-five lessons have been recorded; five variables, (turn-taking, NNS- NNS interaction, the use of learners' LI, negotiation, and negative feedback) have been analysed in order to investigate the hypothesis outlined above. Chapter Three focuses on the results, and the analysis of these variables, where some evidence shows hybridism in the oral class conversation. Issues of equality between participants, and symmetry in interaction are discussed, leading to a discussion of potential linguistic development for the learners. Finally, Chapter Four revisits the research areas, and provides ideas for pedagogical implications of this research, such as ways to increase equality among the participants (e.g. lowering the status of the NS), and symmetry in the interactions (e.g. genuine information gaps), thanks to good practice found in the data. Suggestions for further research in oral settings are also being offered.</p
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This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the basic concepts related to the unconscious life of an organization, and then addresses specific aspects of knowledge, learning, and memory, developing a language and framework for comprehending their application to organizations. Knowledge is addressed in terms of an information part and a proceeding part. Tacit knowledge is divided into embodied, intuitive, affective, and spiritual parts, with each of these aspects carried over to corresponding descriptions of memory. Organizational memory is then considered in light of a rapidly changing, uncertain environment. It is forwarded that organizational sustainability in an uncertain world requires a dynamic and responsive organizational memory. This highlights the challenge of keeping tacit memory updated as experienced personnel retire. Ideas and actions are briefly suggested to enhance and sustain organizational memory.
Thesis
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Mit den Forderungen nach einer evidenzorientierten Bildungspraxis sollte wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen bei unterrichtsmethodischen Entscheidungen eine wichtige Bedeutung zukommen. Es scheint aber, dass unterrichtsmethodische Entscheidungen von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern mehr von subjektivem Wissen und insbesondere von alltagsbasiertem Erfahrungswissen, welches durch episodische Erlebnisse geprägt sein kann, bestimmt werden, als durch forschungsorientiertes Wissen und Wissen über wissenschaftliche Theorien. Insbesondere über die Beschaffenheit des alltagsbasierten Erfahrungswissens von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern und seinem Verhältnis zu anderen Wissensbeständen im Kontext von unterrichtsmethodischen Entscheidungen ist bislang wenig bekannt. Daher wurde in der vorliegenden explorativen Interviewstudie untersucht, welche Typen von Wissensbeständen Lehrerinnen und Lehrer zur Begründung unterschiedlicher unterrichtsmethodischer Entscheidungen heranziehen und ob ihr alltagsbasiertes Erfahrungswissen tatsächlich auf erlebten Episoden beruht. Dazu wurden Lehrerinnen und Lehrer verschiedener Schularten und Fächer sowie mit unterschiedlicher Berufserfahrung im Anschluss an eine videografierte Unterrichtsstunde befragt. Als Stimuli für das Interview wurden mindestens drei Szenen aus der jeweiligen videografierten Unterrichtsstunde verwendet, die eine unterrichtsmethodische Entscheidung beinhalteten. Anhand eines strukturierten Interviewleitfadens wurden die Lehrerinnen und Lehrer nach einer Begründung für jede unterrichtsmethodische Entscheidung gefragt. Anhand eines Kodierschemas wurden die Typen von Wissensbeständen, die als Begründung für eine unterrichtsmethodische Entscheidung angeführt wurden sowie die dem alltagsbasierten Erfahrungswissen zu Grunde liegenden episodischen Einzelerlebnissen analysiert. Die deskriptiven Ergebnisse der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse zeigen, dass Wissensbestände des Typs „Alltagsbasiertes Erfahrungswissen“ gleichauf mit Wissensbeständen zu „Subjektiven Theorien“ die dominierenden Wissenstypen waren, die von den befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrern als Begründung für eine unterrichtsmethodische Entscheidung genannt wurden, während wissenschaftliche Wissensbestände deutlich seltener angeführt wurden. Die befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrer scheinen demnach Schwierigkeiten zu haben, Wissen über wissenschaftliche Theorien oder empirische Befunde auf ihren Unterrichtsalltag anzuwenden. Spezifische Merkmale der zugrundeliegenden episodischen Erfahrungen, die die Authentizität dieser Erfahrungen bezeugen könnten, konnten nur in der Hälfte der hier vorliegenden Fälle von angeführten Wissensbeständen des Typs „Alltagsbasiertes Erfahrungswissen“ identifiziert werden. Zudem wurden die zur Begründung angeführten Wissensbestände im Zusammenhang mit der Art der unterrichtsmethodischen Entscheidungen, das heißt, ob diese spontan oder geplant waren, sowie mit dem Gegenstand der unterrichtsmethodischen Entscheidungen, das heißt, ob diese eher auf sicht- oder tiefenstruktureller Ebene getroffen wurden, analysiert. Schließlich wurden die zur Begründung angeführten Wissensbestände im Zusammenhang mit dem Format von Bezugsquellen (z. B. Bezugsquelle „Referendariat“) für Wissenstypen untersucht. Es zeigte sich bei den befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrern, dass bei spontanen unterrichtsmethodischen Entscheidungen eher erfahrungsbasierte Wissensbestände und subjektive Theorien zur Begründung angeführt wurden. In Bezug auf den Gegenstand von unterrichtsmethodischen Entscheidungen zeigte sich, dass für unterrichtsmethodische Entscheidungen, die auf Tiefenstrukturebene die kognitive Aktivierung oder die instruktionale Unterstützung zum Ziel hatten, eher erfahrungsbasierte Wissensbestände zur Begründung von den befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrern angeführt wurden. Für unterrichtsmethodische Entscheidungen, die auf die Sichtstrukturebene bezogen waren, wurden eher subjektive Theorien zur Begründung der Entscheidung herangezogen. Bemerkenswert ist zudem, dass sich das Selbstverständnis zur Professionalität im Lehrberuf bei den befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrern scheinbar weitgehend auf subjektive Theorien und Überzeugungen bezieht, weniger auf erfahrungsbasierte Wissensbestände und selten auf wissenschaftliche Wissensbestände. Überraschend sind die Befunde hinsichtlich des Zusammenhangs von angeführten Wissenstypen und den Bezugsquellen der Wissenstypen. Hierzu kann mit den deskriptiven Ergebnissen der explorativen Interviewstudie gezeigt werden, dass im Zusammenhang mit der Bezugsquelle der zweiten Phase der Lehrerinnen- und Lehrerausbildung (Referendariat) mit Abstand am häufigsten keine Wissenstypen identifiziert werden konnten. Die Ergebnisse werden vor dem Hintergrund theoretischer Konzepte und empirischer Befunde zum Professionswissen von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern diskutiert. Dabei werden Wissensbestände des Typs „Alltagsbasiertes Erfahrungswissen“ insbesondere auch aus dem Blickwinkel der „Erfahrung aus zweiter Hand“ betrachtet und Erklärungen im Hinblick auf die Etablierung von Legitimationsroutinen auf der Grundlage von Autoritätenwissen entwickelt.
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