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Abstract

Individualism and collectivism are terms used by both social scientists and the public, but there are few systematic studies of this dimension. A sample of psychologists and anthropologists from all parts of the world was asked to respond to a questionnaire the way they believe an individualist and a collectivist would respond. The questionnaire described 10 target persons in seven situations. The responses converged, suggesting that there is consensus about the meaning of the dimension. Accordingly, collectivism can be defined as (1) concern by a person about the effects of actions or decisions on others, (2) sharing of material benefits, (3) sharing of nonmaterial resources, (4) willingness of the person to accept the opinions and views of others, (5) concern about self-presentation and loss of face, (6) belief in the correspondence of own outcomes with the outcomes of others, and (7) feeling of involvement in and contribution to the lives of others. Individualists show less concern, sharing, and so on than collectivists. The approach can be used with other relatively unstudied constructs to establish whether there is consensus among researchers about the meaning of a construct.
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Psychology
Journal of Cross-Cultural
http://jcc.sagepub.com/content/17/2/225
The online version of this article can be found at:
DOI: 10.1177/0022002186017002006
1986 17: 225Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
C. Harry Hui and Harry C. Triandis
Individualism-Collectivism : A Study of Cross-Cultural Researchers
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... Furthermore, considering that social recognition and self-realization are motivating factors for activism (Klar & Kasser, 2009;Lubell, 2002), this construct may be an antecedent of consumers' intention to visit ecotourism destinations that have undergone environmental disasters. The last concept addressed, Collectivism, discusses the interdependence between individuals and the community around them (Hofstede, 1980;Hui & Triandis, 1986). Thus, it is comprehended that utilitarian reference group influence can also have a positive influence on this construct. ...
... According to Hofstede (1980), collectivism is related to the emotional dependence that individuals have in relation to their social circle, applying it to a cross-cultural context. Other researchers, however, suggested that collectivism can be considered both a cultural variable and an aspect of personality (Hui & Triandis, 1986;Moorman & Blakely, 1995). Making it possible to find differences between individuals of the same culture. ...
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... One way in which societies are individualistic or collectivistic lies in the formation of human relationships. Tending to accept other perceptions and decisions, members of collectivist societies care about the larger community; they feel a deeper sense of involvement in others' lives and acknowledge the contributions of others to their own lives (Hui and Triandis, 1986). In individualistic societies, where individuals strive for personal independence, personally organized behaviors reflect one's feelings, thoughts and decisions (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). ...
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... One main cultural difference documented between the U.S. and China relates to independent versus interdependent social values: whereas the U.S. culture supports an individualist worldview addressing individual identity and uniqueness (Dean & Koenig, 2019;Hui & Triandis, 1986), the Confucian values transmitted in the Chinese culture put much emphasis on harmonious interpersonal relations (Na et al., 2010) as an important basis of social obligations and personal meanings. Different focuses on interdependent versus independent social orientation may shape essentialist beliefs about social groups; in particular, we hypothesized that interdependent values would predict stronger essentialist perceptions on group coherence and that independent values would predict stronger essentialist perceptions on group naturalness. ...
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