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Charlotte Bühler’s Existential-Humanistic Contributions to Child and Adolescent Psychology

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  • Brookdale College
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Charlotte Bühler’s Existential-Humanistic Contributions to Child and Adolescent Psychology

Abstract

Charlotte Malachowski Bühler was a founder of humanistic psychology. This article reviews her theories of child and adolescent development. One purpose is to provide college instructors with material introducing a humanistic theory of development to students of child psychology. Bühler’s ideas are compared to other developmental theories, especially psychoanalytic and behavioral theories. This is followed by a presentation of her ideas as they relate to specific stages of development inherent within her descriptions of human growth prior to adulthood. The article concludes with a summative account of Bühler’s thoughts on the development of the self and some critical remarks regarding her work.
HUMANIZING CHILD
DEVELOPMENTAL
THEORY
HUMANIZING CHILD
DEVELOPMENTAL
THEORY
A Holistic Approach
EUGENE M. DEROBERTIS
Assistant Professor of Psychology,
Brookdale College
iUniverse, Inc.
Bloomington
HUMANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
A Holistic Approach
Copyright © 2008 by Eugene M. DeRobertis
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v
CONTENTS
PREFACE ....................................................................................... xv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................. xvii
CHAPTER 1 HUMANISM, EXISTENTIAL-
PHENOMENOLOGY, AND CHILD
DEVELOPMENT ...................................................1
Humanism and Child Developmental Theory .............................................1
Two Humanistic Currents in the Study of Child Development .....................4
The Theoretical Perspective of This Book .....................................................5
The meaning of humanism. ................................................................5
The meaning of phenomenology. .........................................................6
Fundaments of Existential-Humanistic-Developmental Thought ...................8
The Structure and Goals of This Text ........................................................12
CHAPTER 2 A HUMANISTIC THEORY OF SELF-
DEVELOPMENT: ROGERS AND HORNEY ...... 14
Carl Rogers: Development of the Congruous Self (or Self-
Actualization) vs. the Incongruous Self ......................................................15
Karen Horney: Development of the Real Self (or Self-Realization) vs.
the Idealized Self .....................................................................................20
Rogers and Horney in Mutual Encounter: Synthesizing a
Humanistic Theory of Child Development ................................................27
The nature and nurture of self development. ......................................28
Healthy parental influence. ...............................................................28
The nature of healthy self development: the self-actualizing child. .......28
Unhealthy parental influence. ...........................................................29
The course of unhealthy self development: self-alienation. ...................29
Concluding Remarks ................................................................................31
Comments on the synthesis of Rogers’s and Horney’s ideas. ...................31
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HUMANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
Critical remarks on the theory presented here. ....................................33
Strengths of the current approach. .....................................................34
CHAPTER 3 AN OBJECT-RELATIONS THEORY OF
SELF-DEVELOPMENT: WINNICOTT &
KOHUT ................................................................ 37
D. W. Winnicott ......................................................................................38
The good-enough mother. .................................................................39
The True Self. ..................................................................................43
The not-good-enough mother. ...........................................................45
The False Self. .................................................................................46
Heinz Kohut ...........................................................................................47
The optimal mother. ........................................................................47
The nuclear self. ..............................................................................50
The unempathic mother and the unhealthy self. .................................52
Final remarks on Kohut’s self theory. ..................................................53
Winnicott and Kohut in Mutual Encounter: Synthesizing an
Object-Relations Theory of Child Development..........................................55
Healthy parental influence. ...............................................................55
The nature of healthy self development. .............................................57
The course of unhealthy self development: self-depletion and
self-fragmentation. ...........................................................................58
Concluding Remarks ................................................................................59
Comments on the synthesis of Winnicott’s and Kohut’s ideas. ...............59
Critical remarks on the theory presented here. ....................................61
Strengths of the current approach. .....................................................61
CHAPTER 4 AN EXISTENTIAL-HUMANISTIC
THEORY OF SELF-DEVELOPMENT:
CHARLOTTE BÜHLER.......................................64
Global Characterization of Charlotte Bühler’s Existential-Humanism .........65
Bühler and Freudian theory. .............................................................65
Bühler and behavioral theory. ...........................................................66
Bühler on the context of development. ...............................................67
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vii
Bühler and the self. ..........................................................................67
Bühler and ego psychology. ................................................................68
Bühler’s self and healthy development. ...............................................70
The Four Basic Tendencies of Human Life Span Development ...................71
Charlotte Bühler’s Four Phases of Child Development ................................73
Infancy (birth to two years old). ........................................................73
Early childhood (two to eight years old). ............................................75
Late childhood/early adolescence (eight to twelve years old). ................76
Adolescence/early adulthood (twelve to twenty-five years old)...............78
Overview: Charlotte Bühler’s Stage Theory of Self-Development .................80
Strengths of Bühler’s Approach and Critical Remarks .................................82
CHAPTER 5 AN EXISTENTIAL-ANALYTIC THEORY
OF SELF-DEVELOPMENT: RICHARD
KNOWLES............................................................89
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development ..............................................89
Knowles’s Reinterpretation of Erikson in the Light of Heidegger ..................92
Phenomenology of Embodied Facticity as a Developmental Progression .......95
Ego Development Outside of Analytic Strictures .........................................97
Phenomenology of Self-Development .......................................................100
Deviations from Healthy Development ....................................................104
In Summary: Strengths of Knowles’s Approach and Critical Remarks .........107
CHAPTER 6 DANIEL STERN’S ANALYTIC-
DEVELOPMENTAL SELF THEORY ................. 112
Stern’s Theory and Existential-Humanism ...............................................112
Four Senses of Self ..................................................................................113
A sense of emergent self. ..................................................................113
A sense of core self. .........................................................................114
A sense of subjective self. .................................................................115
Emergence of the verbal self. ...........................................................116
In Summary: Strengths of Stern’s Approach and Critical Remarks .............117
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HUMANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
CHAPTER 7 EARLY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE
PHENOMENOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD
EXPERIENCE: KURT KOFFKA AND
ERNEST G. SCHACHTEL .................................125
Kurt Koffka ...........................................................................................126
Ernest Schachtel .....................................................................................130
Autocentric and allocentric perception. ............................................130
Emotional development: embeddedness and activity affect. ...............134
Criticisms of Koffka and Schachtel ..........................................................137
An Introduction to the Phenomenology of Childhood Perception ...............138
CHAPTER 8 TIME AND SPACE AS LIVED
IN CHILDHOOD ..............................................145
Lived-Time ...........................................................................................146
Time in childhood: temporal rhythm. ..............................................147
Time in childhood: the focus on the present. ....................................147
Moving beyond the present..............................................................149
The development of public time. .....................................................149
Time-in-space. ...............................................................................150
Lived-Space ...........................................................................................151
Lived-space and embodied perspective..............................................151
Lived-space and affect. ...................................................................153
Lived-space: things and others. ........................................................154
Personal meaning and self-discovery in lived-space. ..........................154
An Illustration: Lived-Space-Time in the Preschool Classroom ..................156
CHAPTER 9 FINDINGS FROM A
PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL MALTREATMENT:
THE CHILD’S RELATIONS TO THE
MATERNAL FIGURE .........................................161
Phenomenology as a Methodological Option ............................................163
The Present Study ..................................................................................165
Method .................................................................................................166
Eugene M. DeRobertis
ix
Participants. ..................................................................................166
Procedure. .....................................................................................169
Results ...................................................................................................173
Inadequate maternal nurturing and affection. .................................173
The impact of being cast aside. .......................................................174
Verbal abuse and resultant self-blame. .............................................175
Resignation and the internalization of abusive messages. ..................175
Negative comparisons. ....................................................................176
Communication deficits. ................................................................176
Self-destructive behaviors. ...............................................................177
Avoidant behaviors.........................................................................177
Misplaced aggression and the need for control. .................................178
Embattled self-awareness and self-definition. ...................................179
Discussion of the Research Results ............................................................179
The Research Results Inverted .................................................................181
Pedagogical considerations. .............................................................181
Developmental inferences. ...............................................................182
CHAPTER 10 EXISTENTIAL-HUMANISTIC SELF
DEVELOPMENT THEORY (EHSDT) .............. 185
What Is the Self? ....................................................................................185
What Are the Fundamental Characteristics of Optimal, Healthy Self
Development? ........................................................................................192
Does Self Development Occur in Stages? ..................................................199
When Does Self Development Begin? ......................................................200
Is Self Development a Matter of Nature or Nurture? ................................201
General position. ............................................................................201
Research-specific position. ...............................................................202
What Kind of Parenting Is Conducive to Self Development? .....................202
1. Bringing an Ordered World to the Child. ............................202
2. Affectionate Holding and Handling. ...................................203
3. Genuine Care and Involvement. .........................................203
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HUMANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
4. Constancy and Reliability of Loving Care. ...........................204
5. Empathic Bonding. ............................................................204
6. Nurturing Felt and Symbolically Represented Experience. .....204
7. Receptive Mirroring. ..........................................................205
8. Sensitivity to Changing Needs. ............................................205
9. Tempering the Severity of Discipline without
Overgratifying the Child. ........................................................205
10. Displaying Prosocial Models of Behavior. ...........................206
Are Children Active or Passive Participants in Their Development? ..........206
Is Self Development Continuous or Discontinuous? ..................................207
What Kind of Parenting Threatens Self Development? .............................207
What Does Unhealthy Self Development Look Like? ................................208
Mild imaginative-integrational impairment. ...................................209
Moderate imaginative-integrational impairment. .............................210
Severe imaginative-integrational impairment. .................................211
Concluding Remarks ..............................................................................212
REFERENCES ..............................................................................221
INDEX .........................................................................................235
xi
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 4.1 Schematic Representation of the Self and Its
Four Basic Tendencies ................................................. 72
Figure 4.2 The Primary Integrative Tendencies of Bühler’s
Stages of Development ................................................ 84
Figure 5.1 Representation of the Self According to Knowles ...... 102
Figure 5.2 Schematic of Knowles’s Existential-Analytic
Developmental Theory .............................................. 107
Figure 7.1 Construction Paper Lion Made by a Child of
Four .......................................................................... 141
Figure 7.2 Pig Drawing Made by a Child of Four ...................... 142
Figure 7.3 Pig Drawing Made by a Child of Five ....................... 143
Figure 10.1 An Evolving Process of Personal Integration
Beginning in Infancy ................................................. 188
Figure 10.2 Disrupted Self Development along a Continuum
of Severity ................................................................. 212
xiii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Characteristics of a Healthy, Congruent,
Actualizing Self According to Carl Rogers ....................... 18
Table 2.2 Characteristics of the Self-Realizing Person or Real
Self According to Karen Horney ..................................... 23
Table 2.3 Examples of Parental Behavior Adverse to Self-
Development Given by Karen Horney ............................ 24
Table 4.1 Infancy (birth to two years): The Primary
Motivational Tendency Is Need Satisfaction .................... 74
Table 4.2 Early Childhood (two to eight years): The Primary
Motivational Tendency Is Self-Limiting Adaptation ........ 77
Table 4.3 Late Childhood/Early Adolescence (eight to twelve
years): The Primary Motivational Tendencies Are
Self-Limiting Adaptation and Creative Expansion .......... 78
Table 4.4 Adolescence/Early Adulthood (twelve to twenty-
five years): The Motivational Tendency of Creative
Expansion Facilitates the Overriding Drive Toward
Self-Fulfillment ............................................................ 80
Table 5.1 Two Psychoanalytic Theories of Child Development ........ 93
Table 5.2 Knowles’s Ego Issues for Each Stage and Additional
Ego Manifestations ..................................................... 100
Table 5.3 Pathological Deviations from Healthy Self
Development According to Knowles .............................. 105
Table 9.1 Contrast of Quantitative Research and
Phenomenological Research .......................................... 165
Table 9.2 Brief Characterization of the Participants .................... 168
Table 9.3 A Portion of an Edited Synthesis (Bob) ........................ 170
Table 9.4 A Portion of One Participant’s Meaning Unit
Analysis (Bob) ............................................................ 171
Table 9.5 Flowchart of the Research Method................................ 172
Table 10.1 Self-Enriching and Self-Transcending Motives
According to EHSDT ................................................. 190
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HUMANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
Table 10.2 Contrasting Characteristics of Healthy and
Unhealthy Self Development........................................ 208
xv
PREFACE
In their respective texts on child development, William Crain and Guy Lefrancois
asserted that the study of child development is intrinsically harmonious with
the basic principles of humanistic psychology. As Crain (2005) put it, “There is
one place where the developmentalists’ concerns are seriously expressed. This is
in humanistic psychology” (xvi). Moreover, both Crain and Lefrancois admon-
ished that child development ought to be viewed as a truly human process. In
Lefrancois’ (2001) words, “Self-actualization is simply the process of develop-
ment” (562). The current text is in accordance with these views in that it explores
how humanistic perspectives in psychology can be applied to the study of child
development. It is an attempt to make humanistic ideas relating to child develop-
ment more accessible to college or graduate instructors and their students. I wrote
the book out of my own needs as an instructor. I struggled with the issues in the
text for years and slowly accumulated what is now the work in its entirety. It has
been used successfully in the honors sections of my child psychology classes at
Brookdale College.
Humanistic theoretical perspectives are represented in a great many courses at
the university level, including general psychology, health psychology, educational
psychology, abnormal psychology, counseling techniques, theories of personality,
and so on. However, despite the importance that humans place on the welfare
of their offspring, humanism has not found a way into the field of developmen-
tal psychology, certainly not at the college level. Introductory child psychology
texts typically open with an account of how Westerners appear to be placing an
increasingly high value on the welfare of their children. However, there has not
been a proper analogue to this cultural metamorphosis in psychological theoriz-
ing about child development. Theory in the area of child psychology has tended
to conceptualize child development in mechanistic, reductionistic terms (e.g., the
id, stimulus-response, information processing, etc.). In short, attempts to see the
truly human elements of development remain atypical. This text hopes to make a
significant contribution to remedying the disparity between the above noted cul-
tural transformation and the current state of developmental theorizing.
The text presents two closely related humanistic currents in the area of child
development: humanistic self-development theory and phenomenological child
psychology. The first chapter discusses the need for the text, its theoretical orien-
tation, and the structure of the book. In the next three chapters, theories of self-
development are derived from the works of Carl Rogers, Karen Horney, D. W.
xvi
HUMANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
Winnicott, Heinz Kohut, and Charlotte Bühler. Chapters Five and Six introduce
the reader to existing self-development theories created by Richard Knowles and
Daniel Stern. Chapters Seven, Eight, and Nine explore major aspects of child-
hood experience (i.e., perception, affect, time, space, and maternal relations) from
a phenomenological perspective. The concluding chapter is the culmination of
the text, which consists of a comprehensive theory of self-development from an
existential-humanistic perspective.
In terms of the pedagogy of the text, summative observations are included at
the end of each chapter. The summation usually appears in the form of critical
remarks and/or comments. In addition, there are illustrations peppered through
the book and some empirical findings. Finally, I have listed key terms and con-
cepts at the conclusion of each chapter.
In my eleven years teaching in the developmental area, I have noticed that it
is difficult for students to attain a holistic grasp of development by the end of
each semester. This relates directly to the controversial issue over whether to use a
chronological book as opposed to a topical book. Unfortunately, the two different
book designs have not ameliorated this problem. Whether the material is pre-
sented in a few major time “chunks,” as it were, or in fifteen individual chapters,
students tend to leave the course without having developed a synoptic grasp of the
metamorphosis from childhood through adolescence. It is my sense that theoreti-
cal continuity is the key to a synoptic understanding of development.
Chapter Ten provides an overarching theoretical viewpoint that can be used to
put developmental issues into perspective. The perspective offered there is holis-
tic and open to dialogue between various schools of thought, such as American
humanism, postmodern psychology, existential-phenomenology, psychoanalysis,
Gestalt psychology, neo-analytic and psychodynamic theories, Vygotskian theory,
and ecological psychology.
xvii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This text would not have been possible without the help of Miss Heather, who
allowed me to observe her preschool class. I am indebted to her for her help,
encouragement, and expertise. She is the most innately talented teacher I have
ever known. I am further indebted to the Journal of Emotional Abuse, the Journal
of Humanistic Psychology, and The Humanistic Psychologist for publishing articles
that have become chapters in this text. Finally, I owe special thanks to Heather
Lionetti for creating the art for this text.
64
CHAPTER 4
AN EXISTENTIAL-HUMANISTIC
THEORY OF SELF-DEVELOPMENT:
CHARLOTTE BÜHLER*3
The theorist whose work is covered in this chapter is Charlotte Malachowski
Bühler (1893–1974), an existential-humanistic psychologist (Bühler, 1968d, 350;
Yalom, 1980, 20). There are two reasons for Bühler’s inclusion. First, Bühler’s
work is relatively unknown in comparison to other major humanistic and devel-
opmental theorists despite her important contributions to psychology:
Charlotte Malachowski Bühler’s contributions to the field of psychology
are immense. Her major contributions lie in the areas of life-span devel-
opment and humanistic psychology.… She came to know psychologists
such as Carl Rogers, Gordon Allport, and Abraham Maslow, whose
humanistic psychology was very much in accordance with her own.
Although Maslow is often credited with being the “father of humanistic
psychology,” a review of her early work indicates that her ideas actually
predate his. (Gavin, 1990) (Ragsdale n.d., pars. 2, 15)
Thus, presenting Bühler’s work can make a contribution to the literature on
development and stimulate an interest in her work in general. Second, Bühler’s
thoughts on childhood and adolescence have yet to be brought together to form a
single, organized schematic for interpreting child and adolescent development.
This chapter will begin with a general introduction to Bühler’s theoretical orien-
tation, comparing and contrasting her work with other theoretical models relevant
to the area of child development. This will be followed by a summative account
of what she considered to be the four basic tendencies of human life and devel-
opment. Next, the specific developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence
according to Bühler will be schematized, including an articulation of the issues
* This chapter is based on an article entitled, “Charlotte Bühler’s Existential-Humanistic
Contributions to Child and Adolescent Psychology.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology,
Volume 46, No. 1, 48-76 (Copyright, 2006, Sage).
Eugene M. DeRobertis
65
Bühler observed to be integral to each period of growth. Finally, there will be a brief
overview and some critical remarks regarding Bühler’s child psychology.
Global Characterization of Charlotte Bühler’s Existential-
Humanism
Bühler and Freudian theory.
For Charlotte Bühler, being an existential-humanistic psychologist means adopt-
ing a holistic view of human beings. Specifically, she referred to the importance
of utilizing the whole person as a model” for psychological inquiry (Bühler &
Allen 1972, 26). This approach to the study of human beings contrasts with the
reductive conceptualizations of human existence that continue to be presented as
fundamental psychological theorizing in child psychology texts. The persistent
tendency to begin chapters on developmental theory with Freud’s developmental
insights illustrates this contrast.
Within the traditional or orthodox” Freudian scheme, human awareness is
divided into layers, the major division being the chasm between the conscious-
preconscious interplay of awareness and the unconscious mind. For Freud, per-
sonality development is first and foremost driven by unconscious urges, primarily
the sexual and aggressive tensions produced by the id. The issue here is not that
Bühler denied the usefulness of concepts such as unconsciousness or id for psy-
chological theorizing. Quite the contrary, she acknowledged the usefulness of such
concepts (Bühler 1968c, 18–19). However, Bühler’s theory is holistic in compari-
son to Freud’s in that unconscious hedonistic drives and the homeostatic pleasure
principle are not given sovereignty in Bühler’s work (Bühler 1964). Bühler consid-
ered the notion of an id to be useful, but only as integrated within the total nexus
of human motivations rather than seeing people as relentlessly driven to reduce
physical tensions generated by a repository of animal drives (1968c, 18–19). To
quote Viktor Frankl (1986, xxiv–xxv) on the matter:
Certainly man has instincts, but these instincts do not have him. We
have nothing against instinct, not against a mans accepting them. But we
hold that such acceptance must also presuppose the possibility of rejec-
tion. In other words, there must have been freedom of decision. We are
concerned above all with man’s freedom to accept or reject his instincts.
Bühler consistently maintained that humans do not act totally or even primar-
ily on behalf of tension reduction. As opposed to the “closed” organismic system
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HUMANIZING CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
revolving around the satisfaction and reduction of its biological urges, Bühler saw
humans as “open” organisms, open to the world of possibilities available to them
for experiencing and growing (Bühler & Allen 1972, 33). Rather than maintain-
ing the materialistic thesis that matter tends toward entropy, she noted, “One of
our tenets in humanistic psychology is that the human being tends toward higher
degrees of order over the course of his life, allowing for temporary disorders in
the process” (34). Inspired by Goldstein’s (1939) concept of “equalizationand
Bertalanffy’s (1950) notion of the “steady state,” Bühler viewed healthy personali-
ties as motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal for the performance of
acts and ultimately the realization of their unique potentials for growth and devel-
opment (Bühler & Allen 1972, 35–36).
Here again, it is not that Bühler denied the existence of the homeostatic ten-
dencies emphasized in psychoanalytic theory, but that she felt it necessary to sur-
pass its myopic focus by articulating and highlighting human growth-oriented
strivings in order to render an accurate description of the whole human person
(Bühler & Allen 1972, 26). In order to counterbalance the Freudian influence
on child psychology, Bühler focused her work on healthy development. For her,
healthy humans seek comfort and accomplishment, maintenance and change,
homeostasis and growth (Bühler 1968c, 17, 24). Humans strive to fulfill biologi-
cal needs, psychoemotional needs, and spiritual values alike (1968d, 341–342).
Bühler and behavioral theory.
Bühler’s adoption of a holistic perspective also entailed a concerted attempt to
study what she called the “total action-perception process” (Bühler & Allen 1972,
26). Struggling against the reductive behavioral interpretation of human action as
determined by environmental contingencies, Bühler insisted that humans do not
merely react to the environment, but perceive the world and take action based
upon the values that structure their perceptual field (28–29).
For Bühler, a persons perceptions are integral components of goal-setting
(Bühler & Allen 1972, 26). This was her way of attending to the experiential
dimensions of human action that were neglected by behaviorism. For Bühler, the
meanings and values that people attach to the objects, events, and people in their
lives are significant motivating factors initiating and guiding their particular rep-
ertoire of behaviors. Hence, she proposed a psychology grounded in “a theoretical
model of man as positive, active, and purposive (43). In other words, human
beings are thus always to a greater or lesser degree active mediators of their own
existence (52). In Bühler’s view, it was the job of a humanistic psychology to
emphasize this aspect of human existence, the degree to which humans are spon-
taneous and creative creatures rather than “reactions to sensory stimuli” (28–29).
Eugene M. DeRobertis
67
Charlotte Bühler saw human life as a project, a work in progress. Life is always
a becoming, a forward-moving process, but the circumstances of one’s existence
do not make it completely readymade (Bühler 1968c, 16). A human being must
make choices in life and set the goals that will frame the context of one’s future
development (1968d, 340). Setting and pursuing goals facilitates the dynamic
interaction between person and world that allows one to learn all about oneself
and one’s significant relations. Thus, through goal-setting, one has the potential
to strive toward a higher level of personality integration and optimize one’s condi-
tions for future growth, health, and fulfillment (341).
Bühler on the context of development.
This is not to say that Bühler believed that human agency and decision-making
are without context or limitation. To be sure, Bühler understood the meanings
and values that guide one’s choices and goal setting as influenced by one’s particu-
lar genetic endowment, the demands of one’s cultural-ideological age, matura-
tional factors (i.e., opportunities for growth that appear during any of the various
phases of development rather than growth caused solely by biological maturity),
and especially one’s emotional dynamics (1968c, 12; 1968d, 342; 1968b, 38).
Moreover, Bühler held that a developing child’s emotional dynamics were most
intimately tied to his or her parental relations. In particular, she felt that parents
optimize a child’s conditions for emotional growth by providing a loving, car-
ing emotional atmosphere without “spoiling” the child, by tempering the severity
of discipline, by displaying pro-social models of behavior, and by gauging their
demands and expectations against their child’s gifts and inclinations (1968a,
180–186). For Bühler, a plethora of varied and subtle forces influence the life of
a particular developing person, but these influences do not mean that freedom of
the will is excluded as a possibility inherent within his or her existence (1968c,
12–13). In her words, “The relative freedom of individual exploitation of … gifts
and aims depends on what use the individual makes of himself and his circum-
stances” (12). Thus, due to both the sheer complexity of the factors involved in
determining a child’s decision-making and the mediating role of individual free-
dom, “prediction of the goal-setting behavior of a growing individual can only be
very tentative” (1968a, 180).
Bühler and the self.
Charlotte Bühler viewed decision making as always intimately tied to the unique
structure of one’s individual existence. The choices one makes are always particu-
lar to one’s own life and circumstances as a matter of course. In order to properly
... This study is grounded in two theoretical frameworks, which are the existential humanistic framework and the Unani Tibb philosophical framework. The existential humanistic framework promotes a holistic view of human beings, specifically placing importance on using 'the whole person model' (Derobertis and Bühler 2006;Suri 2010). It recognizes the individual's potential to strive towards a higher level of personality integration and optimization of the person's conditions for future growth, health and fulfilment (Derobertis and Bühler 2006). ...
... The existential humanistic framework promotes a holistic view of human beings, specifically placing importance on using 'the whole person model' (Derobertis and Bühler 2006;Suri 2010). It recognizes the individual's potential to strive towards a higher level of personality integration and optimization of the person's conditions for future growth, health and fulfilment (Derobertis and Bühler 2006). This framework facilitates the development of a model of intervention that engage individuals at all levels: intellectually, spiritually and physically (Derobertis and Bühler 2006;Suri 2010). ...
... It recognizes the individual's potential to strive towards a higher level of personality integration and optimization of the person's conditions for future growth, health and fulfilment (Derobertis and Bühler 2006). This framework facilitates the development of a model of intervention that engage individuals at all levels: intellectually, spiritually and physically (Derobertis and Bühler 2006;Suri 2010). The Unani Tibb philosophy highlights the interconnectedness of mind, body and soul. ...
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Unani Tibb is a holistic form of medicine, which highlights the interconnectedness of mind, body and soul. Despite this, there is very little evidence of spiritual care practices by Unani Tibb practitioners in South Africa. This protocol outlines a proposed process for developing guidelines to integrate spirituality and spiritual care in Unani Tibb practice. In phase one, a document review will be conducted on spiritu-ality and spiritual care in complementary and alternative medicine and Unani Tibb. A series of quantitative and qualitative enquiries will follow to obtain the perspectives of various stakeholders in the Unani Tibb profession. Phase two will rely on the findings of phase I to develop guidelines according to the Delphi method. Experts in the relevant fields will be soliciting their opinions on the nature and content of the proposed guidelines. The data will be analysed using descriptive statistical analyses, thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. Ethics clearance has been obtained from the ethics committee of the university.
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Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. The main criterion for entry participants to research was the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus by specialists of the Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying humanistic-existential psychotherapy more benefits than the other two method. So, humanistic-existential group psychotherapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. The main criterion for entry participants to research was the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus by specialists of the Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying humanistic-existential psychotherapy more benefits than the other two method. So, humanistic-existential group psychotherapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying humanistic-existential psychotherapy more benefits than the other two method. So, humanistic-existential group psychotherapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying cognitive-existential more benefits than the other two method. So, existential-cognitive group therapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Chapter
The second chapter comprises a review of literature on the topic of the existential in children. It starts with an inquiry into its definition before it looks at education and psychotherapy as those relational practices that share an interest in children’s subjective histories and the meanings they make of these. A lack of attention to preschool children’s existential encounters is identified alongside the need of adults’ (practitioners and researchers alike) readiness to engage with their own existential encounters so as to make space for those of children. The chapter concludes with a review of the dialogue between existentialism and psychoanalysis, drawing links between the creative and the interpersonal unconscious. The space for an existential/phenomenological-psychoanalytic integrative approach is identified for the purpose of understanding children’s lives from a psychosocial perspective.
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