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"Family Constellations": An Innovative Systemic Phenomenological Group Process From Germany

  • Fresh Pond Research Institute


The "Family Constellation" process is a trans-generational, phenomenological, therapeutic intervention with roots in family systems therapy, existential-phenomenology, and the ancestor reverence of the South African Zulus. Although the Family Constellation process is sanctioned by family therapy associations in Europe and is being integrated by thousand of licensed prac- titioners worldwide, the work is virtually unknown in the United States. This article serves as a broad introduction to the Family Constellation method and includes a biographical sketch of its originator—Bert Hellinger (born 1925).
The “Family Constellation” process is a trans-generational,
phenomenological, therapeutic intervention with roots in family
systems therapy, existential-phenomenology, and the ancestor
reverence of the South African Zulus. Although the Family
Constellation process is sanctioned by family therapy associations
in Europe and is being integrated by thousand of licensed prac-
titioners worldwide, the work is virtually unknown in the United
States. This article serves as a broad introduction to the Family
Constellation method and includes a biographical sketch of its
originator—Bert Hellinger (born 1925).
Keywords: Family Constellation; family systems therapy; exis-
tential therapy; phenomenology; Bert Hellinger
he Family Constellation process is a therapeutic interven-
tion that integrates family systems therapy (Moreno,
Satir, Boszormenyi-Nagy), existential-phenomenology
(Brentano, Husserl, Heidegger), and the ancestor reverence
of the South African Zulus. Although it is rooted in the
psychotherapeutic tradition, the method is distinguished
from conventional psychotherapy in that (a) the client hardly
speaks and (b) its primary aim is to identify and release pre-
reflective, trans-generational patterns embedded within the
family system, not to explore or process narrative, cognitive,
or emotional content.
There are no published, peer-reviewed, English language
outcome studies evaluating the efficacy of the approach. There
is a growing body of anecdotal and case study data that
suggest that participants benefit from the insights that come
to light through the process (Lynch & Tucker, 2005; Payne,
2005; Steifel, Harris, & Zollmann, 2002; Stuart, 2005;
Ulsamer, 2005).
The process evolved from Moreno’s (1945) Psychodrama,
Satir’s (1987) family sculptures, and Boszormenyi-Nagy and
Spark’s (1973) Invisible Loyalties. It retains the feature of a
client presenting a narrowly focused, pressing personal issue
and selecting members from a group to stand in as
representatives of members of the client’s system. It diverges
from its antecedents because once placed, the representa-
tives do not speak, act, or pose.
In the silence and stillness of the constellated scene, the
client and representatives are able to tune into the uncon-
scious, collective will of the family system. Boszormenyi-
Nagy and Spark (1973) recognized this as an extremely
complex and essentially unknown “mechanism” that influ-
ences individual behaviors within the family system. From
within this knowing field (Laszlo, 2004; Sheldrake, 1995),
the interplay among the conservative forces of systemic
integrity (balance, bonding, and order) and the expansive
forces of animated existence (physical survival and repro-
duction) come momentarily into conscious awareness.
The client is able to perceive both a prereflective, systemic
connection between the ancestral field and the presenting
issue and a possible healing movement. Once this insight
appears, the process is brought to a gentle conclusion and
the facilitator withdraws. The client integrates the image of
healing over time. For many clients, a constellation is an
adjunct to a conventional course of therapy.
Constellations are a form of somatic psychology. The
knowledge of trans-generational loyalties are held not in the
mind but from a deeper level of systemic, genetic, or cellular
consciousness (Gottesman & Hansen, 2005).
As the originator of this method, Hellinger’s (2001, 2002a,
2003a, 2003b; Hellinger & ten Hövel, 1999; Hellinger,
Weber, & Beaumont, 1998) name is most closely associated
with the emergent field of Family, Systemic, or Structural
Constellations. He has published more than 30 books, trans-
lated into 10 languages, with more than one million copies
in print. At the age of 80, he continues to travel worldwide,
demonstrating his methods, and to publish prolifically.
Practitioners in a broad range of healing professions are
free to adapt, modify, and integrate Hellinger’s methods within
their modalities. The foundations of Hellinger’s insights can
be found in the works of psychiatrists (Mahr, 1998; Walsh,
“Family Constellations”:
An Innovative Systemic Phenomenological
Group Process From Germany
Dan Booth Cohen
Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center
DOI: 10.1177/1066480706287279
© 2006 Sage Publications
Author’s Note: Visit the following Web sites for more information
on this topic: Zeig, Tucker, & Theisen, and
Carl Auer International,
2005a, 2005b; Weber, 1993), psychologists (Franke, 2003;
Madelung, 2001; Ulsamer, 2005), biologists (Maturana &
Poerksen, 2004; Sheldrake, Hellinger, & Schuetzenberger,
1999), organizational consultants (Brick & Horn, 2005; Simon,
2004), and educators (Nowhere Foundation, 2004).
The 2005 International Congress on Systemic Constella-
tions in Cologne, Germany, included presentations by well-
known specialists such as Peter Levine (2005) on healing
trauma, Holocaust survivor and Israeli psychiatrist Haim
Dasberg (2000) on family systems and the German-Jewish
past, chiropractor Dale Schusterman (2003) on Kabbalist
principles and constellations, and Dutch shaman Daan
van Kampenhout (2003) on shamanic healing principles in
Despite the constellation method’s roots in family
systems theory and the burgeoning expansion of the con-
stellation approach abroad, the method is virtually unknown
among family therapists in the United States. There are
several contributing factors. One is the method’s phenomeno-
logical stance that renders it ill suited to rigorous, objective
testing and documentation. As with other systemic approaches,
it is unwieldy to control variables and collect methodologi-
cally sound, longitudinal outcome data. Another is the lack
of standards of best practices to protect licensed practition-
ers from ethical and liability exposure.
The following sections serve as a broad introduction to
the constellation process. They encompass a biographical
sketch of Bert Hellinger, a discussion of the influence of
family systems theory, existential-phenomenology, and Zulu
ancestor worship, a description of the process, and an out-
line of important prereflective fundamental structures of exis-
tence that Colaizzi (1973) suggested would be an outcome
of empirical phenomenological research.
Hellinger was born into a Catholic family in Germany in
1925. His parents’ “particular form of [Catholic] faith pro-
vided the entire family with immunity against believing the
distortions of National Socialism” (Hellinger et al., 1998,
p. 327). The local Hitler Youth Organization tried without
success to recruit him. As a result of his reluctance, the
Gestapo classified him as suspected of being an enemy of the
people (Hellinger, personal communication, May 15, 2004).
In 1942, Hellinger was conscripted into the regular
German army. He saw close combat on the Western front
(Hellinger, personal communication, May 15, 2004). In 1945,
he was captured and imprisoned in an Allied POW camp
in Belgium.
The brutality and destructiveness of the Nazi era is cen-
tral to Hellinger’s lifework. Sixty years after the cessation of
warfare, with all the victims and perpetrators either dead or
aged, Hellinger continues to focus on acknowledging and
reconciling the echoes and reverberations of this massive
collective trauma.
Following his escape from the POW camp and return to
Germany, Hellinger entered a Catholic religious order. In the
early 1950s, he was dispatched to South Africa, where he
was assigned as a missionary to the Zulus. He lived in South
Africa for 16 years, became fluent in the Zulu language, par-
ticipated in their rituals, and gained an appreciation for their
distinct worldview.
He left the priesthood during the 1960s and married
after returning to Germany. He trained in psychoanalysis
at the Wiener Arbeitskreis für Tiefenpsychologie (Viennese
Association for Depth Psychology). After completing his
formal studies, he took additional training in primal therapy
and transactional analysis. His training in the Family
Sculpture method, pioneered by Virginia Satir, came from
Ruth McClendon, Leslie Kadis, and the German child psy-
chiatrist Thea Schoenfelder.
Another major influence in his work during this period
was the hypnotherapy of Milton Erickson. He trained with
Jeffrey K. Zeig, Stephen Lankton, Barbara Steen, and Beverly
Stoy. Later, he studied Gestalt therapy and Neuro-Linguistic
By 1985, Hellinger, then 60 years old, had completed
a 15-year cycle of education and training. He had a small
private practice in southern Germany. He would likely have
remained a sole practitioner of eclectic existential therapy
had it not been for his encounter with a prominent German
psychiatrist, Gunthard Weber. Weber was Director of an in-
patient eating disorder clinic at the University of Heidelberg
Hospital. In 1988, Weber observed a training demonstration
of Hellinger at work. “It was amazing for me,” he recalls.
“I knew it was something new” (G. Weber, personal com-
munication, February 12, 2004).
Weber arranged for a series of sessions for patients from
his clinic diagnosed with anorexia and bulimia. He found the
results remarkable, though Hellinger refused to allow formal
research to confirm longitudinal outcomes. As an experienced
physician in psychiatric hospitals, Weber was particularly
impressed with the responses of patients with the most
daunting symptoms, such as schizophrenia, eating disorders,
and persistent suicidal urges (G. Weber, personal communi-
cation, February 12, 2004).
In 1993, Hellinger and Weber (1993) published Zweierlei
Glück (Capricious Good Fortune; aka Second Chance). They
expected to sell 2,000 copies within the German psychotherapy
community. To everyone’s surprise, the book was received
with acclaim and became a national best-seller, selling
200,000 copies.
At the age of 70, Bert Hellinger emerged as an inter-
nationally best-selling author. During the past 10 years,
he has authored or coauthored 30 books. Those translated
into English include, Love’s Hidden Symmetry: What
Makes Love Work in Relationships (Hellinger et al., 1998);
Acknowledging What Is: Conversations with Bert Hellinger
(Hellinger & ten Hövel, 1999); Love’s Own Truths: Bonding
and Balancing in Close Relationships (2001); Insights (2002a);
On Life & Other Paradoxes (2002b); Farewell: Family
Constellations with Descendants of Victims and Perpetrators
(2003a); Peace Begins in the Soul: Family Constellations in
the Service of Reconciliation (2003b); Rachel Weeping for
Her Children: Family Constellations in Israel (2003c).
Hellinger continues to travel widely, delivering lectures,
workshops, and training courses throughout Europe, the United
States, South America, China, and Japan. He has made
numerous trips to Israel, where his work often deals with
issues relating to the Nazi Holocaust.
Because Hellinger has not sought to control proprietary
rights to his methods and techniques, a new generation of
practitioners has begun to expand and evolve the constella-
tion process. Although they honor Hellinger as the origina-
tor of many important insights, they are not bound to adhere
to his procedures. Most facilitators who come to the work
are professionally credentialed. They freely adapt, integrate,
and modify Hellinger’s foundational contributions to fit their
existing toolkits.
Phenomenological psychology began with Brentano
(1838-1917), whose views on psychology’s mission and
methods stood in sharp contrast to Wundt:
Brentano viewed consciousness in terms of a unity expressed
by acts. Thus structuralism’s inherent goal of finding the
elements of consciousness was meaningless for Brentano
because such study destroys the essential unity of conscious-
ness, and such elements, if they exist, do not have psycho-
logical meaning. (Brennan, 1998, p. 176)
Husserl (1859-1938) was a student of Wundt, Brentano,
and Stumpf. In the spirit of Brentano, Husserl rejected the
premises of experimental psychology and sought to articu-
late a scientific methodology that would reveal a whole truth
rather than discrete bits of truth. His contribution was the
design of a scientifically rigorous qualitative methodology
that did not require the totality of experience to be reduced
to constituent parts to be studied and understood. Husserl
(1964) is credited with establishing the distinctions among
real, irreal, and mixed objects of consciousness.
Husserl’s phenomenology and Kierkegaard’s existen-
tialism were fused in the work of Martin Heidegger, whom
Hellinger refers to as his lifelong “philosophical companion”
(Hellinger et al., 1998, p. 330). With regard to Hellinger’s
views, Heidegger’s contribution to phenomenological phi-
losophy was twofold. First, he diverged from Husserl on the
question of how to draw meaning from the observation of
the totality of existential reality. Husserl’s emphasis was on
the description of consciousness, whereas Heidegger placed
greater emphasis on interpretation of being (Giorgi, 1970;
Husserl, 1964). Second, Heidegger emphasized facing one’s
own eventual death as a necessity for living an authentic life.
Another phenomenological philosopher who anticipated
Hellinger’s method is Colaizzi (1973), who distinguished
fundamental descriptions from fundamental structures.
Fundamental descriptions are the raw data provided by par-
ticipants in the course of phenomenological research. They
are explicit products of the reflective dimension of aware-
ness. Fundamental structures, in contrast, cannot be accessed
or recognized by the participant in the course of reporting
and reflection. They operate in the prereflective dimension,
which is the sensed, but unlanguaged, realm of human expe-
rience. It is up to the investigator to elucidate these basic
organizing principles of behavior, feelings, and beliefs through
an act of interpretive reading.
Hellinger (2001) explains his phenomenological stances
as follows:
There are two inner movements that lead to insight. One
reaches out, wanting to understand and to control the unknown.
This is scientific inquiry....The second movement hap-
pens when we pause in our efforts to grasp the unknown,
allowing our attention to rest, not on the particulars, which
we can define, but on the greater whole....We pause in the
movement of reaching out, pull back a bit, until we arrive
at the inner stillness that is competent to deal with the vast-
ness and complexity of the greater whole. This inquiry,
which first orients itself in inwardness and restraint, I call
phenomenological. (p. 2)
Zulu Ancestor Reverence
Hellinger’s assignment as a missionary to the Zulus can
be viewed as the hunter being captured by the game. Rather
than converting Zulus to Christianity’s promise of salvation,
Hellinger became a convert to their views of the interdepen-
dence between the living and the dead.
In their traditional culture, the Zulus live and act in a reli-
gious world in which the ancestors are the central focal point:
The ancestral spirits are of fundamental significance for the
Zulu. They are the departed souls of the deceased. Although
they are regarded as having gone to abide in the earth, they
continue to have a relationship with those still living.
(Lawson, 1985, pp. 24-25)
The ancestors are regarded as positive, constructive, and
creative presences. Failure to show them proper respect
invites misfortune; proper veneration ensures benefit. When
a family member suffers the consequences of the ancestors’
wrath, the punishment is not regarded as destructive. Rather,
it is viewed as a legitimate expression of the failure of
the individual to uphold his or her duty to the family
(Lawson, 1985).
The dark shadows of material destruction and existential
angst that enveloped Germany had not extended to Zulu
villages in South Africa in the 1950s. Heidegger postulated
that to be human is to find oneself thrown into a world with
no clear logical, ontological, or moral structure. In Zulu
culture, Hellinger found beings (Dasein) who were at peace
with existence.
The Zulus to whom Hellinger ministered possessed
a certitude and equanimity that were the hallmarks of
Heidegger’s elusive authentic self. These were not lost indi-
viduals thrown into being but temporary custodians of life
knit into a tightly woven fabric of generations past and yet
to be. As Lawson (1985) notes, when the ancestors are the
source of power, group activity is mediated in every case
by precisely defined roles.
Of particular importance is the Zulu attitude toward par-
ents. The Hitler Youth Organization was notorious for encour-
aging children to betray their parents. In Zulu culture,
Hellinger (2001) says, “I never heard anyone speak disre-
spectfully about their parents. That would have been incon-
ceivable” (p. 443). The constellation facilitator attunes with
this stance, in contrast to traditional psychodrama in which
parents “were routinely depicted as villains” (Williams,
1998, p. 139).
Family Systems Therapy
Family Constellations are grounded in the epistemology of
existential-phenomenology and the Zulu-influenced ontology
of trans-generational connectedness. The clinical methodology
originated with the family systems therapy of Virginia Satir
and Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy.
Boszormenyi-Nagy posited that unconscious regulators
of balance, merit, and entitlement bind individuals into nar-
row roles within the family structure. Because these regula-
tors are not apparent in conscious awareness, he labeled
them trans-generational invisible loyalties and said that,
“Injustices that have not been resolved are doled out by a
‘transgenerational tribunal’ to future generations using a sort
of debt and merit account” (Franke, 2003, pp. 66-67).
In mapping the functionality of these systemic regulators,
Boszormenyi-Nagy recognized “the structuring of relation-
ships, especially within families, is an extremely complex
and essentially unknown ‘mechanism. Empirically, such
structuring can be inferred from the lawful regularity and
predictability of certain repetitious events in families”
(Boszormenyi-Nagy & Spark, 1973, p. 1). Empirical sup-
port for this observation comes from Schützenberger (1998),
who documented hundreds of cases where extreme fates
(e.g., death of a child by drowning) repeated in clear
patterns in the genograms of French families.
Boszormenyi-Nagy’s invisible loyalties are consistent with
Zulu attitudes toward ancestors. In technologically advanced
societies, families are divided by geographic distance, divorce,
and estrangements. As expected by Boszormenyi-Nagy and
the Zulu models, the disintegration of family structure, partic-
ularly trans-generational exclusion or disrespect, contributes
to emotional and somatic dysfunction.
Boszormenyi-Nagy’s teacher, Virginia Satir (Nichols &
Schwartz, 2001, p. 174), developed and popularized her
family sculpture and family reconstruction methods in the
1960s by merging elements of Moreno’s psychodrama with
innovative systemic family therapy techniques developed at
the Ackerman Institute in New York City.
The therapeutic objective of family sculptures was to reveal
underlying systemic conflicts. In response to one or more
clients being absent from the group appointment, Satir began
to have assistants stand in their place. She observed, “If I put
people in physical stances, they were likely to experience the
feelings that went with that stance” (Satir, 1987, p. 68).
These techniques were aligned with the third force of
existential-humanistic psychology. They were not designed
for behavior modification but instead sought to expand the
resources available to clients to deal more constructively
with their circumstances. Satir, like Boszormenyi-Nagy, rec-
ognized that any given symptom was part of a larger tableau
that connected not only to members of the immediate nuclear
family but also to members of past and future generations
(Franke, 2003).
The Family Constellation process removes the “drama”
from Moreno’s psychodrama and the “sculpting” from Satir’s
family sculpting to create an experience that is silent and
still instead of vocal and kinetic. As the participants adjust
to this emptiness, the prereflective dimension of fundamen-
tal structures (Colaizzi, 1973; Husserl, 1964) comes into
view. In phenomenological terms, Constellations create a
three-dimensional matrix of the ancestral lineage that is not
generally presented to consciousness in material form.
“Constellations function by transforming irreal field dimen-
sions of human experience into real spatial symbolic repre-
sentations, thereby allowing them to be worked with directly”
(Donnan, 2005).
This symbolic representation of the ancestral field liter-
ally manifests new points of view. These are not dictated or
scripted by the facilitator, nor are they expressions of the
client’s inner dialogue or emotions. Instead, they appear to
emerge spontaneously from the constellation itself, as in
sandtray therapy (Bradway, 1979; Kalff, 1980). It is as if the
ancestral field, Boszormenyi-Nagy’s mechanism, has a mind
and message of its own and, now, a forum for expression.
The ancestors’ representatives become characters in a living
novella, altering the meanings of past events and reconfig-
uring the family system.
The procedure described below represents a typical format.
A group of participants (10 to 30) sit in a circle. One par-
ticipant is selected as the client to work on a personal issue.
The others either serve as representatives or actively contribute
by observing with concentration.
The facilitator asks, “What is your issue?” Ideally, the
client answers in three sentences or fewer. The issue may be
extreme: “Two years ago my husband and child were killed
in an accident. I’m trying to learn how to live with that”
(Hellinger, 2003d, p. 72). Or it may appear to be more
commonplace, such as a college student who reports: “I’m
21 years old and have been diagnosed with clinical depres-
sion” (Cohen, 2005, p. 115).
The facilitator asks for information about the family of
origin, looking for traumatic events from the past that may
have systemic resonance. Such events include premature
deaths, including aborted children, murders, suicide, and
casualties of war, or when members of the family system
were denied their right to belong, such as a disabled child
who was institutionalized, a baby given up for adoption,
a disappeared father, or a homosexual or apostate who was
banished from the family. The client does not present narra-
tive or commentary.
Next, the facilitator asks the client to select group mem-
bers to represent members of the family system. Typically,
these will be the client’s immediate family or the issue itself.
In the first case cited above, the facilitator began with the
client and her deceased husband and child; in the second
case, the client and a representative for depression.
The client stands behind each representative, placing his
or her hands on the representative’s shoulders, and moves
him or her into place. In Hellinger’s (2001) words, “Put your
mother at the correct distance from your father, for example,
and turn her to face the way you feel is right. Do it without
talking, from your center and in contact with your feelings
at the moment” (p. 18).
Once the representatives are in position, the client sits and
observes. The representatives stand with their arms at their
sides without moving or talking. They are not role playing.
For several minutes, the scene is one of stillness and silence.
The facilitator observes and waits.
The representatives tune into the resonance of the family
field, accessing kinesthetic and emotional data (Laszlo,
2004; Sheldrake, 1995). The facilitator may inquire of each
representative, “How are you feeling?” Sometimes the rep-
resentatives are placid and without emotion. Other times
they report strong emotions or physical effects. The reports
are subjective and contain some aspect of personal projec-
tion. However, the intermixing of subjective personal projec-
tions with field resonance does not contaminate the process
as a whole.
The emerging movements reflect a highly interpene-
trative network of fields that are generally inaccessible to
cognition (Donnan, 2005). Often, what underlies people’s
serious issues is that a living family member is repeating or
compensating for past hardships in the larger family system.
If this connection is to an excluded person or one who had a
difficult fate, the living family member can be drawn to
repeat this fate or compensate for what occurred in the past.
The facilitator slowly works with this three-dimensional
portrait of the family. First, the hidden systemic dynamic
comes into clear view. In the case of the young woman with
depression, the hidden dynamic was the client’s invisible
loyalty to the grief of her deceased grandmother.
Next, the facilitator seeks a healing resolution. In the case
above, the representatives for the client and grandmother
faced a third representative who symbolized the object of
the grandmother’s undying grief. When the client perceived
the effect her loyalty to grief had on her beloved grand-
mother, she felt a profound release. The representatives feel
relieved when the excluded person is acknowledged, restored
to his or her rightful place in the system and respected for
the fate he or she endured.
Once a resolution comes to light, the client stands in
his or her place in the constellation. The final step is for
the facilitator to suggest one or two healing sentences to be
spoken aloud or inwardly. In this case, the healing sentence
was for the representative of the grandmother to say to the
client, “Go live!” (Cohen, 2005, pp. 115-116).
Afterward, there is no processing by the facilitator. Clients
who are in an ongoing course of psychotherapy can integrate
these insights with their therapists.
There is a wealth of anecdotal and case study reports that
over time the new image of the family system—with belong-
ing, balance, and order restored—gradually melts the archaic
image that supported the entanglement. For example, Wolynn
(2005) documented cases of client self-abuse (cutting, tricho-
tillomania) where perceiving, acknowledging, and honoring
trans-generational systemic entanglements resulted in a sus-
tained cessation of injurious behaviors. Rigorous research is
needed to objectively test the longitudinal outcomes of clients’
experiences with this method.
The constellation process is both a therapeutic interven-
tion and a means for casting light on Boszormenyi-Nagy’s
(Boszormenyi-Nagy & Spark, 1973) “hidden and unknown
mechanism” or Colaizzi’s (1973) fundamental structures.
Hellinger identified three such principles, which he named
the orders of love (Hellinger et al., 1998). In their simplest
articulation, these are (a) parents give and children receive,
(b) every member of the family system has an equal and
unequivocal right to belong, and (c) each family system has
an unconscious group conscience that regulates guilt and
innocence as a means to protect the survival of the group.
These principles are in harmony with many indigenous
cultures’ attitudes toward bonding, balancing, and order
(Boring, 2004; Lawson, 1985; van Kampenhout, 2003).
Individuals who participate in multiple group sessions and
serve as representatives in the constellations of others can
begin to recognize common themes behind common human
experiences. It is a challenge to articulate these observations
because of the lack of suitable English-language vocabu-
lary. The subtopics below discuss some of these thematic
The term soul used in constellations refers to the source
of drives and impulses that are deeply embedded, their
origins lost to memory and their intentions not accessible to
the conscious mind. This soul is neither the Christian soul
that may achieve salvation, nor the Hindu Atman that carries
karma through multiple reincarnations, nor the scientific
soul-mind that is the accumulation of identity and awareness
content produced by cellular activity in the body.
The main point of departure between the soul that can be
observed influencing the representatives in a constellation
and the vernacular soul turns on whether it is something per-
sonal. The Western concept of the soul emerged from early
Greek philosophy, and although it has become furcated by
Judeo-Christian-Islamic theology and 400 years of scientific
understanding of the physical universe, it has retained its
essential function. The concept of soul exists to mediate the
collision between our irresistible will to live forever and the
immutable inevitability of death (Rank, 1998). The common
mythology, to both the theist who believes the immortal soul
survives the body and the atheist who insists that death is the
extinguishment of all personal identify, is that the human
being exists as an I.
The view of soul in constellations is consistent with certain
non-Western traditions (Boring, 2004; Lawson, 1985; van
Kampenhout, 2003) and is shared in similar form in Taoism
and Buddhism (Walsh, 2005a). Hellinger (2003a) writes,
When we look objectively it becomes clear that it is not we
who possess a soul but rather a soul which possesses us; and
that the soul is not there to serve us but rather that we are in
the service of the soul. (Hellinger, 2003a, p.8)
In this view, individuals are not independent entities but
more like
links in a long chain connecting all those who have lived and
will live, and those living now, as if we were all part of one
life and one soul. Therefore soul reaches beyond us into
another space: into our families, into larger groups and into
the world as a whole. (Hellinger, 2002a, p. 121)
Conscience is another term that changes its nature when
viewed through the lens of a constellation process. In phi-
losophy, conscience is considered an internal regulator of
ethical values and behavior (Langston, 1998). For Christians,
a good conscience encourages righteousness, leading ulti-
mately to the soul’s salvation. Conversely, a bad or guilty
conscience is the product of thoughts and deeds that are
against God’s beneficence. If not atoned for, confessed, or
absolved, the corrosive effects of a bad conscience lead to
eternal damnation.
In scientific psychology, conscience serves to regulate in
favor of ethical behaviors that support mutual survival and
to enforce taboos against behaviors that society and culture
have determined to be destructive or evil. With or without a
soul, conscience is seen as an internal driver that praises the
good and deplores evil.
Seen within the field of constellations, feelings of con-
science tell us nothing about what is good or evil, only what
serves to connect or separate us from a particular person or
group. Conscience tells us what we have to do to belong to
our parents, lovers, religion, nationality, or any group. Its
basic function is to bond us to our family and to the group
that is essential for our survival. Therefore, when we follow
our conscience, it is not a personal conscience; it is the con-
science of our group.
As conscience bonds us with our group, it separates us from
other groups. So the divisions among peoples and families and
bigger groups come from good conscience. The stronger the
adhesion is within the group, the greater the aggression against
outside groups. The more dangerous the threat from outside,
the more persistent the perceived voice of conscience is in
defending the good and attacking the bad.
Belonging, Balance, and Hierarchy
In the initial setup of a Family Constellation, it is common-
place to see the system disordered: Children appear in a
superior position to their parents; a father is at a great dis-
tance from his wife and children; the mother’s back is to her
daughter as she gazes to the horizon. These images reflect
the Hopi term koyaanisqatsi—life out of balance. In seeking
a healing image, the facilitator physically moves the repre-
sentatives guided by a phenomenological orientation toward
belonging, balance, and hierarchy.
Belonging controls membership in the system. Balance
maintains equilibrium between giving and taking in rela-
tionships. Hierarchical order positions the members of a
system in relation to each other. Together, these three regu-
lators influence the tendencies toward centralization that
support survival.
Who belongs to the family system? At a minimum, the
individual and his or her parents, siblings, grandparents, and
biological first aunts and uncles belong. The living and the
dead have equal right to belong. If that right is violated, the
consequence is that a child born into the system may
become a placeholder for the missing or excluded person.
In special circumstances, others become members of the
system. If someone makes room, sacrifices, or is victimized
for the benefit of the family or commits a crime or atrocity
against the family, that person may become part of the system.
For example, Madelung (2001) writes,
It’s been more than 50 years since the Nazi regime ended,
yet the task of coming to terms with those fateful years is far
from over. The after-effects can be observed in systemic
constellation work over and over again, often with dismay-
ing clarity. The fates of those people who experienced the
Nazi regime continue to affect their family systems today.
The victims of Nazi crimes become members of the
perpetrators’ family system, and the perpetrators become
members of the victims’ system.
Balance is the oscillation between entitlement and oblig-
ation that results from giving and taking in relationships.
A primary expression of this dynamic is that parents give and
children receive. The process of accepting what has been
given can be impeded for people who have been physically,
emotionally, or sexually abused by their parents. People who
reject their parents may be fully justified in their assessment
of fault and blame but unaware of the heavy consequences
that often results from this attitude.
Hierarchal order means that each person has a specific
place within the system. For example, parents come before
children and older children come before younger ones. This
may seem like a banal observation until one considers the
consequences of disruptions to this order. The hierarchy
is often violated by young children out of love for their
parents. For example, a mother who received an inadequate
upbringing may seek to receive from her daughter the love
she missed as a child. The young daughter will comply out
of love, but in doing so, she violates that order of hierarchy.
The ill effects from violations and disruptions to belong-
ing, balance, and order contribute to illnesses, accidents,
estrangements and all varieties of dysfunctional and deviant
behavior. Such effects can also be seen in ethnic and reli-
gious conflicts (Cohen, 2005). When excluded members are
acknowledged and restored to their rightful place, giving
and taking are balanced, representatives stand in comfort-
able relation to each other, and the constellation presents the
client with a new image of the family system.
Existence is the animating force that energizes a living
being from conception until death. It comes to each of us
from our parents, who received it from their own. Existence
passes through countless generations who were born, lived
for some time, passed life on, and then died. The will of
existence acts as an expansive force that counters the con-
servatism of the family system.
In Family Constellations, existence and the system are often
observed to collide with severe consequences for individ-
uals. Existence cares nothing for the system; it only wants to
extend itself. The system cares nothing for existence; it only
wants to sustain order. Unwanted pregnancies, forbidden
romances, abandoned loves are frequent outcomes from the
struggle of existence, in the guise of love, to rise above the
Children and adults can get whatever they need to survive
from multiple sources; they can only receive existence from
their mother and father. This basic biological fact is a corner-
stone of Constellation work. Hellinger (2002b) said,
All therapy, as I understand it, has to go to the source. For
each one of us, the source is, first of all, our parents. If we
are connected to our parents, we are connected to our source.
A person who is separated from his or her parents is sepa-
rated from his or her source. Whoever the parents are, how-
ever they behaved, they are the source of life for us. So the
main thing is that we connect to them in such a way that
what comes from them can flow freely to us and through us
to those who follow. (p. 14)
The Family Constellation process can serve as an adjunct
to a conventional course of psychotherapy. The insights
that come to light through the process can inform and illu-
minate the background and be integrated with conventional
Although the efficacy of the process has not been prop-
erly researched, family therapists can test the suitability of
the method against their own understanding and experience.
Within the European family therapy community, constella-
tions have been widely accepted and integrated, though not
without controversy regarding methods, applicability, and
qualifications of facilitators (Ulsamer, 2005, pp. 224-243).
Family therapists who share an affinity with the early
pioneers of family systems theory may be interested to see
how the legacies of Moreno, Satir, and Boszormenyi-Nagy
evolved in European circles in recent years.
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... FCT is also informed by phenomenology, which has made contributions to a range of psychotherapies including person-centred therapy, psychodrama and gestalt therapy (Cohen, 2006). More specifically, FCT reflects hermeneutic phenomenology, and also resonates with existentialism's philosophical attention toward existence and that humans 5/14 make their own meaning in life. ...
... The reviewed papers can be organised into three groups. First are those papers that predominantly outlined and critically described the FCT approach: Cohen, 2006;Crawford, 2013;Sethi, 2008;and Stiefel et al., 2002. Second are a group of papers that sought to integrate FCT with other psychotherapeutic approaches: Fidyk, 2016;McQuillin & Welford, 2013;and Welford, 2014. ...
... Identifying FCT as a therapeutic intervention that has fused traditional family systems theory with existential phenomenology and Zulu ancestor reverence, Cohen's (2006) mainly descriptive paper sought to introduce this approach into North American practice settings. He clarifies the components of FCT, particularly those of soul, consciousness and belonging within the context Hellinger applied them. ...
The intergenerational impact of psychological trauma and the repercussions that trauma can have upon an entire family system suggests individual therapy alone may be insufficient. The aim of this paper is to critically examine the Family Constellation Therapy approach as a potential therapy option for responding to intergenerational trauma. This paper initially discusses the challenges of responding to trauma and then describes Family Constellation Therapy within a practice context. The underpinning philosophy of the therapy is also forwarded. To establish the potential worth of the approach, this paper then reports on the findings from a narrative review of the international peer reviewed literature on Family Constellation Therapy, following with a discussion on its application to intergenerational trauma. The limited evidence available suggests there is worth in integrating Family Constellation Therapy into other therapeutic approaches. There is also a clear need for creating a wider and deeper evidence base for Family Constellation Therapy.
... Existence of non-material beings is not recognised by modern mainstream science. published peer-reviewed English language studies into its efficacy growing body of anecdotal and case study data that suggest that participants benefit from the insights resulting from the process (Cohen, 2006). ...
... Founder/source Bert Hellinger, Germany, Europe, but it likely has influences from indigenous Zulu ancestor reverence traditions (Cohen, 2006). ...
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Subtle agroecologies is a set of practices grounded in the concept that there exists an invisible ‘half’ to agroecology. This study researches into these practices, identifying and categorising them into a typology, investigating their purported effects and exploring challenges and opportunities relating to their uptake. It is hoped that this will lay a foundation for future research into the various practices. The exploration presented below is informed by a decolonisation framework, underpinned by indigenous knowledge systems and Otto Scharmer’s Theory U as a theory of change. The decolonisation praxis advocating radical change is emergent within conventional and alternative farming systems and, it will be argued, in keeping with the use of subtle agroecologies in that it advocates for a plurality of epistemologies and recognition of the subtle dimension. Likewise Scharmer’s Theory U has informed this paper as a process to enter into conscious relationship with the ‘deeper source level’ from a current state, identify the invisible roots of dysfunctional social patterns and systems, acknowledge and renounce them, and co-create new pathways and structures that may facilitate profound societal transformation. The study begins by presenting a history of agriculture and colonisation, going on to explore why contemporary alternative agriculture movements might be open to subtle agroecologies as a supplement to their existing practices. A triangulation of research methods were used, consisting of a field trial to test selected subtle practices on spring wheat, a systematic review of existing research evidence, a virtual international farmers’ survey and case studies of Sustainable Yogic Agriculture in India and aspects of biodynamic farming in the UK. The results of the one-year field trial showed some significant difference compared to controls but the short duration and insufficient training in the practices highlighted the challenges of undertaking empirical research on subtle practices. The systematic review identified 201 existing empirical studies with sufficiently robust methodologies, wherein 76% provided statistically significant evidence of the impacts of subtle practices on agroecological parameters ranging from crop yield to air quality. The farm survey elicited that between one to two thirds of farmer respondents (n=52) are inclined to believe in specific subtle practices with a majority already practising at least one such practice, in particular nature communication. The main challenges to the adoption of subtle agroecologies were identified as inconsistent results, lack of knowledge, and availability of scientific evidence. These findings were complemented by the case studies which highlighted the importance of embedding subtle agroecological practices within the broader agricultural system and cultural setting. This research reveals a distinct level of interest in the subject matter, both from within academic research and from farmers who themselves report positive results. It broadens the decolonisation framework by presenting a gateway for serious discussion of subtle agroecological practices within the alternative agricultural movements. It also highlights indigenous farmers’ wisdom and worldviews as a decolonised praxis, presenting an alternative approach to the sole focus on material practices currently prevalent in these movements. Based on Scharmer’s model, the practice of subtle agroecologies falls within an emerging co-creative eco-system model of regenerative agricultural renewal and development and the study concludes by calling for further research to be undertaken in this area. Specifically, it suggests that field trials carried out by skilled experts in the practices would be useful, as well as more in-depth case studies of existing global practices.
... As another example, a person facing structural violence in a society could be considered to be suffering from an attack by the whole traumatic history of that society. Ancestor-related themes are also typically present in family constellations therapy which partially originates from South African tribal conflict resolution practices (Cohen, 2006). ...
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(note: this is a PsyArXiv doi; originally at ResearchGate: This article describes a case of a 'spiritual attack' in the context of Amazonian ayahuasca ceremonies. These attacks are often assumed to be imaginary, and there is relatively little information available about them. Specifically, there appears to be no documentation about possible mechanisms of action for these attacks. Subjectively, they typically appear as context-dependent visions or somatic sensations that represent disease-inducing or lethal interventions from an external hostile party. Such 'spiritual attacks' could tentatively be conceptualized as subjective mental representations of fundamental disagreements between two parties. 'Defenses' against these attacks might then consist of methods for maintaining stability and resolving the associated negative affects. This discussion could facilitate an improved understanding of this rarely documented, difficult-to-conceptualize phenomenon.
... As another example, a person facing structural violence in a society could be considered to be suffering from an attack by the whole traumatic history of that society. Ancestor-related themes are also typically present in family constellations therapy which partially originates from South African tribal conflict resolution practices (Cohen, 2006). ...
... The learning format presented here focuses on expressing the information in the field through the medium of movement or gesture. Constellation work (Cohen, 2006), originally developed by the German psychotherapist Bert Hellinger for family therapy, and Systemic Coaching, similarly work with spatial expressions of relationships. The learning format presented here takes this into a more dynamic direction, which readily permits not just an expression of the current situation as perceived by the participants, but also options for acting within the situation, facilitating devising a course of action to introduce change. ...
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For a long time, remedial study skills programmes have proven ineffective (Ruth Talbot Keimig 1983), but tutor-led workshops about reading, presenting and writing are often still the norm. As a study skills convenor providing these types of sessions, I often sat in an empty classroom, or had to adapt learning experiences designed as group workshops into one-to-one or one-to-two tutorials, “on-the-fly”. This article discusses a pilot supplementary-instruction peer-assisted study session scheme (SI-PASS) that ran at the University of Sussex in 2018-19. It was designed to support first year students on a Media and Communication BA degree. The aim of this SI-PASS pilot was to consider how research into peer-assisted and active learning might enable us to offer subject specific study support provision that is well attended and helps a wide range of students in contrast to the much under-used remedial sessions we had previously offered. I will discuss how this scheme was setup, before exploring the successes and difficulties of the programme as assessed at the pilot’s mid-point.
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This document contains the structure and regulation of the 2nd edition of Family Constellations' Professional Classical Psychotherapists Training Course developed by Sandra Ramos and Jorge A. Ramos, and taught by Jorge A. Ramos, with live distance learning, theoretical and practical, between 17/04/2024 and 09/01/2025.
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This article contributes to the interpretation of the relationship between esotericism and psychology by analysing the theory known as “the family unconscious”. As a variation of the collective unconscious (or collective psyche), the concept of family unconscious was first elaborated by the Hungarian endocrinologist, neurologist, and psychiatrist Leopold Szondi. During the 1930s, Szondi developed his comprehensive theory and psychotherapeutic approach regarding “fate-analysis” within which the assumption of the family unconscious gained central significance. According to fate-analysis, ancestral experiences are preserved in genes and determine the life of descendants. Introduced by Bert Hellinger, the popular psychotherapeutic modality, “family constellation method” displays a variation of the psychological theory of the family unconscious. This paper argues that the approach utilised in Hellinger’s method retains characteristics of “classical” esotericism far more in its interpretation of the family unconscious than the fate-analysis of Szondi. By introducing a genetic interpretation, Szondi managed to “scientize” the family unconscious and put his system on mechanistic grounds.
In this article, I explore the role of ancestrally connected sites as places of somatic orientation and potentially as sites of embodied memory. Inspired by seeking connection with my Irish great-great-great grandmother, Jane O’Brian and her lineage, I travelled to Ireland as a North American woman, undertaking a circling journey to a land of my Motherlines. In this article, I explore touchstone moments on the land in Ireland, including my serendipitous stumble to the Hill of Tara in County Meath, Ireland. The article explores, in particular, the communication between my own body and particular places on earth, undergirded by other literature that explores human-land-based connection. I draw on the methodologies of embodied inquiry and autoethnography. Echoing and contrasting with the journeys of other writer–researchers who have engaged in their own ancestral journeys, I ask questions about land-based connections, and how these connections are challenged and remembered in the process of migration and uprooting. Acknowledging the possibility of nostalgic projection by diasporic returnees I touch on the potential pitfalls of such an exploration while weaving an autoethnographic and embodied inquiry which explores land-based connections as dynamic, multi-layered and a potential site of somatic re-orientation.
In the past decades, Bert Hellinger's family constellation method has become a highly popular psychotherapeutic modality. Although some research has emerged concerning the foundations, effectiveness, and ethical aspects of family constellation therapy, psychological inquiry has neither reflected on the popularity of the method nor addressed its specific content in detail. In this article, I trace and interpret family constellation therapy within the context of esotericism. Given that parallels between Western esoteric thought and the family constellation system developed by Hellinger can be observed, this article explores the extent to which family constellation therapy is embedded within esotericism. By exploring family constellation therapy and thus broadening the scope of esoteric spirituality, this analysis contributes to contemporary research on Western esoteric thought.
The intellectualistic analysis of conscience Aquinas provides appears to regard conscience as mechanistic and undynamic. Such understanding fails to place Aquinas’s remarks on conscience in the context of the virtue ethics he offers in the Summa and his Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics. In fact, there is an intricate connection between the virtues and conscience in Aquinas’s thought, and this connection relates directly to his remarks on weakness of will. His connecting conscience to issues in Aristotelian virtue ethics affects subsequent discussions of conscience in significant ways.
Economics, so they say, is eighty per cent psychology. In this book, the author shows that psychology is one hundred per cent economics. Every human interaction can be understood as a form of market economy. The theoretical explanation for this model follows from recent developments in systems and evolution theory and the epistemological concepts of so-called “radical constructivism”. Human behaviour can be seen as a commodity that is differentiated, named, evaluated and exchanged. And that means: Anyone who acts, transacts! This book elucidates what this means in theory and practice for a manager and his everyday life, the organisation of companies, management, achievement, planning and business culture; the author illustrates this in a number of case examples and complements it with recipes for a manager’s everyday life.
In his last years, Otto Rank turned his lifetime of thought and learning toward two of the most difficult topics in human history: religion and the soul. The result was his now classic work, presented here in an English translation. Unlike many other intellectuals of the 20th century, Rank maintains a place for the soul rather than dismissing it as a fantasy. The soul and the beliefs about it, he argues, set forth the foundation for psychology, with its complex analysis of consciousness, self-consciousness and personality. Rank's commentary is not limited to beliefs about individual souls but includes ideas about group souls, sometimes encompassing nations or generations. Rank suggests that it is in the expression of group belief that the idea of the soul attains its greatest power. Richter and Lieberman's new translation of "Psychology and the Soul" is a major contribution to our understanding not only of psychology and psychoanalysis but also of modern Western culture. While perhaps not Rank's best-known work, it is one of his most important in its critique of Freud and its attempt to define psychology's true concerns.
Family Constellation, a psychotherapeutic approach associated with the name Bert Hellinger, has become a popular yet also controversial form of systemic therapy in the German-speaking therapy community. ‘Family Constellation’ (Familienstellen) means the individual client's physical-emotional positioning and re-positioning of substitute family members in relation to each other, with help of a therapeutic group. Family Constellation is a one-session approach that addresses family-of-origin issues. The therapeutic process is highly experiential, utilising multiple sensory modalities. Hellinger locates his model within phenomenology, and his practice has roots in several therapy schools. His model offers complementary therapeutic techniques in our ‘languaged’ world of family therapy.
_ Revised and expanded in 2012 _ Challenging the fundamental assumptions of modern science, this ground-breaking radical hypothesis suggests that nature itself has memory. The question of morphogenesis - how things take their shape - remains one of the great mysteries of science. What makes a rabbit rabbit-shaped? How do newts regenerate limbs? Why are molecules shaped the way they are? Why do societies arrange themselves in certain predictable patterns? According to Sheldrake's hypothesis of formative causation, these questions remain unanswered in part because convention is hobbled by the reductionist assumption that finding the answers to such questions is largely a matter of figuring out the machinery of nature, of getting to the bottom of an ultimately mechanical universe. But, Sheldrake suggests that nature is not a machine and that each kind of system - from crystals to birds to societies - is shaped not by universal laws that embrace and direct all systems but by a unique "morphic field" containing a collective or pooled memory. So organisms no only share genetic material with others of their species, but are also shaped by a "field" specific to that species.