Article

The Role of Positivity and Connectivity in the Performance of Business TeamsA Nonlinear Dynamics Model

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Abstract

Connectivity, the control parameter in a nonlinear dynamics model of team performance is mathematically linked to the ratio of positivity to negativity (P/N) in team interaction. By knowing the P/N ratio it is possible to run the nonlinear dynamics model that will portray what types of dynamics are possible for a team. These dynamics are of three types: point attractor, limit cycle, and complexor (complex order, or “chaotic” in the mathematical sense). Low performance teams end up in point attractor dynamics, medium perfomance teams in limit cycle dynamics, and high performance teams in complexor dynamics.

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... Then, LSTM was successfully found to analyze and detect the Carna botnet [7]. The main aim of the dark Web collective archive is to provide a research environment, platform, and infrastructure for the sue of communities related to scientists, experts for computer and knowledge scientists, policy experts and security researchers and others working in social trends and in computationalrelated problems [30,31]. Dark Web anonymous platform provides open access for the conduction of community working for international jihadist Web-based forums like sharing of hate speeches, radicalization, recruitment, fund raising, lone wolf attack, terrorist training manual sharing, propaganda escalating, female accounts on social sites, SNA-social network analysis for searching of targets, money laundering, arm trafficking, human and organ trafficking [32,33]. ...
... However, on Facebook, the machine learning approach is not functioning well for the users commenting randomly, as it involves several exercises such that the approach can be modified as the data collection influences the size as the consistency of the performance [27,29]. Besides, it takes time to evaluate machine learning, particularly, if training is needed, for a complex machine learning model [30]. With fewer training details, the method is quicker, however, contributing to less consistency in grading [31]. ...
... The relational word has been utilized for taking the cyber-malicious post information for utilizing diverse cyber-malicious post bytes and furthermore utilizing the substance from the site known as pythonprogramming.net. The different positive and [30]. ...
... Then, LSTM was successfully found to analyze and detect the Carna botnet [7]. The main aim of the dark Web collective archive is to provide a research environment, platform, and infrastructure for the sue of communities related to scientists, experts for computer and knowledge scientists, policy experts and security researchers and others working in social trends and in computationalrelated problems [30,31]. Dark Web anonymous platform provides open access for the conduction of community working for international jihadist Web-based forums like sharing of hate speeches, radicalization, recruitment, fund raising, lone wolf attack, terrorist training manual sharing, propaganda escalating, female accounts on social sites, SNA-social network analysis for searching of targets, money laundering, arm trafficking, human and organ trafficking [32,33]. ...
... However, on Facebook, the machine learning approach is not functioning well for the users commenting randomly, as it involves several exercises such that the approach can be modified as the data collection influences the size as the consistency of the performance [27,29]. Besides, it takes time to evaluate machine learning, particularly, if training is needed, for a complex machine learning model [30]. With fewer training details, the method is quicker, however, contributing to less consistency in grading [31]. ...
... The relational word has been utilized for taking the cyber-malicious post information for utilizing diverse cyber-malicious post bytes and furthermore utilizing the substance from the site known as pythonprogramming.net. The different positive and [30]. ...
Chapter
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Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) provide communication of mobile nodes in an infrastructure-less environment. Factors like the mobility of nodes, dynamic topology of the nodes, path breakages, limited availability of resources, etc., affect QoS. This chapter carries important mobility models that are used for simulation. We have considered different mobility models, namely Random Way Point, Gauss Markov, Random Walk-2D, Random Direction-2D, and Constant Velocity. The parameters used for the experiment are PDR, delay, and throughput to check the impact of QoS in MANET using NS-3. It is noted that the Gauss Markov furnished better result concerning PDR and delay, whereas Constant velocity and Random Way Point model performs better for throughput among other mobility models. Researchers will be benefitted from this chapter. It will make them learn which mobility model gives better QoS support in MANET.
... Positive communication strategies occur when affirmative and supportive communication is entirely dominant in the organization; thus, the organization's performance tends to be high when the communication patterns are positive (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). Meanwhile, positive relations refer to productive relationships and produce vitality and learning (Baker & Dutton, 2007). ...
... The other dimension is positive communication strategy, occurred when overall, affirmative and supportive communication is dominant in the organization. An organization's performance tends to be high when the communication pattern is positive (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). Leaders could forge and become role models for articulating appreciation, support, approvals, and compliments. ...
... Frederickson and Losada (2005) found that when employees experience a 3:1 ratio of positive compared to negative emotion as the result of communication, the employee could become healthier and individual performance increase. This is due to more people being connected, exchanging information, and an interaction that creates resources and enables people to act (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). ...
Article
The recent emergence of negative communication and apathetic behavior requires positive communication by considering empathy known as Komunikasih (In Indonesian, communication with compassion). Besides individuals, institutions, including companies, should apply Komunikasih to practice positive communication. This article examines the Rumah Kedua (second home) program of Nutrifood Indonesia as the embodiment of the company's value or culture, namely “i-care.” This study employed a case study method with a Komunikasih theory analysis. The data were collected using textual, visual, digital, manual, professional, and personal document search, and in-depth interviews with key informants: the CEO and several employees of Nutrifood. This study revealed that the Komunikasih spirit embodies in the form of 1) equality, 2) sincerity, 3) compassion, 4) affection, 5) respectfulness, 6) friendship, 7) sense of family, 8) meaningfulness, 9) wellness, and 10) loyalty. Consequently, the company created a comfortable working atmosphere that makes the office like a second home. Nutrifood has used multimedia and multi-sensory messages through videography, storytelling, books, wall quotes, and ambient layouts to communicate these values. Other companies can use the findings of this study as a reference to implement the idea of Komunikasih in their internal and external communication.
... They have been identified as a subject of pivotal interest by positive organizational scholarship and positive psychology (Cameron et al 2003, Quinn and Dutton 2005, Garland et al 2011. Enter relatedness-studies and the research of energizing bonding and connectedness (Fogel 1993, Stacey 1993, Losada 1999, Losada and Heaphy 2004, Beebe and Lachmann 2002, Brown and Brown 2006, Dutton and Ragins 2007, Hari and Kujala 2009. People have the ability to feel connected on some very deep level, it is generally acknowledged by studies ranging from organizational scholarship and team performance to infant research and neuroscience. ...
... In a parallel trend, parameters of connectivity and positivity have become pivotal in the research on high performing teams. (Losada 1999, Losada and Heaphy 2004, Luoma et al 2008, Cameron 2008. Connectivity, acceptance, encouragement and social bonds are among the soft parameters that have been found to link with successful team creativity, productivity and innovativeness. ...
... H 2 : Trust in leader has a positive impact on connectivity of relationship with the leader Further, the followers' connectivity with their leader encourages a safe environment, which enables a trustworthy relationship with co-workers (Losada & Heaphy, 2004), resulting in sharing of new ideas with one's leader. Further, reported that people show creative and innovative behaviour when they have a connection with their co-workers. ...
... Further, reported that people show creative and innovative behaviour when they have a connection with their co-workers. This connection places employees in a psychologically safe environment (Losada & Heaphy, 2004), where they feel free to share their new ideas (Delbecq & Mills, 1985). The leaders in an organization can induce creative and innovative behaviour by encouraging subordinates and connecting with them (Albrecht et al., 1991). ...
Article
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A number of women are leading a variety of organizations in Pakistan. The available research on the effectiveness of women’s leadership is not so clear, and there have been mixed findings across different contexts. The present research attempts to view women’s transformational leadership as a source of employees’ trust and connectivity that leads to innovative behaviour of employees in women-led organizations of Pakistan. The study also investigates the simple as well as sequential mediation of trust and connectivity in the relationship between women’s transformational leadership and employees’ innovative behaviour. Using a survey-based questionnaire, cross-sectional data were collected from 366 employees of different organizations which are led by women. These organizations include educational institutes, advertising agencies and fashion houses. The data were analysed using the MEDTHREE analysis for direct and indirect hypotheses (single and sequential mediations). The results indicate that women’s transformational leadership fosters trust, connectivity and innovative behaviour in the employees. Further, the results supported that employees’ trust in their leader and connectivity mediate the relationship between women’s leadership and innovative behaviour of the employees.
... The third strategy is positive communication, seen through collaboration and emphasizing individuals' strengths and contributions. Losada and Heaphy (2004; also see Box et al., 2021) demonstrated this strategy in a study in which they reported that the most important factor in predicting organizational performance was the ratio of positive statements to negative statements by leaders and employees. Positive statements were defined as those that expressed appreciation, support, helpfulness, approval, or compliments. ...
... Empirical evidence (e.g., Box et al., 2021;Losada & Heaphy, 2004) suggests that higher levels of positive communication compared to negative communications lead to higher performance. This area is one in which many faculty members have the most difficulty; traditionally, academic responses are negative where problems are pointed out. ...
Article
A number of theoretical models have been suggested for how to mentor doctoral students. However, they tend to rely on hierarchical and authoritarian relationships between the faculty and students. Such models tend to create dependency and fear of the faculty, resulting in a reluctance in coming to the mentor for guidance. Such models do not tend to work well with online adult doctoral students with jobs and families. This paper proposes a model of positive leadership for online doctoral mentors, where mentors are accessible and create an environment where success is assumed and social support is provided by both the mentor and peers. In this model of mentorship, students are encouraged to problem solve their deficiencies and work out a plan to address them. Gratitude is expressed by the mentor and encouraged in students to recognize those who have helped them to progress. The paper includes suggestions, examples, and methods to aid the mentor in positive leadership of doctoral students.
... As a dimension of positive leadership, positive communication describes the dominance of affirmative and supportive communication in the organization. When managers apply this kind of communication assertively, and it becomes a pattern on many occasions, it improves the organization's performance (Losada & Heaphy, 2004b). This dominance is possible if the managers' role models articulate appreciation, support, approval, and compliments. ...
... Fredrickson and Losada (2005) rationalize positive communication insofar as it creates positive emotion that also produces healthier individuals. Positive emotion drives people's connection and interaction, which may develop resources that enable them to act (Losada & Heaphy, 2004b). ...
... Para evaluar a estos equipos, tomó tres indicadores de desempeño: rentabilidad, satisfacción del cliente (internos y externos de ese equipo y feedback 360° entre los miembros del mismo sobre satisfacción y variables comunicacionales. Con esta información, los separó entre bajo, medio y alto desempeño, para luego observar los patrones dinámicos de funcionamiento grupal entre ellos (Losada, 1999;Losada & Heaphy, 2004;Fredrickson & Losada, 2005). ...
... A partir de allí definió la conectividad como "la calidad de las interacciones" entre los miembros de un equipo, dentro de la reunión. Y las tres dimensiones bipolares que componen esta conectividad, según Losada (2004), son: Positividad/negatividad, indagar/abogar y Otro (foco externo)/sí mismo (foco interno). ...
Book
Desde hace dos siglos la ciencia y el humanismo han demostrado que el progreso humano no es una utopía. Poco a poco aprendimos a utilizar el conocimiento para promover el florecimiento y bienestar humano. Hemos logrado aumentar la esperanza de vida, la seguridad, generar sociedades más justas y equitativas, transformar la forma en la que trabajamos y estudiamos. Si bien todavía restan muchos aspectos por mejorar, podemos aseverar sin lugar a dudas que hoy las personas tienen mejor calidad de vida que hace doscientos años. Sin embargo, la humanidad cíclicamente tiende a encontrarse con adversidades que ponen a prueba sus conocimientos y valores. Nos encontramos atravesando un momento inédito en nuestra historia. La pandemia por COVID-19 continúa extendiéndose por el mundo, deteriorando los sistemas sanitarios, la economía y la calidad de vida de toda la población. Es la primera vez que nuestra especie sobrelleva un confinamiento de escala global. Diversos estudios señalan que nos aproximamos a la recesión económica más grande de nuestra historia. Para encontrar una contracción de magnitud comparable hace falta retroceder hasta la Gran Depresión de 1930. Se prevé un fuerte aumento del desempleo con efectos negativos en la pobreza y desigualdad. ¿Es posible ser optimista en este contexto? Frente al fatalismo la mejor opción es el optimismo condicional. La idea de que todos los problemas son resolubles si contamos con los conocimientos adecuados. Los seres humanos somos una especie que vive de su ingenio, inventando y compartiendo nociones sobre la mejor forma de abordar los problemas que nos rodean. Cuando nos enfrentamos a adversidades disponemos de dos alternativas: paralizarlos o transformarnos. Las crisis son también una oportunidad para el cambio, nos desafían, nos obligan a salir de nuestra zona de confort, nos invitan cuestionarnos e innovar. Este escenario puede ayudarnos a desarrollar recursos y fortalezas tanto individuales como colectivas. Esta situación puede volvernos más unidos como sociedad. Quizás las consecuencias tan dramáticas que estamos viviendo nos ayuden a revisar nuestros valores, la forma en que trabajamos y la importancia que le otorgamos a nuestra salud. Quizás nos ayude a re-pensar nuestra economía, nuestra manera de enseñar y de aprender. Probablemente nos permita ser una sociedad más solidaria y empática. La adversidad puede ser fuente de crecimiento, pero para ello se requiere de acciones rápidas, efectivas e integradas. El estado, las organizaciones y las universidades deben articularse para lograr respuestas efectivas. Una gestión inadecuada en esta etapa aumenta exponencialmente las consecuencias de la pandemia a mediano y largo plazo. La duración y las consecuencias de esta pandemia dependerá de la velocidad y eficacia para dar respuestas sanitarias, económicas y sociales durante esta etapa inicial. La emergencia sanitaria impactó en el 73% de los trabajadores de Argentina, ya sea por la reducción de horas, la imposibilidad de ejercer la actividad laboral o el cambio de sus rutinas mediante la adopción del teletrabajo. Se observa un crecimiento en la prevalencia de problemas asociados al estrés en el trabajo. Las presiones económicas y las fricciones entre la vida familiar y laboral han aumentado los niveles de agotamiento emocional. Asimismo, se existe un aumento en el porcentaje de trabajadores que han perdido el interés e la identificación con su trabajo. Frente a ello, las organizaciones deben tomar medidas necesarias para minimizar el impacto de este escenario inédito en el bienestar emocional de las personas. El bienestar emocional es un recurso clave para poder afrontar los desafíos y adversidades que plantea esta pandemia. Probablemente, la emergencia sanitaria y los índices de mortalidad pueden llevar a suponer que no estamos en un momento oportuno para preocuparnos sobre el bienestar emocional de la población. Pero más que nunca debemos tener en claro que el bienestar emocional no es un lujo. Es un requisito esencial para que las personas puedan trabajar de forma productiva, afrontar el estrés cotidiano, desarrollar su talento y realizar una contribución significativa a la comunidad. Por este motivo la promoción del bienestar y la gestión del estrés deben constituir un objetivo estratégico en todas las organizaciones, sobre todo en momentos como el que estamos viviendo. Esperamos que este libro sea una herramienta útil para lograr dicho propósito.
... Characterized by correction and an implicit call to remedy, it leverages the strong emotional impact of deficiency to encourage limited deviation from what has been done before. 19 However, the arousal of strong negative emotions, such as discouragement, shame, and disappointment, also neurologically inhibits access to existing neural circuits, thereby invoking cognitive, emotional, and perceptual impairment. 10,24,25 In effect, this means that negative feedback can also reduce the comprehension of content and thus possibly run counter to the desired goal of bringing about follow-up and change. ...
... However, studies have shown that the details of the negative comment will not be retained without sufficient accompanying positive comment. 1 The importance of this balance has also been shown for workplace team performance. 19 The correlation observed between higher team performance and a higher ratio of positive comments in the study by Losada and Heaphy is attributed to an expansive emotional space, opening possibilities for action and creativity. In contrast, lower performing teams demonstrated restrictive emotional spaces as reflected in a low ratio of positive comments. ...
Article
The format of feedback can have a significant impact on the outcome of an evaluation. Checklists, a common tool in health and safety inspections, have limited potential to change practices and habits between utilizations because implicitly they are finite in terms of conveying priority or providing guidance on how to solve cited issues. In addition, they are vulnerable to variability in the thoroughness of application. In contrast, feedback in the form of unstructured descriptive comments has the potential to magnify existing strengths, which sustain an overall good practice between inspections if the comments include positive citations that are specific and detailed. Without inclusion of both positive feedback and unstructured descriptive comments to the standard, structured checklist, inspectors miss the opportunity to reinforce actions already being performed and the opportunity to build on the foundation of existing skill and knowledge. This case study combines principles of management, evaluation tool design, behavioral psychology, and neurological science to explain the impact the authors observed on safety compliance in conjunction with providing positive feedback in unstructured comments as part of annual inspection reports.
... 35 To accomplish this, Seligman 28 suggested that we should seek grit The human response to stress is normally distributed as patients attempt to move from depression and burnout to growth and strength. Data from Gottman, 29 Fredrickson and Losada, 30 Losada and Heaphy, 31 and Buehlman et al. 32 and optimism, because they will help to immunize us against learned helplessness and, thus, residing at the wrong end of the personality spectrum. These investigators developed the Penn Resilience Program, 28 which was built on positive emotions and relationships, engagement, meaning, and achievement intended to build mental toughness. ...
... The optimal ratio for this, because most humans try to avoid the negative more than they try to attain the positive, is somewhere around 3:1 to 6:1. [29][30][31]43 We need more focus on the positive. For vascular surgeons, maybe taking a moment to applaud yourself after doing a good job when finishing a particularly tough case would be a good tool for rewarding your grit. ...
... Analyses of romantic couples has identified that IER improves relationship satisfaction (Gottman et al., 1998;Bloch et al., 2014;Levenson et al., 2014). The research in this area posits that interpersonal behaviors initiate a pattern of complementarity, such that positive interpersonal exchanges most often produce a positive behavioral response (Tracey, 1994;Losada and Heaphy, 2004), thus leading to improvements in the well-being of both the regulator and the target (Niven et al., 2009) and improving their relationship (Niven et al., 2012). ...
Article
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This research demonstrates that interpersonal emotion regulation—attempts to manage others’ feelings—influences consumer perceptions during sales and service interactions impacting brand trust and loyalty. Building on previous research linking interpersonal emotion regulation to improved outcomes between people, across five experiments, we demonstrate that antecedent-focused interpersonal emotion regulation strategies result in enhanced brand loyalty and brand trust compared to response-focused interpersonal emotion regulation strategies. Analysis of mediation models reveals this effect is explained by changes in the consumer’s emotions, which in turn influence evaluations of the service interaction and subsequently impacts brand outcomes. We identify reactance as a moderator of this effect, such that customers with low (high) reactance to interpersonal regulation attempts exhibit more (less) favorable brand trust and loyalty evaluations. Further, we demonstrate that the visibility of interpersonal emotion regulation represents an important boundary condition. These findings support the process model of interpersonal emotion regulation and generate important insights for both theory and practice.
... These authors showed that trust was indeed linked to innovative work behaviors through connectivity and thriving (i.e., experience of learning and vitality). Amongst other behaviors, frequent verbal interactions showing support, encouragement or appreciation within team settings was associated to increased connectivity hence broadening possibilities for actions and creativity (Losada and Heaphy, 2004). ...
Article
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In a global and highly competitive world, the importance of creativity is increasing as it supports adaptability, health, and actualization. Yet, because most research focuses on what it takes to produce creative artifacts, interventions supporting growth in creative potential remains underexplored. To address this limitation, the first goal of this paper is to review the creativity science literature to identify the elements that underpin the realization of an individual’s creative potential. The summary of the literature is presented using a framework which highlights the interactions between environmental elements (i.e., cultural values, social interactions, and material world) and actors’ elements (i.e., affective attributes and states, cognitive skills, and physical expression). Using a systemic perspective, the framework illustrates ‘what’ creativity enhancement interventions should aim for, to facilitate the emergence of creative actions. Given the current lack of holistic, embodied, and interactive evidence-based interventions to nurture the creative potential elements identified, the second part of this review builds on movement sciences literature and physical literacy conceptualization to suggest that enriched movement activities are promising avenues to explore. Specifically, following non-linear pedagogy approaches, an intervention called movement improvisation is introduced. Ecological dynamics principles are used to explain how improvising with movement in a risk-friendly environment can lead to cognitive, affective, social, and cultural repertoire expansion. To interrogate this argument further, the review concludes with possible solutions to withstand research challenges and raises future study questions. Overall, combining creativity and movement sciences in this review demonstrates the potential for well-designed movement interventions to ignite creative potential for individuals and overcome the tendency to remain anchored in a state of inertia.
... Previous studies have shown that positive emotions have been associated with various beneficial outcomes such as higher level of work satisfaction (Losada & Heaphy, 2004) higher life satisfaction (Cohn et al, 2009), and academic motivation (Low, King, & Caleon, 2016)). A review of positive emotions by Lyubomirsky et al. (2005) mentioned that positive emotions not only bring satisfaction and success at work but also good relationships with others and better physical health maintenance. ...
... It is fair to expect that HRD relevant insights are in offing through research into the experience of employees in the context of their birectional everyday interaction at work. One example to that effect is the empirical work of Losada on high-performing teams (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). If a kind of "anthropology" is taken along with systems thinking as fundamental to HRD (Swanson, 2001), and brought to bear on the micro level, then our discussion raises the question whether the study of people in organizations could follow suit, and the generic human factors brought to focus by our model could be investigated within HRD with equal rigor. ...
Article
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We introduce and validate the Organizational Systems Intelligence (OSI) scale, a measurement tool for learning organization , and propose the scale as a useful tool for human resource development (HRD) at the individual level. The scale complements the operationalization of Senge's "Five Disciplines" of the learning organization. OSI provides a new perspective that links employees' perceptions of various seemingly mundane everyday practices with the organizationally desirable effects of a learning organization. The model suggests developmental perspectives that highlight micro-level behavioral, informal, interactional, and accessible-to-all aspects of the learning organization as a route to improvement. Operating in the vernacular and focusing on human experience in organizations, the OSI perspective points to improvement possibilities in and among people in contrast to structural manager-level constructs. It contributes to HRD literature that explores developmental outcomes and theoretical understanding from human experience in contrast to rank, status, structure, or hierarchy. With its bottom-up logic as an operationalization of the Sengean learning organization as a form of applied systems thinking, the model introduces an employee-level perspective of systems thinking in action into the field of HRD. It is demonstrated that with respect to perceived performance, the OSI scale performs equally well as the widely used Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire.
... The implementation and how it is applied in the game is shown in Table 1, which considers the production and resource characteristics of pediatric emergency medicine. Provided that the positive and negative feedback framework is psychologically beneficial for systematically effective employee performances in operational settings, as demonstrated by Losada and Heaphy [37], the optimal ratio of 6:1 for the distribution of positive and negative feedback is used for the calibration of the order of magnitude for each role in emergency medicine delivery. ...
Article
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Background Using serious games for learning in operations management is well established. However, especially for logistics skills in health care operations, there is little work on the design of game mechanics for learning engagement and the achievement of the desired learning goals. Objective This contribution presents a serious game design representing patient flow characteristics, systemic resource configurations, and the roles of the players based on a real Swedish emergency ward. The game was tested in a set of game-based learning practices in the modalities of a physical board game and an online multiplayer serious game that implemented the same game structure. Methods First, survey scores were collected using the Game Experience Questionnaire Core and Social Presence Modules to evaluate the experience and acceptance of the proposed design to gamify real processes in emergency care. Second, lag sequential analysis was applied to analyze the impact of the game mechanics on learning behavior transitions. Lastly, regression analysis was used to understand whether learning engagement attributes could potentially serve as significant predicting variables for logistical performance in a simulated learning environment. ResultsA total of 36 students from courses in engineering and management at KTH Royal Institute of Technology participated in both game-based learning practices during the autumn and spring semesters of 2019 and 2020. For the Core Module, significant differences were found for the scores for negative affect and tension compared with the rest of the module. For the Social Presence Module, significant differences were found in the scores for the psychological involvement – negative feelings dimension compared with the rest of the module. During the process of content generation, the participant had access to circulating management resources and could edit profiles. The standard regression analysis output yielded a ΔR2 of 0.796 (F14,31=2725.49, P
... "Çalışma arkadaşının yetkinliğine itimat etme ve onun hakkaniyetli, ahlaklı ve güvenilir davranışlar sergileyeceğine inanma" olarak tanımlanan çalışma arkadaşlarına güven, (İslamoğlu vd., 2007, s. 37), örgütün uzun vadeli istikrarı ve üyelerinin refahının çok önemli bir bileşenini oluşturmaktadır (Cook & Wall, 1980, s. 39). Güven, yüksek düzeyde öğrenmeyi, doğru işleyişi ve kariyer gelişimini sağlamada etkili olan işyerinde açıklık ve bağlantıyı sağladığı için (Carmeli & Spreitzer, 2009) işyerinde çalışanların gelişmesinin temeli olarak kabul edilmektedir (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). Güven kişisel gelişimi için en uygun çevresel koşulları yarattığı için bireyin öznel kariyer başarısı algısı üzerinde olumlu bir etkiye sahiptir (Russo vd., 2014: 250). ...
Article
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Öz: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin kurucusu Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’ün “Nerede karşılıklı sevgi ve saygı varsa, orada itimat ve itaat vardır. İtimat ve itaatin olduğu yerde disiplin vardır. Disiplinin olduğu yerde huzur, huzurun olduğu yerde başarı vardır.” özdeyişinin günümüz örgütlerinde geçerliliği irdeleyen bu çalışma, bu özdeyişten hareketle, örgütlerde kariyer başarısının öncelleri ve bu değişkenlerin birbirleriyle ilişkilerini ölçmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Anketi cevaplayan 473 çalışandan elde edilen verilerin analizi sonucunda sevgi ve saygının güven ve itaat, güven ve itaatin iş disiplini, iş disiplinin huzur, huzurun da kariyer başarısı üzerinde olumlu etkisi olduğu belirlenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Örgütlerde Sevgi, Örgütlerde Saygı, Örgütlerde Güven, Örgütlerde Otoriteye İtaat, İş Disiplini, Örgütlerde Huzur, Kariyer Başarısı. Abstract: The present study examines the validity of the founder of Turkish Republic; Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s quote “Where there is mutual liking and respect, there is trust and obedience. There is discipline where there is trust and obedience. There is peace of mind where there is discipline, and success where there is peace of mind.” in today’s organizations. Based on this quote, it aims to measure the antecedents of career success in organizations and the relationships between these variables. The analysis of the data obtained from 459 employees revealed that liking and respect has a positive effect on trust and obedience, trust and obedience has a positive effect on work discipline, work discipline has a positive effect on peace of mind and peace of mind has a positive effect on career success. Keywords: Interpersonal Liking in Organizations, Respect in Organizations, Trust in Organizations, Obedience to Authority, Work Discipline, Peace of Mind in Organizations, Career Success.
... Recently, organizations pay attention to establishing and supporting positive relationships among employees by forming workgroups (Lewis, 2011), encouraging 'dream teams' through role clarity, diversity, advancement potential, supportive leadership, collective efficacy, and trust (Richardson & West, 2010). Establishing 'dream teams' results in enhanced creativity and innovation (Richardson & West, 2010;Shubina & Kulakli, 2020), increased work performance (Losada & Heaphy, 2004), engagement (Weigl et al., 2010), and job satisfaction (Mickan & Rodger, 2005). Recent studies have stated that optimism, team efficacy, and resilience contributed to positive relationships at work overtime. ...
... The degree of connectivity indicates the relationship's extent of openness to new ideas and influences, as well as the capacity to ward off behaviours that hinder generative processes. A healthy relationship is marked by a higher degree of connectivity (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). The subjective experience of vitality is associated with dispensing of necessary energy to organisational outcomes, whereas positive regard and mutuality facilitates high organisational learning (Carmeli et al., 2009). ...
Article
This study examined the association between interpersonal relationships and organisation learning behaviour among new employees; as well as the influence of psychological safety on that relationship. Participants were 1 500 newly recruited university employees (females = 41.66%; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 8.11 years). Participants completed measures of interpersonal relationship carrying capacity (emotional carrying capacity, tensility, and connectivity), subjective experience (positive regard, mutuality, and vitality), and learning behaviour. Regression analyses indicated that higher interpersonal relationship dimension statuses predicted higher organisation learning behaviour. Psychological safety mediated the influence of interpersonal relationship on organisational learning behaviour. These findings suggest the importance for human resources managers in tertiary institutions to promote psychological safety of new employees for their work adjustment, improved organisational learning, and enhancement of productivity.
... If the negative sentiment was set to -0.2 and ratio of negative tweet was set 40% [37][38][39]. In our data set by using decision tree algorithm which detect threats in inside and outside in an efficient way [40]. Table 7 shows that classification of threat level. ...
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The current population worldwide extensively uses social media to share thoughts, societal issues, and personal concerns. Social media can be viewed as an intelligent platform that can be augmented with a capability to analyze and predict various issues such as business needs, environmental needs, election trends (polls), governmental needs, etc. This has motivated us to initiate a comprehensive search of the COVID-19 pandemic-related views and opinions amongst the population on Twitter. The basic training data have been collected from Twitter posts. On this basis, we have developed research involving ensemble deep learning techniques to reach a better prediction of the future evolutions of views in Twitter when compared to previous works that do the same. First, feature extraction is performed through an N-gram stacked autoencoder supervised learning algorithm. The extracted features are then involved in a classification and prediction involving an ensemble fusion scheme of selected ma-chine learning techniques such as decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF) , and K-nearest neighbour (KNN). all individual results are combined/fused for a better prediction by using both mean and mode techniques. Our proposed scheme of an N-gram stacked encoder integrated in an ensemble machine learning scheme outperforms all the other existing competing techniques such unigram autoencoder, bigram autoencoder, etc. Our experimental results have been obtained from a comprehensive evaluation involving a dataset extracted from open-source data available from Twitter that were filtered by using the keywords “covid”, “covid19”, “coronavirus”, “covid-19”, “sarscov2”, and “covid_19”.
... Their positive, supportive language helps identify existing strengths on which to build, and makes people comfortable to share new ideas, leading to innovation and growth. (Losada and Heaphy, 2004) COVID-19 has changed the world dramatically. With so much unsettled or unknown, the principles of Appreciative Leadership are especially important now because this approach pushes participants to seek understanding, to engage as many stakeholders as possible, and to build on strengths that are still present in economies and societies, despite the struggles experienced by many at this time. ...
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Values are the backbone of any organization. They have significant leverage over the quality and timely provision of organizational outputs. Values influence organizational performance, innovation, and resilience. This V20 Policy Brief outlines specific values and leadership approaches that strengthen the position that understanding, developing, and leading with the right values is critical to sustainable global development.
... As our study highlights the importance of positive emotions for idea generation and promotion, managers may want to stimulate a positive organizational climate that instigates positive feelings among employees. For instance, organizational climates that are oriented on learning from errors and stimulating a growth mindset in employees have been found to encourage work-related flow experiences and thereby positive emotions (Caniëls et al., 2020;Losada & Heaphy, 2004 ...
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... Positive interactions play an important role in the workplace, specially predicting team performance. Following on Gottman's [42] research on married couples, Losada et al. [43] found that the same ratio of positive to negative interactions (5 to 1) is the critical differentiator between high-, medium-, and low-performing teams. ...
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Positive Psychology has been devoted to enhancing well-being within organizations during the first two decades of the current millennium. Unfortunately, little data is available on current assessment related to positive psychology practices in the workplace. Therefore, to assess organizational well-being in a valid and reliable way, a new scale has been created and validated by the Institute for Wellbeing and Happiness at Tecmilenio University in Mexico: the BEAT Questionnaire, whose main contribution to previous models is the element of meaningful work. EFA and CFA were carried out to determine and confirm the scale’s structure; internal consistency tests were performed too; additionally, convergence with measures of engagement, labor resources, and worker relations were also confirmed, and discriminant validity was tested by comparing associations with job search intentions and negative relationships in the workplace, yielding an instrument with four clearly defined latent dimensions, composed by 24 highly consistent items, convergent with three other valid and reliable scales. All procedures complied with statistical requirements, delivering a valid and reliable instrument for measuring well-being in the workplace.
... Although the subsequent finding that the mean positivity ratio in the "flourishing" group was significantly higher than in the "nonflourishing" group provides some evidence of a positive correlation between the positivity ratio and "degree of flourishing" (i.e., evidence against scenario #8) 4 , this result is perfectly compatible both with a linear correlation (scenario #7) and with a nonlinear correlation (claim #6); the dichotomized data are totally incapable of distinguishing these two alternatives. The fact that "these mean ratios flanked the 2.9 ratio," which Fredrickson and Losada considered 3 In fact, there is no evidence in any of the three published articles (Losada, 1999;Losada & Heaphy, 2004;) that Losada or his colleagues utilized any "model estimation technique" (see Brown et al., 2013, pp. 806-808, 811 Running head: RESPONSE ON POSITIVITY RATIOS 7 "critical to our hypothesis" (p. ...
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Comments on the article by Fredrickson and Losada (see record 2005-11834-001). Recently the current authors (Brown, Sokal, & Friedman, 2013) debunked the widely cited claim made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) that their use of a mathematical model drawn from nonlinear dynamics (namely, the Lorenz equations from fluid dynamics) provided theoretical support for the existence of a pair of critical positivity-ratio values (2.9013 and 11.6346) such that individuals whose ratios fall between these values will “flourish,” whereas people whose ratios lie outside this ideal range will “languish.” For lack of space in our previous article, we refrained from addressing, except in passing, the question of whether there might be empirical evidence for the existence of one or more critical positivity ratios (“tipping points”). In response to our critique, Fredrickson and Losada (2013) withdrew their nonlinear dynamics model, but Fredrickson (December December 2013) reaffirmed some claims concerning positivity ratios on the basis of empirical studies. We would therefore like to comment briefly on these claims and the alleged supporting evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
... This leads team members to make the effort to gain a thorough and rich understanding of others' needs, as well as to increasingly seek, encode, and apply cooperative information and exchange this type of information (De Dreu et al., 2008). The team will then have deep communication and interactions, and team members will have a high level of connectivity, all of which have been suggested to be associated with a positive emotional atmosphere (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). When the team experiences positive emotions, the team members will be more likely to broaden their thought−action repertoires, collect and share more resources, and see more possibilities for action (Fredrickson, 2001), all of which will lead to a high level of team DC (Carmeli, Friedman & Tishler, 2013). ...
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... Therefore, it may be necessary to maintain a reasonable ratio of positive to negative affect in an organization. A study showed that a high positive-to-negative affect ratio in organizations was correlated with high team performance [96]. At present, although it is not clear where the tipping point for positive emotion is for an organization, it is worth exploring further. ...
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Background This study investigated the effects of the loving-kindness meditation (LKM) on employees’ mindfulness, affect, altruism and knowledge hiding. Methods In total, 100 employees were recruited from a knowledge-based enterprise in China and randomly divided into the LKM training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The LKM training group underwent LKM training for 8 weeks, while the control group did not. Seven main variables (mindfulness, altruism positive affect, negative affect, playing dumb, rationalized hiding, and evasive hiding) were measured both before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the LKM training intervention. Results The LKM intervention significantly increased participants’ altruism, and significantly reduced negative affect, playing dumb and evasive hiding, but did not significantly improve mindfulness, positive affect, and rationalized hiding. Conclusions LKM significantly improved employees’ altruism, and significantly reduce their negative affect, but did not significantly improve their mindfulness and positive affect. For knowledge hiding, LKM significantly reduced playing dumb and evasive hiding, but had no significant effect on rationalized hiding. These results further elucidate the psychological effects of LKM and suggest the possibility of reducing knowledge hiding in the workplace. Trial registration ChiCTR2200057460. Registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), 13 March 2022—Retrospectively registered.
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Coaching is increasingly being used in the health sector, with staff and patients. Despite this increase, there is only a small body of empirical evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of coaching in health care settings. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a workplace coaching program (WCP) aimed at enhancing the work behaviors and well‐being of 17 managers in a large Australian teaching hospital. A within‐group, pre‐post test study design was used. The WCP consisted of needs‐based workshops and group and individual coaching over a 6‐month period. Positive social science provided the theoretical underpinning for the WCP, and this was applied through an integrated solution‐focused, cognitive‐behavioral methodology. A questionnaire was used to collect data at two time‐points. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test. Participation in coaching was associated with significantly enhanced proactivity, core performance, goal‐attainment, self‐insight, motivation, positive affect, and autonomy. Significant effects on self‐reflection, negative affect, and psychological well‐being were not found. The study provides preliminary evidence in favor of workplace coaching as an effective approach for facilitating work effectiveness. Further research utilizing larger sample sizes and controlled study designs is warranted.
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آموزش مبتنی بر نتیجه و شاگردمحور دو رویکرد آموزشی است که شاگردان را در مرکز روند یادگیری قرار میدهد. در آموزش مبتنی بر نتیجه، نتایج یادگیری از قبل تعریف و مشخص شده و همه فعالیت‌های یادگیری و ارزیابی در روشنایی آن‌ها و بخاطر دستیابی به آن‌ها روی دست گرفته می‌شوند. در رویکرد شاگردمحور، صلاحیت میان استاد و شاگرد تقسیم شده و محتوا نقش دوگانه را بازی می‌کند. برعلاوه، نقش استادان و شاگردان تغییر کرده و روندهای ارزیابی و اهداف آن‌ها بر یادگیری شاگردان تمرکز می‌کنند. استادان به‌عنوان تسهیل‌گران، نهایت تلاش خویش را می‌کنند تا یادگیری شاگردان را به حد اکثر رسانده و آن‌ها را برای زندگی بعد از فراغت آماده کنند.
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Drawing on the premise that the best way to predict the future is to create it, in this chapter I explain and illustrate the real-world application of Integral Investing within the exterior context presented in Chap. 1 and the hidden, interior transformation discussed in Chap. 2. I give examples of how we have successfully applied our investing model through the creation of integrally sustainable companies to show how Transformation is Feasible through early-stage investing. In this chapter, you will also learn why 80% of the investment risk lies with the team and key individuals and how to reduce that risk through the Theta Model, our due diligence process that we now scale trough a human-centered AI. Our Integral Investing model is summarized in 21 principles and serves as the manifesto for the Investment Turnaround, our moonshot. This book shows a path to ensure the future of life and gives hope. But it is up to us to step up and become the agents for change in order to initiate the right planetary action on all existential threats, from climate change to unsafe AI to nuclear weapons.
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The creating centrality of sentiment assessment agrees with the advancement of the electronic stage, for instance, cyber-vulnerability reviews, gathering discussions for cyber-dangers studies, malicious movement-based overview web diaries, more modest scope sites, and casual associations related to the cyber-lawbreakers exercises study. The choices and approach, used to intrigue this present reality, are generally adjusted to how others see and survey the world about feeling and sentiment. For such an explanation, the ordinarily looking through method is utilized, when it is needed to settle down the decision, for ends, conduction, and evaluation of others. This is certifiable for individuals just as for affiliations and associations and society. This work is a broad inclination assessment which implies the task of ordinary language processing (NLP) to choose if a touch of substance contains some theoretical information and what enthusiastic information it imparts using cyber-malicious post overview, i.e. whether or not the way behind this substance is certain (+) or negative (−). Since radical advances the hoodlums cyber-occasions utilizing on the web interpersonal organization and security offices and validate user blocks it. Understanding the emotions behind the web user delivered substance and instructive file subsequently is of unbelievable help for business and individual use, among others. The task can be coordinated on different levels of substance taking care of, requesting the furthest point of words, sentences or entire educational assortments. Here, the methodology investigates a predominant system for cyber-weaknesses overviews subject to the AI approach.
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Successfully reattaching to work (i.e., mentally reconnecting) after a nonwork period can set the tone for the workday. This study examines anticipated task focus and activated positive affect as mechanisms linking leaders’ reattachment to work in the morning to leader experiences and behaviors throughout the workday. Based on daily-survey data from 416 leaders (2646 total morning/evening survey completions), we conducted multilevel structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Results indicate that day-level reattachment to work in the morning was associated with anticipated task focus and activated positive affect, which in turn were both associated with leader workplace vitality and transformational leadership behavior. Hypotheses regarding leader task accomplishment were not supported. Supplementary analyses indicated that reattachment was indirectly related to perceived task accomplishment through a two-stage mediation – i.e., via anticipated task focus in the morning and actual task focus throughout the workday. Findings point to the important role of reattachment to work in leader experiences and behaviors throughout the workday. Results also indicate the relevance of reattachment to work as an experience and potential strategy that helps leaders successfully move from nonwork to work domains creating positive outcomes for themselves and their followers throughout the workday.
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Face a demanda urgente por capacitação diante da pandemia do novo Coronavírus, que impactou os mais diversos setores, inclusive o educacional, e para atender ao que está estabelecido no plano emergencial de isolamento, que prediz ser necessário promover aulas remotas, criou-se o curso Jornada de Metodologias Ativas (JMA). Considerando essa carência, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo investigar as contribuições do Modelo Learning Vectors (Modelo LV), uma ferramenta de avaliação formativa e Não-linear, para potencializar a implementação da tendência educacional “Growing Focus on Measuring Learning” ao longo da formação inicial e continuada de professores durante a aplicação do Curso JMA. Ao fazer uso de tecnologias emergentes e essenciais a esta nova práxis pedagógica ancorado no AVA Moodle e no Modelo LV, com o intuito de difundir o uso de metodologias ativas e oferecer orientações e sugestões de como implementá-las em uma sala de aula remota, espera-se que seus atores possam reinventar a sala de aula e fazer o “Novo Normal” pedagógico alinhado às tendências educacionais contemporâneas.
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Organizations are increasingly investing in human resource development. The positive psychology approach warns of the importance of strengthening the forces. Leveraging the strengths is a way to achieve better results and even minimize the weaknesses of the leader. It is this assumption that positive psychology adds to the human resource development, which includes the leadership development. This chapter aims to propose a theoretical model about positive leader development supported by the positive psychology approach. This model comes from the literature to the evolution of leadership and organizational theories and the positive psychology. Positive leader development model seeks to enhance leadership development within an organization with a positive psychology approach. The literature shows the advantages of strengthening forces in the organizational context. So, it is necessary to systematize a theoretical model that facilitates the positive leader development in organizations. The proposed model is based on the study by Malinga, Stander, and Nell.
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Solution‐focused coaching is increasingly used by leaders, managers, and human resource professionals as well as professional coaches. Although the principles underpinning solution‐focused coaching are simple, some people find it difficult to put those principles into practice in a systematic manner – simple is not the same as easy. Although there are a number of models designed to help guide solution‐focused coaching conversations, to date little attention has been paid to the process of teaching solution‐focused coaching skills. This is especially the case when teaching solution‐focused coaching skills in organisational settings where time is limited and where individuals, particularly those with high levels of technical expertise may find it challenging to switch roles from manager to leader‐as‐coach. This article gives a short overview of key solution‐focused principles, discusses some of the common challenges facing leaders, managers, consultants and other professionals as they learn solution‐focused coaching approaches, and presents a simple step‐by‐step structured process for teaching, learning and practising solution‐focused coaching
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Teamarbeit ist eine weit verbreitete Form der Zusammenarbeit in Organisationen, deren Beliebtheit stetig wächst. Dabei werden Begriffe wie (Arbeits)Gruppen und Teams oft synonym verwendet. Doch gerade ein Team ist mehr als die (mitunter nur räumliche) Verbindung von Einzelpersonen und mehr als die Vernetzung ihrer individuellen Fähigkeiten und Fertigkeiten. Teams stellen eine besondere Form der Gruppe dar, die sich insbesondere durch spezifische Aufgaben-, Ziel- und Leistungsorientierung auszeichnen. Auch Leitungskräfte versprechen sich durch Teamarbeit vielfältige Vorteile, so z. B. im Bereich der kompetenzorientierten Arbeitsteilung und Flexibilität, der besseren Steuerung und gegenseitigen Unterstützung sowie der Stärkung von Kooperation, Kommunikation, Kreativität. Damit sollen auch Erfolge im Umgang mit Komplexität, steigender Veränderungsgeschwindigkeit sowie der Förderung von Innovationen erzielt werden. Empirische Forschungsergebnisse zeigen Vorteile von Teamarbeit auf, weisen jedoch zugleich auf einige Problemfelder hin. Denn die Annahme, dass Teams automatisch mehr als die Summe ihrer Einzelteile sind, ist nicht eindeutig belegt. In Teams entstehen Reibungsverluste, u. a. durch notwendige und nicht immer gut funktionierende Abstimmungsprozesse, unterschiedliche bzw. unklaren Ziele, Rollen- und Aufgabenverständnisse oder den Rückzug von Teammitgliedern sowie unzureichender Teamführung. Teams können auch sehr erfolgreich sein, was jedoch nicht selbstverständlich ist und nachhaltig gepflegt werden muss. Neben gemeinsam geteilten Zielen, wirksamer Kommunikation, psychologischer Sicherheit und Teamzusammenhalt, sind vor allem eine gute Teamführung, teamförderliche Rahmenbedingungen sowie bestimmte Eigenschaften der Teammitglieder wichtig für den nachhaltigen Teamerfolg. Das Feld der Teamentwicklung bietet hierzu Gestaltungsansätze im Bereich der Umwelt von Teams, der Arbeitsaufgabe bzw. der Zielsteuerung und insbesondere Aspekte, die das Team selbst wie die Führungskraft betreffen. Wie im individuellen Führungskontext gilt auch hier: humaner Erfolg ist die Basis von Teamerfolg. Für die Führungskraft ist entscheidend, eine angemessene Balance zu finden zwischen integrierendem Coach, Moderator*in und Autonomieunterstützer*in auf der einen Seite und zielorientiertem Teamleader auf der anderen Seite, um die vereinbarten Ziele innerhalb der Organisation zu erreichen und zugleich einen guten, resilienten Teamspirit zu entwickeln bzw. zu erhalten.
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Stärkenorientierung ist ein zentrales Konzept innerhalb von «Positive Leadership», der Anwendung von Erkenntnissen wissenschaftsbasierter positiver Psychologie auf die Führung von Mitarbeitenden und Organisationen. Dabei handelt es sich weder um eine für sich allein stehende, spezifische Art von Leadership und People Management noch um einen singulären Aspekt davon, sondern wir haben es hier mit einer grundsätzlich andersartigen Perspektive auf Führung und Entwicklung zu tun. Sie stellt die jahrzehntelange Erfahrung, Ausbildung und «best practice» von Human-Resources-Fachleuten und Linienführungskräften infrage, um sie neu zu gestalten und dadurch wirksamer zu machen. Während klassische Führungs- und Organisationsentwicklung von Defiziten, das heisst von negativen Abweichungen von einem gewünschten Soll-Zustand ausgehen, ist der Ausgangspunkt für Entwicklung und Optimierung im Rahmen stärkenorientierter Führung das, was bereits besonders gut funktioniert. Stärkenorientierung in der Führung hat nichts mit trivialem «positiven Denken» zu tun, sondern sie nutzt das einmalige, individuelle Potenzial von Mitarbeitenden und Organisationen maximal und nachhaltig, was einen entscheidenden Wettbewerbsvorteil darstellt.
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The issues considered in the article actualize the problems associated with the characteristic features of teaching and educating students in the context of online educational the process using e-learning systems that are typical for teaching humanities. The authors identify the most appropriate approaches to the formation of educational programs in this area using distance learning technologies. The authors of the article rely on the characteristic educational elements of the Moodle distance learning system, which allows organizing the training of students as future teachers, taking into account the fact that their professional activity is associated with teaching various creative disciplines for children studying in preschool educational institutions and in the lower grades of secondary schools, lyceums, gymnasiums. The article is also devoted to the problems of teaching music informatics, which performs a limiting role and fills up the content components of education in the process of introducing distance learning forms into the pedagogical practice of music teachers.
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Imagine you are at a café. Someone, in a fit of generosity, decides to buy you a slice of cake (or whatever else you would like to eat). How do you feel? Now, imagine that as you make your way back to the table, you accidentally drop that slice of cake (or other treat) on the ground. Now how do you feel? Reviewing the event, are you more happy or dismayed? For most people, their sadness at losing their food eclipses the happiness from it being gifted to them.
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Das Ziel dieser Studienarbeit war die Erarbeitung eines Konzepts zur Bewertung des Unternehmenswertes unter der Berücksichtigung der weichen Erfolgsfaktoren eines Unternehmens. Grundlage dafür bildete die Auswertung der bestehenden Literatur zu „weichen“ Erfolgsfaktoren und zur Unternehmensbewertung. Es wurde der aktuelle Stand der Technik betrachtet und anhand einer theoretischen Konzeption erweitert. Das Ergebnis der Studienarbeit ist die „Valuation Map“, welche den „Narrative and Numbers“- Ansatz nach Damodaran um die vier Perspektiven der Balanced Scorecard nach Kaplan und Norton erweitert. Weiter wurde ein Qualifizierungsprozess zur Integration von weichen Erfolgsfaktoren in die Valuation Map aufgestellt und erste Erfolgsfaktoren wurden erprobt. Die Valuation Map ermöglicht eine fundiertere Einschätzung des intrinsischen Unternehmenswertes, eine Analyse des Verbesserungspotenzials sowie die gesamtheitliche Steuerung eines Unternehmens oder einer Geschäftseinheit zur Steigerung des intrinsischen Wertes. Demnach sind die Ergebnisse dieser Studienarbeit besonders relevant für Analystinnen und Analysten, Investorinnen und Investoren und die Unternehmensführung. Desweiteren birgt die Studienarbeit einen Mehrwert für alle, die sich für eine fundierte Einschätzung des intrinsischen Wertes von Unternehmen interessieren.
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Many authors have stressed the existence of continuous processes of convergence and divergence, stability and instability, evolution and revolution in every organization. This article argues that these processes are embedded in organizational characteristics and in the way organizations are managed. Organizations are presented as nonlinear dynamic systems subject to forces of stability and forces of instability which push them toward chaos. When in a chaotic domain, organizations are likely to exhibit the qualitative properties of chaotic systems. Several of these properties—sensitivity to initial conditions, discreteness of change, attraction to specific configurations, structural invariance at different scales and irreversibility—are used to establish six propositions. First, because of the coupling of counteracting forces, organizations are potentially chaotic. Second, the path from organizational stability to chaos follows a discrete process of change. Third, when the organization is in the chaotic domain, small changes can have big consequences that cannot be predicted in the long term. Fourth, from chaos, new stabilities emerge—the strange attractors—which are assimilated to organizational configurations. Fifth, similar patterns should be found at different scales. Finally, during one single organizational life span or between two different organizations similar actions should never lead to the same result.
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This study provides a comparative test of two psychological theories concerning the relationship between affect and performance. Managerial simulations are used to test whether people who are positive in disposition perform better or worse on both decisional and interpersonal tasks. Results are consistent in supporting the happier-and-smarter as opposed to the sadder-but-wiser hypothesis, since they show positive relationships between dispositional affect and performance. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance to both the older literature on links between satisfaction and performance and the more recent controversy over the dispositional approach to job attitudes.
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Reviews research in psychology, sociology, and organizational behavior to develop a conceptual framework that specifies how positive emotion (PE) helps employees obtain favorable outcomes at work. It is proposed that feeling and expressing PEs on the job have favorable consequences on (1) employees, independent of their relationships with others (e.g., greater persistence); (2) reactions of others to employees (e.g., "halo," or overgeneralization to other desirable traits); and (3) reactions of employees to others (e.g., helping others). Results from an 18-mo study of 272 employees indicate that PE on the job at Time 1 is associated with evidence of work achievement (more favorable supervisor evaluations and higher pay) and a supportive social context (more support from supervisors and coworkers) at Time 2. PE at Time 1 is not significantly associated with job enrichment at Time 2. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Positive emotions are hypothesized to undo the cardiovascular aftereffects of negative emotions. Study 1 tests this undoing effect. Participants (n = 170) experiencing anxiety-induced cardiovascular reactivity viewed a film that elicited (a) contentment, (b) amusement, (c) neutrality, or (d) sadness. Contentment-eliciting and amusing films produced faster cardiovascular recovery than neutral or sad films did. Participants in Study 2 (n = 185) viewed these same films following a neutral state. Results disconfirm the alternative explanation that the undoing effect reflects a simple replacement process. Findings are contextualized by Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (B. L. Fredrickson, 1998).
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The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, and learning processes. Bad emotions, bad parents, and bad feedback have more impact than good ones, and bad information is processed more thoroughly than good. The self is more motivated to avoid bad self-definitions than to pursue good ones. Bad impressions and bad stereotypes are quicker to form and more resistant to disconfirmation than good ones. Various explanations such as diagnosticity and salience help explain some findings, but the greater power of bad events is still found when such variables are controlled. Hardly any exceptions (indicating greater power of good) can be found. Taken together, these findings suggest that bad is stronger than good, as a general principle across a broad range of psychological phenomena.
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There has long been interest in describing emotional experience in terms of underlying dimensions, but traditionally only two dimensions, pleasantness and arousal, have been reliably found. The reasons for these findings are reviewed, and integrating this review with two recent theories of emotions (Roseman, 1984; Scherer, 1982), we propose eight cognitive appraisal dimensions to differentiate emotional experience. In an investigation of this model, subjects recalled past experiences associated with each of 15 emotions, and rated them along the proposed dimensions. Six orthogonal dimensions, pleasantness, anticipated effort, certainty, attentional activity, self-other responsibility/control, and situational control, were recovered, and the emotions varied systematically along each of these dimensions, indicating a strong relation between the appraisal of one's circumstances and one's emotional state. The patterns of appraisal for the different emotions, and the role of each of the dimensions in differentiating emotional experience are discussed.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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BACK COVER: Traditional approaches to social psychology have proven highly successful in identifying causal mechanisms underlying human thought and behavior. Now, with the advent of the dynamical approach, it is possible to assemble sets of such mechanisms into coherent systems. Grounded in classic and contemporary theories of social psychology, this book uses innovative concepts and tools to illuminate the processes by which individuals, groups, and societies evolve and change in a systemic, self-sustaining manner, at times seemingly independent of external influences.
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Posted 3/2000. This commentary adopts a dialectical systems perspective on creativity and presents a critique of key points in B. L. Fredrickson's (see record 2000-03082-001) article on positive emotions. Fredrickson links the building of new skills primarily to the expansive or "broadening" properties of positive emotions. The connection of positive emotions to such divergent thought processes is not disputed; however, other theoretical frameworks are introduced to illustrate how the "narrowing" functions of negative emotions can also play an important role in the creative process. In other words, the creative, skill-building process is thought to be a complex or dialectical one that broadens and narrows information depending on the task at hand and the specific point in time. The commentary concludes by discussing the relative advantages of developing more integrative models and avoiding positive-negative dichotomies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this chapter is to review briefly the most valued traits of personhood recognized in our culture as well as in others. We shall claim that the trait of psychological complexity meets the specifications for the central dimension of personhood. Then we shall examine how complexity unfolds through the life cycle, beginning with its manifestations in old age. By starting at the end of the life span and working our way back to childhood, it will be easier to recognize the patterns that are more likely to result in a successful unfolding of the potentialities for personhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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presents some of the findings regarding the impact of mild positive affect on thinking and motivation / explores the processes underlying them and the circumstances under which they are likely to be observed / focus is on decision making, but in order to understand affect's influence on decisions, it is helpful to consider its impact on cognitive organization (or the way material is thought about and related to other material) and on motivation (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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discuss several promises as well as potential problems with the circumplex model of emotion / while this model promises to organize much of what we know about emotion, it is nevertheless open to misinterpretation / before detailing these particular strengths and weaknesses, we begin by describing how a circumplex model is applied in the emotion domain / by advocating the circumplex model, a claim is made that the majority of emotional experience can be captured by two affect dimensions [positive affect and negative affect] despite the promise a circumplex model holds for aiding our understanding of emotion, a number of problems need to be understood / one set of problems relates to specific interpretational issues concerning the emotion circumplex: are there basic dimensions in the circumplex and how should the dimensions be named / the second set of problems is broader: what does the circumplex fail to do in describing and explaining the relationships between emotions, and what are the shortcomings of the extant data / we will consider first the interpretational issues and, after that, the broader issues (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conference Paper
We analyzed group collaborative behavior by detecting patterns of interactive sequences in meetings using time series analysis. This is in contrast to previous work in which frequency counts of interactions were analyzed. Researchers have reported a decrease of these interaction frequencies associated with the use of computer-supported collaborative technology [Appl86, McGu87, Sieg86, Wats88]. We found that if group process feedback is given to people participating in a computer-supported collaborative technology meeting, the number of socio-emotional interactive sequences increases significantly above the expected level determined by log-linear analysis. In contrast, when using collaborative computer technology alone (no feedback), there is a substantial reduction in the number of socio-emotional interactive sequences below the expected level. These findings have implications for the efficient use of computer technology in terms of maximizing its collaborative potential.
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In contrast to the punctuated equilibrium model of change, this inductive study of multiple-product innovation in six firms in the computer industry examines how organizations engage in continuous change. Comparisons of successful and less-successful firms show, first, that successful multiple-product innovation blends limited structure around responsibilities and priorities with extensive communication and design freedom to create improvisation within current projects. This combination is neither so structured that change cannot occur nor so unstructured that chaos ensues. Second, successful firms rely on a wide variety of low-cost probes into the future, including experimental products, futurists, and strategic alliances. Neither planning nor reacting is as effective. Third, successful firms link the present and future together through rhythmic, time-paced transition processes. We develop the ideas of "semistructures," "links in time," and "sequenced steps" to crystallize the key properties of these continuously changing organizations and to extend thinking about complexity theory, time-paced evolution, and the nature of core capabilities.
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Two studies tested the hypothesis that certain positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. In Study 1, 60 subjects (Ss) viewed an initial fear-eliciting film, and were randomly assigned to view a secondary film that elicited: (a) contentment; (b) amusement; (c) neutrality; or (d) sadness. Compared to Ss who viewed the neutral and sad secondary films, those who viewed the positive films exhibited more rapid returns to pre-film levels of cardiovascular activation. In Study 2, 72 Ss viewed a film known to elicit sadness. Fifty Ss spontaneously smiled at least once while viewing this film. Compared to Ss who did not smile, those who smiled exhibited more rapid returns to pre-film levels of cardiovascular activation. We discuss these findings in terms of emotion theory and possible health-promoting functions of positive emotions.
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This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos
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Los autores plantean una propuesta de proceso para facilitar la formulación e implementación de una planeación estratégica, que permita imprimir la visión de la firma dentro de toda la organización.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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A variety of investigators in recent years have proposed models of psychological systems based on the concepts of chaos, nonlinear dynamics, and self-organization. Unfortunately, psychologists in general have little understanding of these important ideas. These terms are defined, and their relationships are discussed. The value of applying these concepts to psychological systems is demonstrated by exploring their utility in areas ranging from neuroscience to clinical psychology. Some of the difficulties in using nonlinear concepts and methodologies in empirical investigations are also discussed.
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In this paper, I question the assumption that emotions are first and foremost individual reactions, and suggest instead that they are often best viewed as social phenomena. I show that many of the causes of emotions are interpersonally, institutionally or culturally defined; that emotions usually have consequences for other people; and that they serve interpersonal as well as cultural functions in everyday life. Furthermore, many cases of emotion are essentially communicative rather than internal and reactive phenomena. Previous research has often underestimated the importance of social factors in the causation and constitution of emotion. In conclusion, I recommend that existing cognitive and physiological approaches to emotional phenomena be supplemented or supplanted by social psychological analysis.