Assessing Technology Transfer and Business Development Potential: Technology Cluster Analysis

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This article presents a methodology that university technology transfer practitioners can employ to improve interactions with corporations that have active intellectual property management programs. The methodology provides a means for packaging university intellectual property in ways that align with core competencies of corporations and is designed to maintain consistency with the mission, ethics, and organizational practices of both large corporations and research universities. For historical and organizational reasons, intellectual property at universities tends to be developed in discrete units that are, in turn, licensed as discrete units—usually based on a patent. The authors call this model one-off licensing. Although widely practiced, one-off licensing may diminish the university’s ability to realize the full potential of its intellectual property. Enhanced value results when several pieces of related intellectual property are grouped together. Synergistic groupings of intellectual property also enhance the ability of universities to spin out successful contributions to business formation.

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... Many firms in the region would argue that it presents a situation in which the geographic region is relatively small but local intra-cluster synergies are high (Maskell 2001). They see the effect of university engineering and science, plus associated technology transfer and patenting activities as observed by Rosenbloom (2007) and Martin, et al. (2004). On the other hand, they do not acknowledge much evidence of scale effects (Rosenbloom 2007), market proximity effects (Golgan & Baker 2003), nor strong impact of public policy decisions (Erickson & McKinney 2006). ...
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_____________________________________________________________________ Executive Summary. For two years running, the Waterloo Region in Ontario has been named "a top seven intelligent community in the world." It has a positive reputation in Canada for successfully fostering technology-based start-ups, either as spin-offs of the University of Waterloo, or as spin-outs of established technology-intensive firms in the area. In this study, we characterize how and to what extent technology-based innovation is perceived by local small and medium-sized enterprises to operate in an identifiable economic cluster. The sectors questioned in a mail-out survey included: information technology, production technology, biotechnology, insurance, and building equipment/services. Analyses reveal how sector characteristics differentiate within the Waterloo Region, as well as the impact of issues such as access to skilled labour and infrastructure. Further, the underlying structure of the data is examined and compared to the Porter Diamond cluster model. This provides deeper insight into the mechanisms contributing to the development of the local technology cluster. While support exists for the proposition that local firms perceive themselves as contributing to a cluster, the firms surveyed tended to perceive that they themselves do not strongly benefit from any local economic cluster effects. It is also apparent from this analysis that the presence of high-quality education and research institutions plays a catalytic role in the continued evolution of this region. Several potential avenues for influencing the development of local clusters are identified and new learning for potential policy initiatives highlighted.
Full-text available pesquisa investigou os fatores de riscos potencializados pela utilização do pregão eletrônico. Como fundamentação teórica foram utilizados os princípios da Teoria dos Custos de Transação (ECT). Foi realizada pesquisa exploratória e descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa, com o objetivo de classificar as empresas fornecedoras da União de acordo com o grau de risco apresentado aos contratos de fornecimento. Foram elaborados constructos de acordo com os princípios da ECT sendo validados pelo Alfa de Cronbach. Posteriormente foram realizadas análises fatoriais e de cluster. Através das análises realizadas foi possível classificar os fornecedores em três grupos: alto risco, baixo risco e risco moderado. Através dos resultados, conclui-se que os Órgãos Públicos devem criar salvaguardas contra atitudes oportunistas. Por isso é importante a especificação correta dos produtos para não dar margem para a cotação de produtos de qualidade inferior, e também que sejam aplicadas, aos fornecedores oportunistas, as sanções previstas na lei.
University research parks facilitate colocation of businesses within or in relative proximity to the main campus. They provide a favorable environment for interactions among tenant firms, as well as between firms and academia. Because of their physical size, employment base, support services, export driven activities and overall role in regional economies, university research parks can be regarded as micro-clusters. In this paper we dissect and map the anatomy of a university research park to demonstrate its dynamism and economic impacts on regional economies through a mixture of different yet related activities. First we identify core activities that include technology companies and incubator based technology companies. These core activities are facilitated by park management support organizations, park tenant support organizations, and community service support organizations. Individual firms and organizations assigned to each of these categories are identified and employment is classified as export driven or non-export driven. Only the export component is used to estimate the indirect and induced employment in the metropolitan region that is dependent on park activity. The methodology and results of this project will be particularly useful in conceptualization and operationalization of economic impacts of university research parks on their local and regional economies.
This chapter reports on case studies of four North American universities engaged in technology transfer and commercialization. The literature and case studies permitted an understanding of the characteristics possessed by universities and university technology transfer offices that appear to be successful in technology transfer and commercialization. Fourteen characteristics, or institutional enablers, are identified and analyzed in order to determine which among these characteristics have greater influence in the success of technology transfer offices. The chapter concludes that universities with superior-performing technology transfer offices possess two factors in common. First, the university President and other executives concerned in commercialization have to believe in it and make a genuine commitment to its success. Second, the technology transfer office has to be led by an individual who possesses several attributes: the ability and willingness to work within the university structure; the ability to be both an entrepreneur and a manager; the ability to see what is happening in technology transfer and commercialization as it evolves and matures; and to be a leader of people and business.
As a scholarly field, economic development is a theoretical exploration with very real implications for place. As a practice, economic development is an essential component of local policy and governing and a perceived driver of success and vitality for cities and regions alike. The notable distinction between practice and theory may explain the lack of scholarly consensus and the ambiguity in effectiveness of the practice of development. Using a three-tiered approach, we undertake a comparative analysis of the way in which practitioners and scholars undertake economic development. Through a study of Economic Development Quarterly journal keywords and a review of nine cities' economic development initiatives, we assess the most frequent topics and initiatives within the discipline. Using the International Economic Development Council best practice awards, we look at what is generally viewed as “successful.” We conclude with an assessment of the general development landscape, considering implications to our findings.
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