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Television and Children: A Special Medium for a Special Audience

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Television and Children: A Special Medium for a Special Audience

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... Children are a special audience with an incomplete understanding of the world (Dorr, 1986). Therefore it is necessary to guide the child through the world of television. ...
... Purchase or record high-quality educational or entertainment material that has been verified and doesn't contain violence and inappropriate messages. (Dorr, A. [1986]. Television and Children: A Special Medium for a Special Audience. ...
... Although it is difficult to define, a widely accepted definition is that media literacy is the capacity to access, understand, evaluate and create communication in all forms (Aufderheide, 1993). It has been primarily researched in relation to television, building on the analysis of print literacy (Dorr, 1986;Messenger Davies, 1997). More recently, the concept of media literacy has been expanded, sometimes relabelled digital literacy or digital media literacy (Buckingham, 2007;Hobbs, 2008). ...
... To explain how children develop social media literacy, two sources present themselves. The first concerns established research on how children develop media literacy in relation to television (Dorr, 1986;Lemish, 2007;Messenger Davies, 1997). Drawing on a Piagetian theory of cognitive development, researchers have widely concluded that below the age of seven or eight, children tend to treat what they see on television as "real", a "window on the world", having a poor grasp of the conventions of representation (genre, plot, characterisation, truthfulness, etc.). ...
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The widespread use of social network sites (SNSs) by children has significantly reconfigured how they communicate, with whom and with what consequences. This article analyzes cross-national interviews and focus groups to explore the risky opportunities children experience online. It introduces the notion of social media literacy and examines how children learn to interpret and engage with the technological and textual affordances and social dimensions of SNSs in determining what is risky and why. Informed by media literacy research, a social developmental pathway is proposed according to which children are first recipients, then participants, and finally actors in their social media worlds. The findings suggest that SNSs face children (aged approximately 9-11) with the fundamental question of what is real or fake. By around 1113, they are more absorbed by the question of what is fun, even if it is transgressive or fake. By age 14-16, the increasing complexity of their social and emotional lives, as well as their greater maturity, contributes to a refocusing on what is valuable for them. Their changing orientation to social networking online (and offline) appears to be shaped by their changing peer and parental relations, and has implications for their perceptions of risk of harm.
... All types of activities occur in the presence of television. According to Dorr (1986), children may talk with each other, with their parents, and other adults or children who are also watching television or doing other activities. ...
... Television rules may encompass a multitude of areas such as finishing homework or doing chores first, not watching television on a school night, not watching certain shows, and no viewing after a certain hour (~eid, 1979;Dorr, 1986). Signorielli (1990) found that two-thirds of a sample of fourth and fifth grade students reported that they were not able 'to watch television until their homework was complete. ...
... Las adquisiciones además debían ser bien acogidas por los adultos, pero también por los niños (Paz y Martínez, 2014, p. 10;Paz y Mateos-Pérez, 2016, p. 317), puesto que las cadenas generalistas pretendían llegar a un público amplio. Una buena solución, como también sucedió en otros países (Dorr, 1986;Dorr, Kovaric y Doubleday, 1990;Weiss y Wilson, 1996), fueron las sitcoms familiares estadounidenses por ser un tipo de contenido que consumía toda la familia. Igualmente, se trató de un periodo en el que se preparó el gusto televisivo posterior, caracterizado por la fragmentación de la audiencia con la creación de los primeros canales digitales en 2005 y la llegada de dos nuevos operadores (Cuatro y La Sexta en 2005 y 2006 respectivamente). ...
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Se analizan las prácticas de programación de las sitcoms familiares estadounidenses en la programación infantil y juvenil de cadenas de televisión españolas durante la edad de oro de la televisión comercial (1990-2005). Se valora también la popularidad que alcanzaron en su momento de emisión, así como el recuerdo que mantienen, en la actualidad, espectadores de aquella época. Se observa que existe, por parte de la audiencia de aquel momento, una identificación de los contenidos de estas sitcoms y una idealización tanto de los contenidos como del momento en el que se percibieron, lo cual puede afectar al efecto cultivo. Las sitcoms familiares americanas se ven como una serie única por su capacidad para producir una realidad claramente distinta a la real, pero que se acepta como buena: no se rechaza, se asimila. El efecto de la nostalgia permite, con el tiempo, crear una visión acrítica y positiva de estas series.
... While the number of American preschoolers who regularly play video games may appear low at first (11%), the percentages of those who have console and handheld video game players in the home are actually quite high, at 50% and 28% respectively (Rideout & Hamel, 2006). Given young children's insatiable eagerness to learn (Dorr, 1986) coupled with the fact that they are clearly surrounded by these media, we predict that preschoolers will both continue and increasingly begin to adopt video games for personal enjoyment. Although the majority of gaming equipment is still designed for a much older target audience, once a game system enters the household, it is fair game for all family members, including the youngest. ...
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Designing for the youngest consumers is a daunting task for video game producers, who historically have focused on more "hard core" game fans. This article chronicles the research and design process involved in creating Nintendo DS games for a preschool audience. By integrating multi-method research into the creative process, game producers can better understand the game mechanics related to different technologies in the context of such young players. This research process is discussed not only with respect to how it was used to help develop DS games for preschoolers, but also in regard to the roles of exploratory and formative research in creating new titles, more generally, for this youngest set. In addition to a set of best practices from a process perspective, we discuss our key findings and design tips when it comes to preschoolers and their cognitive abilities, motor skills, and design preferences. By understanding the unique needs of preschoolers, we can continue to improve the interfaces that we create for them on any chosen system, and better integrate educational and other "serious" content into games for this target audience.
... Prije razvoja teorije uma, koji je dugotrajan proces, mala djeca vjeruju da postoji jedan svijet, onaj koji odgovara njihovu iskustvu i ne mogu zamisliti što žele, misle i namjeravaju druge osobe. Istraživanja pokazuju kako djeca tek između 7. i 9. godine života počinju razumjeti namjeru reklamnih poruka da potakne na kupnju (Dorr, 1986). Djeca najprije reklamama pripisuju namjeru informiranja o proizvodu, a tek kasnije persuazivnu namjeru, pri čemu djeca više obrazovanih roditelja to shvaćaju ranije od djece niže obrazovanih roditelja (Bandyopadhyay, Kindra i Sharp, 2001). ...
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Mediji i djetetov razvoj Ekološki pogled na dječji razvoj drži kako se razvoj djeteta treba proučavati i razmatrati u okolinskom kontekstu u kojem ono živi i s kojim sa svojim jedinstvenim karakteristikama dolazi u interakciju (Bronfenbrenner, 1979 prema Vasta, Haith i Miller, 1998). Konteksti se mogu zamisliti poput ovojnica koji obavijaju dijete imajući izravne i neizravne utjecaje na njegov razvoj. Sredstva masovnih medija ubrajaju se također u jedan od ekoloških sustava koji na djetetov razvoj mogu utjecati izravno djelujući na samo dijete, ali i neizravno utječući na ostale ekološke sustave koji utječu na dijete, poput njegove obitelj, prijatelja, vršnjaka. Posljednjih tridesetak godina masovni mediji, osobito televizija sve više utječu na djetetov razvoj. Najznačajniji utjecaj televizija ima na proces socijalizacije djeteta tj. na usvajanje kulturalnih vrijednosti, stavova, uvjerenja i društvenih normi. Televizija ima tako veliki utjecaj zato što se nalazi u gotovo svakom domu te što komunicira vizualnim i auditivnim putem što je lakše i djelotvornije od nekih drugih oblika učenja i djeci vrlo privlačno. Osim stručnjaka i roditelji su svjesni utjecaja kojega na dječji razvoj i socijalizaciju ima televizija. Istraživanje koje je u 20 europskih zemalja ispitalo roditelje koji su ključni čimbenici koji utječu na život njihove djece utvrdilo je kako dječji TV program, drugi TV programi i televizijsko oglašavanje zauzimaju od petog do osmog mjesta na rang listi spontano spomenutih utjecaja pri čemu roditelji, škola, prijatelji i rodbina zauzimaju prva četiri mjesta (Advertising Education Forum, 2000 prema Von Feilltzen i Bucht 2001). Istraživanja utjecaja televizijskog medija na djecu pokazuju kako korištenje medija samo po sebi (osobito broj sati gledanja dnevno) može imati neke negativne posljedice po djetetovo tjelesno zdravlje i psihički razvoj prvenstveno zato što potiče sjedenje i nekretanje koji povećavaju rizik za prekomjernu tjelesnu težinu i s njom povezane bolesti (Gortmaker i sur., 1996), kao i pasivne oblike učenja i učenje uz intenzivne audio-vizualne podražaje. Međutim, najvažniji čimbenik u procjeni utjecaja televizije na djecu su sadržaji koji se na televiziji prikazuju. Istraživanja pokazuju kako djeca putem televizije mogu mnogo toga naučiti i to kako korisne stvari (primjerice, osnove čitanja, pisanja i računanja putem svjetski najpopularnije obrazovne serije Sezame Street) tako i one koje su negativne. Od negativnih utjecaja televizije na djecu najviše je ispitivan utjecaj televizije na agresivnost, kao i posljedice koje po različite aspekte dječjeg razvoja ima televizijsko oglašavanje. Oglasi za proizvode ubacuju se u dječje programe ili programe privlačne djeci, ali i roditeljima, a u novije vrijeme igračke, kao najreklamiraniji proizvodi za djecu, postaju glavni likovi crtanih i igranih serija i programa za djecu napravljenih isključivo u svrhu njihove prodaje. Najčešće reklame usmjerene prema djeci promiču igračke i prehrambene proizvode. Zašto su djeca zanimljiva skupina oglašivačima? Postoji priča o petogodišnjaku kojega su pitali što bi zaželio kada bi mu zlatna ribica mogla ispuniti samo jednu želju. Njegov je odgovor glasio: "Tampax tampone, jer bih onda mogao plivati, jahati na konju i činiti što god poželim." Ova anegdota više nego rječito govori o tome koliki utjecaj oglašavanje i reklamiranje može imati na djecu i utjecati na njihove želje čak i onda ne znaju čemu neki proizvod služi niti ga uopće mogu koristiti.
... The place of the mass media in young people's lives, including the impacts of television and other media on children's socialisation and their behavioural and cognitive development has been extensively studied (Critcher, 2008;Dorr, 1986;LaFrance, 1996;Schrum, 2004). The use of digital devices such as the Internet, digital devices and social media by young people has increased in recent times. ...
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This chapter examines the research practices, procedures and problems involved in a study investigating the digital lifeworlds of rural and urban youth aged13–18 years in Nigeria. First, the chapter maps the key aspects of the ethical guidelines that were followed before and during the course of the study. The key aspects of the guidelines covered issues linked to information disclosure, assent/consent, confidentiality, potential harms to participants, and institutions, and financial compensation and other inducements. In addition, the chapter unpacks some of the ethical complexities and dilemmas that emerged during the research. Drawing on perspectives from the new sociology of childhood and youth-centred research approaches, the chapter examines both the opportunities and challenges involved in doing research with young people on digital tech-nology within the African context. In line with a youth-centred approach, the study privileges young people’s views and voices to facilitate their full autonomy and rights to participate in research. The chapter draws attention to the important contextual influences and dynamics that can affect all aspects of the research process and shape the emergent ethical considerations.
... Siendo el concepto de calidad televisiva muy poco universal y estrechamente relacionado con el objetivo del autor o promotor del análisis, no existe en la bibliografía un modelo de observación de contenidos audiovisuales infantiles que permita evaluar la calidad de éstos de manera universalmente aceptada. La mayoría de estudios sobre la televisión infantil centran su interés, a menudo de forma exclusiva, en las consecuencias psíquicas y del comportamiento asociadas a los hábitos de uso o al tipo de contenido (Anderson et al. 2001;Signorielli y Morgan, 1990) al que se exponen los niños, público especialmente sensible y poco crítico (Dorr, 1986;Huesmann y Miller, 1994;Miller y Seier, 1994). Como ejemplo se recuerdan los estudios de Greenfield (1990), que junto a otros autores demuestra con algunos experimentos que las imágenes televisivas no estimulan la imaginación y la creatividad. ...
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Este artículo se desarrolla a partir del análisis de contenido de cuatro programas transmiti- dos en horario protegido por una cadena de televisión autonómica. Se quiere relacionar cada programa infantil con las competencias cognitivas y la edad necesaria para poderlo ver. Apli- camos una plantilla de observación semiestructurada, expresamente construida para facilitar las observaciones y automatizar el análisis estadístico de los datos. Los resultados muestran que para la visión de cada programa infantil es necesario haber llegado a un determinado mo- mento de desarrollo cognitivo que puede ser establecido a través del análisis del contenido.
... el rol familiar más representado es el de hijo (25%), seguido del de padre/madre (20,24%), por lo que las relaciones intergeneracionales ocupan un lugar central en la ficción nacional. el predominio de los niños en la ficción televisiva demuestra, por un lado, el interés de las cadenas por incorporar a este segmento de población al consumo de estos productos, dirigidos, en principio, hacia los adultos, y por otro, permite aventurar que uno de los principales motivos de su éxito entre la audiencia infantil es precisamente el protagonismo de los personajes de su misma edad, porque les facilitan los procesos de identificación y la comprensión de los mensajes (Dorr, 1986). Aunque con porcentajes residuales, también la familia extensa tiene cabida en la ficción televisiva española. ...
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Several studies have shown television�s capacity for social learning and the special influence that characters have over the identity configuration of younger viewers. At the same time, the audience data indicate that since the television beginnings, children have been interested in adult or family programmes, to which they dedicate the same or more attention than to children programming. In this article, we offer the results of a content analysis in which we have analysed main and secondary protagonists in the national series with the best children audience results. The analysis is focused on sociodemographic and psycho-social characteristics of the actors.
... In the course of typical television viewing additional, contextual, cues may also help children identify advertisements. Contextual cues include the contrast between the content of an advertisement and the surrounding programme (Kunkel, 1988;Wilson & Weiss, 1992), the presence of separators between programmes and advertisements (Dorr, 1986), the short length of advertisements (Palmer & McDowell, 1979) and the fact that television advertisements are usually grouped together. ...
Chapter
In this chapter we will consider children’s ability to distinguish an advertisement in different contexts, on television and on web pages. By ‘distinguish’ we mean not only the ability to identify an advertisement but also the ability to avoid mistaking something else (e.g., a television programme) as an advertisement.
... Dorr A. (1986). Television and Children: A special medium for a special audience.London: Sage. ...
Article
Τα Μ.Μ.Ε. έχουν αναλάβει ένα σημαντικό τμήμα της κοινωνικοποίησης των νέων, της παροχής πληροφοριών και της εγχάραξης ιδεολογιών. Αποτελούν εμπορικές επιχειρήσεις, οι οποίες αποσκοπούν στο κέρδος μέσα από τη χρήση συγκεκριμένων τεχνικών. Παρουσιάζουν όψεις και εκδοχές της πραγματικότητας με βάση τους επιδιωκόμενους κάθε φορά στόχους τους. Το γεγονός αυτό έχει διαμορφώσει ένα πεδίο επιστημονικής εγρήγορσης, το οποίο χαρακτηρίζεται από τη μελέτη των κοινωνικών και ιδεολογικών εκδοχών που παρουσιάζουν τα Μ.Μ.Ε. και από την ανάλυση των επιπτώσεων των μηνυμάτων που μεταδίδουν στους αποδέκτες τους. Ιδιαίτερη έμφαση έχει δοθεί στις επιπτώσεις που αφορούν τα παιδιά. Με βάση λοιπόν τα παραπάνω, θεωρούμε ότι το σχολείο θα πρέπει να αναπτύξει τις κατάλληλες παιδαγωγικές πρακτικές, οι οποίες να αποσκοπούν στην εμπέδωση κριτικής σκέψης και στάσης εκ μέρους των μαθητών απέναντι στα Μ.Μ.Ε. Τέτοιου είδους σχολικές πρακτικές έχουν ήδη αναπτυχθεί στο εξωτερικό και προτείνουμε την υιοθέτησή τους και από το ελληνικό εκπαιδευτικό σύστημα. Στην παρούσα εργασία παρουσιάζεται, στο πρώτο μέρος, το θεωρητικό και το πρακτικό πλαίσιο της εκπαίδευσης για τα Μ.Μ.Ε., ενώ στο δεύτερο μέρος ένα παράδειγμα ανάπτυξης σχολικών παιδαγωγικών πρακτικών γύρω από την τηλεόραση.
... Children are less knowledgeable about the real world than are adults; as a result, they cannot evaluate the legitimacy of most Internet content by comparing the information to their own experiences. In addition, children cannot easily evaluate multiple pieces of information at once and may get distracted by extraneous information (Dorr, 1986). An instructional message is a communication that is intended to foster learning. ...
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Rapid development of technology permits new forms of interactions with the use of internet technologies. Children web sites are great tools that combine education and entertainment which is also called as edutainment. The purpose of this study is to explore and to examine the content of children web sites in Turkey according to given information, entertainment, education, and interactivity. The analysis is based upon six children web sites in Turkey. A checklist was used to evaluate and describe different aspects of the web sites and web sites were categorized according to age groups they appeal to. The results of the evaluation were examined and discussed according to related literature. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
... Eron (1980) claims that vulnerability to television violence begins as early as age 3, and young viewers rarely understand the motives and consequences behind violent and sexual images. Children may fail to understand or misinterpret program content if they lack the essential background knowledge, and they may accept program content as accurate "information" while more knowledgeable viewers know it to be otherwise (Dorr, 1986). Television's brilliant colors, sound effects, and sharp graphics hold children's attention effortlessly (Singer, 1980). ...
... Children usually watch television in a family context that is largely provided by their parents. This family context not only impacts how children use the medium, but also how literate children become as television viewers (Dorr, 1986;Gunter & Furnham, 1998). Parental mediation theory posits that parents utilize different interpersonal communication strategies in their attempts to mediate the effects of the media in their children's lives, one of them being active mediation (Clark, 2011). ...
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The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011)54. Rozendaal, E., Buijzen, M., & Valkenburg, P. (2011). Children's understanding of advertisers' persuasive tactics. International Journal of Advertising, 30, 329–350. doi:10.2.S01/IJA-30-2-329-350.[CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references, 39 items were created to measure two dimensions of advertising literacy (i.e., conceptual and attitudinal advertising literacy) and their 9 underlying components (i.e., recognition of advertising, understanding selling intent, recognition of advertising's source, perception of intended audience, understanding persuasive intent, understanding persuasive tactics, understanding advertising's bias, skepticism toward advertising, and disliking of advertising). The survey was administered to 1,026 8- to 12-year-olds in the first wave and 519 in the second wave. Structural equation modeling revealed that the Advertising Literacy Scale for children consists of two separate and unrelated subscales: the Conceptual Advertising Literacy Scale (CALS-c) and the Attitudinal Advertising Literacy Scale for children (AALS-c). Both scales performed well in terms of test–retest reliability and construct validity. In addition to the full-length scale, shortened versions were created. Specific directions for future advertising literacy research are discussed as well.
... In 2006 (Bolton, 1983;Cullen et al., 2001, Kremers, Brug & de Vries, 2003Mangleburg, 1990). From this research, it is suggested that the media literacy education received in Ontario elementary schools should be reflective of children's home environments as children watch television, develop awareness of advertised messages and add to their media literacy all within the micro-environment of the family home (Dorr, 1986;Gunter & Furnham, 1998). ...
... Television has become one of the most important mass media tools especially in recent years. Dorr(1986) states that TV stands out from other media as it is generally used more and can present more life like content than most of other media. Television habits consist of patterns of behavior determined by the amount of time and importance individuals give to watching television broadcasts and recorded videos and DVDs. ...
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Today, television is considered to be a major source of entertainment and leaning for many, especially the young. All television programs, especially the commercials, news, documentaries and cartoons, affect people of all ages in different ways. Youngsters constitute one of the groups in society who spend a lot of time watching television. In recent years, youngsters are even named as “active media users”. The study was conducted to make note of various television-viewing habits among youngsters of Northern India and to identify the factors, which encourage television viewership among youngsters. A Sample of 750 respondents from 5 states of Northern India were selected for analysis. Factor Analytic approach was applied on 14 statements to find the reasons for television viewership. The study also highlighted the TV program preferences among youngsters.
... Teenagers have received little scholarly attention in past advertising literacy research (compared to younger children) because they are considered less vulnerable and thus no priority group for academic exploration (Livingstone and Helsper 2006). Dorr (1986) argued that by adolescence, children possess a greater understanding of persuasive techniques that helps them "evaluate advertising claims sensibly and gain more control over the type and amount of influence commercials exert on them" (52). However, we argue that this line of reasoning does not necessarily apply to new (online) advertising practices (see next section). ...
Article
Children’s advertising literacy is a well-documented research area. Yet, the literature on how to measure advertising literacy is not straightforward due to conceptual and operational differences in the existing studies. This has led to inconsistent results with regard to the development, possession and application of advertising literacy. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the different measurement methodologies used in past research efforts to assess children’s advertising literacy. Taking into account children’s psychological development (cognitive, affective and moral), we formulate recommendations on which methods are most suitable to use in future advertising literacy research among different age categories.
... TV ads, as part of such media discourses, are seen by large swathes of the population day after day. 1 Just to give an example, an average American child was reported to see 20,000 30-second TV commercials a year and to spend more time watching TV than doing any other activity except sleep in the 80s and 90s (cf. Dietz 1998;Dorr 1986). According to the report of the APA Task Force's committee on Advertising and Children (Kunkel et al. 2004), this exposure increased to 40,000 15-30 second TV ads at the beginning of the 21st century. ...
Article
The aim of this article is to examine the meaning potential of images in the enactment or creation of gender stereotypes in a corpus of contemporary British TV commercials. The dimensions outlined in Goffman (1979) and some aspects of Kress and van Leeuwen’s (1996, 2006) metafunctions are taken as a starting point to quantitatively and qualitatively analyse a sample of 155 ads which depict women and men in working settings. Findings indicate that women are mainly portrayed in non-remunerated scenarios, in home settings and in the company of their children. This view is reinforced thanks to the multimodal dimensions of framing (mostly through close-ups), involvement with other participants through looks, smiling and profuse touching activity. Men, in contrast, are mostly depicted in remunerated scenarios in which they address the audience directly through demand looks, acting as experts in their professional capacity and framed with medium and long shots. When portrayed together in non-remunerated activities, men are found in family scenes, although they are sometimes portrayed as passive subjects and mere objects of contemplation through lack of interaction with children or spouses. This contrasts with women’s more communal role as they are intimately depicted in the company of their children through close-ups, feminine touch, and constant interaction with them. Stereotyped portrayals are less visually patent when both men and women are simultaneously depicted in remunerated scenarios, although some ads emphasize women’s interpersonal skills as better at talking to customers or patients, whereas men are shown in the role of experts in financial and medical issues.
... The introduction of a new medium into society has frequently been a flash-point for media effects research focusing on children and adolescents (Wartella & Reeves, 1985). In each case children have been recognized as a special audience, one that deserves special consideration (Dorr, 1986;Wartella, 1995). The introduction of television prompted numerous studies (e.g., Schramm, Lyle & Parker, 1961), and provoked much discussion and public debate over its proper place in society. ...
... Thus, "horror is one of the few genres that are defined in terms of their intended effect" (Grant, 2013, p. 3). Therefore, when considering its use in the subgenre category of children's cinema, the task of conceptualising this narrative becomes somewhat problematic, since the public's requirements become a key factor in shaping the narrative and modifying the emotional intensity of these stories to adapt them to an audience that demands special treatment because of its young developmental stage (Dorr, 1986). Pérez-Guerrero, A. M. & Forero-Serna, A. Between Reality and Fantasy: The Narrative Strategies of the Horror Genre in Productions by Laika Studios (2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)(2013)(2014)(2015) Terrifying stories intended for the youngest audiences, especially audio-visual stories, are often "ghostly rather than horrific" (Smith, 1996, p. 88), and they tend to sugar-coat certain situations or treat some of their more intense moments comedically. ...
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The purpose of this study is to explore the narrative strategies used to communicate the horror genre in the scripts of Laika studios and to investigate both the extent to which they contribute to imbuing the genre with a unique character in aesthetic and dramatic terms within mainstream animation cinema and the role they fulfil within the framework of their thematic approaches. To this end, a textual analysis of the studio’s productions was conducted for Coraline (Henry Selick, 2009), ParaNorman (Chris Butler & Sam Fell, 2012), The Boxtrolls (Graham Annable & Anthony Stacchi, 2014) and Kubo and the Two Strings (Travis Knight, 2016). The analysis was based on the knowledge categories proposed by Jule Selbo’s (2010) study on the creation of a mental space for the genre. The categories are divided into schematic, specific, and relevant knowledge. Finally, this study demonstrates how the tactics of the horror genre used in these films have enabled a different view of common themes in family-oriented Hollywood animation by communicating a stark image of the family and growing up. Although this image is not transgressive, it is certainly innovative by virtue of its thematic content, in which warnings against romanticising reality abound
... Cook, Kendzierski & Thomas, 1983), weil von den dort verwendeten (sechs) Langzeit-Feldstudien zwei keinerlei und eine nur geringe Effekte aufwiesen (vgl. auch Dorr, 1986). McGuire (1986, S. 194) resümiert pointiert: ". . . the obtained relationships are small, often insignificant and when they do reach the conventionally accepted .05 ...
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Es wird ein Literaturüberblick zur Entwicklung der Medienpsychologie (mit dem Schwerpunkt Fernsehen) gegeben. Nach einigen definitori-schen Vorbemerkungen (Medienbegriff, quali-tative vs. quantitative, angewandte vs. grund-lagenorientierte Forschung) wird die Entwick-lung der Medienforschung von der Kampagnen-forschung bis zum Nutzen-und Gratifikations-ansatz skizziert. Aktuell hauptsächlich unter-suchte Themenfelder werden unter den Stich-worten Sozialisation, ideologische Wirkungen, Wissenskluft-Hypothese, Thematisierungsfunk-tion, Medium als Botschaft und Wissensvermitt-lung durch AV-Medien vorgestellt. Im Trend ist festzustellen, daß gegenwärtig eine Umorientie-rung von stimulusorientierter Wirkungsfor-schung zu einer allgemeinpsychologische Model-le und Theorien berücksichtigenden, rezipien-tenorientierten Nutzungsperspektive erfolgt. Vorbemerkung Die Hinweise werden zahlreicher: Der Bericht des Präsidenten der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psycho-logie zur Lage der Psychologie beim 35. Kongreß in Heidelberg (vgl. Weinert, 1987), die Enquete der Senatskommission der Deutschen Forschungsge-meinschaft zur Lage der Medienwirkungsforschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (vgl. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 1986), Übersichten zu me-dienwissenschaftlichen Tagungen (vgl. Hochschule für Bildende Künste und der Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek, 1987), Lehrveranstaltungen (vgl. Ber-telsmann Briefe 122, 1987) und Publikationen (ARD-Anschrift des Verfassers: PD Dr. Feter Winterhoff-Spurk, Universität des Saarlandes, Fachrichtung Psycho-logie, Postfach, D-6600 Saarbrücken.
... Because most American children are not formally schooled until about age 6, television may be a major source of positive content, both preacademic and social. At the same time, both cognitive developmental limitations and lack of background knowledge make it likely that children will incorporate and accept uncritically the content they see (Dorr, 1986;Huesmann & Miller, 1994). ...
... Television has become one of the most important mass media tools especially in recent years. Dorr(1986) states that TV stands out from other media as it is generally used more and can present more lifelike content than most of other media. Television habits consist of patterns of behavior determined by the amount of time and importance individuals give to watching television broadcasts and recorded videos and DVDs. ...
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Within the context of an existing body of work regarding children and marketing communications, which largely places meaningful interaction with marketing communication as out with the ability of pre school children, research has been conducted upon parents of pre-school children, nursery teachers, and pre-school children themselves within the environment of their nursery. Parents relate their experience that typically from the age of three their children recognise television advertising and have commenced retail interactions. Nursery teachers have noted that the children under their care personally interact within the context of brands, and the children themselves via their own verbalisations provide indications that in some cases at least four year old children have an idea of advertising intent, and three year old children typically are able to recognise advertising as being distinct from programme material. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Mediapsychology is a composite term for media studies based on psychological theories. This covers a wide range of studies taking very different theoretical approaches, from psychoanalysis to social psychology, from learning and educational psychology to cognitive psychology.
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Die Rekontaktstudie, über die hier berichtet wird, hat uns die Möglichkeit gegeben zu untersuchen, inwieweit der regelmäβige Konsum von TV-Informations- und Bildungsprogrammen, aber auch TV-Unterhaltungsprogrammen für Vorschulkinder prognostischen Wert für die Vorhersage von Verhaltensweisen im Jugendalter besitzt. Die erfassten Medienwirkungen wurden dabei konsequent auf die in der Kindheit rezipierten Programminhalte bezogen. So zeigte sich: Die im Rahmen der Studie nach 15 Jahren erneut befragten Jugendlichen, die im Vorschulalter regelmäβig kindgerechte informative TV-Programme angeschaut hatten, weisen im Jugendalter signifikant bessere Schulleistungen in den Fächern Englisch, Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften auf. Sie sind subjektiv und objektiv leistungsorientierter, lesen häufiger Print-Produkte, und sind auch auf dem kreativen und künstlerischen Sektor im Vergleich zu ihren Altersgenossen aktiver. Solche Programme, das lässt sich aus den Ergebnissen schlieβen, fördern die Schulfähigkeit und ermöglichen einen guten Einstieg in die Schulzeit. Dadurch, so nehmen wir an, werden wichtige Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, die eine erfolgreiche schulische Laufbahn befördern. Im Jugendalter unterscheiden sich diese Jugendlichen von ihren Altersgenossen in Bezug auf ihre allgemeine TV-„Diät “ tatsächlich nur unerheblich. Untersuchungstechnisch erweist sich die konsequente Analyse der Programminhalte als entscheidender Schlüssel zur Herstellung der Zusammenhänge. Das gilt auch für die ebenso spannenden, tendenziell spiegelbildlichen Ergebnisse zu den Langzeitfolgen eines hohen TV-Konsums bei für Kinder produzierten, aber hauptsächlich unterhaltenden und gewalttätigen TV-Programmen.
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The development of children and television as an area of scientific investigation with a history of its own, owes more to the persistence of public anxiety about the adverse influence of television on the young than to any possible academic gains the research has generated. This is perhaps particularly true of the controversies over the effects of televised violence. In this opening chapter, the historical trajectory of work on children and television in English will be outlined, and its roots in public worries over the influence of popular media traced back to the late nineteenth century.
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