Article

From Thought to Action: Effects of Process-Versus Outcome-Based Mental Simulations on Performance

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Abstract

Mental simulations enhance the links between thought and action. The present research contrasted mental simulations that emphasize the process required to achieve a goal versus the outcome of goal achievement. For 5 to 7 days prior to a midterm examination, college freshmen mentally simulated either the process for doing well on the exam (good study habits) or simulated a desired outcome (getting a good grade) or both. A self-monitoring control condition was included. Results indicated that process simulation enhanced studying and improved grades; the latter effect was mediated by enhanced planning and reduced anxiety. Implications of process and outcome simulations for effective goal pursuit are discussed.

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... Imagery exercises often require individuals to draw on their own experiences with the action and reproduce it mentally. Some types of imagery prompt individuals to imagine the feelings linked to performing the action or how they would feel after doing it, rather than steps required to participate in the action itself (Pham & Taylor, 1999b). Imagery exercises aim to change behavior by promoting increased confidence, attention and concentration, and motivation toward the behavior (Conroy & Hagger, 2018;Pham & Taylor, 1999b). ...
... Some types of imagery prompt individuals to imagine the feelings linked to performing the action or how they would feel after doing it, rather than steps required to participate in the action itself (Pham & Taylor, 1999b). Imagery exercises aim to change behavior by promoting increased confidence, attention and concentration, and motivation toward the behavior (Conroy & Hagger, 2018;Pham & Taylor, 1999b). ...
... Mental simulations is another frequently used form of mental imagery (Pham & Taylor, 1999a, 1999b. Mental simulations are defined as mental rehearsals of future events. ...
Chapter
Imagery or “visualization” involves a person imagining or rehearsing future events, actions, or tasks, usually with the person performing the imagery imagining themselves actually performing an action or task. It has been used as a strategy to change behavior in many contexts and groups, and its effects on behavior change have been supported by an expanding body of research. Imagery interventions change behavior by changing beliefs or internal states of individuals, such as promoting greater confidence, or self-efficacy, for doing future tasks or assisting them to more effectively manage their emotional responses. Practitioners considering using mental imagery to change behavior should adopt imagery techniques that are suited to the population and context of interest (e.g., whether the imagery is guided by a practitioner or administered using print communication), give those doing the “imaging” or “visualizing” clear instructions, provide a higher “dose” of imagery exercises (frequency and duration), consider training the imagery ability of those doing the imagery and those delivering the imagery (if “face-toface”), and make sure those doing the imagery adhere to the imagery exercises.
... Process-oriented motivation and its factors in Figure 2.1 relate to the process of goal pursuit Current literature does not measure process-oriented motivation or utilize process-oriented motivation as a dependent variable. Instead, mental simulation, process, or outcome simulation, was manipulated as the independent variable by Pham and Taylor (1999) and articles that followed while the dependent variable changed based on the study. Mental simulation is a psychological manipulation that emphasized a process to achieve a goal versus the outcome of goal achievement (Pham & Taylor, 1999). ...
... Instead, mental simulation, process, or outcome simulation, was manipulated as the independent variable by Pham and Taylor (1999) and articles that followed while the dependent variable changed based on the study. Mental simulation is a psychological manipulation that emphasized a process to achieve a goal versus the outcome of goal achievement (Pham & Taylor, 1999). The psychological manipulation included reading scripts that simulated a desired goal (outcome simulation) or steps leading to a desired goal (process simulation) (Pham & Taylor, 1999). ...
... Mental simulation is a psychological manipulation that emphasized a process to achieve a goal versus the outcome of goal achievement (Pham & Taylor, 1999). The psychological manipulation included reading scripts that simulated a desired goal (outcome simulation) or steps leading to a desired goal (process simulation) (Pham & Taylor, 1999). For example, one of the experimental groups simulated the outcome of receiving a good grade by reading a script that described a person getting an A on their mid-term exam. ...
Article
This study uncovers how secondary high school chemistry process-oriented motivation is altered after implementation of Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI). ADI is a laboratory instructional model that utilizes four Science and Engineering Practices (SEPs) in a student-centered lab experience. The SEPs are embedded to the current curriculum to help motivate students to learn chemistry (NRC, 2012). This study utilized eleven total chemistry classes, five on-level chemistry and six honors chemistry, with a total of 243 students participating in some facet of the study. Data sources included were View About Scientific Inquiry (VASI), the newly developed Process-Oriented Motivation Instrument (POMI), and student lab reports (achievement). Two goals were necessary to examine student-process-oriented motivation for the control and experimental group. Based on current science education literature, a valid and reliable POMI does not currently exist. Thus, Goal 1 purpose was to create an instrument, POMI, while generating valid and reliable data. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis along with other forms of validity and reliability were completed to find the most valid and reliable model, the revised POMI model. Thus, Goal 2 utilized this revised POMI model to find the effect ADI had on student-process oriented motivation for both groups. The control group, honors chemistry students, utilized a traditional lab. However, the experimental group, on-level chemistry students, participated in the ADI lab to determine if the type of lab implementation caused a significant difference in process-oriented motivation among the groups. Normalized gain scores were used to compare if there was significant difference between the control and experimental groups. Finally, mediation path analysis discovered if process-oriented motivation factors influence how the experimental group or control performed on their lab report. Two conclusions were drawn as a result of Goal 2: (1) after ADI implementation both groups experienced statistically similar changes in each POMI motivation factor and (2) no POMI factor possessed a significant influence on the lab report scores of either group.
... Driskell and colleagues' definition of mental simulation was necessarily specific to these studies (restricted to "mental practice"/"mental rehearsal"), which often had highly scripted motor tasks (e.g., pointing tasks), physically practiced extensively before being mentally simulated. Recently, the term "mental simulation" has been used to simulate more varied behaviors relating to social behaviors (e.g., cooperation; Meleady et al., 2013) and education (e.g., studying; Pham & Taylor, 1999). Here, we adopted a broader conceptualization, defining mental simulation as mental representations of a behavior that can be hypothetical or familiar (practiced), and which can represent the future behavior in different ways, but in the context of the person not physically moving whilst simulating (Taylor et al., 1998). ...
... Although there could plausibly be studies involving each subtype, some have yet to be studied. Nevertheless, here, we list some examples of the subtypes above from existing studies: superior process simulations (Pham & Taylor, 1999); inferior process simulations (no known example in existing literature); inferior performance simulations (Alden et al., 2001); standard performance simulations (Andre & Means, 1986); superior performance simulations (Callow et al., 2013); inferior outcome simulation (Marszał-Wiśniewska & Jarczewska-Gerc, 2016, Experiment 2); standard outcome simulation (no known example in existing literature); superior outcome simulation (Johannessen et al., 2012). ...
... Thus, performance simulations involve the participant mentally "running through" a specific task in chronological order, which is then tested behaviorally in a criterion task in identical way to the simulation. Outcome simulations involve envisioning a desired outcome (e.g., "I vividly imagine feeling relieved and satisfied having completed a marathon next year"), and are hypothesized to motivate people towards achieving their goal (Hagger et al., 2011;Pham & Taylor, 1999;Vasque & Buehler, 2007). Process, performance and outcome simulations can be carried out individually or in any combination and one of the aims of the present research is to tease apart in which combinations (if any) process, performance and outcome simulations differentially influence behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental simulation of future scenarios is hypothesized to affect future behavior, but a large and inconsistent literature means it is unclear whether, and under what conditions, mental simulation can change people’s behavior. A meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the effects of mental simulation on behavior and examine under what conditions mental simulation works best. An inclusive systematic database search identified 123 (N = 5685) experiments comparing mental simulation to a control group. After applying a multilevel random effects model, a statistically-reliable positive effect of Hedges’ g=0.49 [95% CI 0.37; 0.62], which was significantly different than zero. Using a taxonomy to identify different subtypes of mental simulation (along two dimensions, class [process, performance, outcome] and purpose [whether an inferior, standard, superior version of that behavior is simulated]), it was found that superior simulations garnered more reliable beneficial effects than inferior simulations. These findings have implications for integrating theories of how mental simulations change behavior, how mental simulations are classified, and may help guide professionals seeking evidence-based and cost-effective methods of changing behavior.
... Indeed, studies have shown that individuals who are classified as "abstainers" (Orbell and Sheeran, 1998) or as having "unsuccessful intentions" (Rhodes and Bruijn, 2013) may have strong intentions to engage in healthful behaviors but may encounter many difficulties in translating those intentions into actions, ultimately leading to abandonment. Mental simulation, involving the realization of personal imagined goals (e.g., imagining the emotions, situations, and thoughts experienced when a goal is achieved), is a strategy that individuals can use to visualize their path toward certain goals and strengthen their behavioral intentions by improving their individual tendencies and readiness for action (Pham and Taylor, 1999). ...
... Mental embodied practices are process simulations emphasized in mental simulation (Pham and Taylor, 1999). Those who engage in process simulation are more likely to monitor their own behaviors and improve their planning and rational analysis capabilities. ...
... They are also more inclined to imagine the actions to take or avoid in pursuit of their goals, ultimately leading them toward goal-oriented action (e.g., simulating physical sensations, emotions, or environmental settings). Studies have indicated that mental simulations can effectively promote behavioral participation and goal achievement in many areas, including health (Pham and Taylor, 1999;Vasquez and Buehler, 2007;Hagger et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental simulation, which employs specific patterns of imagery, can increase the intention to exercise as well as actual engagement in exercise. The present studies explored the effects of mental simulation on the intention to engage in exercise while regulating emotions. The first study confirmed that mental simulation did promote intentions of participants. The second found that video-primed mental simulation was a more effective method of exercise intention promotion than semantic-primed and image-primed mental simulation. In the third study, it was found that combining process-based and outcome-based mental simulations increased exercise intentions. Positive emotions mediated imagery ability and intention to exercise. The final study found that the mental simulation interventions most effective for exercise adherence were those that balanced the valence of process and outcome components in such a way that a challenging process results in a positive outcome, or a smooth process results in a negative outcome. Each of these results has practical implications for exercise interventions that will be discussed.
... But it does not affect students' academic achievements. This result is inconsistent with the ndings of Fam and Taylor in 1999;Rivkin andTaylor in 1999 (Quoted in Derataj, 2004); Taylor, Fam, Rivkin and Armor in 1998;Nematollahzadeh Mahani et al., in 2000;Dertaj in2004;Siavashi in 2006;andSinger et al., 2001 (cited by Wilson, 2005). ...
... The tool for measuring students' academic performance used in this study is the academic performance questionnaire. This questionnaire is an adaptation of the Pham and Taylor (1999) questionnaire, in the research eld of academic performance, and the validity and reliability of its subscales have been con rmed for Iranian society Taylor, 1999, quoted in Dartaj, 2004). In this questionnaire, in 47 questions, 5 domains of academic performance were measured as follows: self-e cacy factor, emotional effects, planning, lack of outcome control, and motivation. ...
... Also, according to tables 6 and 11, the results showed that the average creativity of the experimental group was higher than the control group but did not show a signi cant level. The results of this study showed that mental simulation improves students' academic performance, which was in line with the ndings of Pham and Taylor, 1999;Rivkin & Taylor, 1999(quoted in Derataj, 2004; Taylor, Pham, Rivkin & Amor, (1998);Nematollahzadeh Mahani et al., (2000); Derataj (2004); Siavashi (2006) and Singer et al. (2001, cited by Wilson, 2005, in which showed that mental simulation improves academic performance. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of teaching mental simulation strategies on academic performance and creativity of architecture students of Mohaghegh Ardabili University of Ardabil in the design of health clinics lesson. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with both trial and control groups. The statistical population was composed of all seven semester students who were studying architecture in Mohaghegh Ardabili University in the first semester of the academic year 1396-1397 that they were divided into two groups (each group was 15) that were randomly selected as the trial group and the control group. Tools used in this research were a questionnaire of academic performance, which was adapted from the Performance Measurement Questionnaire (EPT) Pham and Taylor, and Creativity Questionnaire, adapted from the Schaeffer Questionnaire for creativity assessment. Mental simulation trainings were presented for 5 sessions of 3 hours for the trial group. The control group did not receive any training. To analyze data we used ANCOVA covariance from inferential statistics to test the research hypotheses. Findings indicated that training mental simulation strategies improved the academic performance of students under the motivating factor (p <0.05), and on students' creativity have a significant effect under the factor of feeling of fantasy, so simulation strategies can be used to improve architecture students' academic performance and promote their creativity.
... According to the classification of coping styles developed by Endler and Parker, the process simulation can be equated to the most effective, adaptive style, which is focused on the future task 24,25 . The effectiveness of the process simulation, built on the conceptualization of overcoming potential disturbances while achieving the goal, has been demonstrated in various research areas (e.g., education, slimming, consumer behavior) [26][27][28] . The outcome simulations have been linked to an emotion-centered style with a tendency to wishful thinking 24,25 . ...
... Our results suggest that the process simulation turned the willingness into action, as most patients from this group stood up and obtained the longest mobilization time. In a different study, which was a theoretical inspiration for the present research, students from the process-simulation group spent the most hours studying before an exam 26 . This result can be explained by the fact that in both groups, the patients visualized their movement (in the process group, it was movement related to standing up and walking, and in the outcome, it was efficient movement after verticalization). ...
... This could have resulted from a short time of mental training performed with only one session. Undoubtedly, the duration of mental exercises increases their effectiveness 26,38 . However, it was not possible to examine the patient earlier, e.g., before cesarean section, and offer her several sessions of mental training. ...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to investigate whether psychological intervention (single mental simulation) among women after cesarean surgery (CC) can affect their willingness to verticalize, actual verticalization, and the duration of the first mobilization. In this prospective randomised, controlled study, 150 women after CC were divided into 3 groups: experimental group with process-simulation with elements of relaxation, experimental group with outcome-simulation with elements of relaxation and control group with elements of relaxation only. After a 5-h stay in the post-operative room, women listened to a recording with a stimulation. Pain and anxiety of verticalization were measured before and after listening to the recording and after verticalization. Almost 12% more patients verticalized in the process-simulation group than in the control group. Percentages of mobilized patients were: 39.4% the process-simulation group; 32.8% in the outcome-simulation group; 27.7% controls (p = 0.073). Mobilization was 5 min longer in the process-simulation group then in control (p < 0.01). Anxiety after the simulation was a significant covariate of the willingness to verticalize, actual verticalization and time spent in mobilization. We conclude that a single mental simulation can effectively motivate patients for their first verticalization after CC. Perceived anxiety before verticalization may affect the effectiveness of interventions, so we recommend to check it at the postoperative care. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04829266.
... While not typically discussed as a mechanism through which implementation intentions affect goal striving, it also seems reasonable that people may mentally simulate the process of implementing a goal in order to form an implementation intention (Ajzen et al., 2019). This type of mental imagery may help a person to identify the obstacles that may impede their intended behavior (Oettingen et al., 2001), and has been linked to improved goal achievement when compared to mentally simulating the outcome (Escalas & Luce, 2003;Pham & Taylor, 1999). ...
... Drawing on research on mental simulation (Pham & Taylor, 1999) and mental contrasting, which involves carefully considering the impediments to goal achievement (Oettingen, 2000;Oettingen et al., 2001), asking respondents to carefully consider aspects of feasibility (e.g., financial or logistical constraints) may have an impact on their response to a purchase intention question. Mental contrasting has also been associated with spontaneous formation of implementation intentions (see Section 3), which can cause the intended response to be more likely (Oettingen et al., 2001). ...
Article
Intentions are one of the most widely used constructs in consumer research. We review over 50 years of research that has helped us understand what intentions are, their antecedents and consequences, and how best to measure and use them as a proxy for or predictor of behavior. We define intentions and differentiate them from other closely relatedly psychological constructs. We review several psychological theories where intentions play a central role and highlight what is known about the strength of the intention–behavior relationship, and factors that moderate the strength of that relationship. We also review more methodological research and discuss what is known about how to best measure intentions and use them to predict behavior. Finally, we suggest opportunities for continued research on intentions and discuss their continued relevance in a world of big data.
... The academic performance questionnaire was designed by Pham and Taylor (1999) [24] with 48 questions to evaluate academic performance from various domains (self-efficacy, emotional effects, planning, lack of consequence control, and motivation). It is scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. ...
... The academic performance questionnaire was designed by Pham and Taylor (1999) [24] with 48 questions to evaluate academic performance from various domains (self-efficacy, emotional effects, planning, lack of consequence control, and motivation). It is scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Academic performance is associated with an individual’s psychological state. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of identity styles in the relationship between procrastination and academic performance in high school boy students. Materials and Methods: This correlational research using a structural equation modeling was conducted on 330 9th grade high school boy students from 10 high schools in Qaemshahr, Iran in winter 2019selected by convenience sampling. Data collection tools included the Academic Performance Questionnaire, the Identity Style Inventory, and Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. In the present study, the structural equation modeling was utilized to analyze the collected data using SPSS V. 18 and Amos V. 23 software. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between procrastination and identity styles, and academic performance (P≤0.01). Also, the research model was fit and showed that 0.57 of the dispersion of the academic performance was influenced by procrastination and identity styles. Besides, identity styles had a mediator role in the relationship between procrastination and academic performance. Conclusion: The present research indicated the importance of identity styles and procrastination in explaining academic performance. Therefore, identifying students’ identity styles and improving their status in educational settings can reduce academic procrastination leading to better academic performance.
... Process simulation is another important distinguishing factor for the attainment of specified goals. Pham and Taylor [1999] conducted a study on 101 undergraduates, in which the students were asked to imagine either the goal of doing well on an upcoming midterm, or to focus on imagining the details of the process required to attain a good grade. The experiment was conducted five to seven days prior to a midterm exam, and the participants were asked to write down the contents of their imagination (of either doing well on the exam, or the details of the process required to get a good grade). ...
... Such workshops are easy to organise and could aid students with the integration of past traumas, which has been shown to significantly lower mental and physical health problems [Pennebaker & Beall 1986;Klein & Boals 2001]. In addition, workshops focusing on the detailed description of goals could aid students in increasing their academic performance and decrease the occurrence of exam-related anxiety [Sheldon & Houser-Marko 2001;Pham & Taylor 1999]. The positive effects of goal-setting programmes are particularly strong for students who are struggling academically [Morisano et al. 2010]. ...
Book
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We present a book entitled Innovation in Organisational Management Under Conditions of Sustainable Development. It is widely accepted that innovation is a key driver of sustainability. Similarly, in the present discourse, no one questions whether innovation is a necessary com- ponent of managerial processes at all organisational levels. Yet in a world where the need for sustainable development has become brutally evident, there are not many truly innovative companies and only a very few truly sustainable companies. Sustainable and innovative companies are as rare as mythical unicorns. One can try to explain this situation by concluding that it is already a challenge in itself to understand the interdependences between the social, economic, and en- vironmental dimensions while running a business. It is even more difficult to apply the so-called Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept, which suggests that equal consid- eration should be given to financial, environmental, and social dimensions when making business and policy decisions. As a result, a question arises concerning the rationale behind attempts to in- troduce such complexity. Would it not be wiser to focus on maximising economic goals and take a passive approach to social and environmental dimensions by con- sidering them to be boundary conditions? Companies can create economic value through the adoption of more sustainable processes and practices; through the design and marketing of products or services which utilise so-called green technologies1 (e.g. electric vehicles); or by providing services which utilise an innovative mix of green and regular technologies in order to solve sustainability issues. Therefore, sustainable development can be promoted either through business practices or a company’s products and services, or both2. Implementing innovations that improve the ability to learn, manage and re- spond to environmental stimuli from dynamic socio-ecological structures makes it possible to move away from unsustainable trajectories. Various theoretical and G. H. Elmo et al. (2020). Sustainability in tourism as an innovation driver: an analysis of family business 1 reality. Sustainability 12(15), pp. 6149. M. Leach, J. Rockström, P. Raskin, I. Scoones, A. C. Stirling, A. Smith ... E. Arond et al. (2012). 2 Transforming innovation for sustainability. Ecology and Society, (17), pp. 11–18. 7 INTRODUCTION practical approaches to sustainability agree that improving it implies change, inno- vation or adaptation to its environment. The aim of sustainability is no longer just a sustainable state; instead, it is a process of constant improvement of the sustain- ability of “artefacts”. A dynamic perspective encourages discussion concerning the identification and handling of constant changes3. The ability to innovate has become necessary for companies and takes the form of incremental or radical innovations. Business model innovation, therefore, rep- resents a potential means of integrating sustainability into a business. Consequently, an innovative and sustainable business model should adapt the company’s profit- ability to the economic and non-economic benefits for society. On the other hand, the ever-changing market requirements gradually force businesses to adapt and change in order to improve quality and become more efficient, flexible, innovative and knowledge-driven. This explains why innovation, as a process by which an in- dividual or a business learns and develops knowledge, contributes even more to sustainability in the organisational context. Based on this premise, the authors de- cided to explore the interlinked realms of innovation and sustainability. As the authors realise that sustainable development is a pressing issue that requires immediate action from governments, industries, and society as a whole, we have made an effort to focus on innovations that can transform individuals, organisations, supply chains, and communities, and can move them towards a sustainable future. With the aim of improved sustainability, this book deals with organisational in- novation from a broad perspective, including product and process innovation. The monograph consists of 12 chapters. In chapter 1, Elżbieta Lorek presents the issues of building a green economy based on the principles of sustainable development, focused mainly on the positive economic effects of green transformation. In chapter 2, Izabela Karwala describes how acceleration programmes can serve as a source of innovation for organisations. This is particularly important today, as such programmes now have a well-established position in the business environment. In chapter 3, Dawid Żebrak focuses on the concept of sustainable human re- source management, with a particular focus on the employment of prisoners. In chapter 4, Monika Płońska’s research focuses on the challenges of sustain- able development in the Polish chemical industry in the context of the European Commission’s guidelines on the disclosure of non-financial climate information, especially given that time is running short. In chapter 5, Jakub Stęchły shows an example of a car-sharing company whose business model is based on the principles of the sharing economy. This is an inter- esting example of an attempt to combine sustainability and innovation in various areas. In chapter 6, Karolina Mucha-Kuś explains the benefits of an innovative ap- proach to integrating a public bicycle system in a metropolitan area, and the stake- holders’ approach to this project from the perspective of coopetition. In chapter 7, Grzegorz Kinelski makes an effort to identify the relationship be- tween sustainable development, project management and the digital economy. Conclusions are drawn which could be relevant not only to the energy sector but to all kinds of enterprises. In chapter 8, Grzegorz Kinelski and Wojciech Muras deal with managing invest- ment decisions whilst taking non-financial measures into account. Such measures are essential when introducing sustainable development metrics into the strategic controlling process. In chapter 9, Krzysztof Zamasz depicts how political decisions aimed at ensur- ing the sustainability of energy production affect energy companies. Day-to-day business decisions in energy companies are becoming increasingly complex due to increased volatility and uncertainty as the regulatory regime tries to maintain a bal- ance in the market whilst complying with decarbonisation goals and fulfilling the role of the state in providing energy security. In chapter 10, Maria Schulders addresses concerns regarding the mental health of university students by exploring the applicability of self-authorship in higher education processes. She points out that universities should construct a system- ic framework by which students are aided in the development of core values and self-concordant goals. It can be argued that such an approach is not only a prereq- uisite for students’ mental health and well-being, but also for reaching the full in- novative potential of individuals and educational institutions. INTRODUCTION 9 INTRODUCTION In chapter 11, Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna, Wojciech Muras and Marta Pikiewicz venture into aspects of long-term value creation in IT companies, tak- ing into account the role of shareholders. IT companies constitute the backbone of development of the knowledge economy but are subject to innovative managerial processes themselves, while the conceptualisation and internalisation of the role of shareholders is critical for the long-term sustainability of the organisation. In chapter 12, Michał Gramatyka presents the management of election cam- paigns in light of project management and focuses on finding the answer to the fol- lowing question: are project management practices translatable into the language of politics? We hope that our book will be a source of valuable knowledge for business prac- titioners, academic researchers, and all stakeholders for whom the concepts of sus- tainable development and innovation are important. We have prepared this mono- graph in the hope that readers will find it useful either for the purpose of making their innovative organisations more sustainable or making their sustainable organ- isations more innovative. Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna Krzysztof Zamasz Grzegorz Kinelski Editors
... Prior studies show that individuals who are exposed to high construal levels tend to focus on 'why' questions, whereas those exposed to low construal levels tend to focus on 'how' questions (Liberman & Trope, 1998;Trope & Liberman, 2003). Focusing attention on the 'why' has been referred to as having an outcome orientation, which means that an individual's thinking is predominantly about the outcome or goal of an action and the desirability of attaining that goal, rather than about the feasibility of the action (Pham & Taylor, 1999;Ülkümen & Cheema, 2011). It has been shown that a high construal level encourages outcome orientation (Lee et al., 2014) and that outcome-oriented thinking about new opportunities and potential applications of technologies is particularly relevant for inspiring individuals who have relatively little technical expertise (Dhar & Kim, 2007;Wiesenfeld et al., 2017). ...
... Low construal levels would require visitors with fewer technical skills to understand how the technologies work, which can be very challenging for them. As low construal prompts people to think about the feasibility and functioning of a technology (Pham & Taylor, 1999;Trope & Liberman, 2003), it reduces the cognitive resources available for outcome-oriented thinking about how RTO's technologies may be used in the future. Formally we hypothesize that: ...
Article
To support their open innovation strategy, many research technology organizations (RTOs) demonstrate their mature and emerging technologies in showrooms. However, little is known about how RTOs should showcase their technologies to attract new R&D partners. Drawing on construal level theory, we propose that the right order of technology demonstrations depends on the visitors’ level of technical expertise. An empirical field experiment of 139 showroom visitors at the CEA Tech showroom, a world‐leading French technology showroom for micro‐technologies supports our theorizing. Visitors with little technical expertise are most willing to collaborate when they feel creatively inspired. This is likely to happen when visitors see emerging technologies before mature ones because it elicits a high construal level. In contrast, visitors with high technical expertise are more willing to collaborate when they perceive complementary resources. This is likely to occur when the demonstrations alternate between emerging and mature technologies because it elicits construal level shifts. We discuss the study’s theoretical and practical implications for outbound open innovation and construal level theory.
... , mental simulation (Pham & Taylor, 1999;S. E. Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, & Armor, 1998;S. ...
... Implementation intentions are defined as mental representations linking intention to behaviors: They usually include not only a specific action that someone wants to achieve but also the context in which this action will be performed [21]. Previous research has shown that implementation intentions facilitate the execution of the action and their effectiveness is increased when it is combined with mental imagery [22][23][24][25]. Consequently, as mental simulations in previous studies were specific and related to the prosocial behavior measured afterward, implementation intentions may have driven the effect on prosocial behavior. ...
Article
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Previous studies suggest a link between future thinking and prosocial behaviors. However, this association is not fully understood at state and trait level. The present study tested whether a brief future thinking induction promoted helping behavior in an unrelated task. In addition, the relation between mental time travel and prosocial behaviors in daily life was tested with questionnaire data. Forty-eight participants filled in questionnaires and were asked to think about the future for one minute or to name animals for one minute (control condition) before playing the Zurich Prosocial Game (a measure of helping behavior). Results revealed that participants in the future thinking condition helped significantly more than participants in the control condition. Moreover, questionnaire data showed that dispositional and positive orientation toward the future and the past was significantly associated with self-reported prosocial behaviors. The present findings suggest that thinking about the future in general has positive transfer effects on subsequent prosocial behavior and that people who think more about the past or future in a positive way engage more in prosocial behavior.
... We can consciously reexperience, through autonoetic awareness and subjective time (see Tulving, 1985Tulving, , 2001Tulving, , 2002, past happenings and engage in episodic future thinking (Atance & O'Neill, 2001, 2005Buckner & Carroll, 2007;Schacter & Addis, 2007a;Suddendorf & Corballis, 2007;Wheeler, Stuss, & Tulving, 1997). This ability to direct our attention toward a specific event in the past and to construct a hypothetical episode in the future, using the mechanisms and resources of episodic and semantic memory, allows us to regulate our future behaviour in ways that would otherwise be impossible (e.g., Davies & Stone, 1995;Kahneman & Miller, 1986;Pham & Taylor, 1999;Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, & Armor, 1998;Taylor & Schneider, 1989). The ability to conceptualize alternative past and future episodes, for instance, may be used to achieve what Nietzsche (see Ramadanovic, 2001) called the greatest happiness of humans: the ability to forget and discern what was advantageous in the past and what is disadvantageous for the present and future. ...
... It has been proposed that mental images of suicide may potentially be more distressing and realistic than verbal thoughts of suicide (Holmes and Mathews 2005). Studies have shown that future events that have been imagined are rated as more probable than those that have not been imagined, possibly because mental imagery enables individuals to identify barriers to realising the event (Gregory, Cialdini, and Carpenter 1982;Libby et al. 2007;Pham and Taylor 1999;Szpunar and Schacter 2013). In addition, mental images are both more emotionally arousing and more likely to be confused with real events than verbal thoughts of the same content (Mathews, Ridgeway, and Holmes 2013). ...
... For example, studies that explored the influence of processfocused versus outcome-focused thoughts manipulated each condition by encouraging participants to pay attention to either the process or the outcomes of a scenario (e.g. Pham and Taylor 1999;Zhao, Hoeffler, and Zauberman 2011). In reality, a great deal of marketing communications including advertising heavily rely on image-focused stimuli that easily evoke mental imagery in product use. ...
Article
This current research consists of two studies that employ the psychological construct of self-referencing with the goal being to identify an optimal means by which ad viewers are able to generate mental simulation through advertising. In Study 1 we identify that the ad, when incorporating a self-referencing cue, enables consumers to easily generate mental simulation resulting in marginally greater purchase intention than that generated by the same ad but without the self-referencing cue. We also find that there is a significant moderating role of prior direct product experience on the relationship between self-referencing and mental simulation, but not on that between self-referencing and purchase intention. In Study 2 we confirm the superiority of dynamic self-referencing to static self-referencing from diverse consumer evaluation perspectives to reveal the underlying mechanism that explains the serial mediating role of arousal and mental simulation in generating intention to purchase. More findings and implications are discussed in the discussion section.
... For instance, Masicampo and Baumeister proposed that conscious thought may have indirect effects on behavior, even if it does not directly control it (Baumeister, Masicampo, & Vohs, 2011;Masicampo & Baumeister, 2013). For example, a study on mental simulations showed that experimentally enhancing the link between thought and action led to better performance on an exam in college students (Pham & Taylor, 1999). ...
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Past studies have employed the subjective experience of decision time (Libet’s W) as an index of consciousness, marking the moment at which the agent first becomes aware of a decision. In the current study, we examined whether the temporal experience of W affects subsequent experience related to the action. Specifically, we tested whether W influenced the perception of difficulty in a decision-making task, hypothesizing that temporal awareness of W might influence the sense of difficulty. Consistent with our predictions, when W was perceived as early or late, participants subsequently rated the decision difficulty to be easy or difficult, respectively (Exp.1). Further investigation showed that perceived difficulty, however, did not influence W (Exp.2). Together, our findings suggest a unidirectional relationship such that W plays a role in the metacognition of difficulty evaluation. The results imply that subjective temporal experience of decision time modifies the consequential sense of difficulty. Highlights Perceived timing of decision (W) can bias the metacognition of difficulty evaluation in a decision-making task. Defined as a temporal index of consciousness, time W’s influence on difficulty evaluation reflects the possibility that the role of consciousness is to modify subsequent thoughts and behaviors. Explicit attention is necessary for the timing of decision (W) to be consciously experienced and effectively influential on subsequent thoughts.
... Libby, Shaeffer, Eibach and Slemmer (2007) found that imagining voting increased the probability of actually voting later. Also picturing oneself revising for an exam, ended in actually doing it (Pham & Taylor, 1999). Thus, imagined contact seems to exert a strong impact in different situations and importantly seems to work, at least in part, based on similar mechanisms as the ones used in actual contact. ...
Article
Individuals possess an innate capacity to communicate and understand non-verbal cues (i.e., touch). In addition, touch affects individuals at the intrapersonal level (e.g., physiological reactions) and at the interpersonal level (e.g., impression formation, pro-social behavior). Recent studies testify to the effects of touch also at the intergroup level (e.g., improvement of outgroup attitudes). The present review will discuss the effects of touch on a wide range of situations, and differently from past reviews, special attention will be given to the effects of touch (also in its indirect form, i.e., imagined physical contact) at the intergroup level
... Goals that reflected dispositions (e.g., task orientation, ego orientation, future orientation) were not included because they focused on a stable underlying disposition or tendency to act, not on the function of personalized goals in motivating behavior. Implementation intentions and process imagery focus on states contributing to goal attainment (Gollwitzer, 1999;Pham & Taylor, 1999) and episodic future thinking focuses on the capacity to imagine the future (Schacter et al., 2017). Studies related to these constructs were not included because they do not address personalized representations of goal outcomes. ...
Article
We conducted a systematic review of studies focused on the influence of possible selves on health-risk and health-promoting behaviors in adolescents. Fourteen studies were reviewed. Most studies focused on health-risk behaviors, with substance use the most frequently addressed outcome. Drawing firm conclusions based on study findings was hampered by the lack of convergence in possible self properties addressed and inconsistencies in methodology. However, possible self properties that show the most promise are likelihood of achieving a possible self in a target domain and presence of a possible self in a target domain. Findings have important implications for guiding future research on health behaviors in adolescents and indicate that possible selves may be an important target for designing health-promoting and risk-reduction interventions.
... Importantly, participants were required to actively acknowledge they endorsed the position advocated in the materials. Similarly, building on imagery intervention research(Conroy & Hagger, 2018;Hagger, Lonsdale, & Chatzisarantis, 2011;Hamilton, Keech, Peden, & Hagger, 2019;Pham & Taylor, 1999),Keech et al. (2019) developed a novel imagery-based technique to induce a stress-is-enhancing mindset. Participants were initially prompted to identify typical stressors in their daily life, and then engage in a series of visualization exercises in which they imagined the potentially ...
Article
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The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic is a truly global public health crisis with substantive human, social, and economic costs. The pandemic and the associated preventive ‘lockdown’ measures have also given rise to a parallel mental health crisis, with elevated levels of chronic stress observed in the general population. Stress levels are also likely to be higher among at‐risk groups such as those who have become employed or are on furlough, those in essential services with higher risk of exposure, and those from underserved communities. Development of efficacious means to assist individuals in effectively managing their during the pandemic and beyond is an imperative. We outline how stress reappraisal interventions offer a potentially efficacious, cost effective strategy to manage pandemic‐related stress and minimize deleterious health consequences. Specifically, we advocate two stress management strategies: stress reappraisal, which involves prompting individuals to appraise stress as challenging and to be approached rather than threatening and to be avoided, and stress mindsets, which involves highlighting the enhancing nature of stress. We outline how these strategies may be implemented during the pandemic as part of interventions aimed at promoting stress management and better mental health during the pandemic and as communities emerge from lockdown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... For instance, Masicampo and Baumeister proposed that conscious thought may have indirect effects on behavior, even if it does not directly control it [3,7]. For example, a study on mental simulations showed that experimentally enhancing the link between thought and action led to better performance on an exam in college students [8]. This perspective thus implies that conscious thoughts and mental content aid in the modification and planning of future behaviors [4,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Past studies have employed the subjective experience of decision time (Libet’s W) as an index of consciousness, marking the moment at which the agent first becomes aware of a decision. In the current study, we examined whether the temporal experience of W affects subsequent experience related to the action. Specifically, we tested whether W influenced the perception of difficulty in a decision-making task, hypothesizing that temporal awareness of W might influence the sense of difficulty. Consistent with our predictions, when W was perceived as early or late, participants subsequently rated the decision difficulty to be easy or difficult, respectively (Exp.1). Further investigation showed that perceived difficulty, however, did not influence W (Exp.2). Together, our findings suggest a unidirectional relationship such that W plays a role in the metacognition of difficulty evaluation. The results imply that subjective temporal experience of decision time modifies the consequential sense of difficulty.
... Seligman et al. (2013) have argued that prospection serves a central organizing role in cognition, emotion, learning, motivation, and decision making, and have called for novel future-looking approaches to enhancing wellness. Indeed, there is evidence that positive prospection has numerous psychological benefits, including improved emotion regulation (e.g., Pham & Taylor, 1999) and problem-solving abilities (e. g., Cheng, Shein, & Chiou, 2012;Miloyan & Suddendorf, 2015), and low levels of positive prospection have been linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidality (e.g., Bjärehed, Sarkohi, & Andersson, 2010;Schacter, Addis, & Buckner, 2008). ...
Article
Prospection, the mental simulation of future events, has been theoretically linked to physical and mental health. Prior studies have found that prospection is malleable; however, no research to our knowledge has tested whether a scalable intervention explicitly targeting the simulation of positive future outcomes can lead to more generalized positive prospection, and enhance positive outlook and reduce distress. The current study tested a novel, web-based cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) program designed to shift prospective bias towards more positive (as opposed to negative) representations of future outcomes among 172 participants selected for having a relatively negative baseline expectancy bias. Results showed that following CBM-I, participants in active training conditions exhibited more positive expectations about the future, and increased self-efficacy and growth mindset. Also, optimism increased and depression and anxiety symptoms decreased following active training, but this also occurred for the control condition. Analyses did not suggest that changes in positive expectations mediated changes in positive outlook outcomes. Results suggest that an online prospection intervention can lead to more positive expectations about future events and improve positive outlook, though open questions remain about what accounts for the training effects.
... Mental simulation refers to the imitative mental representation of a real or hypothetical situation (Pham and Taylor, 1999;Taylor and Schneider, 1989). It includes the rehearsals of future events to occur, the replays of past events, the creation of fantasies and a combination of real and fantasy elements (Taylor and Schneider, 1989). ...
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Purpose This research investigates the novel questions of whether and how specific forms of shopping channels (online vs offline) influence consumers' decision-making. Moreover, this research investigates marketing firms' proper marketing strategies across different shipping channels. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted three studies using a large sample ( N = 703) recruited from a diverse pool (students and adults) that examined multiple products (camera and car) across different shopping channels (online vs offline). Study 1a ( n = 251) and Study 1b ( n = 252) examined the effect of an online versus offline channel on consumers' decision-making using a one-factor (shopping channel: online vs offline) between-subjects design. Meanwhile, Study 2 ( n = 200) investigated the effective strategies that firms should employ across different shopping channels using a 2 (shopping channel: online vs offline) × 2 (mental simulation: outcome vs process) between-subjects design. Participants in the online condition evaluated the product on a computer screen, whereas participants in the offline condition evaluated the real product assuming a real-world retail store setting. Findings The three studies supported the predictions that shopping channels (online vs offline) affect consumers' psychological distance and, in turn, affect their decision process. Specifically, results reveal that the online (offline) channel increases (decreases) psychological distance and leads consumers to pay more attention to a product's desirability (feasibility) aspects. Originality/value Given that many firms sell the same products through multiple channels, the findings of this research offer insightful theoretical and practical implications.
... montrent qu'en faisant simuler mentalement à des étudiants leur réussite quelques jours avant un examen, les notes s'améliorent et l'anxiété est réduite. Les simulations constructives peuvent réguler les émotions en réponse à des événements stressants(Pham et Taylor, 1999). Pour Schacter et Addis(2007)avoir une mémoire constructive et flexible permet aux individus d'imaginer ou de simuler des scénarios futurs en s'adossant aux expériences passées.Gilbert et Wilson (2007) tempèrent en déclarant que les simulations de l'avenir peuvent être erronées car elles ne prennent pas forcément en compte le contexte réel dans lequel se déroulera l'épisode. ...
Thesis
Ce travail doctoral propose de décloisonner les disciplines en rapprochant la littérature sur l’implication organisationnelle de celle en neuropsychologie sur la mémoire autobiographique. Un état de l’art sur l’implication organisationnelle a révélé l’insuffisante prise en compte du caractère heurté des carrières contemporaines. Or, ce n’est pas parce que le salarié change d’organisation qu’il fait table rase de son passé. Des traces mnésiques de son implication dans sa précédente organisation subsistent et continuent à produire des effets au présent. L’ambition de cette recherche est de tester l’hypothèse générale de l’existence d’un lien entre les implications organisationnelles rétrospective et actuelle. Les données empiriques collectées auprès de 385 salariés révèlent qu’un lien significatif existe entre ces deux implications. Ce lien n’est altéré ni par les différences des caractéristiques respectives des deux organisations, ni par les conditions de rupture, le temps de transition entre les deux emplois, l’ancienneté chez l’ancien ou le nouvel employeur. Ce lien est en revanche renforcé lorsque le salarié se met psychologiquement à distance de son souvenir. Ces résultats peuvent être expliqués par les connaissances tenues pour acquises au sujet de la mémoire autobiographique. Puisque le salarié ne peut modifier son passé, il reconstruit le souvenir qu’il en garde à chaque évocation au présent afin de maintenir à la fois une cohérence avec son self actuel et un sentiment de continuité de lui-même dans le temps. En offrant une relecture continue des événements passés à la lumière du présent, le salarié limite les effets dissonants qui pourraient éventuellement apparaître. Ces résultats inédits montrent, au niveau théorique, l’importance de la prise en compte du fonctionnement de la mémoire du salarié à l’heure des carrières moins linéaires. Sur le plan managérial, ils débouchent sur des préconisations d’action en particulier lorsque la mémoire du futur est intégrée. La mémoire autobiographique n’est en effet pas uniquement tournée vers le passé. Les souvenirs et les connaissances de ses expériences passées fournissent au salarié un socle autobiographique qui lui permet d’ajuster son comportement dans le présent et de prendre des décisions pour son avenir. Le présent englobe une partie du passé et une anticipation du futur. Sur le plan méthodologique, ils révèlent que lorsque les études questionnent le passé, ce n’est pas la réalité vécue qui est rapportée mais un souvenir reconstruit. Enfin, puisque la mémoire autobiographique individuelle est aussi tributaire de la mémoire collective, l’ensemble du phénomène ne peut être capturé qu’en les rapprochant. Nous avons inséré la mémoire autobiographique dans notre étude afin de compléter la littérature sur l’implication organisationnelle. En procédant ainsi, nous proposons un programme de recherche d’envergure.
... Imagery can have powerful effects on behavior, as well as self-confidence and other cognitions (Hall, 2001;Paivio, 1986;Taylor et al., 1998). Imagery can encourage problem-solving and emotional regulation, which can then set the stage for turning imagined experience into action (Pham & Taylor, 1999). The research by Carter (1993) and more recently by DeSantis and colleagues (2021) has demonstrated that singers use imagery and provided insight into why they do so. ...
Article
Previous sport research has demonstrated that athletes of higher levels employ imagery more than low-level athletes. Because there is currently little research on imagery’s application in singers, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this finding is reflected in low-level and high-level singers. A study-specific questionnaire was developed that examined singers’ imagery use. The questionnaire consisted of four subscales that assessed vocal technique, performance anxiety regulation, goals, and characterization. It was found that singers used imagery most for characterization (i.e., portraying a character or feeling), followed by goals, vocal technique, and performance anxiety regulation. No differences existed between professional and student singers’ imagery use. There was a significant difference between males and females on the characterization subscale, suggesting that female singers may use imagery for characterization more so than males. Introducing this approach to imagery to singers and teachers of singing has the potential to influence music education in school settings and impact curriculum development.
... how face coverings should be worn) [50]. A great advantage of mental imagery interventions is that they hold the possibility of strengthening links between thought and goal-directed action [51] potentially involving a neural basis whereby the rehearsal of actions helps foster more consistent subsequent behaviour [52]. The intervention described in this protocol is designed to target key theoretical determinants related to healthadherent behaviours involving beliefs/skills and will, therefore, also contribute to theoretical understanding through developing the evidence base relating to effective strategies to promote health behaviour change. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has witnessed wide-ranging efforts to minimize the spread of the virus and to protect those most vulnerable to becoming unwell following viral infection. Core COVID-19 preventive measures include social distancing, regular hand washing, and wearing face coverings in public places. Understanding links between social cognitive factors relating to beliefs/skills is important in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as this can suggest which factors might be targeted via behaviour change interventions to promote adherence to COVID-19 preventative behaviours. In this context, mental imagery exercises—self-directed imagining of an anticipated outcome or processes linked to a defined behaviour/activity—offer a well-evidenced, relatively simple behaviour change intervention. In the mental imagery invention reported in this protocol, individuals will be randomly assigned to one of four separate conditions (outcome imagery, process imagery, outcome and process imagery, control). Methods The primary objective of this randomized controlled study is to assess the effectiveness of a mental imagery intervention on wearing face coverings, as a defined core COVID-19 preventative behaviour. Participants will consist of UK university students and university employees of any age. Participants will be randomized to complete an ‘outcome imagery’ or a ‘process imagery’ exercise, both exercises (i.e. a combined condition) or neither exercise (i.e. a control condition). A total of 260 individuals will be recruited into the study. Outcomes for all study condition arms will be assessed at baseline (Time 1), immediately post-intervention (Time 2), and at 1-month follow-up (Time 3). The primary outcome is frequency of wearing face covering, as reported at T2 and T3. Secondary outcomes include intervention effects on face covering attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioural control and barrier self-efficacy at T2 and T3. Putative moderators of intervention effects are conscientiousness, narcissism and ‘light triad’ personality traits. Discussion This trial will contribute toward the currently sparse evidence base concerning behaviour change techniques designed to promote COVID-19 preventative behaviours among UK university students and university employees. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (U.S. National Library of Medicine) NCT04583449. Retrospectively registered on 20 October 2020.
... While it remains unclear how these findings would translate to the B2B sales setting, this may serve as a note of caution that organizations have to invest considerable thought into developing visualization that fits their individual situation, and the implementation of the visualization strategy. Of note, the basic concept behind this study stems from social psychology (Pham & Taylor, 1999), which states that thinking of the process leading to a favorable outcome might be a stronger motivator than thinking of the outcome itself. ...
Conference Paper
The environment in which salespeople perform their activities is constantly changing, calling for and enabling new solutions for presenting solutions, providing value, overcoming objections, and closing deals. Technological advances have been a driving force in these changes, warranting scientific inquiry into the use of new technologies in business development. Technology has also massively changed the way sellers can use visualization, including with new possibilities around 3D visualization and augmented reality. Here, the theoretical underpinnings and extant literature on visualization in professional selling in two specific industries will be reviewed. Further, the potential benefits of visualizing benefits rather than product features will be discussed, based on the assumption that products are purchased not for their properties but for the results that they provide – which may influence the cognitive processing of different types of visuals. Finally, the gaps in the scientific literature will be discussed, along with suggestions on how empirical evidence could be gathered for the effective use of visualization in B2B sales, especially with regard to innovative technological approaches such as augmented reality. Keywords: B2B, visualization, sales, augmented reality JEL Code: M31
... First, it provides high discriminant validity between anticipatory and anticipated emotions. Second, the procedure relies on the cognitive simulation literature and tap into both process and outcome simulation (Pham & Taylor, 1999;Taylor et al., 1998) in asking participants to imagine the occurrence of positive or negative future outcomes along with their own behaviors to bring them about or avoid them. Despite its advantages, such a procedure remains generic and undifferentiated at best as it does not involve the simulation of specific events that are possible to imagine in relation to the future. ...
Thesis
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Most future educational and career transitions represent major life events that individuals anticipate to a considerable extent, possibly with multiple emotions at the same time. However, few studies have examined the emotions that individuals experience when they anticipate a future educational or career transition, imagine how it will occur, the consequences it will have for them, and visualize their coping efforts. The aims of the present dissertation are fourfold. First, we explore individuals’ combinations of multiple future-oriented emotions at the prospect of three major educational and career transitions: (a) the transition from high school to higher education, (b) the transition from higher education to the job market, and (c) the transition from unemployment to employment. Due to the rather exploratory nature of our first research question, our second objective pertains to the replication of these combinations and the investigation of similarities between several groups of individuals based on (a) gender, (b) institutional context, and (c) the temporal distance before the transition. Third, we examine several antecedents of individuals’ combinations of future-oriented emotions. These antecedents ranged from career-related constructs such as career decidedness and career adaptability to affective mechanisms such as cognitive appraisals, trait affect, and emotion regulation. Finally, we examine the behavioral effects of future-oriented emotions in terms of anticipated vocational planning and effort. Overall, the present dissertation brings several implications in highlighting the combinations of future-oriented emotions that individuals experience when anticipating important vocational transitions, a research strand that is scarce both in vocational and emotion research. From a practical point of view, the evidence of several combinations—and the differences and similarities among several groups or contexts—carries practical implications for designing and implementing career-related interventions. Finally, examining antecedents and outcomes of future-oriented emotions combinations underlines the importance of taking emotional anticipation processes into account when individuals prepare for and cope with major educational and career transitions.
... This capacity allows us to "play out" potential scenarios without having to endure the full costs of the experience, meaning that both successful and unsuccessful plans of action can be simulated at no lived cost (Suddendorf & Corballis, 2007), such as in the domains of hunting or mating. Process simulations may be more beneficial than outcome simulations: In a study where college freshmen simulated either the process (studying well) or the outcome (high grade) of a good exam, it was found that process simulation improved studying and subsequent grades through enhanced planning and reduced anxiety (Pham & Taylor, 1999). Interestingly, fiction is crucially focused on providing process simulation: We follow characters as they try to solve some problem (e.g., courting someone, or fighting zombies) with much less detail on the actual outcome (e.g., marriage, or survival or death). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread social disruption and lockdowns, with negative consequences for psychological wellbeing worldwide. We argue that mental simulation, through the cognitive capacity of imagination and its instigator fiction, may have substantial positive contributions to psychological wellbeing during the pandemic. We review relevant research on the evolutionary functions of simulation through imagination and fiction, and propose that simulation is a tool to support (i) planning and future thought, (ii) coping and emotion regulation, (iii) bonding and social needs, and (iv) identity and worldviews. We suggest that these functions can contribute to coping during the pandemic. We also address the dark side of simulation, whereby excessive simulation may have negative effects such as rumination. In light of previous research and the negative psychological effects of COVID-19 disruptions and lockdowns, we suggest that there is much scope for future research on this topic, including whether simulations offered by imaginative activity could be useful and inexpensive mental health tools.
... , 재조합된 과거의 자서전적 기 억들이 새로운 심상의 대부분을 구성한다고 가정된다 (Schacter, Addis, & Buckner, 2007 (Carroll, 1978;Gregory, Cialdini, & Carpenter, 1982;Libby, Shaeffer, Eibach, & Slemmer, 2007;Pham & Taylor, 1999 (Joormann & Siemer, 2004;Joorman, Siemer, & Gotlib, 2007). 이러한 정서적 반 응성의 저하는 부분적으로 우울한 개인이 보이는 우울 유발적 사 고의 특징에서 기인할 수 있다. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of imagery processing on positive affect, behavioral motivation, and anhedonic symptoms. For this purpose, participants with anhedonic symptoms of depression were randomly assigned to one of two conditions, namely, an imagery processing condition (n= 33) and a verbal processing condition (n= 32). The experiment consisted of activity scheduling and practice designed to induce the pleasure experience regarding that activity in each processing mode. In both conditions, increases in positive affect and behavioral motivation, and a decrease in the level of anhedonic depression were observed. Participants in the imagery processing condition, however, reported greater enhancement in positive affect and anhedonic symptoms than did those in the verbal processing condition. Results indicate that boosting anticipatory pleasure for future events through mental imagery could alleviate anhedonic symptoms of depression, with increases in positive affect and behavioral motivation. In the final section, the implications and limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.
... how face coverings should be worn) [40]. A great advantage of mental imagery interventions is that they hold the possibility of strengthening links between thought and goal-directed Page 13/17 action [41] potentially involving a neural basis whereby the rehearsal of actions helps foster more consistent subsequent behavior [42]. The intervention described in this protocol is designed to target key theoretical determinants related to healthadherent behaviors involving beliefs/skills and will, therefore, also contribute to theoretical understanding through developing the evidence base relating to effective strategies to promote health behavior change. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has witnessed wide-ranging efforts to minimize the spread of the virus and to protect those most vulnerable to becoming unwell following viral infection. Core COVID-19 preventive measures include social distancing, regular hand washing and wearing face coverings in public places. Understanding links between social cognitive factors relating to beliefs/skills is important in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as this can suggest which factors might be targeted via behavior change interventions to promote adherence to COVID-19 preventative behaviors. In this context, mental imagery exercises - self-directed imagining an anticipated outcome or processes linked to a defined behavior/activity - offer a well evidenced, relatively simple behavior change intervention. In the mental imagery invention reported in this protocol, individuals will be randomly assigned to one of four separate conditions (outcome imagery, process imagery, outcome and process imagery, control).Methods The primary objective of this randomized controlled study is to assess the effectiveness of a mental imagery intervention on face covering behavior, as a defined core COVID-19 preventative behavior. Participants will consist of UK-based adults of any age. Participants will be randomized to complete an ‘outcome imagery’ or a ‘process imagery’ exercise, both exercises (i.e. a combined condition) or neither exercise (i.e. a control condition). A total of 260 individuals will be recruited into the study. Outcomes for all study condition arms will be assessed at baseline (T1), immediately post-intervention (T2), and at a 1-month follow-up (T3). The primary outcome is frequency of face covering behavior at T2 and T3. Secondary outcomes include intervention effects on face covering attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control and barrier self-efficacy at T2 and T3. Putative moderators of intervention effects are conscientiousness, narcissism and ‘light triad’ personality traits. DiscussionThis trial will contribute toward the currently sparse evidence base concerning behavior change techniques designed to promote COVID-19 preventative behaviors in general population and targeted settings. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov (U.S. National Library of Medicine), NCT04583449. Retrospectively registered on 20 October 2020.
Article
Simulations can be considered a particular act of thinking that entails imagining oneself in a hypothetical scenario (as either the doer or the observer) to explore potential outcomes. Imagining the structure and functioning of institutions of higher education in the future is a complex task that may involve a blend of known and estimated facts along with desired outcomes. In the present paper, we discuss the merits of mental simulation along with a straightforward paradigm that may be useful in the study of prospection applied to this specific task. It is based on the assumption that prospection is a natural outcome of an intelligent cognitive system, which envisions the future to both anticipate and shape forthcoming events. We then discuss the benefits of prospection when the object to imagine is the university.
Article
Although positive effects of future thinking have been demonstrated, the effects of future thinking on children’s academic achievement are less known. We examined the effects of three forms of thinking about the future or alternative outcomes on math performance in 9- to 12-year-olds (N = 127). After a math pre-assessment, participants were asked to think about math success according to a between-subjects condition: episodic prospection (episodically simulating a personal future event), semantic prospection (thinking about the future in a non-personal, general sense), or episodic counterfactual thinking (episodically simulating an alternative past event). Results show that semantic prospection promoted gains in mean math accuracy and a greater proportion of 3rd-person visual perspective. A 3rd-person visual perspective also related to gains in mean math accuracy across conditions. Semantic prospection may be a more beneficial form of future thinking in some contexts, perhaps because it supports greater psychological distancing. Academic achievement interventions may benefit from targeting specific forms of future thinking.
Article
Intentional self-regulation (ISR), defined as actions to set, strive for, and maximize the chances to achieve goals, is linked to positive outcomes in adolescence. Underlying ISR is the goal focus, which refers to framing a goal in terms of its means (process focus) or its ends (outcome focus). A process focus is consistently linked to more positive results than an outcome focus in adult samples, but process and outcome foci are understudied in adolescence. This paper illuminates the benefits of a process focus for adolescent goal pursuit in three points. First, ISR is critical during adolescence and has been linked to lifelong outcomes. Second, while a process focus is beneficial in adulthood and this is likely similar in adolescence, developmental and contextual factors push adolescents towards adopting an outcome focus. Third, developing a process or outcome focus has significant implications for the selection, optimization, and compensation model. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Article
Background: Research suggests that focusing on the process of losing weight (i.e. how to eat and exercise) may be more advantageous for sustained engagement with goal pursuit than focusing on weight loss itself. However, gym-based weight loss programs focus almost exclusively on outcomes (e.g. weight, appearance). Using a quasi-experimental design, this study provides a test of subjective and behavioral outcomes of a process- versus an outcome-focused approach integrated into an 8-week workout challenge at four fitness studios. Methods: Four hundred and forty-eight individuals who were enrolled in the workout challenge consented to participate in study assessments at the start of the 8-week challenge, the end of the 8-week challenge, and again 8 weeks later. Results: The process- and outcome-focused programs produced similar subjective experiences, but the process-focused program was associated with greater workout attendance, more adoption of supplemental weight-loss strategies, and higher completion of the program requirements. Conclusions: As compared to traditional outcome-focused approaches, process-focused weight loss programs may elicit behavioral benefits, such as maintaining engagement with the behavioral demands of weight loss.
Article
Parce que l’engagement des femmes dans l’entrepreneuriat revêt un enjeu majeur pour la croissance économique, étudier les dispositifs d’accompagnement au féminin est important. L’ambition de cet article est d’introduire la neuropsychologie dans le champ de l’entrepreneuriat. Pour y parvenir, une triangulation de méthodes a été réalisée de manière à assurer la validité des conclusions avancées. Elle a consisté en un traitement qualitatif – codage à visée théorique – puis lexicométrique des données obtenues lors de 116 entretiens ouverts. Les résultats soulignent le poids des souvenirs des expériences passées sur la création d’entreprise et montrent le rôle clé de la mémoire autobiographique dans l’accompagnement entrepreneurial en groupe de femmes.
Article
The variety of food items that compose a meal can influence estimates of the calories they contain. Similarly, the variety of activities in an exercise program might influence estimates of the calories they burn. In each case, however, the nature of this influence can depend on the mental process that underlies these estimates. When consumers directly make calorie estimates and consider a set of items as a whole, they make higher calorie estimates if the items vary in appearance than if are identical. When consumers imagine themselves consuming each item in turn, however, they imagine becoming satiated more quickly, and make higher estimates, if the items are identical. Five studies confirm the interactive effect of variety and consumption simulation on both consumers’ calorie estimates and their downstream consequences.
Article
Mental or computer simulation of cause and effect of certain behaviors is a recognized approach to changing one’s attitude or triggering an action. Meanwhile, psychology research results suggest that frequency of simulation may affect the corresponding persuasiveness. This paper argues that with always-on sensing and data-driven visualization technologies, interactive tangible systems can be designed to simulate hypothetical outcomes of real-life behaviors in everyday contexts, which repeatedly stimulate users’ imagination of behavioral consequences and thereby behavioral intentions. To investigate the effect, a working prototype of Incingarette, including a smart ashtray in connection with a digital picture frame, was built. When the ashtray is used for smoking, the digital picture is incrementally covered by virtual dust. Field trials involved participants in five daily smoking sessions. Post-session surveys show increasingly stronger perceived causality between smoking and the simulated outcomes, increasingly more vivid mental imagery of consequences, and increasingly intense intention to reduce smoking. Results suggest that repeatedly presenting simulated outcomes cognitively linked to real-life behaviors can increase behavioral intentions.
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The proportion of the population who experience persecutory thoughts is 10–15%. People then engage in safety-seeking behaviours, typically avoiding social interactions, which prevents disconfirmatory experiences and hence paranoia persists. Here we show that persecutory thoughts can be reduced if prior to engaging in social interaction in VR participants first see their virtual body-double doing so. Thirty non-clinical participants were recruited to take part in a study, where they were embodied in a virtual body that closely resembled themselves, and asked to interact with members of a crowd. In the Random condition (n = 15) they observed their body-double wandering around but not engaging with the crowd. In the Targeted condition the body-double correctly interacted with members of the crowd. The Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale was measured 1 week before and 1 week after the exposure and decreased only for those in the Targeted condition. The results suggest that the observation of the body-double correctly carrying out a social interaction task in VR may lead to anxiety-reducing mental rehearsal for interaction thus overcoming safety behaviours. The results also extend knowledge of the effects of vicarious agency, suggesting that identification with the actions of body-double can influence subsequent psychological state.
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The present research compares the effects of mentally recreating the experience of realizing that a desirable goal had been achieved (outcome simulation exercise) with those of mentally recreating the actions that might lead to the desirable goal (process simulation exercise). It asked whether the performance benefits of process simulations over outcome simulations, which have been reported in students enrolled in face-to-face classes, would generalize to an online environment. The process simulation exercise was expected to foster attention to the antecedents of good grades, thereby improving class performance relative to the outcome simulation exercise which was intended to be merely motivational. College students from the Middle East, who were taking classes online due to the COVID-19 pandemic, participated. Type of simulation impacted students’ performance on assignments, but differently depending on the timing of the assessment. It did not influence behavioral engagement, midterm test performance, or predictions of performance before or after the test. Instead, process simulation enhanced students’ confidence in their predictions. These findings suggest that process simulation exercises may be useful learning props for activities that challenge students’ problem-solving skills (e.g., assignments) rather than engage well-practiced study habits (e.g., tests).
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This research demonstrates that as people approach a goal, external representations, which increase the ease of visualizing the goal, enhance goal pursuit. Specifically, consumers judge easy-to-visualize goals to be closer than difficult-to-visualize goals, which in turn increases effort and commitment. Ease of visualization affects performance in swimming competitions and the physical effort exerted in the lab. Visualization also affects commitment toward savings, willingness to wait for service, and performance in a simulated sales task. Importantly, the beneficial effects of visualization exist only when people are close to the goal. In addition, the effect of visualization attenuates when the goal is split into subgoals. Managers can use these results to enhance consumer goal pursuit, influence consumer satisfaction in online service encounters, and motivate employees to improve performance. In these varied contexts, visual representations of goal progress (e.g., progress bars) enhance motivation as people approach their goal.
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Latest studies regarding gamification for behavior change have suggested using meaningful stories for long-term effects. Drawing on psychological studies related to narrative transportation and mental simulation, this paper extends the idea of animated parables and argues that selecting stories to frame gamified systems should consider perceived causality between the real-life action and the simulated diegetic effect. This study employs expert evaluation on a collection of parables regarding perceived usefulness, novelty, and perceived causality. Results show that parables consensually rated by experts as both useful and novel are also prominent in perceived causality, which supports the argument that perceived causality underpins perceived persuasiveness of parables.
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Managerial feedback discussions often fail to produce the desired performance improvements. Three studies shed light on why performance feedback fails and how it can be made more effective. In Study 1, managers described recent performance feedback experiences in their work settings. In Studies 2 and 3, pairs of managers role-played a performance review meeting. In all studies, recipients of mixed and negative feedback doubted the accuracy of the feedback and the providers’ qualifications to give it. Disagreement regarding past performance was greater following the feedback discussion than before, due to feedback recipients’ increased self-protective and self-enhancing attributions. Managers were motivated to improve to the extent they perceived the feedback conversation to be focused on future actions rather than on past performance. Our findings have implications for the theory and practice of performance management.
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Counterfactual thinking involves the imagination of non-factual alternatives to reality. We investigated the spontaneous generation of both upward counterfactuals, which improve on reality, and downward counterfactuals, which worsen reality. All subjects gained $5 playing a computer-simulated blackjack game. However, this outcome was framed to be perceived as either a win, a neutral event, or a loss. "Loss" frames produced more upward and fewer downward counterfactuals than did either "win" or "neutral" frames, but the overall prevalence of counterfactual thinking did not vary with outcome valence. In addition, subjects who expected to play the game again made more upward counterfactuals and were less satisfied with the outcome than were subjects who did not expect to play again. However, once subjects saw the cards from which they could have selected had they "hit" again (two winning cards and two losing cards), all subjects generated primarily upward counterfactuals and showed a corresponding decrease in satisfaction. These results implicate both cognitive and motivational factors in the generation of counterfactuals and tell us something about the functional value of counterfactual thinking: downward counterfactuals provide comfort; upward counterfactuals prepare one for the future.
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Social theories—beliefs about relations between variables in the social environment—are often used in making judgments, predictions, or decisions. Three experiments, with 146 undergraduates, examined the role of explanation in the development and use of social theories. It was found that explaining how or why 2 variables might be related led to an increased belief in and use of the explained theory. A counterexplanation task was effective in eliminating this initial explanation bias. These explanation and counterexplanation effects occurred with simple belief measures and with complex social judgments involving multiple predictor variables. New, explanation-induced beliefs did not lead to biased evaluation of new data. However, exposure to new data indicating a zero relation between the social variables in question moderated but did not eliminate the explanation-induced theories. Implications for decision making in real-world contexts and for understanding the cognitive underlying explanation effects in the present and in related judgment domains were also examined. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Introduces the concept of possible selves (PSs) to complement current conceptions of self-knowledge. PSs represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming, and thus provide a conceptual link beteen cognition and motivation. PSs are the cognitive components of hopes, fears, goals, and threats; they give the specific self-relevant form, meaning, organization, and direction to these dynamics. It is suggested that PSs function as incentives for future behavior and to provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self. The nature and function of PSs and their role in addressing several persistent problems (e.g., the stability and malleability of the self, the unity of the self, self-distortion, the relationship between the self-concept and behavior) are discussed. (143 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested 3 hypotheses concerning people's predictions of task completion times: (1) people underestimate their own but not others' completion times, (2) people focus on plan-based scenarios rather than on relevant past experiences while generating their predictions, and (3) people's attributions diminish the relevance of past experiences. Five studies were conducted with a total of 465 undergraduates. Results support each hypothesis. Ss' predictions of their completion times were too optimistic for a variety of academic and nonacademic tasks. Think-aloud procedures revealed that Ss focused primarily on future scenarios when predicting their completion times. The optimistic bias was eliminated for Ss instructed to connect relevant past experiences with their predictions. Ss attributed their past prediction failures to external, transient, and specific factors. Observer Ss overestimated others' completion times and made greater use of relevant past experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals using the cognitive strategy of defensive pessimism will perform better and feel better when allowed to play through possible outcomes and reflect on their progress. In contrast, individuals using an optimistic strategy will perform more poorly and feel worse when they are encouraged or required to reflect on themselves and their goals. A laboratory experiment and a study using experience-sampling methodology (ESM) revealed this pattern for self-reported mood, appraisal of tasks, and progress toward goals; objective performance; and a physiological measure, though the interaction was not always statistically significant. Discussion focuses on the probable content of reflective thought for these individuals, the relative costs and benefits of each approach, and the usefulness of a strategy-oriented approach to the study of individual differences and self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 2 experiments with a total of 114 undergraduates, who imagined either themselves, a friend, or a disliked acquaintance performing or not performing a series of behaviors. Ss also sketched these behavioral scenarios in cartoon-panels form. Intention changes were assessed in a pre–post design. Exp I demonstrated that (a) imagining oneself performing (or not performing) a certain behavior produces corresponding changes in intentions toward that behavior; (b) the more frequently one imagines oneself in a behavioral script, the more intention change is produced; and (c) such changes in personal intentions do not occur when the main character of the script is not oneself. Exp II replicated the basic effect and demonstrated that the intention changes persisted for at least 3 days. These effects are discussed in terms of judgmental heuristics used to assess intentions and in terms of R. P. Abelson's (1981) script theory. Alternative explanations are considered and rejected on the basis of supplementary data. The relations between these findings and research on memory for self and other images, on self-erasing prediction errors, and on several therapeutic phenomena are discussed. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In 4 experiments, 206 undergraduates and 79 homeowners, through the use of a structured scenario, were led to imagine themselves experiencing certain events and came to believe more strongly that the events would befall them. This promotive effect of the scenario procedure on probability or likelihood estimates occurred for both positive (e.g., winning a contest) and negative events (e.g., being arrested for a crime) and in both laboratory and field contexts. Crucial to its relevance for compliance, the scenario procedure influenced not only probability judgments, but behavior as well. Homeowners who imagined themselves utilizing a cable TV service were more likely to subscribe to such a service when requested to do so weeks later. It was determined that the effect of structured scenarios on compliance was not due to additional information provided by the scenario. An interpretation based on the availability heuristic is suggested. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We investigated the impact of expectation and fantasy on the weight losses of 25 obese women participating in a behavioral weight reduction program. Both expectations of reaching one's goal weight and spontaneous weight-related fantasies were measured at pretreatment before subjects began 1 year of weekly group-treatment. Consistent with our hypothesis that expectation and fantasy are different in quality, these variables predicted weight change in opposite directions. Optimistic expectations but negative fantasies favored weight loss. Subjects who displayed pessimistic expectations combined with positive fantasies had the poorest treatment outcome. Finally, expectation but not fantasy predicted program attendance. The effects of fantasy are discussed with regard to their potential impact on weight reduction therapy and the need for further studies of dieters' spontaneous thoughts and images.
Chapter
Imagery has been used rather extensively in various forms of psychotherapy, particularly in Europe (Singer, 1974; Singer and Pope, 1978). In psychoanalysis, for example, imagery and fantasy have had at least an ancillary role in the treatment process. Both Freud and Jung.employed fantasy as a basis for assessing psychological processes assumed to underlie symptomatic behaviors. Variations of psychoanalytic practice have used imagery-based procedures more extensively. For example, imagining scenes with content of psychodynamic significance has characterized psychoanalytic treatment at different points in history (e.g., Clark, 1925; Kubie, 1943; Reyher, 1963). Many other techniques spawned by analytic treatment rely hevily on imagery (Singer, 1974). Clients may be instructed to imagine standardized scenes that reflect such themes as interpersonal relationships, conflicts, and personal strivings. Alternatively, imagery can be less structured, and the client may be encouraged to engage in free-flowing imagery. In such cases, the client usually is deeply relaxed and engages in imagery construction for the entire therapy session. The therapeutic effects of guided-imagery are assumed to result either from the imagery process itself or from the psychologically significant material that imagery evokes (Desoille, 1938; Fretigny and Virel, 1968; Leuner, 1969).
Chapter
The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the relapse process as traditionally defined within the medical or “disease” model of alcoholism. In the traditional approach, alcoholism is viewed as an addiction, and relapse is defined as the sequence of events leading to readdiction following a period of abstinence from alcohol use. This is the common usage of the term in medical parlance, and is reflected in the following definition of relapse taken from Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary: “A recurrence of symptoms of a disease after a period of improvement.” This same dictionary defines addiction as “compulsive physiological need for a habit-forming drug.” Consistent with this emphasis on addiction as a physiological need, proponents of the medical model frequently attribute an alcoholic’s relapse to internal symptoms such as physical craving for alcohol or an involuntary, compulsive loss of control over drinking. Falling off the wagon after a period of abstinence is thus taken as a pathognomonic symptom of alcoholism.
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Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the likelihood of uncertain events such as the outcome of an election, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of the dollar. Occasionally, beliefs concerning uncertain events are expressed in numerical form as odds or subjective probabilities. In general, the heuristics are quite useful, but sometimes they lead to severe and systematic errors. The subjective assessment of probability resembles the subjective assessment of physical quantities such as distance or size. These judgments are all based on data of limited validity, which are processed according to heuristic rules. However, the reliance on this rule leads to systematic errors in the estimation of distance. This chapter describes three heuristics that are employed in making judgments under uncertainty. The first is representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event belongs to a class or event. The second is the availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development, and the third is adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available.
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44 subjects each gave phenomenological reports of the imagery present during a recalled situation in which emotion was experienced and in a comparable situation in which no or minimal emotion was experienced. Analysis of variance showed that there was significantly more imagery of all kinds in the emotion condition. Further analysis of the emotion condition showed significantly mote images with references to past and future than to the present, with references to participating activities than to events or things, and with references to other people than to self. The findings are discussed with reference to several contemporary theories of emotion It is suggested that imagery may play a more important role in the experience of emotion than current theory allows.
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Possible selves are elements of the self-concept that represent what individuals could become, would like to become, and are afraid of becoming. These representations of the self in the future are hypothesized to be an important component of effective performance. In Study 1, subjects either imagined being either successful in the future because of hard work, imagined being unsuccessful in the future despite hard work, or were given a positive mood inducement. These imagery manipulations were intended to increase the accessibility of specific possible selves. On a task involving effort and one involving persistence, subjects who imagined being successful performed the best. In Study 2, subjects either imagined being successful, imagined being unsuccessful, imagined another person being successful, or were put in a good mood. The success imagery group was relatively fast to accept positive, success-relevant possible selves as descriptive, and also relatively fast to reject negative, failure-relevant possib...
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Having subjects explain a hypothetical future event biases their subjective likelihood estimates for that event. However, Sherman, Zehner, Johnson, and Hirt (1983, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1127–1143) found that the biasing effects of an explanation task were reduced when subjects formed an initial impression based on the information (prior to the explanation task). Nonetheless, there are no doubt many factors that may influence subjects' ability to form strong initial impressions. The present studies address two of these factors. Experiment 1 used both subjects who were knowledgeable and unknowledgeable (naive) about a stimulus domain (football). Experiment 2 used only knowledgeable subjects, but gave these subjects information about unfamiliar teams and players. Subjects first read information about teams in an upcoming game and were then asked to explain a hypothetical victory by one team. They then made judgments about the actual future game and recalled the information. Only knowledgeable subjects given an initial impression set and given information that was easily integrated with past knowledge were able to resist the explanation bias. All other subjects demonstrated judgments that were strongly biased in the direction of the outcome explained. An examination of the relation between judgment and recall implied that knowledgeable and naive individuals differed in the ways they made judgments.
Performance in a probabilistic learning task was studied under conditions in which learners received (1) knowledge of results after every trial (outcome-feedback), (2) information about task properties, and (3) both outcome-feedback and information about task properties. Outcome-feedback was not only unnecessary for improved performance, but was found to impede performance as well.
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Norm theory (Kahneman & Miller, 1986) identifies factors that determine the ease with which alternatives to reality can be imagined or constructed. One assumption of norm theory is that the greater the availability of imagined alternatives to an event, the stronger will be the affective reaction elicited by the event. The present two experiments explore this assumption in the context of observers' reactions to victims. It was predicted that negative outcomes that strongly evoked positive alternatives would elicit more sympathy from observers than negative outcomes that weakly evoked positive alternatives. The ease of counterfactual thought was manipulated in the first experiment by the spatial distance between the negative outcome and a positive alternative, and in the second experiment by the habitualness of the actions that precipitated the victimization. Consistent with norm theory, subjects recommended more compensation for victims of fates for which a positive alternative was highly available. Implications of the results for various types of reactions to victims are discussed.
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471 undergraduates, selected for interest in and knowledge of college football, read information about an upcoming football game and explained a hypothetical victory by 1 team. Some Ss knew of the outcome to be explained prior to reading the information. Others learned of the explanation task only after reading the information. Of these latter Ss, some were given an initial recall set with which to approach the information; others were given an impression set. Results show that explaining a victory by a team biased judgments of what would happen, but only in the before- and the after-recall set conditions. In both cases, judgments were highly correlated with the kinds of facts recalled. In the after-impression set condition, judgments were not biased in the direction of the outcome explained, and the correlations between judgments and what was recalled were small. It is proposed that judgments may be based either on facts available in memory at the time of judgment (for before- and after-recall set conditions) or on the basis of previous summary impressions (after-impression set condition). Implications for issues of encoding vs retrieval effects and the evaluative judgment–recall relationship are discussed. (47 ref)
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Previous research has revealed that writing or talking about traumatic stressors can improve health and psychological well-being. The present study investigated whether similar benefits may be conferred by mental simulation and whether such simulations can improve coping and affective responses to ongoing stressful events. All participants designated an ongoing stressful event in their lives. One third of the participants visualized the event and the emotions they had experienced (event simulation), one third visualized having resolved the problem (outcome simulation), and one third were simply followed over time (control). Event simulation participants reported more positive affect, both immediately and 1 week later, and indicated higher levels of planned and reported active coping strategies, compared with the other two conditions. Discussion focuses on the potential of structured mental simulation to facilitate coping with stressful events.
Article
The role of counterfactuals in judgments of affective reactions to outcomes was examined. Subjects read about individuals who experienced gains or losses as a result of either deciding to take action and make a change or deciding not to take any new action. In addition, the salience of the counterfactual alternative was manipulated. Past results were replicated in the case of negative outcomes: Individuals who lost money on the basis of action were judged as feeling worse than those who lost money on the basis of inaction. This occurred under both high and low salience of the counterfactual. With positive consequences, however, exaggerated affect for outcomes associated with action rather than inaction occurred only when the counterfactual alternative was made highly salient. Implications for the construction and use of counterfactuals are discussed, and a process model is developed on the basis of the data and the proposed conceptualization.
Article
This paper presents an approach to elicitation and correction of intuitive forecasts, which attempts to retain the valid component of intuitive judgments while correcting some biases to which they are prone. This approach is applied to two tasks that experts are often required to perform in the context of forecasting and in the service of decision making: the prediction of values and the assessment of confidence intervals. The analysis of these judgments reveals two major biases: non-regressiveness of predictions and overconfidence. Both biases are traced to people's tendency to give insufficient weight to certain types of information, e.g., the base-rate frequency of outcomes and their predictability. The corrective procedures described in this paper are designed to elicit from experts relevant information which they would normally neglect, and to help them integrate this information with their intuitive impressions in a manner that respects basic principles of statistical prediction.
Article
The mental processes by which people construct scenarios, or examples, resemble the running of the simulation model. Mental simulation appears to be used to make predictions, assess probabilities and evaluate casual statements. A particular form of simulation, which concerns the mental undoing of certain events, plays an important role in the analysis of regret and close calls. Two rules of mental undoing are proposed. According to the downhill rule, people undo events by removing surprising or unexpected occurrences. According to the focus rule, people manipulate the entities on which they focus. The implications of the rules of undoing and mental simulation to the evaluation of scenarios are discussed. (Author)
Article
Introduces the concept of possible selves (PSs) to complement current conceptions of self-knowledge. PSs represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming, and thus provide a conceptual link beteen cognition and motivation. PSs are the cognitive components of hopes, fears, goals, and threats; they give the specific self-relevant form, meaning, organization, and direction to these dynamics. It is suggested that PSs function as incentives for future behavior and to provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self. The nature and function of PSs and their role in addressing several persistent problems (e.g., the stability and malleability of the self, the unity of the self, self-distortion, the relationship between the self-concept and behavior) are discussed. (143 ref)
Article
A critical feature of many undesirable life events is that they often shatter the victim's perception of living in an orderly, meaningful world. Many authors have suggested that following such outcomes, the search for meaning is a common and adaptive process. This paper explores the validity of that claim by considering data from a recent study of 77 adult women who were victimized as children: survivors of father-daughter incest. In the process, several central questions regarding the search for meaning are addressed. How important is such a search years after a crisis? Over time, are people able to make sense of their aversive life experiences? What are the mechanisms by which individuals find meaning in their negative outcomes? Does finding meaning in one's victimization facilitate long term adjustment to the event? Finally, what are the implications of an inability to find meaning in life's misfortunes?
Article
With effort defined from student reports, this study shows a negative relationship, even with other variables partialed out.
Article
72 undergraduates generated either positive, neutral, or negative affective states through their own ideation and were then exposed to success or failure outcomes over a series of trials. Positive affect resulted in increased expectations, higher estimates of past successes, and more favorable global self-evaluations. Conversely, negative affect led to lower expectations, lower estimates of previous successes, and more negative general self-assessments. The combination of negative affect and negative outcomes led to the lowest self-evaluations and to self-defeating patterns of goal setting (in which minimal goals exceeded expectations). Results demonstrate how affect may bias the processing of self-relevant information and help to clarify the links between affect and person variables in the cognitive social learning framework. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A profitable way of seeing 'Plans,' therefore, is as an act of persuasion, an attempt to show that a scientifically acceptable language could discuss real human functions such as those disturbed in brain injury; but without unwarranted assumptions about the actual physiological mechanisms. From this aspect, notice in the following pages the clear, simple, and appealing accounts of early cybernetic work. The analysis of computability by Turing, of neural nets by McCulloch and Pitts, of precise formulations of grammar by Chomsky, and of concept learning by Bruner, Goodnow, and Austion, had already appeared. . . . The summaries of this work in 'Plans' have probably never been bettered either for accuracy or for level of literary quality. The readers then, and the readers now, could see without effort what was being claimed, why it was important, and the promise it gave for the future. If it were only a summary of pre-existing ideas, however, the book might merely have had its persuasive effect and then been forgotten. It added other ideas as well, less visible in earlier work. One in particular, the concept of the TOTE [Text-Operate-Text-Exit] unit, is probably the most frequently cited by later writers. . . . In addition to the TOTE unit, there were a number of other ideas that are not usually quoted as coming from this book; but whose influence is clearly visible in later research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
suggest that phenomena such as personal growth, striving, and becoming need not be relegated only to the domain of the metaphysical and to inspirational greeting cards and calendars our purpose is to continue where the earlier growth theorists left off and to systematically analyze the process of "becoming," with particular attention to how an individual's efforts towards self-creation are represented and carried within the self-system begin with a review of the key ideas of the growth theorists; describe how these ideas can be represented and empirically explored within a possible selves framework; develop a model of becoming which focuses on two basic processes—the construction of possible selves and the validation of these selves; and finally explore some of the implications of the model for personal growth and adaptation (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper presents a cognitive model of the planning process. The model generalizes the theoretical architecture of the Hearsay-II system. Thus, it assumes that planning comprises the activities of a variety of cognitive “specialists.” Each specialist can suggest certain kinds of decisions for incorporation into the plan in progress. These include decisions about: (a) how to approach the planning problem; (b) what knowledge bears on the problem; (c) what kinds of actions to try to plan; (d) what specific actions to plan; and (e) how to allocate cognitive resources during planning. Within each of these categories, different specialists suggest decisions at different levels of abstraction. The activities of the various specialists are not coordinated in any systematic way. Instead, the specialists operate opportunistically, suggesting decisions whenever promising opportunities arise. The paper presents a detailed account of the model and illustrates its assumptions with a “thinking aloud” protocol. It also describes the performance of a computer simulation of the model. The paper contrasts the proposed model with successive refinement models and attempts to resolve apparent differences between the two points of view.
Article
Previous studies have indicated that explaining a hypothetical event makes the event seem more likely through the creation of causal connections. However, such effects could arise through the use of the availability heuristic; that is, subjective likelihood is increased by an event becoming easier to imagine. Two experiments were designed to demonstrate this principle. In Experiment 1, subjects asked to imagine Jimmy Carter winning the presidential election (prior to the election) predicted that he was more likely to win than subjects asked to imagine Gerald Ford winning. In Experiment 2, subjects asked to imagine a good college football season for the previous championship team were more likely to predict a major bowl bid than subjects asked to imagine a bad season, although the effect did not appear in predictions of the season record. In both studies, subjects who were also asked to explain the imaginary event were no different from subjects who only imagined. Several other attributional distortions are interpreted in terms of the availability heuristic.
Article
Past research has demonstrated the effects of explaining hypothetical events on estimates of the probability that these events will occur. Two experiments examined the effects of explaining hypothetical outcomes for oneself on actual behavior in that situation and in a related situation. Subjects first explained hypothetical success or failure on an upcoming anagram task. They then either stated explicit expectations for the anagram task or did not. When subjects were asked to state expectations, those who had explained hypothetical success not only expected to do better but also actually outperformed those who had explained failure. That is, the events explained were behaviorally confirmed. However, when explicit expectations were not made following the explanation, those who had first explained failure did best of all, suggesting that raising the possibility of failure without forming concrete failure expectancies motivates better performance. Experiment II demonstrated that the self-fulfilling effects of prior explanation and expectation statements generalize to situations similar but not identical to the event that was explained. In addition, the effects of initial explanation predominated over the effects of actual performance feedback. The processes underlying these effects as well as the implications of the effects were discussed.
Chapter
This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: (i) representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; (ii) availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development; and (iii) adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available. These heuristics are highly economical and usually effective, but they lead to systematic and predictable errors. A better understanding of these heuristics and of the biases to which they lead could improve judgements and decisions in situations of uncertainty.
Article
This study examined certain affective and attributional consequences of outcomes and "near outcomes"in the lives of target individuals. A total of 121 subjects read versions of scenarios that systematically differed in the valence of a major life outcome and whether the outcome actually or only nearly happened (the "near outcome"). Results generally indicated that near outcomes as well as actual out-comes had significant impact on the perceived affective consequences of the situation, and that near outcomes also affected trait inferences and predictions regarding the target person. Differences between the perceived affective consequences of positive near outcomes and negative near outcomes were generally a function of differences in the valence of the near outcomes rather than of differences in objective circumstances. Other results also reflected a derogation of the "near winner." The personalities of individuals who narrowly missed experiencing a positive event were rated more negatively; they also were judged as less likely to be successful and less likely to feel positively about their lives in the future. These results are discussed in terms of the suggestions of Kahneman and Tversky (1982) that individuals who learn of a near outcome may simulate its actual occurrence, and that the "simulation heuristic "may shape both inferences and affective states.