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A model of the impact of envy in groups is proposed and tested in a longitudinal study of 143 groups. Envy was directly and negatively related to group performance. Moreover, envy indirectly influenced group performance, absenteeism, and group satisfaction by increasing social loafing and reducing both group potency and cohesion. This study provides an initial step in identifying the processes through which envy impacts group effectiveness. Implications are discussed and future research directions are identified.
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Small Group Research
The online version of this article can be found at:
DOI: 10.1177/104649640003100101
2000 31: 3Small Group Research
Michelle K. Duffy and Jason D. Shaw
The Salieri Syndrome: Consequences of Envy in Groups
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Consequences of Envy in Groups
University of Kentucky
A model of the impact of envy in groupsisproposedandtestedinalongitudinalstudyof143
groups.Envywasdirectly andnegativelyrelatedtogroup performance.Moreover,envyindi
rectly influenced group performance, absenteeism, and group satisfaction by increasing
social loafing and reducingboth group potencyand cohesion. This study provides aninitial
step in identifying the processes through which envy impacts group effectiveness. Implica
tions are discussed and future research directions are identified.
Whodarestosaythattheeverproud Saliericould stoopto envy, like
a loathsome snake, trampled upon by men, yet still alive and impo-
tently gnawing sand and dust?...Butnow—myself I say it—yes
now I do know envy—Yes, Salieri envies! O Mozart, O Mozart!
—Pushkin (1832/1964)
Until recently, the experience of negative emotion at work
received relatively little attention from social science researchers
(George, 1990, 1992a). However, interest in the study of negative
emotion and its consequences is growing as researchers recognize
thecumulativelynegativeeffects these emotionshaveonimportant
organizational outcomes such as performance, employee with
drawal, sabotage, and turnover (e.g., Ashforth & Lee, 1990). One
potentially important, yet virtually ignored, emotion deserving
attention in organizational research is the experience of envy
(Bedeian,1995;Vecchio, 1995).Althoughscarcelyresearched, the
experience of envy has a long, colorful history, including the infa
mous story of Mozart and his contemporary, Salieri.
SMALL GROUP RESEARCH, Vol. 31 No. 1, February 2000 3-23
© 2000 Sage Publications, Inc.
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Often confused with jealousy, envy occurs when the perception
exists that a “person lacks another’s superior quality, achievement,
orpossession and eitherdesiresit or wishesthatthe other lacked it”
(Parrott & Smith, 1993, p. 906). According to these authors, the
experienceofenvy isbestconceptualized asaconstellation ofvari
ous distinguishable affective elements that typically occur during
episodes of envy. Such affective reactions may include, but are not
limited to, inferiority, longing, resentment of one’s circumstances,
toward the envied person.
Asthe previous constitutivedefinitionsuggests,social compari
one’s self-worth is derived from social comparison (see Tesser &
Campbell, 1990, for an example), it is not surprising that when
one’s accomplishments, talents, and possessions are perceived to
comparepoorlywith thoseofanotherindividual,privateandpublic
self-esteem may suffer (Parrott, 1991). In addition to envy arising
from decreases in esteem and public stature, negative social com-
parison is theorized to lead to envy by “heightening one’s aware-
ness” that “one’s own deprivation” and suffering are not shared by
all (Parrott, 1991, p. 7).
Despite the fact that little systematic research examining the
antecedents and consequences of envy in the workplace is con
ducted (see Vecchio, 1995, for an exception), it is easy to imagine
how the nature of organizational life gives rise to frequent social
comparisons that may give rise to envy. For example, competition
for and allocation of scarce organizational rewards in the form of
merit raises, office space, promotions, grants, valued assignments,
and promotions are all potential catalysts for social comparison
among colleagues. Merely noticing the superior work achieve
ments of another may also result in envious social comparisons
Cinderella myth suggests, a person who is simply striving to meet
personal standards may arouse the resentment of others merely for
that fact alone (Ulanov & Ulanov, 1983). Finally, as Bedeian
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(1995) notes, any situation in which one employee obtains an
advantage at the expense of other employees may provoke
coworker envy.
Feelings of envy often lead to a variety of affective and behav
ioral reactions that generally are believed to be aimed at repairing
damaged self-esteem and social status (Salovey & Rothman,
1991). Results from studies in social psychology suggest that such
damage control–based reactions often occur at the expense of the
individual and/or the rival. Responses to envy include depressed
mood and anxiety, avoidanceof the comparisonperson (Salovey &
Rodin, 1986), overt hostility (Parrott & Smith, 1993), degrading
comparison individuals and their accomplishments (Silver &
Sabini, 1982), and attempting to prevent the rival’s successful per-
(family, friend, and romantic), which Vecchio (1995) then synthe-
sized with the organizational setting. According to Vecchio’s
work-adaptedmodel,potential reactions to envymayincludesabo-
taging the rival’s work, back-stabbing a competitor, harassment or
bolstering one’s own self-image.
Unfortunately, although envy-related reactions receive some
of only one empirical study to date (Vecchio, 1995) that examined
the effect of envy on outcomes typically considered relevant in
work contexts. Results of this study indicated that envy of one’s
colleagues was significantly related to propensity to quit, job dis
satisfaction, and supervisor dissatisfaction. In sum, although envy
is a pervasive and commonplace emotion with important implica
tions for understanding organizational behavior, researchers only
this emotion in the workplace” (Bedeian, 1995, p. 50).
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Giventhe seriousconsequencesresultingfromenvy-ladeninter
personal relationships, it is imperative that employees who are
experiencing negative emotions such as envy “be the object of
study inorder to moreaccurately determine whatprotagonists, tar
Considering the increase in employee violence and workplace
sabotage, as well as the increasing costs of deviant workplace
behavior (e.g., Robinson & Bennett, 1995), calls for further
research are clearly warranted. This article is intended to begin to
fill this gap by exploring the consequences of the experience of
envy in groups.
Vecchio (1995) suggests that the recently popular approach to
increasing organizational commitment through the use of self-
managed work teams may result in diminished feelings of work-
place jealousy and envy. Briefly, Vecchio theorizes that shared
responsibility for task completion and mutual work dependence in
groups may serve to attenuate the competitiveness found in tradi-
tional workplace settings. Although this may be true, it should be
recognized that work groups may also be an ideal setting for inci-
dences of envy in the workplace. That is, the occurrence of envy in
groups may be especially likely because group members work
closely together. The result is that group members interact often
and come to know each other very well. As Tesser and Campbell
(1990) suggest, the closer an individual is to someone, the more
likely that envious comparison processes will occur. Envy in
groups may be especially detrimental given the proclivity of envi
ous individuals to engage in deviant behaviors (e.g., socialloafing,
sabotage), which may cause harm not only to themselves, but to
other group members. The ultimate result may be a diminishment
of group performance and other positive group outcomes. These
factors,combined withthe fact thatorganizationsare continuingto
ining envy in work groups is a critical area for study.
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Figure 1 depicts the conceptual framework underlying this
study. Envy in the work group is proposed to influence group out
comes (e.g., group performance, absenteeism, and group satisfac
tion) both directly and indirectly. Drawing on theory from social
psychology, wepropose thathigher levelsof envy within thegroup
result in lower levels of group performance and group satisfaction
and higher absenteeism rates. The experience of envy has been
described as a consuming emotion in which one’s weaknesses or
flaws feel physically apparent. Low self-esteem, anxiety, hostility,
depression,or decreasedself-efficacymay result. Tothe extent that
envy interferes withthe abilityto perform,increases inenvy within
the group should be associated with decreases in group perform-
ance. Inaddition, becausewithdrawalis often acoping strategy for
dealing with envy, it is predicted that higher levels of envy would
result in increased absenteeism. Finally, if group members are
increasingly resentful of one another and of each other’s accom-
plishments, group dissatisfaction should be another consequence.
In addition to these direct effects, we propose that envy indi-
rectly influencesgroup outcomesthrough social loafing, cohesion,
pose that increased levels of envy will be associated with higher
levels of social loafing which, in turn, will be detrimental to group
functioning (Latané, Williams, & Harkin, 1979). As previously
noted, responses to envy are believed to include avoidance of the
comparison person(s), hostility, and attempts to prevent a rival’s
successful performance (Parrott & Smith, 1993). This occurs even
at the expense of one’s own success. Social loafing behavior repre
sents an ideal method of simultaneously sabotaging a rival’s per
formance (by refusing to participate in the group effort) and mani
festinghostility in apassive-aggressive manner(e.g., notfollowing
through on group-related commitments) (George, 1992b; Latané
et al., 1979). These behaviors then would be expected to diminish
group effectiveness.
Envy is also proposed to be associated with decreased levels of
group cohesiveness and potency, which are then hypothesized to
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influence group outcomes. Cohesiveness includes elements of
interpersonal attraction and group commitment and is consistently
positivelyrelatedto groupeffectiveness(e.g.,Evans& Dion,1991;
Gully, Devine, & Whitney, 1995; Mullen& Copper, 1994;Reizen-
stein & Burke, 1996). Groups that direct more energy toward the
desired outcomes through increased commitment, rather than
toward internal conflict and conflict management, should perform
moreeffectively(Reizenstein& Burke,1996;Wolfe&Box,1988).
Envy is associated with higher levels of hostility, anxiety, and
back-stabbing (Parrott & Smith, 1993; White & Mullen, 1989).
Such feelings could be expected to decrease the “we” feeling of
group members captured by group cohesion.
Furthermore, the characteristic back-stabbing attitudes and
behaviorsof envious group members should also diminish the per
formance expectations or potency (Shea & Guzzo, 1987) of the
group. Potencyis the belief that the group can beeffective (Guzzo,
Yost, Campbell, & Shea, 1993) and can be thought of as a type of
self-efficacy or high expectancy for the group (Campion, Medsker, &
Higgs,1993). Hackman(1987) proposed thatgroup potency facili
tates commitmentto the group and greater effort from groupmem
bers, ideas that are completely at odds with envious emotion.
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Figure 1: Hypothetical Model
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Obviously, if envy results in higher levels of social loafing, group
potency would be diminished and group effectiveness would be
compromised. Moreover, as envy redirects energy away from
group activities, the belief of the group as a whole that it can suc
ceedmaybe diminished,reducing group effectiveness.Itshould be
explicitly noted that the focus and context of our study is on the
emotion or stateof envyelicited bythe currentmembers ofan indi
vidual’s group. The study of envy, although sparse, also includes
the examination oftrait or dispositional enviousness(e.g., Smith&
Turner, 1996), which is beyond the scope of this study.
Participantsin thestudy were566 upper-division undergraduate
students enrolledin group-basedclasses ata largesouthern univer-
sity. The sample included 143 groups ranging in size from three to
seven members. The sample was 61% male with a mean age of 22
years. Three self-report questionnaires were administered at three
time periods over a 16-week term. Participants were guaranteed
confidentiality and were assured that participation was voluntary.
Each participant in the study signed a waiver that allowed the
research team to collect performance information from class
instructors atthe end ofthe term. The data collectionswere tempo
bias associated with common method and fatigue from long ques
tionnaire administration (Ganster, Fusilier, & Mayes, 1986). The
first data collection occurred during the first week of class and
before participants were assigned into groups. In this collection,
background information and ability (e.g., grade point averages)
measures were collected.The secondwave ofdata was collectedin
the week following midterm, about 8 weeks after the first admini
ness, and potency measures. Explicit oral instructions at Time 2
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cued participants to respond to questionnaire items with regard to
their assigned work group in the focal class only. Moreover, the
writteninstructionsets foreachrelevantsectionoftheTime2ques
tionnaire prompted participants to respond to the group items with
reference tothe theircurrent group inthat class.Group satisfaction
and absenteeism measures were collected in the final data collec
tion during the last week of class or approximately 16 weeks after
the first questionnaire administration. Following the term, group
performance and group size for each group was collected from
course instructors.
Participantswereenrolled incoursestaught inaformat inwhich
a large part of an individual’s course grade was based on the per-
formance of their assigned group. All of the course instructors
required groups to work on projects during and outside of class
time. Participants reported working with their group outside of
class for an average of 2.27 hours per week during the term, or
roughly 36 hours outside of class in addition to in-class projects.
Thus, although the use of undergraduate students to simulate work
environments hasbeen the subject of muchdebate, theparticipants
had substantial interactions with group members over a 4-month
period in a simulated work-group environment. These simulated
conditions are similar to the context in a recent study by Wagner
All measures were operationalized at the group level. Thus,
exceptwhere noted,the mean levelfor thegroup formsthe mea-
sure. Also, except where noted, all items were in a Likert-type for
mat with seven response options. Coefficient alpha reliabilities for
the scales are reported on the main diagonal in Table 1.
Independent variables. Envy was measured with five items
adapted from a scale created by Vecchio (1995). The items were
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bers in this study. These items were designed to assess feelings of
resentment and inferiority relative to group members. A sample
item is, “Most of my team members haveit betterthan Ido. Social
loafing was measured with three items adapted from a scale by
George(1992b).The measure tapsself-reportsocialloafingbehav-
ior. Theitems examined theextentto which anindividualtended to
do less than his or her share of work when other group members
were available to do the work. A sample item is, “Sometimes I let
myteam membersdothe work thatI should do. Cohesivenesswas
ple item is, “This group has a strong sense of togetherness. Group
and Guzzo (1987). A sample item is, “This group believes it can
produce extraordinary work.
Control variables. We included two control variables that may
be related to the independent or dependent variables: group size
and ability. Groups should be large enough to handle group tasks,
butsmallenough tocontrol coordinationneeds (e.g.,Campion et al.,
1993; Gladstein, 1984), and consequently, group size may be
related to performance and group process. Group size was col
lectedfromtheinstructor ofeachcourse. In addition,we controlled
TABLE 1: Descriptive Statistics and Correlations Among All Study Variables
MSD 123 456789
1. Group
performance 0.00 1.00 #
2. Absenteeism 3.62 9.83 –.05 #
3. Group
satisfaction 5.33 1.35 .26** .25**(.84)
4. Envy 2.92 0.71 –.28** .19* –.24**(.75)
5. Social loafing 4.43 1.03 –.20* .10 –.33** .40**(.81)
6. Cohesiveness 4.97 0.84 .20* –.25** .59**–.30**–.46**(.83)
7. Potency 5.27 0.69 .35**–.12 .54**–.33**–.26**.58**(.90)
8. Ability 3.27 0.82 .04 –.10 .01 –.12 –.06 .06 .07 #
9. Group size 4.52 1.12 .08 .12 .23** .01 .02 .05 .22** .06 #
*p < .05. **p < .01. Two-tailed tests.
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for the average ability level of group members utilizing a com
monly used proxy for ability, grade point average (Wagner, 1995).
Gross ability levels are used as a control because they may be
related to performance levels in groups (Saavedra & Kwun, 1993).
Participants reported their cumulative grade point average during
the first data collection. The mean level for the group forms the
measure. Although not the central focus of the study, inclusion of
these variables makes the results more generalizable and reduces
the potential for alternative explanations of the findings.
Groupperformance.Performanceor effectivenesscanbeopera
tionalized or measured on several dimensions (Campion et al.,
1993). We measured the performance of the group along three
dimensions: overall group performance, group satisfaction, and
absenteeism.Overallgroup performance representsthepart ofper-
formance in theclass solely attributableto the group. This variable
was not an aggregationof individual performance, but rather a true
group-level measure. This variable was collected from course
instructors following the term. The variable was standardized by
class for comparability across the sample. Group satisfaction was
measured with a three-item scale adapted from a scale developed
by Cammann, Fichman, Jenkins, and Klesh (1983). A sampleitem
tionalized as the number of times participants were absent from
class over the course of the term and was reported by the partici
bivariate relationships. Path analysis (Cohen & Cohen, 1983) was
used to obtain path estimates for the hypothesized model. A full
path analysis for each of the three group performance outcomes
was conducted following procedures described by Cohen and
Cohen (1983). Group size and ability measures were used as con
trol variablesin allsteps ofthe pathanalysis. To estimatemodel fit,
the Q statistic (Pedhazur, 1982) was used.
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Descriptive statistics and correlations among all study variables
are shown in Table 1. As expected, envy was related to each of the
three group-performance measures in the zero-order correlations.
Envy was negatively related to group performance (r = –.28, p <
.01) andgroup satisfaction(r =–.24, p <.01) and positively related
to absenteeism (r = .19, p < .05). Furthermore, the relationship
between envy and each of the intermediate variables in the model
was also significant and in the predicted direction. Envy was posi
tively related to social loafing (r = .40, p < .01), and negatively
relatedto cohesiveness(r =–.30,p <.01) andpotency(r =–.33,p <
.01). Moreinteresting, however,are the pathanalyses that allow an
assessment of these relationships in context.
Theresults ofthepath analysesregressionarereported inTable 2.
In each of the equations, the relationships of interest are examined
after partialling the effects of group size and ability. The results of
the three path analyses are also depicted graphically in Figures 2
through 4. For clarity, control variables are not included in the fig-
ures. In each figure, solid lines denote the significant paths.
Overall, the control variables were not strong predictors. Group
size was only related to group satisfaction (β = .16, p < .05) in the
fullequation,whereastheabilitymeasurewasnot a significantpre-
dictor in any equation. These results mirror the bivariate relation
ships reported in Table 1.
The path analyses indicated that envy was positively associated
with social loafing in the group (β = .36, p < .01) and negatively
.05). Interestingly, and contrary to expectations, envy was not
directly related to the group effectiveness measures, although the
relationships with group performance (β = –.16) and absenteeism
(β = .17) approached significance.
Social loafing was found to be associated with decreased
potency (β= –.18, p < .05) and cohesiveness (β = –.40, p < .01), as
expected. Although social loafing was negatively related to both
group performanceand satisfactionat the bivariate level, therewas
nodirect effectofsocial loafingon these outcomeswhen enteredin
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the regression equation with othervariables.Thus, the relationship
between social-loafing and group performance measures is medi
ated by potency and/or cohesiveness.
The path analyses also indicated that cohesiveness was nega
tively related to absenteeism (β = –.29, p < .01) and positively
related to group satisfaction (β= .37, p < .01). However, there was
14 SMALL GROUP RESEARCH / February 2000
TABLE 2: Path Analysis Results
Intermediate Dependent Variables Group Performance Variables
Social Group Group
Loafing Potency Cohesiveness Performance Absenteeism Satisfaction
Ability .02 .01 .04 –.02 –.08 –.03
Group size .00 .15 .05 –.00 .13 .16*
Envy .36** –.34** –.18* –.16 .17 .03
Social loafing –.18* –.40** –.12 –.07 –.09
Cohesiveness –.08 –.29** .37**
Potency .27* .08 .28**
Total R
.131** .227** .231** .147** .109* .429**
NOTE: Standardized regression coefficients are reported for all variables. N = 129.
*p < .05, two-tailed. **p < .01, two-tailed.
Figure 2: Path Model With Group Performance as the Dependent Variable
NOTE: Solid lines denote significant paths.
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no significant relationship between cohesiveness and group per
formance(β=–.08, ns).Interestingly, potency was foundto besig
nificantlyrelated togroupperformance (β= .27,p< .05)andgroup
Lastly, as shown in Figures 2 through 4, the following indirect
pathswere foundto besignificant:(a) envy andgroup performance
through potency as well as through social loafing; (b) envy and
group satisfaction through potency, cohesiveness, and social loaf
ing; (c) envy and absenteeism through cohesiveness and social
Figure 3: Path Model With Absenteeism as the Dependent Variable
NOTE: Solid lines denote significant paths.
Figure 4: Path Model With Group Satisfaction as the Dependent Variable
NOTE: Solid lines denote significant paths.
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loafing;(d) socialloafingand groupperformancethrough potency;
(e) social loafing and group satisfaction through cohesiveness and
potency; and (f) social loafing and absenteeism through
The goodnessof fit foreach modelwas tested using theQ statis
tic (Pedhazur, 1982). The Q statistic is the “ratio of explained vari
ance to the variance to be explained” (Pedhazur, 1982, p. 619).
More formally,
In theformula, R
is equalto (1 (1 R
)(1 R
cient of the i
equation in a fully recursive system” (Pedhazur,
1982, p.619). R
can beinterpreted asthe “ratioof explained vari-
anceto thevariancetobe explained” (Pedhazur, 1982,p. 619).Mis
vary from zero to one, with values approaching one indicating
precisewaytoassessgoodnessoffit.Inthepresentstudy, the Q sta-
tistic for group performance and absenteeism by group were .79
and .85, respectively, indicating good model fit. Q for group satis
faction was .98, indicating excellent model fit.
The results of this study shed new light on how groups function
and the processes by which envy diminishes the overall group
effectiveness. Given that the cost of deviant behavior in the work
place is prohibitive (Vecchio, 1995), and because social-
psychological studies show envy to berelated toa plethoraof dam
aging individual behaviors and attitudes (e.g., Parrott & Smith,
1993), it is important that more be known about the influence of
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envy in group dynamics. This study was aimed at investigating
whetherenvydiminishes groupeffectiveness.Moreover, thisstudy
represents a first attempt at peeking into the “black box” and
path model of envy’s influence using longitudinal data on 129
groups. Based on previous research at the individual level, it was
hypothesized that the level of envy in the group would increase
in turn, diminish group effectiveness. The results generally sup
ported these expectations.
The strong relationship between envy and social loafing is con
sistentwith existing theory. Previous research insocial psychology
shows that envious individuals often pretend to be disinterested in
their rivals(Vecchio, 1995; White &Mullen, 1989). It appears that
thisdisinterestmay be translatedinto higher levelsof social loafing
in groups. The result is damage to the processes through which
groupsfunction effectively, which consequentlylowersthe levelof
group effectiveness. Interestingly, social loafing was not directly
relatedto anyof theoutcome measures;theeffectsof socialloafing
on performance, absenteeism, and group satisfaction were com-
pletely mediated by the group-process measures of cohesiveness
and potency.
Envy was also directly related to group cohesiveness and
potency. Cohesiveness includes both elements of interpersonal
attraction and group commitment(Gully etal., 1995),factorstheo
retically at odds with the back-stabbing, harassing nature of envy.
The empirical results reported here support this theoretically pre
dicted negative relationship. In addition, cohesiveness mediated
therelationshipbetween envy and absenteeismand envy andgroup
satisfaction. However, potency mediated the relationship between
envy and group performance. Although empirical research with
respect to potency is rather scarce, these results confirm specula
tionswithrespect to potency. Potencyis theoretically proposedas a
the group(Campion et al., 1993), and these resultstend to bearthis
out. Higher levels of potency were strongly related to group
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performance, but not to the other outcomes. Findings that show
potency to be related to performance, and cohesiveness to be
(e.g., absenteeism) support much of the current theory on group
functioning (e.g., Campion et al., 1993).
More importantly, these results show the encompassing detri
mental influences of envy in groups. Envy is associated with effort
reduction inthe group, but thesabotaging nature ofenvy also dam
ages intragroup relations, lowering cohesion, which increases
absenteeism and results in lower levels of satisfaction. Absentee
ism, in particular, has a rich history in the organizational sciences
(e.g., Beehr & Gupta, 1978) and is among a set of withdrawal
behaviors that can be considered critical facets of group effective
ness(Blau, 1995).The finding that envyresults inincreased absen-
teeism in groups is noteworthy. Moreover, envy whittles away the
members’beliefs that they canperform effectively as agroup, low-
ering group potency, which results in lower levels of group
This study should be viewed in light of potential weaknesses.
The study utilized a student sample, a subject of much debate.
Counteracting this limitation is the fact that the group context in
this sample is similar in some ways to group contexts found in real
organizational contexts. The groups worked together over a 16-
week period for an average of 2.27 hours per week outside of the
classroom, in addition to in-class assignments. Also, the partici
pants were upper-division undergraduates, preparing to enter the
full-timeworkforceinthe nearfuture, andmay beconsidered simi
lar to a young professional workforce. Another strength of the
study is the fact that the data were collected over time and that one
of the key dependent variables, group performance, was collected
from a separate source. Absenteeism was collected through self-
reports, calling into question the validity of the measure. Partici
pantsin thestudywere assuredconfidentialitythroughout theproj
ect, and members of the research team reminded participants at
each stage of the project that instructors would not have access to
individual information. Specific instructions with regard to
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confidentiality and absenteeism were given during the final data
collection. These steps should have reduced participant fear con
cerning reporting their absence. To the extent that all participants
underreported their absence behavior, the results would not be
biased except in the absolute magnitude of absenteeism. Predictor
variables were collected 2 months before the outcome measures.
Among the many benefits of examining dynamics over time is the
reduction in common method variance in the study (Ganster et al.,
1986). Despite these counteractions, it isobvious that similar stud
ies in other group contexts are needed.
The results of this study suggest several opportunities for future
research, including investigations examining the extent to which
the relationships found in this study hold over time and across dif
ferent contexts. The identification of alternative mediators of the
relationship between envy and group outcomes would also be an
interesting avenue for future research. Although this study exam-
ined the dynamics of envy, group process variables, and outcomes,
envy. Such studies could include investigations of how and why
envious persons choose their envied comparison persons. In a
relatedvein,futureresearchcouldexploreaspects of the workplace
or a managerial style that foster envy among coworkers.
Future investigations could also focus on personality and indi-
vidual difference variables as determinants of envy, and the differ
ences between the emotional state of envy and dispositional envi
ousness. In this study, we focused on the emotion of envy, and in
particular, feelings of envy with regard to the group at hand. How
ever,afewstudies (e.g.,Smith& Turner,1996)do focus onthetrait
of enviousness, a stable disposition to feel envious. Such a distinc
tioncallsto mindthe burgeoningliterature onpositiveand negative
affectivity that is seen theoretically, and demonstrated empirically,
as both an emotion (e.g., Isen & Baron, 1991) and a dispositional
trait (e.g., Shaw, Duffy, Jenkins, & Gupta, 1999). To date, little
describes a nomological network of correlates of dispositional
envy. Are some individuals more prone to envy? Do individual
at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University on August 6, 2014sgr.sagepub.comDownloaded from
differences determine whether a person will experience the emo
tion of envy when faced with a negative social comparison?
Although we were unable to address the dispositional component
of envy in this research, we did compare, post hoc, the profile of
participants who reported varying levels of envy. These results
showed that the relationships between envy and age, gender, class
standing (e.g., junior, senior), previous experiences in teams, and
general self-esteem were not statistically significant, but envy was
negativelyrelated togradepoint average(r= –.14,p <.01),interest
–.20,p <.01) andwashigheramong thosewithan external locus of
control (r = .24, p < . 01). Althoughpreliminary and possibly more
informative with regard to the emotion of envy in this particular
context,theseresultsmaysuggestthatthestate ofenvymaybetrig-
gered both by a lack of confidence with regard to particular tasks
and a perceivedlack ofcontrol over relevantevents. Theseprelimi-
Moreover, research examining vertical comparisons in organi-
sequences of envy in groups and organizations. A final suggestion
for future research concerns a test of Vecchio’s (1995) proposition
that the use of work groups in organizations has the potential to
reduce feelings of envy among coworkers. Vecchio argues that
shared responsibility and mutual work dependence in groups may
attenuate workplace competition, and in turn, reduce envy. How
ever, social psychologysuggests that intense interactionswith oth
ers increases envy. A study that compares feelings of envy in the
traditional work design withenvy in a group work design would be
a highly interesting test of these competing predictions.
1. We thank an anonymous reviewer for highlighting many of these ideas.
20 SMALL GROUP RESEARCH / February 2000
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Michelle K. Duffy is an assistant professor in the Gatton College of Business and
Economicsatthe University ofKentucky. She received her Ph.D.from theUniversity
of Arkansas. Her research interests include employee stress and well-being, social
undermining, and workplace deviance.
22 SMALL GROUP RESEARCH / February 2000
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Jason D. Shaw is an assistant professor in the Gatton College of Business and Eco
nomics at the University of Kentucky. He received his Ph.D. from the University of
Arkansas. His research interests include behavioral and organizational conse
quences of reward systems and person-environment congruence issues.
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... Örgütsel ortamlarda haset duygusunu tetikleme ve yıkıcı boyutlarda yaşanmasına sebep olma ihtimalini barındıran birçok senaryo bulunmaktadır. Bu senaryolar terfiler, grup veya takım tabanlı iş tasarımı, ücret artışları, ikramiyeler, performans tanıma gibi etkinliklerde ortaya çıkabilmektedir (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000). Hatta hasedi tetikleyen daha önce var olmayıp, bir anda ortaya çıkan olgulara olağan üstü yeteneklerde ilave edilmektedir (Vidailet, 2007(Vidailet, : 1674. ...
... İş ve örgüt ortamlarının hasede etkisi üzerine gerçekleştirilen çalışmalarda; hasedin yıkıcı örgüt davranışlarını arttırdığı (Taştan ve Aydın Küçük, 2019), yapıcı örgüt davranışlarını azalttığı (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000) tespit edilmiştir. Haset eden bireylerin iş arkadaşlarını kurban etme, aşağı çekme davranışlarına yönelebilecekleri (Tai vd., 2012), gruplar ve örgüt içerisinde yardımlaşma, bağımlılık ve dayanışmanın düşebileceği (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000;Kim vd., 2010), örgütsel vatandaşlığı azalttığı (Kim vd., 2010) ve kayırmacılığı arttırdığı (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000) bulgulanmıştır. ...
... İş ve örgüt ortamlarının hasede etkisi üzerine gerçekleştirilen çalışmalarda; hasedin yıkıcı örgüt davranışlarını arttırdığı (Taştan ve Aydın Küçük, 2019), yapıcı örgüt davranışlarını azalttığı (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000) tespit edilmiştir. Haset eden bireylerin iş arkadaşlarını kurban etme, aşağı çekme davranışlarına yönelebilecekleri (Tai vd., 2012), gruplar ve örgüt içerisinde yardımlaşma, bağımlılık ve dayanışmanın düşebileceği (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000;Kim vd., 2010), örgütsel vatandaşlığı azalttığı (Kim vd., 2010) ve kayırmacılığı arttırdığı (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000) bulgulanmıştır. Liderler ve kişilik yapılarının da örgütlerde haset duygularının oluşumuna etkili olduğu vurgulanmaktadır (Demirtaş ve ark., 2017;Kim vd., 2010;Vecchio, 2005). ...
... В России стыд бедных также становится хроническим и вызывает пассивность, уход от действий, из публичной сферы; вместе с депрессивностью, безнадежностью, прорывающейся обидой и яростью, привычкой винить других и власти в своем положении [Симонова, 2014 b]. Зависть имеет своими последствиями прежде всего безделье, депрессивность, беспомощность, отказ от конкуренции и способствует отчуждению и разрыву связей, и такой результат гораздо более типичен для низших слоев населения, чем ресентимент и открытая враждебность [Duffy, Shaw, 2000]. ...
... Неосознанность и скрываемость эмоций стыда и зависти, их способность маскироваться и перерождаться в гнев или уныние [Retzinger, 1995;Scheff, 2000] усложняют задачу анализа их социальных предпосылок и следствий, однако современная социология эмоций предлагает стратегии, позволяющие систематизировать невербальные и вербальные маркеры этих эмоций [см., например: Scheff, Retzinger, 1991;Шёк, 2010;Duffy, Shaw, 2000;Neckel, 2003Neckel, , Бескова, 2011. Так, был составлен список телесных, паралингвистических жестов, кодовых слов и выражений, которые служат индикаторами стыда и гнева, что дает возможность распознавать стыд в разных ситуациях [Retzinger, 1995;Scheff, 2011]. ...
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В статье раскрываются элементы новой трудовой этики сельских жителей посредством анализа вербальных маркеров моральных эмоций. Идея анализа эмоций появилась в процессе исследования общих социально-структурных условий российского села, поскольку интервью сельчан изобиловали репрезентациями негативных эмоций. Основываясь на корпусе работ в области социологии эмоций, в первую очередь - на исследованиях стыда и зависти, авторы находят проявления эмоций, которые указывают на появившееся в новых социально-культурных условиях «презрение» к сельскому/физическому труду со стороны непосредственного окружения и общества в целом. Этот эмоциональный фон обусловливает негативные последствия стыда и зависти, снижающих самоуважение и самоэффективность, приводящих к отказу от активной трудовой деятельности и ослаблению социальных связей. В результате, этика крестьян включает необходимость трудиться только для удовлетворения базовых потребностей, понижение стремления к экономическому успеху и одновременно мотив терпения и страдания вследствие «необходимости» так тяжело и «грязно» трудиться.
... Specifically, team members' collective efficacy beliefs are affected by the feelings the members convey to each other through mutual observations and communication (Bandura, 1997). Shared goals are usually accompanied by feelings of closeness and intimacy among the members, which in turn increase social and task cohesion (Duffy & Shaw, 2000). When faced with physically demanding tasks (e.g., workload), team members feel strong exertion, which stems from coping with aversive physiological sensations, the motivation to engage in the task, perceived exertion, attention allocation, and pleasantness (see Alvarez-Alvarado et al., 2019 for a review and research findings). ...
... This study is grounded in the conceptual assumption that positive or negative emotional contagion creates a state of mind that increases or decreases team members' perceived togetherness (i.e., social and task cohesion) and collective efficacy when engaged in a demanding task. For example, study of 143 teams for four months revealed that jealousy among team members resulted in team idleness and decreased collective efficacy in addition to lower team cohesion and engagement that negatively affected performance (Duffy & Shaw, 2000). Collective efficacy was also found to directly determine physical and motor performance (Myers et al., 2004), and along with team cohesion can mediate the relationship between shared team emotions and perceived and actual performance. ...
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This research explores how emotional contagion within a team impacts emotions, team cohesion, collective efficacy perception, effort perception, perceived performance, and actual performance outcomes. Forty-seven non-competitive amateur cross-fit participants were split into two experimental groups: high pleasantness-high arousal (HH) and low pleasantness-low arousal (LL). To stimulate these mood states, two trained associates were engaged, which served as catalysts for the teams' "emotional contagion". Participants from the HH group outperformed and exerted more effort than those from the LL group, though they perceived their effort levels to be similar. They demonstrated greater collective efficacy and team cohesion, had a more positive emotional state, and perceived their team's performance as superior. Emotional contagion plays a significant role in team dynamics and physical outcomes. The practical implications of emotional contagion are discussed.
... Üniversite öğrencilerinde psikolojik sağlamlık ve öz yeterlilik arttıkça yaşam doyumunun arttığı (Durak, 2021), iyimserliğin yaşam doyumu ile pozitif ilişkili olduğu (Bal ve Gülcan, 2014), tükenme ve duyarsızlaşma algılarının yaşam doyumu ile negatif, yetkinlik algılarının ise pozitif ilişkili olduğu (Macit,2021), boş zaman geçirme ile yaşam doyumu arasında pozitif yönde bir ilişki olduğu (Gül, 2019) araştırmalarla tespit edilmiştir. (Duffy ve Shaw, 2000). Bu çalışmanın, alana ilişkin bulgu çeşitliliğinin giderilmesinde katkı sağlayabileceği düşünülmektedir. ...
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ÖZET "Dijital yerli" olarak tanımlanan Z kuşağı, 2000'lerden sonra doğan ve teknolojiyle iç içe büyümüş kişileri kapsamaktadır. İnterneti ve sosyal medyayı hayatındaki tüm süreçleri yönetmek için oldukça etkin bir şekilde kullanan bu kuşak, potansiyel bir sosyal medya bağımlısı olma riskiyle de karşı karşıyadır. Sorunlu sosyal medya kullanımı ya da takıntılı sosyal medya kullanımı gibi terimlerle de ifade edilen sosyal medya bağımlılığı; bir davranışsal bağımlılık türüdür. İnternet kullanımı konusunda kendini kontrol edememe duygusuyla karakterize edilen sosyal medya bağımlılığı, fiziksel ve duygusal problemlere neden olan olmakta ve bireyin sosyal gelişimini olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Z kuşağının sosyal medya bağımlılığının, yaşam doyumları üzerindeki etkisinin araştırıldığı bu çalışmada kolayda örneklem yoluyla ulaşılan 555 üniversite öğrencisinin sosyal medya kullanım alışkanlıkları incelenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular doğrultusunda en yaygın olarak kullanılan sosyal medya platformlarının Instagram (%31), Whatsapp (%30,5) ve YouTube (%18,8) olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Katılımcıların yarısına yakını (%42,5), günlük 4 saatten fazla sosyal medya kullandıklarını ifade etmektedir. Katılımcıların sosyal medya kullanım süresi; sosyal medya bağımlılığı üzerinde anlamlı, düşük düzeyde ve pozitif bir etkisi bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca sosyal medyada geçirilen süre, yaşam doyumu üzerinde anlamlı, düşük düzeyde ve negatif bir etkisi bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte sosyal medya bağımlılığın yaşam doyumu üzerinde doğrudan bir etkisi tespit edilmemiştir. ABSTRACT Generation Z, defined as "digital native", includes people born after the 2000s and grown up with technology. This generation, which uses the internet and social media very effectively to manage all the processes in their lives, is also at risk of becoming a potential social media addict. Social media addiction, also expressed in terms such as 1 Bu çalışma III. International Academic Studies Congress/ 13-16 May 2022 kongresinde sözlü olarak sunulmuş bildirinin genişletilmiş ve güncelleştirilmiş halidir. 2 Doç. Dr.
... Latane et al. [6] restated this motivation loss as social loafing. Social loafing is detrimental to organizational performance as well as to cohesiveness, potency and group satisfaction [25]. ...
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This study explored the effects of trust in a supervisor (TIS) on social loafing behaviors of employees. In addition, this study examined the mediating effect of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationship between trust in a supervisor and employees’ social loafing behaviors. It also examined the moderating effects of perceived organizational politics (POP) on the relationship between TIS and POS, TIS and social loafing behaviors, and POS and social loafing behaviors. Data were collected from local government employees in Korea, and the final sample was 260. Our results indicate that trust in a supervisor has indirect negative effects on social loafing behaviors mediated by POS. In addition, it was found that the effects of TIS on POS and POS on social loafing behaviors were moderated by POP. The results of this study contribute to the extant literature on social loafing behaviors. Moreover, the findings imply that political behaviors in organizations might induce social loafing behaviors.
... It should be noted that there are very few studies, e.g., [65], that have studied the relationship of cohesion with SE (for example, with satisfaction of the group members, psychological comfort of the group members, and promotion by the group of professional and/or personal growth of its members). However, SE should not be ignored, as it is important for the psychological well-being and functioning of the group members. ...
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The study addresses the direct and indirect relationship of group cohesion and productivity norm with the perceived performance effectiveness (plan and current tasks implementation and performance success in challenging conditions) and social effectiveness (satisfaction with the group/subgroup and psychological comfort in the group/subgroup) at the levels of work groups and informal subgroups. Thirty-nine work groups from fifteen Russian organizations of different activity profiles, namely services, trade, and manufacturing, took part in the study. The vast majority of them were characterized by relatively low task interdependence. Within the work groups, informal subgroups (from one to three per group) were identified. The cohesion of groups and subgroups was positively and significantly stronger associated with their social effectiveness than with performance effectiveness. The cohesion of subgroups was also indirectly related to social effectiveness of the work groups, i.e., this association was mediated by the subgroup social effectiveness. The index of productivity norm was positively related to perceived performance effectiveness only at the subgroup level, but not at the group level. The productivity norm of the subgroups was also indirectly related to the perceived performance effectiveness of the groups, i.e., this association was mediated by the subgroup performance effectiveness. The indirect relationship between subgroup productivity norm and group performance effectiveness was more complex when cohesion within subgroups was taken into account.
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Başkasının üzüntüsüne sevinme duygusu, başkalarının başına gelen talihsiz bir olay karşısında sevinmek olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Mevcut araştırmanın amacı hedef kişinin başarısının, grup üyeliğinin ve güvenilir olmasının kıskançlık, hakçalık ve başkasının üzüntüsüne sevinme duygusu üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Araştırmanın örneklemini 139 üniversite öğrencileri (35 erkek, 104 kadın) oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın deseni 2 (başarı düzeyi: yüksek veya düşük) x 2 (grup üyeliği: iç veya dış grup) x 2 (güvenilirlik düzeyi: yüksek veya düşük) karma ANOVA desenidir. Araştırmanın koşullarından birine seçkisiz atanan katılımcılar, bir hedef kişinin başarısının ve grup üyeliğinin değişimlendiği hikâyenin ilk bölümünü okuduktan sonra Kıskançlık Ölçeği'ni ve hedef kişinin güvenilirliğinin değişimlendiği ikinci bölümü okuduktan sonra ise sırasıyla Başkasının Üzüntüsüne Sevinme Ölçeği ve Hakçalık Ölçeği'ni doldurmuşlardır. Analizler, hedef kişinin güvenilir olma düzeyinin başkasının üzüntüsüne sevinme duygusu ve hakçalık üzerinde anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olduğunu ortaya çıkarmıştır. Hedef kişinin güvenilir olmadığı koşulda katılımcılar daha fazla başkasının üzüntüsüne sevinme duygusu hissetmiş ve talihsiz olayın hak edilebilir olduğunu bildirmişlerdir. Ayrıca, hedef kişinin başarı düzeyinin kıskançlık üzerinde bir etkiye sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Son olarak, elde edilen bulgular hedef kişinin grup üyeliğinin kıskançlık, hakçalık ve başkasının üzüntüsüne sevinme duygusu üzerinde bir etkiye sahip olmadığını göstermiştir. Çalışmanın bulguları çeşitli kuramlar (örn: Sosyal Karşılaştırma Kuramı, Sosyal Kimlik Kuramı, Hakçalık Kuramı) kapsamında tartışılmıştır.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of knowledge transfer between employees and coworkers. That is, when and why employees engage in knowledge seeking or knowledge sabotage when confronted with coworkers with higher relative overqualification. Design/methodology/approach This study collected survey data from 315 employee-coworker pairs in East China at three-time points. Findings The results showed that when the cooperative goal interdependence between employee and coworker is high, the perception of coworker’s relative overqualification will cause benign envy of employees, which in turn promote employees to engage in knowledge seeking from coworker. However, when the competitive goal interdependence between employee and coworker is high, the perception of coworker’s relative overqualification will cause malicious envy of employees, which in turn promote employees to engage in knowledge sabotage toward coworker. Originality/value This research not only expands the theoretical perspective and outcomes of relative overqualification but also enriches the mechanism of knowledge seeking and knowledge sabotage. Meanwhile, this study also provides practical guidance for enterprises to reduce knowledge sabotage.
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This article describes the nature and significance of the distinction between the emotions of envy and jealousy and reports 2 experiments that empirically investigated it. In Experiment 1, Ss recalled a personal experience of either envy or jealousy. In Experiment 2, Ss read 1 of a set of stories in which circumstances producing envy and jealousy were manipulated independently in a factorial design. Both experiments introduced new methodologies to enhance their sensitivity, and both revealed qualitative differences between the 2 emotions. Envy was characterized by feelings of inferiority, longing, resentment, and disapproval of the emotion. Jealousy was characterized by fear of loss, distrust, anxiety, and anger. The practical importance of this distinction, the reasons for its confusion, and general issues regarding the empirical differentiation of emotions are discussed.
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It has been hypothesized that the positive relation between stress and strain responses is stronger for individuals who have low levels of social support than for those who have high levels of support. This hypothesis that social support buffers (moderates) the negative effects of stress has been tested extensively in a variety of settings with highly conflicting results. Some theorists have recently proposed that the moderating effect of social support is itself buffered by other variables such as sex or social class. The present study was designed to examine the role of social support in the experience of work stress with a sample large enough to provide statistically powerful tests of models of social support that specify two-way and three-way interactions. No support for higher order interactive models was found. In addition, no evidence emerged demonstrating any buffering effect for social support. Arguments are advanced for a parsimonious model in which social support has a modest direct effect of lowering experienced strain.
This study examines the relationship of two dispositional factors, positive and negative affect (PA and NA), with multi-dimensional pay satisfaction. Among a sample of 194 full- and part-time employees in two southern states, PA explained significant variance in pay satisfaction after controlling for actual salary levels, overall job satisfaction, and other individual characteristics. More importantly the data show that PA interacts with actual salary level in explaining certain dimensions of pay satisfaction. By contrast, results confirm the hypothesis that NA is unrelated to pay satisfaction. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research identified.
Three factors play a major role in determining group effectiveness, according to these authors: task interdependence (how closely group members work together), outcome interdependence (whether, and how, group performance is rewarded), and potency (members' belief that the group can be effective). This article examines why groups succeed or fail and draws on a detailed case study. The importance of formal groups in organizations matches their prominence. The complexity and turbulence facing so many organizations lead to increased specialization and temporariness; this movement, in turn, fosters more participative management in general and a greater reliance on groups in particular.
Data from 492 college students indicated that group size and individuals' identifiability, sense of shared responsibility, and levels of individualism or collectivism influenced peer-rated cooperation in classroom groups. Levels of individualism or collectivism moderated the effects of size and identifiability on cooperation but not those of shared responsibility. These findings suggest that models of free riding and social loafing provide insights into individualistic cooperation in groups but are limited in their ability to explain the cooperation of collectivists.