Article

Environmental Accounting of Municipal Solid Waste Originating from Rooms and Restaurants in the Hong Kong Hotel Industry

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Abstract

This article focuses on the estimation and the environmental accounting of municipal solid waste (MSW) produced by the hotel industry in Hong Kong. Five models to estimate the amount of the hotel industry’s MSW were developed. It was revealed that plastic toiletries in the industry ranked highest, and newspapers ranked second. Also, the research found that the minimum amount of MSW produced for each occupied room was 1.978 kg, and the quantity of MSW created by the Hong Kong hotel industry reached at least 53,070 tons in 1996, with an estimated environmental cost of 3.02 million Hong Kong dollars. The model predicted that local hotels would produce 53,607 tons of MSW by the year 2000. On average, the hotel industry’s share in the overall MSW was 1.5% in the 1986 to 2000 period. Based on the methodologies and findings, suggestions concerning green accounting at three levels are made.

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... Though there have been few studies on waste management in hotels, most of the studies have focused on determining the volume of waste generated by hotels (Ball &Taleb, 2011;Bhat et al., 2014;Byer et al., 2006;Chan & Lam, 2001;Chan, Wong, & Lo, 2009). Based on the waste management hierarchy (WMH) model, the ultimate goal of waste management is to reduce the amount of waste disposed of at landfill sites. ...
... To reduce waste, hotels must concurrently undertake bulk purchasing to reduce customers' consumption and packaging, encourage the use of returnable containers and recycle materials such as glass and paper, as well as undertake selective rubbish collection, among other practices (Carmona-Moreno, Cespedes-Lorente, & Burgos-Jimenez, 2004). In spite of this, many small hotels do not recycle their wastes (Chan & Lam, 2001;Dewhurst & Thomas, 2003;Radwan et al., 2010). In a study of small hotels in Turkey, Erdogan and Baris (2007) found that almost all hotels collect, store and place their waste in designated places for collection and disposal by garbage collectors. ...
... Management of many small hotels have very little interest in reducing and/or recycling waste, believing that such activities are too expensive and time-consuming (Chan & Lam, 2001). In a study by Radwan et al. (2010), only a minority of small hotels were considering the adoption of sustainable solid waste management (SWM) practices, either because most hoteliers felt negatively about sustainable SWM alternatives or perceived challenges in their implementation. ...
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One of the most visible impacts of hotels on the environment is waste. Waste generated by hotels tends to have adverse impacts on the environment. There are, therefore, concerns that the proliferation of small hotels in Accra, the capital city of Ghana, could have adverse impacts on the environment since small hotels have been found to take little action to address their environmental impacts. This paper examines the waste management practices of small hotels in Accra, based on the Waste Management Hierarchy (WMH) model. A survey of 260 managers of small hotels in various parts of Accra was undertaken, employing the simple random sampling method. Results of the study indicate that waste management practices of hotels did not strictly adhere to the WMH model. Waste disposal, prevention and reduction practices were the most frequently undertaken whilst practices relating to reuse, recycling and recovery were less frequently undertaken. It is recommended that the hotels should employ the sufficiency approach by positively influencing the attitudes of employees and guests toward waste prevention and reduction.
... In the 1980s hotel operators became concerned with greening and sustainability. It was at this time the hospitality industry began focusing on energy efficiency and the sustainable development of tourism (Chan & Lam, 2001;Welford, Ytterhus, & Eligh, 1999). Since then, a global trend has emerged as hotels introduce programs to reduce the amount of resources used and the overall environmental impact they have on the planet, or their carbon footprint. ...
... The second is the cost of the waste removal and waste management of the toiletries. During the 1980s, research within the hospitality industry focused primarily on energy efficiency, and it has only been since the mid-1990s that municipal waste management garnered any attention (Chan & Lam, 2001). Chan & Lam developed a model that would assist hotel operators in determining their waste output, creating a baseline, and a way to measure reduction in waste output. ...
... During the 1980s, research within the hospitality industry focused primarily on energy efficiency (Chan & Lam, 2001). Only since the mid-1990s has municipal waste management garnered any attention (Chan & Lam, 2001). ...
... Environmental management practices can be guided either by genuine concerns about preserving the environment (explicit) or by factors unrelated to green thinking (tacit) (Céspedes-Lorente, Burgos-Jiménez, & Alvarez-Gil, 2003;Erdogan & Baris, 2007). Such practices mainly refer to (1) water conservation, such as savings in the water used in laundry machines (Chan & Lam, 2001a, 2001bDeng & Burnett, 2002); (2) energy savings, such as the reduction of electricity used for lighting (Chan & Lam, 2003;Shiming & Burnett, 2002); (3) solid waste treatment, such as the recycling of glass, paper, and metal (Ball & Taleb, 2011;Chan & Lam, 2001aShanklin, Petrillose, & Pettay, 1991); and (4) air pollution control, such as minimizing carbon dioxide emissions (Shanklin, 1993). Céspedes-Lorente et al. (2003) argue that the degree of adopting environmental management practices largely depends on the power of stakeholders regarding green issues, the ways this power is used to protect the environment, and the perceived financial benefits accruing from such practices. ...
... Environmental management practices can be guided either by genuine concerns about preserving the environment (explicit) or by factors unrelated to green thinking (tacit) (Céspedes-Lorente, Burgos-Jiménez, & Alvarez-Gil, 2003;Erdogan & Baris, 2007). Such practices mainly refer to (1) water conservation, such as savings in the water used in laundry machines (Chan & Lam, 2001a, 2001bDeng & Burnett, 2002); (2) energy savings, such as the reduction of electricity used for lighting (Chan & Lam, 2003;Shiming & Burnett, 2002); (3) solid waste treatment, such as the recycling of glass, paper, and metal (Ball & Taleb, 2011;Chan & Lam, 2001aShanklin, Petrillose, & Pettay, 1991); and (4) air pollution control, such as minimizing carbon dioxide emissions (Shanklin, 1993). Céspedes-Lorente et al. (2003) argue that the degree of adopting environmental management practices largely depends on the power of stakeholders regarding green issues, the ways this power is used to protect the environment, and the perceived financial benefits accruing from such practices. ...
... Physical resources are also essential to support and sustain an eco-friendly marketing strategy because they help in building the right green products/services, processes, and infrastructure in the organization (Russo & Fouts, 1997). They are particularly crucial in the hotel sector, which is characterized by excessive consumption of energy, water, and solid waste (Chan & Lam, 2001a, 2001b and a wide range of non-durable products and services (Carmona-Moreno et al., 2004). This is more likely to be achieved in the case of firms stressing prevention of, rather than compliance with, environmental issues (Reed & DeFillippi, 1990). ...
Article
Building on the resource-based view, we develop a model of drivers and outcomes of environmentally friendly marketing strategies in the Greek hotel sector. Data collected from 152 hotels reveal that possessing sufficient physical and financial resources is instrumental in achieving effective green marketing strategies. In addition, shared vision and technology sensing/response capabilities help develop a sound environmentally friendly marketing strategy. In turn, the adoption of such a strategy is conducive to obtaining competitive advantage, which subsequently increases the potential to achieve superior market and financial performance. Furthermore, the study finds that the effect of environmental marketing strategy on competitive advantage is stronger in the case of intense competitive situations, while market dynamism has no moderating effect on this association. Several implications can be drawn from the study findings for both corporate and public policy makers and interesting directions for future research are provided.
... In contrast, small hotels that match the Green Dragon Environmental Standard have used waste as a last solution. Wyngaard and Lange (2013) have determined that worm farms can reduce the amount of food waste in landfills as a result of their survey and interviews with hotels. This can be achieved by converting organic food waste into usable compost. ...
... Although there are many studies on waste management in the Web of Science database (7611 papers), studies on waste management in the tourism industry (15 papers) are limited. Many of the studies conducted in the hotel were used questionnaire, interview and semi-structured interview technique to collect data ( Trung and Kumar, 2005;Radwan et al, 2012;Wyngaard and Lange, 2013;Singha et al, 2014;Seeley and Smith, 2014;Bashir and Subhrangsu, 2016;Bekiroglu et al, 2017;Phu et al, 2018a;Phu et al, 2018b). Some studies have been carried out with the aim of cross-country benchmark (Giurea vd, 2018) in relation to tourism, some studies have been carried out with the aim of examining the applications of local governments in tourism regions ( Radwan et al, 2008;Arbulu et al, 2016), some studies have been carried out with the aim of examining tourist routes ( Kunial et al, 2003;Kaseva and Moirana, 2009). ...
... Radwan, H.R.I., Jones, E.,Minoli, D., 2012Semi-structured interview Data collected from the 18 hotel manager.Alonso-Almeida, M.M.,2012 Interview First of all, interviews were made with ten hotel managers, but in the study, interviews were made with three hotels administered by women. Wyngaard, A.T.,Lange, R., 2013 ...
... Since tourist accommodation constitute the largest sub-sector of the tourism industry, it therefore has undisputable wide impacts on the environment, rendering sustainability in the industry a priority issue . The impacts of hotels on the environment have been in the areas of energy consumption (Chan and Lam, 2003); water consumption ; solid and liquid waste generation (Chan and Lam, 2001); use of chemicals and atmospheric pollution (Briguglio and Briguglio, 1996); and displacement of local communities (Torres, 2003). ...
... For example, the Hyatt Regency hotel in Chicago has a recycling programme which resulted in the recovery of $120,000 in hotel items such as silverware from thrash between 1997 and 1998 (Enz and Siguaw, 1999). Chan and Lam (2001) also believe that the thrust of the green campaign in the hospitality sector has been on energy savings as evidenced by the number of hotels engaging in energy-saving measures which range from the use of compact fluorescent bulbs to shutting down unused appliances. The Inter-Continental in Los Angeles also installed a power monitoring system that enabled the hotel to save $12,000 in electricity costs. ...
Chapter
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There have been growing concerns about the impacts of hotels on the environment globally and in Accra where there is uncontrolled development of hotel facilities. This has led to calls for hotels to reduce their carbon footprints by embarking on environmental management practices since sustainable hotels lead to sustainable destinations. A number of hotels, mostly in the developed world have responded to such concerns by embarking on a number of environmental initiatives. However, it is larger hotels which are mostly multinationals or have international affiliations which have been at the forefront of environmental initiatives (Wahab and Pigram, 1997; Mauforth and Munt, 1998; Mensah, 2006). This study therefore determines how hotels in a developing sub-saran African city like Accra are responding to the calls for sustainable practices by looking at their environmental management initiatives and environmental management performance. The managers of 200 hotels which were selected through the stratified random sampling method were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information on the environmental management performance of the hotels in ten key areas. The results of the study indicated that though the hotels performed creditably in the area of environmental health, their performance in the area of voluntary environmental management activities such as eco-labelling and certification was not encouraging. Also, only 34% of the hotels had voluntarily instituted initiatives in improved environmental performance. The results have implications for environmental policy formulation, voluntary environmental initiatives and the realization of the millennium development goals.
... The existing research on tourism environmental impact mainly adopts descriptive analysis, questionnaire survey and interview, statistical analysis, mathematical modeling, and on-site sampling to carry out quantitative or qualitative research [19,21,22,[71][72][73][74][75][76][77]. Here, we discuss the spatial heterogeneity of influencing factors from the perspective of distance using spatial data. ...
... (1) Distance to Hotels (DH): An indicator to investigate the impact of hotel distribution on ESV. On the one hand, hotels harm the environment through energy consumption and emissions [58,76]; on the other hand, the level of hotel revenue will affect government revenue, which will affect environmental protection investment and ecological protection [77]. (2) Distance to Scenic Spots (DSS): An indicator to explore the impact of scenic spots' distribution on ESV. ...
Article
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The healthy development of the ecosystem and tourism in destinations plays an essential role in sustainable development. Taking Shennongjia as an example, we analyzed the spatial–temporal variation in the ecosystem services value (ESV) and investigated the impacts of tourism on ESV and their spatial heterogeneity using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) and boosting regression tree (BRT) models. The results showed that (1) the types of ecosystem services (ESs) were dominated by climate regulation and biodiversity. The ESV increased from 3.358 billion yuan to 8.910 billion yuan from 2005 to 2018 and showed significant spatial divergence, maintaining a long-term distribution pattern of high in the center and low at the border. (2) The GWR and BRT results showed that the Distance to Scenic Spots (DSS) and the Distance to Residential Areas (DRA) are important factors influencing ESV, with the Distance to Hotels (DH) and the Distance to Roads (DR) having a relatively weak influence on ESV. (3) The influencing factors presented positive and negative effects, and the degree of influence has spatial heterogeneity. The DRA and DH inhibited the increase in ESV in nearby areas, while DR was the driving factor for increasing ESV. The assessment results of DSS vary according to the models.
... They added that, some of the hotels that sort their waste had inadequate system for waste separation. A survey in Hong Kong (Chan & Lam, 2001), revealed that the lack of interest to reuse waste in the hotel industry is as a result of the cost associated with the purchase of recycling materials. Furthermore, the survey revealed that the lack of information on the impact of solid waste generated by hotels on the environment added to the lack of interest to reduce solid waste by the hotels. ...
... Erdogan & Baris (2006) noted that most of the solid waste produced by hotels in Ankara include paper, plastic, metals, glass and food waste. Chan & Lam (2001) reported that, about 53,070 tons of solid waste was produced by hotels in Hong Kong in 1996 costing about 3.02 million Hong Kong dollars. The waste materials included plastic toiletries, unused soap, slippers and newspapers. ...
Article
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p>Several studies and researches have been conducted on the sources and characteristics of wastes as well as the possible adverse effect of inappropriate handling and best international practices. One thing that is still not clear however is what exactly constitutes a waste? How much do we know about what should be classed as waste? What are the historical contexts of waste managements? The present paper seeks to examine these vital questions with a view to providing answers from previous studies. The paper employed a desktop approach to provide answers to the research objectives. Specifically, the paper uses a descriptive approach to gather information from peer reviewed publications such as, journal articles, environmental organizations reports and books. It was found that, waste is to a large extent subjective in meaning as a substance can only be regarded as a waste when the owner labels it as such. This is particularly true because one individual may regard a substance as a waste, while another may view the same substance as a resource. Nevertheless, it was argued that there is a need to clearly define what constitute wastes as this form the basis for regulation. </p
... Primary data were obtained by means of survey of hotel managers designed to elicit information on their environmental management practices. The areas covered and of concern in environmental management in hotels are energy conservation (Stipanuk, 1996;Williams, 1992;Chan & Lam, 2001); recycling of waste (Faulk, 2000); water conservation (Zhao & Merna, 1992); support for local communities (Middleton & Hawkins, 1998) and environmentally responsible marketing (Miles & Munilla, 1993). The GAR was chosen for the study because, apart from having the largest number of hotels in the country, Accra, which is also the capital town of Ghana, and Tema, the industrial hub of the country, account for over 80 per cent of businesses that employ ten or more persons in the country. ...
... Several studies reported that the daily SWG from a hotel guest varied with the wide range from 0.23 to 13 kg (Edmundo Mufioz, 2015;Jonathan F.K. Earle and Jo M. Townsend, 1991) and differed at the various (Daniel Hoornweg and Perinaz Bhada-Tata, 2012). Notably, while the range of solid waste amount daily produced by European hotels was 1.5 to 3.1 kg per guest (Bohdanowicz, 2005), that by Asian hotels was 0.59 to 9.2 kg/guest/day (Tang, 2004;Chan and Lam, 2001). For HAC, the previous survey revealed that SWG rate of the hotel in the dry season ranged from 0.05 to 6.07 kg/room/day (Giang et al., 2017), while that in the wet season ranged from 0.04 to 7.02 kg/guest/day and mostly distributed between 0.8 and 3.33 kg/guest/day. ...
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The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room, garden, and level of restaurant. The differences in waste generation rate of the hotels were proved to be statistically significant. The higher the scale of hotels, the higher the waste generation rate. Moreover, the waste composition of the hotels was identified by 58.5% for biodegradable waste, 25.8% for recyclables and 15.7% for others. The relative differences in the waste composition of the hotels by climate, the features of hotels, and the types of the guest were explained. Whereby, the higher size of the hotels, the higher percentage of biodegradable and less proportion of recyclable waste. Also, this study revealed that the implementation status of waste management practices of the hoteliers initially reaped quite positive achievements with 76% for sorting, 39% for recycling, 29% for reduction, and 0.8% for composting. The rate of waste management practices was proportional to the scale of the hotel. This study provided information on waste management practice of hotel industry and contributed to the overall assessment of municipal solid waste management practices of Hoi An city.
... As can be seen from Figure 5, high standards hotels generated about 4 kg room -1 day -1 ; meanwhile, three stars and lower standard hotels produced about 0.35 kg room -1 day -1 . Chan and Lam 28) reported that mean of waste generation from a room in midscale hotels (which included three and four stars hotels) in Hong Kong was 2.76 kg room -1 day -1 and from hotel restaurants were 0.75 kg per meal cover in 1996. The hotel waste generation rate tended to decrease as a result of Chan and Lam 28) estimated model. ...
Article
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A study to characterize municipal solid waste was carried out at various sources in Hoi An, a famous World Heritage City of Vietnam. The purpose of the research was to identify the generation rate and compositions of household waste from different types of areas of the city (rural, urban, and tourist quarters) as well as waste from tourism sources. The result will contribute to harmonized solid waste management for the city. Wastes from household, hotels, restaurants, and streets were collected daily in two weeks for generation and composition sampling. A stratified random sampling method was applied, and several statistical tools were carried out to analyze obtained data. As a result, the mean of household waste generation was 0.223 kg capita-1 day-1. The average waste generation per capita in the urban region, which included the city center – ST1 (0.203 kg capita-1 day-1) and the urban areas - ST2 (0.264 kg capita-1 day-1), was almost double that of the countryside - ST3 (0.12 kg capita-1 day-1). The difference was statistically significant. Waste from tourism sources may have a great contribution in the total amount of waste generation since tourist services are important and active activities in the city. The results of the study showed that hotels generated about 0.6 kg room-1 day-1, one restaurant produced an average of 26.18 kg day-1, and the mean of daily waste generation from tourist streets was 6.99 kg per 100 m per day. Degradable waste counted for more than half of municipal waste, and combustible waste (textile, leather, wood, diapers, etc.) had higher portions, which meant that biological and thermal treatment technologies could be potential options for the purpose of decreasing the amount of waste to landfill for the city.
... The importance of water as an important resource for the hotel industry has long been established (Chan & Lam, 2001). The hotel sector consumes water for various activities in the laundry, food production, bathrooms, and other outdoor activities. ...
Article
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The Sustainable Tourism Practice (STP) is one of the more recent practices within the hotel sector. One of the major reasons for hotels' involvement in Sustainable Tourism Practices is to achieve some form of benefit. This paper attempts to highlight the significant benefits of STP for the hotel industry in Malaysia. It is believed that studies related to the contributing role of STP to the hotel industry in a developing country like Malaysia are relatively scarce. Therefore, this paper intends to bridge this knowledge gap by uncovering the benefits (i.e. financial and non-financial) hotels stand to reap in adopting various programmes which safeguard the environment. The study utilized the survey questionnaire method involving 60 hotel organisations in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor. The study findings indicate the benefits of improved public image and the provision of safe and healthy environments to the hotel guests as the major benefit of hotels adopting STP. Unlike previous studies which identified financial contributions to the STP among hotels in developed countries, it appears that Malaysian hotels project their image to the guests after which it is expected that they will attract large patronage leading to financial gains. In conclusion, the results of this study have the potential of contributing to the knowledge as well as the hotel organisations.
... These studies range from individual consumer's willingness Consilience 81 to pay premium fees for environmentally sustainable services to the effects of more sustainable services. But hospitality industry as a whole has not been at the forefront of green operations development (Kang et al., 2012;Szuchnicki, 2009;Chan and Lam, 2001). ...
Article
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There are clear implications that sustainable new service development (SNSD) is not only part of the future, but also an important part of contemporary service operations. However, evaluation methods in this field remain underdeveloped. This paper offers one example of how contingent data on operation performance and waste streams could be used to improve SNSD. Specifically, this research quantifies the amount of food waste produced by a typical managed catering business unit to evaluate this data as a measurement of the efficiency of operations management. In this research, sustainable new service development was studied empirically by employing a case study. Authors used data simulation to bring insights to SNSD. Another purpose was to create new, easily applicable metrics for the future SNSD work outside the case study unit. This study contributes to the area of new service development (NSD) by offering the utility of a case study-based simulation as a development tool. Results indicate how small changes in menu planning, production processes and demand management can create positive and significant financial and environmental outcomes. Our results link together the literatures on contingent operations awareness, the triple bottom line paradigm and SNSD to create a baseline condition for the future sustainable hospitality development.
... In our opinion, the basic definition of this eco-friendly accommodation facility is an environmentally responsible accommodation for that follows the practices of sustainable living and has the certification of the European Union -The Flower or other ecological certificate. A number of measures to protect the environment is focused on reducing energy (Chan & Lam, 2003;Khemiri & Hassairi, 2005;Ali et al., 2008, Scholz, 2014, water (Deng & Burnett, 2002;Gössling et al., 2015;Reddy & Wilkes, 2015), chemicals, office supplies, reduction of waste (Wie & Shanklin, 2001;Chan & Lam, 2001), increasing the proportion of natural materials, aestheticisation environment, reducing noise and emissions (especially carbon emissions), etc. (Patúš & Gúčik, 2004;Hillary, 2004;Bohdanowicz, 2005;Mensah, 2006;Chen & Hsieh, 2011;Scholz, 2015b). Global Carbon Atlas shows that world produced 35.890 billion tons of carbon emissions in 2014. ...
Conference Paper
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Knowledge based economy forces companies to reconsider strategic impact of different components of internal capital on their performance. Traditional extensive value drivers, based mainly on structural capital, are gradually extended with more intensive utilization of relational and human-resources oriented alternatives also in hospitality industry. Applying the elements of green management and sustainable development principles are characteristic trends in accommodation services. The current approach to hotel management is mostly revenue-oriented, i.e. strives to generate profit from temporally and locationally specific combinations of internal, technical and social capabilities, including, e.g. market segmentation, pricing, capacity allocation, aligned incentives, organizational structure or vocational training. Accordingly, present managers maximize metrics like occupancy (OCC), average daily rate (ADR), revenue per available room (RevPAR), revenue per available customer (RevPAC), gross operating profit per available room (GOPPAR) and many others. The paper deals with an application of green management elements in luxury class hotels in Slovakia. We used the methods of scientific work; and i.e.; the analysis method, a generalization method, mathematical, and statistical methods. Surveyed accommodation facilities reached the best results with compact fluorescent lamps and LED lamps (98 %) and sorting containers (90 %). Based on the ascertained facts, we state that accommodation facilities in Slovakia should definitely invest in the green initiatives.
... Handling solid waste or investing in eco-facilities to achieve the desired environmental performance inevitably cost money. Therefore, Chan and Lam (2001a) explored the estimation and environmental accounting of municipal solid waste produced in hotels and revealed that plastic toiletries incurred the highest costs followed by newspaper. Chan and Lam (2001b) further investigated the green cost attributable to water consumption in hotels, and Chan (2005b) analysed the environmental costs generated by hotels and found that those attributable to water protection and solid waste management were larger than the costs of air pollution. ...
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise 149 hospitality-related studies published in the past two decades pertaining to environmental management (EM). The review was divided into three main stages: 1993-1999, 2000-2009 and 2010-2014 and provided future research directions. Design/methodology/approach The study sample consisted of articles published between 1993 and 2014 in four leading hospitality journals. The four journals chosen were the International Journal of Hospitality Management , Cornell Hospitality Quarterly , International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management and Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research . The title, abstract and the content, as needed, of all EM-related full-length articles from these four journals were content analysed. Editors’ notes, book reviews, industry news, conference papers and research notes were excluded from this paper. Findings EM research in the hospitality industry during the first two stages focused on the development of environmental policies and practices, green consumerism, managers’ environmental attitudes, indoor air quality and smoke-free environments, sustainable development, environmental performance, environmental cost control and environmental management systems (EMSs). During the third stage from 2010 to 2014, topics about environmental benchmarking and indicators have surfaced. Notwithstanding this, EM in the environmental reporting, and green marketing have been pursued less enthusiastically. Research limitations/implications Compared with the mainstream management literature and considering the future development of EM, hospitality scholars are encouraged to extend their research to include green marketing, environmental technologies, environmental reporting, carbon footprint, employees’ green behaviour, the effects of EM on hospitality firms’ stakeholders and small- and medium-sized hospitality firms. In addition, more effort should be spent on developing hospitality-specific theories for EM. Originality/value Little has been done to determine the main research agendas in hospitality EM. A review of recent research on this topic provides an inventory of existing knowledge and points out areas requiring further knowledge exploration.
... It is argued that hotels, as a major sector of the tourism industry, may either contribute to environmental degradation and destruction or they can be managed in a way that preserves the local environment and enhances the local community (Pigram, 1995). Hence, a number of action guidelines have been developed worldwide to help hotels to address their environmental impact, improve their environmental performance and protect their natural surroundings (see, for example, International Hotels Environment Initiative, 1996; the Asian Pacific Hotels Environment Initiative, as discussed in Chan and Lam, 2001). In addition, commentators recommend that the sustainable management of hotels requires more attention to environmental management issues. ...
Article
Stakeholders’ pressure motivates the deployment of systems of environmental management control. Nevertheless, few insights are available regarding the impact of stakeholders’ pressure on the extent to which eco-control systems are used. Findings from previous research on eco-control are said to be inconclusive, due to the lack of empirical evidence. In addition, the literature on hotels/tourism indicates a scarcity of studies investigating the factors associated with the use of these systems in the hotel sector. In this study, to help fill this gap, we contribute to the existing literature. We investigate, empirically, the associations between the impact of stakeholders’ pressure and the use of eco-control systems, and whether the extent of using these systems is associated with hotel performance in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Our findings conclude that the impact of stakeholders’ pressure influences the extent of using eco-control systems in UAE hotels. However, contrary to expectations, the extent of using these systems is not significantly associated with hotel performance. Our findings and interpretations could reflect ‘practice variation’ in the adoption of eco-control systems in UAE hotels. It could be that UAE hotels do not capitalize on the implications the adoption of these systems could have on their performance. The academic and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
... In Vietnam, liquefied petroleum gas and other fuels are the alternative energy sources used in hotels (Trung & Kumar, 2005). However, Chan and Lam (2001) note that, despite the preference for solar as a renewable energy type, the financial cost associated with the installation of infrastructure for solar energy is prohibitive for most guest houses. This explains why solar energy use is more common in large and luxury hotels than in guest houses or other small and medium-sized hotels. ...
Thesis
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The increase in the number of guest houses is applausive for its socio-economic benefits through income generation, job creation and entrepreneurship growth. However, the increase in the number of guest houses is proportional to energy demand. Thus, increase in energy efficient guest houses is more desirable in order to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess energy efficiency in selected guest houses in Mpumalanga province Through in-depth literature analysis, an energy efficiency framework that builds on and advances the input-output ration and energy saving model was developed. This framework has five indicators which are categorised into financial and nonfinancial, namely: energy quantity, cost, carbon equivalence, services quantity and quality. The framework clarified the differences between energy saving and energy efficiency, while it identifies energy saving and services levels as two parameters or components of energy efficiency. This framework was later implemented and used to assess energy efficiency in eight selected guest houses in Mpumalanga province. To assess energy efficiency using the framework, three standard or common services in guest houses such as indoor lighting, water heating and indoor thermal comfort were assessed for energy saving and compliance with industry standards. The results of the assessment were analysed through descriptive statistical and explanatory methods. Using the framework, the study found that few of the selected guest houses did save energy in one or more of the standards services. However, some methods used in the guest houses were found to be highly costly and resulted in high energy quantity consumption and high carbon footprint. Thus, these methods failed the test for characterisation of energy saving methods. Furthermore, the study found that all indoor lighting services didn’t meet minimum industry standards for indoor lighting of 100lux. All water heating standards were compliant, while indoor thermal comfort standards differed among guest houses. Thus, none of the guest houses met the minimum criteria for characterisation as being energy-efficient. However, different services qualified. Hence, the findings confirm that the energy efficiency framework was effective and reliable in the characterisation of energy-efficient guest houses. This framework builds on and advances the input-output ratio and energy saving models previously used.
... In linking this study to the hotel as a final destination, hotel management should in such a way elevate green concept application as to enhance its marketing strategy. Chan & Lam (2001) conducted a field study to know the impact of municipal solid wastes produced by hotel industry in Hong Kong. Using 20 midscale hotels as samples in 1996, their study found that solid wastes made of plastic material were ranked the first and newspapers was ranked the second. ...
... To date, a dearth of literature exists on waste minimization practices by the U.S. tourism industry (see Nicholls & Kang, 2012a, 2012b. The majority of waste minimization studies focus on the hospitality sector in Europe (e.g., Bohdanowicz, 2005Bohdanowicz, , 2006Bruns-Smith, Choy, Chong, & Verma, 2015;Radwan et al., 2010Radwan et al., , 2012, Asia (e.g., Chan & Lam, 2001), and Africa (Mensah, 2006). Nicholls and Kang (2012a) argued that studying sustainable practices among nonhospitality industry sectors would be "a valuable addition to the academic and industry literature" (p. ...
... Environmental management in hotels started in the form of initiatives by various associations when the Prince of Wales launched the International Hotels Environment Initiative (IHEI), an alliance between 11 international hotel chains who, in 1993, accepted a manual spelling out a comprehensive campaign to advance environmental performance in the hotel industry. In 1994, 16 hotel groups in the Asia Pacific Rim also formed the first Regional Chapter—the Asia Pacific Hotels Environment Initiative (Chan & Lam, 2001). In the same year, the Hotel and Catering Institute Management Association participated in Green Globe, an environmental management awareness programme initiated by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). ...
Article
Environmental management remains a neglected area in the management of hotels. This study has tried to find out the environmental management practices of hotels in Bangkok. This study shows that hotels in Bangkok are practicing environmental management practices. However, at a point they also do not want to compromise with guest comfort. The idea of Green Leaf is very innovative and the hotels are trying their best to be a part of that. The hotels think that cost saving is a force for the practice of environmental management. However, they took it also as a barrier. Over the years, the number of star hotels has increased in all the cities of Asia. However, there is a dearth of research on the environmental management practices of these hotels. Therefore, there is an urgent need of such type of research just to find out how green are out hotels. This study helps us to find out the green environmental practices of hotels in Thailand and what lessons other Asian countries can draw from that.
... This practice ensures that hotels are designed to effectively utilise natural light for heating their guestrooms and to also use energyefficient appliances and lighting (Park, 2009). Going by the number of hotels now adopting different energy-saving measures, this practice has been regarded as the main thrust in the hotel sector (Chan and Lam, 2001). ...
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The hotel sector has been described as an industry of which activities constitute a great impact on the environment. Hotels consume vast amount of energy, water and non-durable goods, and has been reported to discharge huge amount of raw and solid waste in different quantities. Serious impacts on the environment were highlighted, calling for greater hotel's participation in sustainable tourism practices by committing to environmental management system (EMS). Comprehensive studies among hotels in Malaysia on their contributing efforts in curbing environmental degradation have been inadequate. Hence, a current study was conducted and this paper presents findings on sustainable tourism practices most commonly adopted by Malaysian hotels within Klang Valley. The main findings indicate the use of occupancy sensor/key card control system as energy saving measures, as well as the use of energy-efficient equipments and products. This result, therefore, confirms a number of preliminary studies which indicates widespread adoption of energy management among hotels. Adopting these practices has enabled Malaysian hotels to benefit from improved image to the guests and the local communities as well as the enhancement of a safe and healthy environment for hotel guests and employees.
... Similarly, Chan and Lam (2001) conducted a study focusing on the estimation and the environmental accounting of municipal solid waste (MSW) produced by the hotel industry in Hong Kong while Trung and Kumar conducted a study to assess the resource use and waste management in the hotel industry in Vietnam in 2005. ...
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In last decades, a great concern has been turned to protect the environment in many industries including the tourism industry. Despite the fact that hotels are the major tourism actors, they are also a great consumer of natural resources and drive out a considerable quantity of solid waste and wastewater. The purpose of this study is to focus on the concept of Environmental Management System (EMS) in five-star hotels in an emerging touristic region in Egypt, Sharm-Elsheikh, and to investigate the implementation of Environmental Management System (EMS) from both operational and marketing perspectives. The population of the study is represented by a sample of five-star hotels in Sharm-Elsheikh. Data were collected using questionnaires, from a sample of 22 managers and 100 customers. Findings indicated that managers have a high level of environmental awareness. Results also proved that EMS is well-recognized in the hotel industry in Sharm-Elsheikh. However, these environmental practices are not implemented on an equal pace to their importance. The study provides practitioners in the hotel industry with recommendations and guidelines that help to reinforce environmental efforts and to formulate better EMS implementation. Key words; environmental management system, environmental practices, environmental awareness, Egypt and Sharm-Elsheikh
... The data on the quantity and content of waste produced by hotel guests in the Algarve were not available; hence, appraising the share of waste in the total and 'indirect' GHG emissions from the hotel stay was not feasible. The lack of data on waste generation is a common problem in environmental assessments of tourist accommodation (Chan and Lam, 2001;Radwan et al., 2010;Trung and Kumar, 2005). Future research should examine this issue in more detail, especially in 'allinclusive' hotels, where food wastage can be more significant. ...
Article
Tourism is a noticeable contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Existing estimates of tourism’s carbon footprint are however incomplete as they fail to holistically assess the additional, ‘indirect’ carbon requirements. These arise from the non-use phases of a tourism product or service life cycle and can be further magnified by supply chain industries. Under-development of methods for carbon impact assessment in tourism is the primary reason for the omission of ‘indirect’ GHG emissions. This study develops a new approach for comprehensive appraisal of GHG emissions which incorporates and advances the methodological advantages of existing assessment techniques. It tests the applicability of this approach in tourism by conducting a holistic analysis of a standard holiday package to Portugal, based on the British tourism market. The new approach demonstrates the significance of the ‘indirect’ GHG emissions in the total carbon footprint from the holiday package, thus emphasising the necessity for more comprehensive future assessments.
... A number of measures to protect the environment is focused on reducing energy ( Chan & Lam, 2003;Khemiri & Hassairi, 2005;Ali et al., 2008, Scholz, 2014), water ( Deng & Burnett, 2002;Gössling et al., 2015;Reddy & Wilkes, 2015), chemicals, office supplies, reduction of waste ( Wie & Shanklin, 2001;Chan & Lam, 2001), increasing the proportion of natural materials, aestheticisation environment, reducing noise and emissions (especially carbon emissions), etc. ( Patúš & Gúčik, 2004;Hillary, 2004;Bohdanowicz, 2005;Mensah, 2006;Chen & Hsieh, 2011;Scholz, 2015). Global Carbon Atlas shows that world produced 35.890 billion tons of carbon emissions in 2014. ...
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Stakeholders in tourism are increasingly aware of their impact on the environment. Therefore they get involved in various voluntary programs, where they seek appropriate measures by which to contribute to improving the environment at the local and national level. A lot of accommodation facilities are turning green at an increasing rate due to an unprecedented reason, which is not directly based on profitability, longevity, or sustainability. We can state that applying the elements of green management and sustainable development principles are characteristic trends in accommodation services. The goal of this paper is to analyze the conditions of green management elements in selected accommodation facilities in Slovakia. The primary survey was conducted since September 2014 until August 2015 and we used questionnaire survey (PAPI, CAPI, and CAWI) to obtain primary data. We used the methods of scientific work; and i.e.; the analysis method, a generalization method, mathematical, and statistical methods. Surveyed accommodation facilities reached the best results with sorting containers and compact fluorescent lamps and LED lamps. Based on the ascertained facts, we state that accommodation facilities in Slovakia should definitely invest in the green initiatives.
... According to some previous studies on the WGRs of the hotel sector in Asia [17] [35] [36], the per-guest WGRs range from 0.8 to 3.33 kg/guest/day, which overlaps the range of 0.60 to 6.57 kg/guest/day presented in this study. ...
... Više mjera zaštite okoliša usmjereno je na smanjenje potrošnje energije (Chan i Lam, 2003;Khemiri i Hassairi, 2005;Ali et al., 2008;Scholz, 2014;Wan et al., 2017), vode (Deng i Burnett, 2002;Gössling et al., 2015;Reddy i Wilkes, 2015;Pospíšilová, 2018), kemijskih sredstava i uredske opreme, kao i na količine otpada te na povećanu upotrebu prirodnih materijala, uljepšavanje okoliša, smanjenje zagađenja bukom ili emisijama štetnih plinova, itd. (Chan i Lam, 2001;Wie i Shanklin, 2001;Hillary, 2004;Patúš i and office supplies, the amount of waste, noise pollution, toxic emissions, etc. as well as at increasing the use of natural materials and the aestheticization of the environment, (Chan and Lam, 2001;Wie and Shanklin, 2001;Hillary, 2004;Patúš and Gúčik, 2004;Mensah, 2006;Bohdanowicz, 2005;Chen and Hsieh, 2011). In practice, accommodation facilities adopt various approaches in choosing environmental protection measures and their owners and hotel managers are not the only ones worried about the environmental issues. ...
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The objective of this research article is to analyze the application of environmental measures at accommodation facilities in a selected hotel chain in the Czech Republic. The primary research was carried out between February and April 2018. The data were obtained through a questionnaire survey conducted by email as well as telephone and structured interviews. In terms of science methodology, the research utilized the methods of analysis and generalization. The research sample consisted of 23 accommodation facilities with the best results in the evaluation of the use of compact fluorescent lamps and LED lights (96%), central light switches (77%) and the replacement of bed linen and towels upon request (68%). Based on the research findings, it can be said that the accommodation facilities of the selected hotel chain should invest more financial resources into green initiatives and also acquaint their staff and guests with this philosophy.
... -Monetary ↓energy costs ↓waste and water costs ↑revenues ↑profits ↑other operational savings -Non-monetary ↓greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ↑biodiversity conservation ↑employee health and productivity -Investments in environmental management initiatives -Investments in economic performance initiatives -Investments in social engagement initiatives -Investments in stakeholder reporting A number of measures to protect the environment are focused on reducing energy [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], water [13], [14], [15], chemicals, office supplies, reduction of waste [16], [17], transport and mobility, smart technologies [12], increasing the proportion of natural materials, aesthetic environment, reducing noise and emissions (mainly carbon emissions), etc. [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [3]. The best innovative practices are, e.g., linen napkins and terry washing towels, recovery of cutlery, converting old guestrooms bed linens into pot holders and aprons for the kitchen, using TVs for guests' information about recycling [23]. ...
... Waste a ects the environment and the environment a ects tourism (Bohdanowicz, 2005). Ine cient waste management leads to environmental pollution (Chan, 2001). With its unpleasant odors, messy and repulsive appearance, it is also an aesthetic problem. ...
Article
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Tourism is one of the most important economic activity in Croatia. At the same time tourism sector has a major impact on the environment, which is especially expressed through an increase in the amount of waste generated during the tourist season. Environmental pollution in tourist areas is a common problem due to the large number of people and due to the various activities. Inadequate disposal of waste from hotels and rest areas leads not only to environmental pollution but also to health problems related to pests and infectious diseases. e problem of sustainable waste management is a slight resistance and misunderstanding by entrepreneurs in tourism, due to the common popular opinion that the most important thing is to make a big pro t. Environmental protection comes last, although there are many examples of corporate social responsibility and environmental investment in tourism. Such an example is the company Ilirija d.d. In the case study their business and their activities related to waste management were investigated. e goal of the paper is to analyze the amount of waste produced for one year and explore the extent to which Ilirija resort d.d. business is environmentally responsible. e aim is also to investigate the impact of the tourism sector on environmental pollution and the role of waste generated in the this sector in the ecological crisis. e quantities of waste produced in 2018 were monitored and analyzed throughout all twelve months compared to the number of overnight stays. e following data collection methods were used in this study: review of company documents, interviews, surveys and eld observations. e results have shown that the increase in the number of tourists increases the amount of waste during the tourist season, as well as preparations for the new season. In conclusion, guidelines and proposed measures for waste reduction will be given.
... A number of environmental protection measures are aimed at reducing the consumption of energy [1,[19][20][21][22], water [23][24][25][26], chemical agents, and office supplies, reducing the amount of waste, increasing the use of natural materials, the aestheticization of the environment, reducing noise pollution, emissions, etc. [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. There are a number of ways of going green. ...
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Sustainability has long been a buzzword and is also currently one of the major priorities of tourism all over the world. In many places, hotels function as a driving force for socioeconomic development, serving as employers for the local population, but also providing space for meetings, conferences, private/family events, and ceremonies. Unfortunately, the hotel industry is also considered an industry characterized by the consumption of considerable amounts of resources. These include mainly energy and water consumption, but also waste production. Emphasis is placed on the role of the communication between the various players involved in the operation of hotels. The article deals with applying elements of green management in a selected hotel in Czechia. It analyses the implementation of green management elements and principles of sustainable development in accommodation services. The primary data were conducted from April 2017 to March 2018 and we used structured and semi-structured interviews with the TOP management of the hotel and by author observation. We used the methods of scientific work, i.e., the analysis, mathematical, and statistical methods. As part of economic and social activities, cooperation with suppliers in the close surroundings of the hotel and the selection of local employees work well. Room for improvement has been observed, e.g., in supporting local infrastructure or promoting environmentally friendly types of transport.
... Accommodation being the largest sub-sector of the tourism industry undeniably has the widest impacts on the environment (Graci, 2010). However, the impacts of the accommodation sub-sector on the environment have mostly been in the areas of energy consumption (Khemiri and Hassairi, 2005;Önüt and Soner, 2006;Ali et al., 2008); water consumption (Deng and Burnett, 2002;Bohanowicz, 2006); solid and liquid waste generation and disposal (Chan and Lam, 2001;Wie and Shanklin, 2001); and emission of hazardous chemicals and atmospheric pollution (Chan and Lam, 2002). In view of these environmental impacts, coupled with rising green consumerism and concerns about climate change, pressure has been mounting on hotels to adopt more environmentally friendly and sustainable tourism practices. ...
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This paper aims to study the various inventory techniques followed in star hotels in Pune. Another objective is to examine the environment sustainable practices followed in hotel housekeeping department. The main purpose of the research is to find out the impact of inventory management techniques on environment sustainable practices followed in guest rooms. Primary data was collected from Hotel Housekeeping employees, especially the Executive Housekeepers, the Housekeeping supervisors, Room attendants, Linen and Laundry Supervisor, also the Purchase manager and the Store manager. The population of respondents comprised of 100 hotel employees from star hotels in Pune region. The questionnaire was streamlined and structured to reflect the hypotheses and research questions under study. The questions were operationalized in a Likert form for the respondents to select from the options. The researcher used tables for data presentation and expressed the responses in the form of bar graphs. The hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. This study examined some of the inventory control techniques followed in the The Int. Res. at www.thegass.org.in hotels. The stated hypothesis was drawn, which was tested using Regression Analysis from the data drawn. The most impactful inventory management techniques in hotel housekeeping includes, regular stock taking, latest technology and proper storage of linen and amenities with spot checking. Linen reuse programme, installation of water jets, mounting of soap, shampoo dispensers in bathrooms are some of the eco-friendly practices followed in hotel guest rooms. The findings further suggested that there is a significant impact of inventory management on Environmental Sustainability. The study provides important information on various inventory management techniques followed in hotels. It provides insight into some of the environment sustainable practices followed in guest rooms. This study provides a perspective, that proper implementation of inventory techniques can have an impact on environment sustainability.
... Review of existing literature suggests that focus on food waste in the hospitality sector is a recent phenomenon and majority of studies have focused on management's role with respect to solid waste management, smart kitchens, and menu management strategies. etc. (Bohdanowicz, 2006;Bruns-Smith, Choy, Chong, & Verma, 2015;Chan & Lam, 2001). These articles investigate the supply side, i.e., what the hospitality professionals and hoteliers ought to do to avoid food waste to save money. ...
... There is evidence that hotels are engaging in energy-saving measures which range from the use of compact fluorescent bulbs to shutting down unused appliances Chan and Lam (2002). Patton and Worthington, (2003b) give an example of the Saunders Hotel which uses thermopane windows to reduce energy costs. ...
Article
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Environmental management is today becoming an essential aspect of the operations of tourism businesses globally to the point that a number of environmental initiatives have been put in place by tourism developers. “Green” accommodation images have become a powerful operational tool in attracting and retaining more guests and in achieving cost reduction measures. However, there seems to be a gap in monitoring outcomes of such initiatives. The objective of this study was to identify environmental management practices adopted by beach hotels on the Kenyan coast and establish factors that limited adoption of environmental management practices. Data was gathered through questionnaire surveys distributed to a stratified sample of 32 star-rated beach hotels. Frequencies, percentages and chi-square analyses revealed that the general level of adoption and implementation of environmental management practices was below average and that there was no significant relationship between hotel star category and extent of adoption of environmental management practices. Environmental management practices related to energy conservation and water conservation were adopted by the majority of the hotels in the study. This was possibly driven by profit motives. The principle of “reduce, reuse and recycle” was yet to be fully adopted by the hotels. In future, enhanced capacity building, all stakeholders’ collective involvement and closer monitoring by relevant environmental agencies are recommended as the most appropriate approaches towards achieving environmental sustainability through hotel development in this tourist destination. Keywords: Adoption, best practices, environmental initiatives, green accommodation, sustainability.
... Penelitian mengenai green accounting pada bisnis pariwisata dan perhotelan belum banyak dilakukan. Beberapa penelitian yang pernah dilakukan pada sektor ini dengan hasil yang beragam, diantaranya pernah dilakukan oleh: Chan dan Lam (2001), meneliti tentang perkiraan dan environmental accounting pengelolaan limbah padat pada bisnis perhotelan di Hongkong. Mošnja dan Gržinić (2008) yang mengeksplorasi perkembangan green accounting pada bisnis pariwisata di Istrian (Kroasia) menemukan bahwa secara umum tingkat pelaporan lingkungan di industri pariwisata Istrian (Kroasia) sangat rendah. ...
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This study aims at identifying whether local chain management hotel and international chain management hotel in Bali have different environmental awareness, environmental responsibility, environmental involvement, environmental accounting reporting, as well as environmental audit. The data used in this study is primary data, which were collected by using instrument that was adapted from Susilo (2008). There are 45 questionnaires that meet the requirements for testing. The results of the Independent Sample T-test analysis show that there is no difference of environmental awareness between local chain management hotel and international chain management hotel in Bali. However, there are differences of environmental responsibility, involvement in protecting the environment, environmental accounting reporting as well as environmental audit between local chain management hotel and international chain management hotel. This study provides an understanding of whether there are differences of the application of green accounting in local hotel chain management and international chain management hotel, something that, to the best of our knowledge, have never been investigated previously, especially in the hospitality business in Indonesia.
... As indicated by (Chan & Lam, 2001) numerous low budget lodging administrators have next to no intrigue in lessening as well as reusing waste, accepting that such exercises are excessively costly and tedious. ...
Article
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Hotels are main source of waste production, an enormous part of waste produced of hotels lodging, storage of kitchen zones. Accommodation sector would stay hazardous if led under investigated in terms of Waste Management. Waste Management is a serious agenda that needs general public awareness and administrative attention along with the guidance on a priority basis. Managing waste in a best affects social, economic and environmental issues of countries and organization in Hotels are the major user of resources and contribute toward the garbage development, as comparison to other industry. There is a significant benefit of recycling & reusing is that it prevents valuable things from being land filled and hence saves energy and natural resource. Avoiding the utilization of plastic utensils and plastic disposable it could be cultivated if Hotels offers only silverware or flatware to guests who can be gotten back to the staff; this would definitely give a guest the alternative of utilizing plastic utensils. Food waste, leftover foods, kitchen waste is reused through treating the soil to change over natural fertilizer, an ideal soil conditioner. The purpose of this research is to make people aware that WASTE TO ENERGY is an alternative source of energy, which can be utilized effectively for their consumption. This study also shows the importance of alternative requirements for the disposal of waste without affecting the environment and health of the people surrounding
... Waste generation is one of the most visible environmental impacts of the hotel industry (Mensah, 2020) and considered a major challenge for tourism SMEs (Hoogendoorn et al., 2015). This is because small hotels lack the resources and managerial knowledge regarding waste management (Radwan et al., 2010;Mensah, 2020), or simply believe that waste management activities are costly and time-consuming (Chan and Lam, 2001). ...
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PURPOSE: This paper reviews the changes in the relationships between Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism industry and sustainability dimensions (social, economic and environmental) following the COVID-19 crisis. It offers some reflections on changes in the relationships between SMEs' sustainable development in the tourism industry and sustainability. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper describes how COVID-19 impacted several sectors in tourism (hotels, tour operators, restaurants) and reviews how the COVID-19 crisis is likely to negatively impact sustainable development efforts for SMEs in this sector. FINDINGS: This exploratory review of SMEs' sustainability challenges reveals that it might be harder to maintain or adopt any sustainable practices, whether social, economic or environmental, under the financial stress and sharp decline of revenue resulting from the COVID-19 crisis. ORIGINAL/VALUE OF THE PAPER: The paper is the first to investigate how the COVID-19 crisis might impact SMEs' sustainable development in various tourism sectors. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This review paper presents a theoretical outline of the crisis and opens up promising research opportunities for enhancing our understanding of the changing relationships between sustainability and SMEs in the tourism industry. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The paper fills the current gap in the literature in sustainable tourism challenges arising from the COVID-19 crisis, and demonstrates the importance of governments and policy-makers supporting SME survival and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We hope that this paper will become inspirational for academic researchers, entrepreneurs, and policy-makers who are involved in the sustainable development discourse.
... A number of measures to protect the environment are focused on reducing energy (Chan, Lam, 2003;Khemiri, Hassairi, 2005;Ali et al., 2008;Pan et al., 2018), water (Deng, Burnett, 2002;Gössling et al., 2015;Reddy, Wilkes, 2015), chemicals, office supplies, reduction of waste (Wie, Shanklin, 2001;Chan, Lam, 2001), transport and mobility, smart technologies (Pan et al., 2018), increasing the proportion of natural materials, aesthetic environment, reducing noise and emissions (mainly carbon emissions), etc. (Patúš, Gúčik, 2004;Hillary, 2004;Bohdanowicz, 2005;Mensah, 2006;Chen, Hsieh, 2011;Petkova, 2017). The best innovative practices are, e.g., linen napkins and terry washing towels, recovery of cutlery, converting old guestrooms bed linens into pot holders and aprons for the kitchen, using TVs for guests information about recycling (Enz, Siguaw, 1999). ...
... A number of environmental measures are aimed at reducing the consumption of energy (Ali et al., 2008;Chan & Lam, 2003;Khemiri & Hassairi, 2005;Wan et al., 2017), water (Deng & Burnett, 2002;Gössling et al., 2015;Reddy & Wilkes, 2015), chemicals, office supplies, reducing waste production, increasing the share of natural materials, environmental aesthetics, reducing noise and other emissions, etc (Bohdanowicz, 2005;Chan & Lam, 2001;Chen & Hsieh, 2011;Hillary, 2004;Mensah, 2006;Patúš & Gúčik, 2005;Wie & Shanklin, 2001). Accommodation facilities proceed differently in choosing cost-saving measures. ...
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This research article focuses on the ecological operation of accommodation services in Bulgaria. The aim of this article is to evaluate the application of various green management elements and measures in selected hotels in Bulgaria, namely in the cities of Sofia and Varna. The research will pay attention to the implementation of individual green measures in hotel operations as well as a comparison between hotel categories and hotels in the two cities in terms of the application of green measures. Running an environmentally friendly hotel can have several positive effects. It significantly manifests itself in the area of marketing – it creates an image, has an effect on current and prospective guests, and defines the positioning of the hotel. It also impacts the economic and operational aspects, with ecological elements having the potential to reduce hotels’ operating costs. The societal impact of running hotels in an environmentally friendly fashion lies in resource conservation and ensuring environmental sustainability. This research was carried out using mixed research methods, combining semi-structured interviews with hotel management staff in Varna (n = 90) and Sofia (n = 96). The total sample of participating hotels represented 81.6% of hotels in the two cities. The interviews were complemented with a questionnaire survey, which focused on the application of environmentally friendly solutions in hotel operations. In the data analysis stage, the methods of correspondence analysis, the ANOVA test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used. The results suggest that the higher the hotel category, the stronger the trend to use environmentally friendly methods in running hotels. The research also found that there were differences between the level at which green measures were applied in hotel operations in the two cities. The research results are applicable in practice by national professional associations that support resource conservation and thus affect the entire hospitality industry.
... However, the results of Shapiro-Wilk test showed that P-value was higher than 0.05, which meant that although the distribution of their sample quantiles was distinctive, SWG rate distribution from restaurant industry came from the normally distributed population. Comparing to other countries, SWG rate of the restaurants in HAC was higher than that in Hong Kong (0.751 kg/meal) (Chan and Lam, 2001) and lower than such in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (4.83-3.36 kg/table) (Mongtoeun et al., 2014). ...
Article
This study provided a detailed description of the waste generation, composition, and characterisation of the commercial activities in a tourism city in Vietnam. Whereby, solid waste from 55 restaurants, 110 shops, 27 handcraft facilities and five markets were collected and classified into 17 categories. Then, physical and chemical characterisations of waste were analysed. The results showed that the commercial waste accounted for 35.1% of municipal waste, in which restaurants were the most significant waste source by 74.5%. The composition of commercial waste was 66.8% for biodegradable waste, 20.1% for recycling materials, 11.3% for combustible waste, and 1.8% for the others. Also, the high moisture content and density, and the low heating value were the characteristics of the commercial waste in a tourism city in Vietnam. Solutions of waste minimisation and improvement of waste quality for incineration were suggested toward the sustainable solid waste management practice.
... A number of measures to protect the environment are focused on reducing energy (Chan, Lam, 2003;Khemiri, Hassairi, 2005;Ali et al., 2008;Pan et al., 2018), water (Deng, Burnett, 2002;Gössling et al., 2015;Reddy, Wilkes, 2015), chemicals, office supplies, reduction of waste (Wie, Shanklin, 2001;Chan, Lam, 2001), transport and mobility, smart technologies (Pan et al., 2018), increasing the proportion of natural materials, aesthetic environment, reducing noise and emissions (mainly carbon emissions), etc. (Patúš, Gúčik, 2004;Hillary, 2004;Bohdanowicz, 2005;Mensah, 2006;Chen, Hsieh, 2011;Petkova, 2017). The best innovative practices are, e.g., linen napkins and terry washing towels, recovery of cutlery, converting old guestrooms bed linens into pot holders and aprons for the kitchen, using TVs for guests information about recycling (Enz, Siguaw, 1999). ...
Article
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The article addresses an innovative instrument of regional development management, namely the Special Demographic Zone (SDZ). The zone has been established in Opolskie Voivodeship, a region marked by the most unfavourable demographic trends among other Polish regions. The article aims to highlight activities intended for people aged 50+ pursued by municipalities and enterprises operating within the SDZ as well as discussing the assessment the Opolskie for the Family programme by surveyed stakeholders. Based on the theoretical framework of the SDZ, a questionnaire has been designed, and a survey has been carried out with a view to achieving the aforesaid aim. Based on the analysis of survey results, the authors have identified the need for and scope of further action that will allow local self-governments and enterprises to implement the concept of the SDZ in a more effective manner.
... However, the results of Shapiro-Wilk test showed that P-value was higher than 0.05, which meant that although the distribution of their sample quantiles was distinctive, SWG rate distribution from restaurant industry came from the normally distributed population. Comparing to other countries, SWG rate of the restaurants in HAC was higher than that in Hong Kong (0.751 kg/meal) (Chan and Lam, 2001) and lower than such in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (4.83-3.36 kg/table) (Mongtoeun et al., 2014). ...
... The International Hotels Environment Initiatives (IHEI) was launched in 1993 by the Prince of Wales after the summit. Within this scope, 11 hotel chains conducted a campaign to improve their environmental performance (Chang and Lam, 2001). In 1994, 16 countries from the Asia Pacific adopted the campaign and started the Asia Pacific Hotels Environment Initiative as the first regional environmental movement (Mackie, 1994). ...
Article
Sustainable consumption of hospitality products and services has become an increasingly important topic of interest in both hospitality academia and practice. Inducing pro-environmental behavior (PEB) in individuals has been recognized as one of the major challenges on the path to sustainable hospitality consumption. This research examined customers’ PEB in hotel settings. Based on a survey with a sample of 537 participants representing a broad range of demographic strata, this study identified seven dimensions of PEB as manifested in hotel settings (green consumerism, recycling, reuse, conservation, reduction, curtailing, and compromise) and examined the associations of psychological determinants with the seven PEB behavioral types. The results show that hotel customers display the least PEB when compromise of personal comfort is involved. The findings further suggest that the major determinant of PEB in hotel settings is nonenvironmental concerns, such as time and effort involved in PEB. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
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Günümüzde tüm dünyada çevreye duyarlı uygulamalara olan eğilimin giderek arttığı görülebilir. Turizm sektörü yapısı gereği, doğal çevre ile gelişen ve büyüyen faaliyetleri kapsamaktadır. Yavaş şehirler sahip oldukları doğal güzellikleri, özgün tarihleri ve yerel kültürleriyle, alternatif turizm pazarında proaktif şekilde değerlendirilebilir. Yavaş Şehir kriterlerinin sürdürülebilirlik ilkelerine dayanarak hazırlanmış olması, bu şehirlerde sürdürülebilir turizm faaliyetlerinin gerçekleşmesine kolaylık sağlayabilir. Bu çalışmada, Muğla ilinin Ula ilçesine bağlıolan Yavaş Şehir Akyaka’da bulunan konaklama işletmelerinin çevre yönetimi uygulamaları kapsamında mevcut durumlarının araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Amacın gerçekleşmesi için, Akyaka’daki faaliyet gösteren konaklama işletmelerinin 6’sında yöneticilik konumunda çalışanlarla yüz yüze görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda; katılımcıların çevre yönetiminin uygulamaları ve sağladığı faydaları hakkında, bilgilerinin yetersiz olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Akyaka’da konaklama işletmelerinin türlerine göre çevreye duyarlı uygulamalarında farklılık göstermediği de araştırmanın diğer bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Çevre yönetimi ve uygulamaları kapsamında konaklama işletme yöneticilerine yönelik düzenlenmiş olacak eğitim programları, Akyaka’ya çevreye duyarlı olma yolunda ilerlenmesine destek verebilir.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı otel işletmelerinde sürdürülebilirlik uygulamalarını ifade eden yeşil otel uygulamasının önemli bir parçasını oluşturan atık yönetiminin uygulanma düzeyini, eksikliklerini, yönetsel uygulamalar bağlamında termal oteller açısından örnek uygulamalar ile ortaya koymaktır. Araştırma kapsamında veriler, otel yöneticileri ile yarı yapılandırılmış mülakat yöntemi ve araştırmanın gerçekleştirildiği termal otel işletmelerine yapılan ziyaretlerde atık yönetimi amaçlı var olan uygulamaların gözlemlenmesi yoluyla temin edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, işletmeler çevreye duyarlı atık yönetimi amaçlı uygulamaları kendi imkânları ve genel bilgileri doğrultusunda gerçekleştirmektedirler. Atık yönetimi kapsamında dikkate alınan temel hususlar, atıkların gruplandırılması, tehlikeli kimyasal atıklarının oluşumunun önlenmesine yönelik faaliyetlerdir. İlgili otel işletmelerinde yapılan gözlemler ve mülakatlar genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde, atıkların işletme içinde tekrar kullanımı ve geri dönüşümü konusunda yeterli çabanın olmadığı tespit edilmiştir.
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The main purpose of study is to examine the researches published in the field of waste management and recycling in tourism science at the period of 1980–2019 with bibliometric perspective and to determine the waste management research area trends in this discipline in the last 39 years. In this context, the Web of Science database was searched under the title of waste management and recycling within the scope of ‘hospitality, leisure and tourism’. In the research, number of publications, publication languages, types of publications, journal co-citation network, author co-citation network, document co-citation network and co-occurring author keywords were analyzed. Social network analysis was used to test purposes. According to the results, it can be said that interest in the field in the context of waste management in tourism publications has increased significantly since 2018. Studies are mainly articles. According to the results, it can be said that Gosling is a pioneer in both waste management and recycling in tourism science. If found that the most commonly used keywords in waste management are sustainability, tourism and food waste. It is determined that the most used words in the field of recycling are tourism, heritage and green hotel.
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Responsible management of global hospitality companies increasingly recognizes how important are concerns about the society, the environment as well as all stakeholders in maintaining a good market position. In Serbia, the concept of corporate social responsibility is relatively unknown and insufficiently researched in all business areas, especially in the hospitality industry where small businesses are dominated. The papers task is to present particular activities that demonstrate social responsibility to employees, customers-guests, local communities as well as the environment. The paper aims to highlight the benefits of adopting the principles of corporate social responsibility and innovation applied in catering enterprises as an example of good corporate social responsibility practices.
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Cultivating pro-environmental choices and behaviors is an important concern for tourism research and practice. Informed by recent developments in psychological research on embodied cognition and the moral effects of physical cleansing, we elicit novel insights about the causal relationship between the embodied experience of physical cleansing and pro-environmental travel choices. Across four experiments, we show that when one’s moral self-regard is heightened by the virtue of physical cleansing, it can motivate consumers to engage in pro-environmental travel choices. Importantly, we show that such an effect occurs because, after physical cleansing, consumers experience more expected guilt for not choosing a morally preferred environmentally friendly travel option within the evoked set of travel alternatives. Our study offers a novel way to understand how consumers can be “nudged” to choose pro-environmental travel options beyond fostering positive attitudes toward sustainability per se. Important implications for tourism research and practice are discussed.
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The municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Hong Kong (HK) is increasing at a rapid pace, resulting in health and environmental issues for the public. Compared with Singapore and Shanghai, HK has a higher MSW generation rate due to less effective measures and government policies. To forecast the MSW generation and recycling in HK, system dynamics modelling was conducted using Vensim 6.0, based on the data collected from semi-structured interviews and official reports in the Environmental Protection Department of HK, the National Environmental Agency Singapore and Shanghai Environmental Protection Agency that regularly provide statistics on waste outputs. The simulation results show that shortly the MSW in HK will increase based on the current growth rates, and along with that, recycling will also increase. The recycling rates will offset that of the MSW generation due to the closure of landfills, and MSW will be effectively recycled due to more advanced disposal techniques. The strategies developed by the HK government will be able to manage the MSW disposal, but the city will experience more severe MSW conditions in the future as its landfills are expected to close earlier than planned. Recommendations for HK to deal with MSW generation were derived from the experiences in Singapore and Shanghai.
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Tourism can generate a lot of opportunities and income, but it also has a lot of negative environmental and health consequences. The production of municipal solid waste and wastewater is one of the most significant impacts on the environment, economy, and finances. A variety of waste sources have been identified, and it is important to understand waste generation and its compositions. However, due to climatic conditions, geography, financial constraints, planning challenges, shifting consumption habits, transient population, and seasonal variations in waste quantity and composition, waste management in tourism destinations is particularly difficult. Furthermore, because parties involved in the design, development, and administration of tourist resorts have conflicts of interest, there is sometimes a lack of enthusiasm to implement new ideas and programs. Waste minimization, recycling, mitigation, best practices, and education should be further implemented to enhance sustainability.
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This paper calculates the consumption expenditure of internal visitors in Sweden, and Swedes' expenditures on outbound tourism, according to the WTO definition of tourism expenditure. The demand-based calculations of national tourism are distributed among same-day visitors and overnight visitors, for leisure and business purposes. The supply side calculations cover the main tourism industries. Daily expenditures of domestic tourists categorized by housing type and purpose are also presented. The calculations show that the consumption expenditures of internal visitors in Sweden were approximately 65 300 million SEK in 1992, which compared to the GDP is about 4.5%. The expenditure of Swedish households on leisure trips in 1992 amounted to 66 544 million SEK, which is 8.6% of adjusted total private consumption. In 1993 this figure declined to 7.8%. The largest reduction was on expenditure on outbound trips.
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Differences between real tourism satellite accounts and the WTTC/WEFA ‘simulated tourism satellite accounts’ are described. These differences are both conceptual and methodological, including the fact that the World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC) methodology fails to conform to the World Tourism Organization/UN definitions. Some empirical problems associated with the WTTC methodology also are detailed. These include the inappropriate use of Consumer Price Index weightings and WTTC's reliance on US data sources to make inferences about other nations' economies. The paper concludes that the WTTC methodology does not represent a ‘simulated tourism satellite account’.
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This paper documents major solid waste minimisation (SWM) practices, challenges, and recommendations identified in an environmental sustainability case study. The analysis was performed in the 3,530 room Flamingo Hilton Resort and Casino (LVFH) in Las Vegas,Nevada,USA.The city's 29 million tourists a year leave behind mountains of dollars... and garbage. The main research contributions are the SWM hierarchy, and the study's documentation of corporate actions and attitudes relating to waste minimisation in an urban tourism setting. Resort areas studied ranged from reprographics to guest rooms. Selected findings and recommendations of this study are presented according to a five level hierarchy for waste minimisation, from most to least critical. The first and most fundamental hierarchy level is commitment to environmental goals such as conservation and environmental protection from tourism's negative impacts. Levels two through four are critical sub-strategies of source reduction. Level two necessitates applying eco-intelligence within purchasing policies and activities. Level three involves the source reduction principles of using and wasting less through such practices as using electronic communications. Re-fillable packaging is an example of level four; re-use. To avoid final disposal, level five requires recycling.
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Results of a descriptive study of solid waste management issues in selected hotel chains and individual properties are presented. The majority of the hotel corporations and individual hotel properties had implemented a program to decrease the volume of waste. Issues impacting the decision to initiate a solid waste management program rated most important by both groups were waste disposal fees and a positive public image. Practices implemented most frequently included: collapsing cardboard boxes, sorting waste by type of material, crushing glass, and baling paper and cardboard. The practices implemented and the type of materials recycled varied by geographic location of the property, corporate's emphasis on the importance of recycling and reduction of waste disposal costs, and the infrastructure of the organization.Key Words:Solid waste, hotel, recycle, disposal costs, cor porate policy, public image and the environment.
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The Earth Summit, held in June 1992, focused international attention on the state of the environment. Critical environmental threats that affect the hospitality and tourism industry include solid waste, water quality and availability, energy, and air pollution. An overview of each of these and initiatives to address them are discussed. The purposes of this article are to stimulate dialogue among hospitality profession als, to emphasize the need for research and training in the industry, and to encourage education programs regarding environmental threats.
Reviews 25 years of social and environmental accounting literature in an attempt to evaluate the position and answer the question posed in the title, as well as to provide a structure or classification for others to use. In order to structure the task, uses three time periods: 1971-1980; 1981-1990; and 1991-1995, and classifies the literature into several sub-groups including empirical studies, normative statements, philosophical discussion, non-accounting literature, teaching programmes and textbooks, regulatory frameworks, and other reviews. Attempts, after the classification, to synthesize an overall chronological position. Concludes that there is something to celebrate after 25 years. However, the continued success of this field is dependent on a relatively small number of researchers, writers, and specialized journals without which there would be the danger of a collapse of interest and a loss of what has been gained so far. Consequently, the provision of a place in the advanced undergraduate and graduate curriculum is a major task for the next decade. Argues that appropriately qualified and motivated professionals are needed to contribute to environmental policy and management in both the public and private sectors. However, appropriate educational programmes have not been evident to date.
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The purpose of this paper was to discuss the solid waste problem from three perspectives—that of the foodservice industry/operator, the solid waste policymakers in government, and the public, including foodservice consumers. The foodservice industry believes that government policies are making a scapegoat of them. Policy makers view solid waste problems as a priority; costly and complex to implement. They must deal with a general public that is unwilling to accept landfills, waste-to-energy plants, and source reduction. Acronyms such as NIMBY (not in my backyard) summarize the dilemma the policy maker faces in dealing with the public. Finally, the foodservice consumer is concerned both with the disposal of solid waste, and with overall environmental quality, but is accustomed to the convenience and functionality of disposables. At the same time, the public/consumers sometimes vilify the industry due to misperceptions and, perhaps, the tendency to target blame.
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The purpose of this article is to discuss the future of foodservice waste management. First, the evolution of environmental concerns in the United States is presented. Trends and future research topics for foodservice waste management are then discussed, and the need for a "metabolic restaurant" is proposed by the authors. Finally, the authors contend that foodservice operators and consumers must jointly address the societal demand for conservation, preservation, and restoration of ecologically and consumer friendly foodservice facilities.
The provision of environmental information in corporate annual reports is predominantly voluntary in Australia. Despite this, a number of research studies have observed the presence of environmental information in the annual reports of sample companies (for example, Guthrie and Parker, 1990; Gibson and O Donovan, 1994; Deegan and Rankin, 1996; Deegan and Gordon, 1996). These prior studies have found that where firms disclose environmental information they tend to only provide information which is favourable to their corporate image. Within the prior studies this lack of objectivity is typically viewed in a negative vein. However, this negativity is premised on the generally unstated assumption that environmental information is material to annual report users.This paper reports on the results of a survey of various groups of annual report users as to the importance, or "materiality", of environmental information to decisions they may wish to make. The paper also investigates how environmental information is ranked in importance relative to various other items of social and financial information. The user groups surveyed comprise shareholders, accounting academics, stockbrokers and financial analysts, financial institutions, environmental lobby groups, industry associations and other groups performing a review or oversight function.The results indicate that the majority of the annual report users surveyed believe environmental information to be material to their decisions, and that they seek the disclosure of this information in corporate annual reports. Although the results show that the users typically believe that environmental information is material, the results further indicate that the majority of the user groups rank environmental information behind traditional financial information such as profits, net assets, cash flows, and dividend payments.