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Remaining Issues in Emotional Intelligence Research: Construct Overlap, Method Artifacts, and Lack of Incremental Validity

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... On the other hand, the construct validity of emotional intelligence measures has been called into question. Furthermore, emotional intelligence researchers assert that emotional intelligence measures are in great need of various forms of validity evidences as its progress depends on greater rigor in conceptualisation and validation of measurements (Antonakis & Dietz, 2010;Cherniss, 2010b;Fiori & Antonkis, 2011;Harms & Crede, 2010b;Martin & Thomas, 2011;Matthews et al., 2012;Maul, 2011Maul, , 2012bSharma, Gangopadhyay, Austin & Mandal, 2013;Van Rooy, Whitman & Viswesvaran, 2010). ...
... While some emotional intelligence researchers asserted that emotional intelligence has unstable factor structure (Cherniss, 2010b;Maul, 2011Maul, , 2012Sharma et al. 2013;Van Rooy et al., 2010), other researchers pointed out that the concept of emotional intelligence lacks of construct validity (Cherniss, 2010b;Fiori & Antonkis, 2011;Harms & Crede, 2010b;Martin & Thomas, 2011;Matthews et al., 2012;Maul 2012b;Sharma et al. 2013). The lack of construct validity includes lack of empirical support for either convergent validity or discriminant validity (Cherniss, 2010b;Harms & Crede, 2010b). ...
... While some emotional intelligence researchers asserted that emotional intelligence has unstable factor structure (Cherniss, 2010b;Maul, 2011Maul, , 2012Sharma et al. 2013;Van Rooy et al., 2010), other researchers pointed out that the concept of emotional intelligence lacks of construct validity (Cherniss, 2010b;Fiori & Antonkis, 2011;Harms & Crede, 2010b;Martin & Thomas, 2011;Matthews et al., 2012;Maul 2012b;Sharma et al. 2013). The lack of construct validity includes lack of empirical support for either convergent validity or discriminant validity (Cherniss, 2010b;Harms & Crede, 2010b). Meanwhile, there is also a relative paucity of information regarding the incremental validity of emotional intelligence over cognitive intelligence and personality traits (Antonakis & Dietz, 2010;Harms & Crede, 2010b;Martin & Thomas, 2011). ...
Article
Despite the recent popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence, several researchers question current emotional intelligence tests on several grounds including their lack of construct validity and unstable factor structure. This thesis aims to investigate the construct validity of emotional intelligence. In particular, the present study seeks to (1) confirm the factorial validity of emotional intelligence, (2) examine the convergent validity between a performance-based test and self-report measure of emotional intelligence, (3) investigate the convergent validity between emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence, (4) confirm the place of emotional intelligence in the “general cognitive intelligence” taxonomy, (5) measure the discriminant validity of emotional intelligence when correlated with personality traits, and finally, (6 and 7) assess the incremental validity of emotional intelligence, as measured by a performance-based test, over cognitive intelligence, personality traits, a self-report measure of emotional intelligence, and trait emotional intelligence in predicting [6] leadership practices and [7] positive interpersonal relationships. To achieve these aims, a conceptual framework is developed in line with the concept of ability-based emotional intelligence. As the present study is quantitative in nature, statistical tools such as Rasch measurement model, Structural Equation Modelling and SPSS are employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Data were collected from 710 undergraduate students registered at a public Malaysian University. The findings revealed that: (1) the four-factor structure of ability-based emotional intelligence construct can be deemed construct valid, (2) there is no convergent validity between performance-based and self-report measure of emotional intelligence (3) there is no convergent validity between emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence, (4) ability-based emotional intelligence has no place in the intelligence taxonomy, (5) there is a discriminant validity between emotional intelligence and personality, and finally, (6 and 7) emotional intelligence (performance-based measure) exhibits incremental validity in predicting [6] the leadership practices and [7] the positive interpersonal relationships, while controlling for personality traits, self-reported emotional intelligence, and trait emotional intelligence. The implications of these findings are synthesized in terms of the existing literature and the prevailing conceptual framework set out at the beginning of this research, which could shape the direction for future research on the emotional intelligence construct.
... Even as an expanding body of evidence keeps highlighting the importance of EI as a predictor in several domains of functioning (e.g., Malouff, Schutte, & Thorsteinsson, 2014;Martins, Ramalho, & Morin, 2010), many authors have ascribed to EI conceptual redundancy, questioning the overall utility of the construct (e.g., Antonakis, 2004;Conte, 2005;Harms & Cred e, 2010;Schulte, Ree, & Carretta, 2004;Van Rooy, Alonso, & Viswesvaran, 2005). For instance, MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner, and Roberts (2003) maintained that trait EI overlaps substantially with the Big Five and often fails to account for criterion variance over and above them, whereas Joseph and Newman (2010) described trait EI as an "umbrella term for a broad array of constructs that are connected only by their non-redundancy with cognitive intelligence" (p. ...
... It has indeed been maintained that trait EI does not add substantially to the prediction of psychological phenomena over the basic personality dimensions (e.g., Schulte et al., 2004). Others have attributed the predictive validity of trait EI inventories to their overlap with facets of higher order traits relevant to the outcomes being considered (Harms & Cred e, 2010). A systematic investigation of the incremental validity of trait EI, particularly beyond higher order personality dimensions such as the Big Five, constitutes a useful step for establishing its theoretical and practical utility. ...
... The overall meta-analytic effect size was .06. Given the criticisms surrounding trait EI (e.g., Antonakis, 2004;Conte, 2005;Harms & Cred e, 2010;Schlegel et al., 2013;Schulte et al., 2004;Van Rooy et al., 2005), it was imperative to enrich the literature of the field by systematically investigating the extent to which the construct has incremental predictive utility. Although small, the overall effect size confirms the distinctiveness and theoretical importance of trait EI. ...
Article
A criticism leveled against the conceptualization of emotional intelligence (EI) as a personality trait is that it overlaps considerably with the higher order personality dimensions and, therefore, has weak utility. To investigate this criticism, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to synthesize the literature examining the incremental validity of the 2 adult self-report forms of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Twenty-four articles reporting 114 incremental validity analyses of the TEIQue were reviewed according to the studies' methodological features. Additionally, data from 18 studies (providing 105 effect sizes) were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results suggest that the TEIQue consistently explains incremental variance in criteria pertaining to different areas of functioning, beyond higher order personality dimensions and other emotion-related variables. The pooled effect size was relatively small, but statistically and practically significant (ΔR(2) = .06, SE = .0116; 95% CI [.03, .08]). The number of covariates controlled for, the form of the TEIQue, and the focus on higher order personality dimensions versus other individual-difference constructs as baseline predictors did not affect the effect size. Analyses conducted at the factor level indicated that the incremental contribution is mainly due to the well-being and self-control factors of trait EI. Methodological issues and directions for future research are discussed.
... Incremental validity refers to the degree to which a measure increases the ability to predict an important phenomenon (Haynes & Lench, 2003). A constant criticism of the use of EI measures in personnel selection is the lack of incremental validity over measures of cognitive ability and personality (e.g., Harms & Crede, 2010;Landy, 2005). Two recent meta-analyses seem to confirm the criticism regarding the incremental validity of EI over personality and cognitive ability, at least when ability-based EI tests were used. ...
... Therefore, we believe that further investigations of the incremental validity of ability-based EI over cognitive ability and personality in primary samples are warranted. Harms and Crede (2010) reviewed the few primary studies that investigated the incremental validity of EI over cognitive ability and personality and concluded that none of them 'showed a significant contribution for EI in the prediction of performance after controlling for both cognitive ability and the Big Five' (p. 155). ...
Article
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In two studies, based on four samples and more than 600 participants, the authors examined applicant reactions, criterion and incremental validity, and differential prediction of emotional intelligence (EI) in personnel selection using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. The first study examined applicant reactions in terms of face validity and fairness evaluation of the EI test. The second study examined across three samples (salespeople, front‐desk public employees, and hospital chief executive officers) the criterion validity, incremental validity, and differential prediction of EI. Results suggest that the EI test is perceived as a fair selection tool, and is predictive of performance. The EI test has incremental validity over cognitive abilities and personality (big five) when predicting subjective and objective performance criteria. Based on these results, the authors encourage further research on the use of EI in selection settings.
... Sanofi, the French pharmaceuticals company, grew 12 per cent as it focused on the emotional intelligence skills of its sales team. Another example, in the case of Motorola company, after the company offered EI training to employees at a manufacturing plant, the productivity of more than 90% of the trained employees increased [29]. ...
... Thus, their theoretical and practical recommendations are undermined [13]. Critics note how the absence of the appropriate controls when conducting emotional intelligence & leadership correlation tests can lead to inflated results which subsequently lead to doubtful conclusions made under those circumstances [29]. ...
Article
Change leadership is the engine of change, it's about urgency, vision, empowering people, and seizing opportunity. Emotional intelligence is an important skill set in leading, hence leaders identified to be effective have an appreciable level of the skill set. Change can be exciting and stimulating in an organization, but it is often met with fear and resistance. How leaders manage the change still seems to be a challenge. Scholars and leaders have for long acknowledged the importance for transformation. This paper focuses on the impact of employees' emotions on organizational change following a qualitative methodological approach through critical literature review of the role of emotions during change and the significance of emotional intelligence in leading effective change. The research posits that regardless of the quality of the change plan a leader might have, if the team he relies on to carry that change isn't committed to do so, then the plan could meet its demise.
... In addition, the nature of the tasks employed should be studied as well. As Harms and Crede (2010) emphasized, more research is needed to develop better assessment tools of EI. In the same manner, Cote (2010) argued that EI measures lack convergent validity; the purported EI measures might not correlate with each other simply because one or more of the EI measures lacks validity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional Intelligence (EI), defined as the "capacity to process emotional information accurately and efficiently" (Mayer & Salovey, 1995), has recently become one of the most discussed issues in different fields. There has been a great deal of discussion both for and against its potential role in education. In fact, it is argued that there is a significant relationship between EI and success in various aspects of life, including life satisfaction, mental health, self-efficacy, psychological well-being, occupational success, and academic achievement. However, there is a gap with regard to EI and its potential role and application in various fields and contexts. The intention of this paper is to stimulate debate and encourage further research about EI through discussing its definitions, constituents, theoretical framework, measurements, and the criticisms leveled against its alleged unfulfilled promise. Furthermore, we elaborate thoroughly on the directions for future research in this field of study.
... However, studies of the neural basis of EI have thus far met with mixed results; this is in part due to a fairly limited number of studies performed that have attempted to directly relate EI measures to differences in neural structure/function ( Bar-On et al. 2003;Barbey et al. 2014;Killgore et al. 2012;Takeuchi et al. 2011;Takeuchi et al. 2013a, b;Takeuchi et al., 2013a, b;Webb et al. 2013) and in part due to disagreement over the most valid and useful way to conceptualize EI (e.g., Conte, 2005;Locke, 2005;Petrides, 2011). Specifically, different proposed measures conceptualize EI in different ways, and it is unclear at present how distinct the construct of EI is from standard intelligence (i.e., IQ) on the one hand, and how distinct it is from standard personality measures on the other (Harms and Crede 2010;Locke 2005;Mayer et al. 2001;Webb et al. 2013). Measures of self-perceived vs. actual performance on EI-related tasks also often disagree with one another (Brackett et al. 2006;Goldenberg et al. 2006), and this further highlights the question of what measures of EI are appropriate to use in neuroimaging studies. ...
Article
Adaptive social behavior appears to require flexible interaction between multiple large-scale brain networks, including the executive control network (ECN), the default mode network (DMN), and the salience network (SN), as well as interactions with the perceptual processing systems these networks function to modulate. Highly connected cortical "hub" regions are also thought to facilitate interactions between these networks, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and anterior insula (AI). However, less is presently known about the relationship between these network functions and individual differences in social-cognitive abilities. In the present study, 23 healthy adults (12 female) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a visually based social judgment task (requiring the evaluation of social dominance in faces). Participants also completed both self-report and performance-based measures of emotional intelligence (EI), as well as measures of personality and facial perception ability. During scanning, social judgment, relative to a control condition involving simple perceptual judgment of facial features in the same stimuli, activated hub regions associated with each of the networks mentioned above (observed clusters included: bilateral DLPFC, DMPFC/ACC, AI, and ventral visual cortex). Interestingly, self-reported and performance-based measures of social-cognitive ability showed opposing associations with these patterns of activation. Specifically, lower self-reported EI and lower openness in personality both independently predicted greater activation within hub regions of the SN, DMN, and ECN (i.e., the DLPFC, DMPFC/ACC, and AI clusters); in contrast, in the same analyses greater scores on performance-based EI measures and on facial perception tasks independently predicted greater activation within hub regions of the SN and ECN (the DLPFC and AI clusters), and also in the ventral visual cortex. These findings suggest that lower confidence in one's own social-cognitive abilities may promote the allocation of greater cognitive resources to, and improve the performance of, social-cognitive functions.
... The Effect of Leadership on Organizational Trust 89 that it creates a working environment based on the main values of organizational trust and respect (Bass, 1997), sensitivity to the expectations and needs of employees (Currie & Lockett, 2007) and the motivation of employees to share a common vision (Harms & Crede, 2010). It can be suggested that these leadership behaviors contribute to the development of organizational trust. ...
Chapter
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The effect of leadership on organizational burnout (OB) was examined in this meta-analysis study. A total of 97 research studies were collected as a result of the review activity, out of which 37 were included in the meta-analysis. The 37 research studies were compiled to obtain a sample size of 17,368 subjects. The analysis results of the random effect model showed that leadership has a small negative effect on OB. Of the moderators identified for the study, such as sample group/sector, leadership style/approach, publication type, publication year, and the leadership and burnout scales used in the research studies, only the leadership scale was found to be a moderator variable.
... The Effect of Leadership on Organizational Trust 89 that it creates a working environment based on the main values of organizational trust and respect (Bass, 1997), sensitivity to the expectations and needs of employees (Currie & Lockett, 2007) and the motivation of employees to share a common vision (Harms & Crede, 2010). It can be suggested that these leadership behaviors contribute to the development of organizational trust. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The effect of leadership on organizational trust was examined in this meta-analysis study. A total of 218 research studies were collected as a result of the review activity, out of which 70 were included in the meta-analysis. The 70 research studies were compiled to obtain a sample size of 24,059 subjects. The analysis results of the random effect model showed that leadership has a strong positive effect on organizational trust. The sample group, leadership style/approach, publication type and year of publication were found to be moderator variables in the study.
... We will also not deal with 'emotional intelligence' (Goleman, 1995) because its measurement and validity is not yet comparable to the traditional concept of (cognitive) intelligence (e.g., Harms & Credé, 2010). Additionally, we will not deal with 'executive functions'. ...
... Beyond these important conceptual differences, a number of critics have raised concerns relating to methodological issues in several of the published studies that demonstrate a strong positive relationship between EI and TL. Problems of validity, reliability, and common method bias (Antonakis, 2004(Antonakis, , 2009Harms & Crede, 2010b) have led to claims that artificially inflated correlations may have been derived from several of the studies (Cavazotte, Moreno & Hickman, 2012), provoking calls for more robust research designs in future investigative studies into the EI-TL relationship (Lindebaum & Cartwright, 2010). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT This paper reports the results of a structured content-based review of the published literature on the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership (TL). Twenty-four empirical studies were identified in this review, fourteen of which reported findings in support of the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership, and ten of which found either mixed or no support for the relationship. A detailed content analysis of each study was conducted to determine the relative robustness of the research design in each case. This review reveals that while research design may explain some of the conflicting results, it is the variety of EI instruments utilised that renders investigations into the EI-TL relationship problematic. Suggestions for advancing future research into the hypothesized relationship between EI and TL are posited.
... A meta-analytic review of the relation between emotional intelligence and leadership did establish a small correlation between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership, an effective leadership style that we discuss in the next subsection (Harms & Credé, 2010a). This weak effect, however, vanished with the addition of controls for personality traits and intelligence (Harms & Credé, 2010b). It thus appears that, at this time, personality and intelligence are the attributes that best predict leadership. ...
... [14] Similarly, several authors argued that EI and emotional and social competency (ESC) have not yet demonstrated incremental validity greater than general intelligence and personality tests in meta-analyses. [15,16] They argued that there is a crucial distinction between measuring EI traits and EI abilities, dismissing both EI trait measurement and ESC models in favor of the Mayer et al. EI ability models which has been supported by both supporters and detractors. ...
Article
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Healthcare employers often criticize the lack of emotional competency and critical thinking skills demonstrated by newly licensed nurses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether emotional intelligence (EI) training for nurses improves critical thinking and emotional competence enough to justify including EI in nursing curricula. A meta-analysis was conducted inclusive of EI related nursing abilities and traits such as leadership, health, reflection, ethical behavior, nursing student performance, and job retention/satisfaction. Studies of EI constructs, test instruments, and contrary viewpoints were also examined. The analysis included 395 EI studies of approximately 65,300 participants. All the studies reported a positive correlation with EI ranging from weak to strong with a moderate cumulative effect size of r = 0.3022 across all studies. This study may contribute to positive social change by reducing employers time and cost for training newly licensed nurses, thereby decreasing the overall cost of health care to the public.
... Cherniss, 2010). However, such broader concepts of affective abilities and skills are being criticized because of their discriminate and predictive validity and psychometric properties (e.g., Harms & Credé, 2010). Scholars thus argue that specific components of such concepts (e.g., emotion management) should be examined separately, also because their importance may differ depending on the context . ...
Thesis
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This dissertation addresses intra- and interpersonal effects of emotion regulation on contextual work performance. Based on a comprehensive framework that was deducted from theories on affect and organizational behavior, four empirical studies in applied settings address the question of how emotion regulation at work affects well-being as well as proactive and adaptive performance. The studies examine different forms of emotion regulation (intra- and interpersonal regulation, habitual and situational regulation) and their intra- and interpersonal effects. They rely on cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys that partly use a multilevel approach. A pre-study examines direct relationships between self-rated habitual intrapersonal emotion regulation strategies at work (expressive suppression, reappraisal) and supervisor-ratings of individuals‘ adaptive and proactive performance in an explorative way. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of data from a cross-sectional work sample (N = 83) indicate that the habitual use of expressive suppression is inversely related and the habitual use of reappraisal is not significantly related to the ratings of proactive and adaptive performance. Study 1 analyzes how the situational application of intrapersonal emotion regulation strategies (expressive suppression, reappraisal) impacts the effects of negative emotional work experiences on individuals‘ recovery and well-being. Multilevel analyses of repeated-measurement data from a two-week diary of a student sample (N participants = 63, N data = 726) reveal that both reappraisal and expressive suppression buffer prolonged adverse effects of negative emotional experiences. Study 2 addresses the joint impact of perceived changes and habitual intrapersonal emotion regulation at work (expressive suppression) on individuals‘ self-rated well-being and adaptive performance. Bootstrapping analyses of cross-sectional data from a work sample (N = 153) show that negative effects of change on both criteria are buffered if employees do not fully express their emotions at work. Study 3 focuses on the impact of team conflict and of leaders‘ emotion management on employees‘ well-being and proactive performance. Multilevel analyses on longitudinal data from 59 work teams indicate that task conflict (rated by team members) is detrimental for team members‘ positive affect (self-rated) and, thereby, for their proactive performance (rated by a colleague). Leader emotion management (rated by team members), in contrast, positively impacts team members‘ positive affect and their proactive performance. The study further shows that the better the team leaders‘ emotion management, the lower the relationship conflict (rated by team members) in their teams. The dissertation provides a comprehensive and yet differentiated contribution on different forms and consequences of emotion regulation at work and considers its dynamic nature. Addressing relations that are of relevance for understanding organizational behavior, but that have rather been neglected by previous research, it extends the literature on both emotion regulation and work performance.
... In this study, these authors did not control for personality or general intelligence. When controlling for these two factors, this correlation becomes null (Harms & Credé, 2010b)-see also Antonakis (2009). ...
... Beyond these important conceptual differences, a number of critics have raised concerns relating to methodological issues in several of the published studies that demonstrate a strong positive relationship between EI and TL. Problems of validity, reliability, and common method bias (Antonakis, 2004(Antonakis, , 2009Harms & Crede, 2010b) have led to claims that artificially inflated correlations may have been derived from several of the studies (Cavazotte, Moreno & Hickman, 2012), provoking calls for more robust research designs in future investigative studies into the EI-TL relationship (Lindebaum & Cartwright, 2010). ...
Article
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Abstract Following a review of the literature on the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership (TL), this paper provides an analysis of the findings of 22 published papers, examining the range of instruments used to collect data, sample sizes, dates of publication and the reported conclusions. This review reveals that investigations into the relationship between EI and TL continue to yield mixed results, and have done so for almost 15 years now, indicating that this field of research continues to be a contested area. Recommendations for advancing the scientific investigation of the EI-TL relationship are put forward. Key Words: emotional intelligence, transformational leadership
... Stefan, another one of our students, who subsequently became a management trainee at a large multinational, offers an example. He explained that he literally chuckled when one consultant claimed that the evidence "proved" that emotional intelligence, a construct controversially debated by scientists (e.g., Harms & Credé, 2010), led to leadership effectiveness. This consultant appeared confused when Stefan asked whether the so-called Teaching EBMgt with a Focus on Local Evidence 6 evidence was causally interpretable; that is, if it had been ruled out that cognitive ability and personality traits might affect both emotional intelligence and leadership skills. ...
Article
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We present an approach to teaching evidence-based management (EBMgt) that trains future managers how to produce local evidence. Local evidence is causally interpretable data, collected on-site in companies to address a specific business problem. Our teaching method is a variant of problem-based learning, a method originally developed to teach evidence-based medicine. Following this method, students learn an evidence-based problem-solving cycle for addressing actual business cases. Executing this cycle, students use and produce scientific evidence through literature searches and the design of local, experimental tests of causal hypotheses. We argue the value of teaching EBMgt with a focus on producing local evidence, how it can be taught, and what can be taught. We conclude by outlining our contribution to the literature on teaching EBMgt and by discussing limitations of our approach.
... One of the main criticism raised against trait EI refers to its lack of incremental validity, particularly considering the construct's overlap with the basic personality dimensions (Harms & Credé, 2010). Yet, it has been argued that advancement of the construct depends on whether EI is able to explain a significant proportion of incremental and unique variance in psychological outcomes over and above known predictors (Fiori & Antonakis, 2011). ...
Article
The present study was aimed at validating the Italian version of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire–Adolescent Full Form (TEIQue–AFF), as well as at exploring its incremental validity over emotional maladjustment. To this end, a sample of 351 (163 males) Italian adolescents was collected. Overall, the Italian TEIQue–AFF both replicated the original-English four-factor structure (Well-Being, Self-Control, Emotionality, Sociability), and its construct validity was confirmed. However, reliability coefficients for eight facets and two factors were low. In addition, at all levels of analysis (i.e., global, factor, facet) the TEIQue–AFF was found to be a significant incremental predictor of adolescent’s emotional maladjustment, over and above gender, IQ, and the Big Five personality dimensions. At the factor level, significant effects were related to the contribution of the factor Well-Being thus supporting perspectives arguing for a further refinement of trait EI content domain. Implications of the findings are discussed.
... Despite the frequently voiced concerns that EI may not explain variance in job performance over and above the variance explained by scores on measures of GMA and the Big Five personality traits (e.g., Antonakis, 2004;Brody, 2006;MacCann et al., 2003;Schulte et al., 2004), Harms and Crede (2010) conclude that very few authors have examined this issue empirically. Their search of the literature revealed only six articles in which the authors either explicitly or implicitly examined the incremental validity of EI scores over measures of both GMA and the Big Five personality traits in predicting either academic or work performance or presented data in a manner that allowed examination of this issue. ...
Article
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This article examines emotion management ability (EMA) as a theoretically relevant predictor of job performance. The authors argue that EMA predicts task performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and workplace deviance behavior. Moreover, to be practically meaningful, managing emotions should predict these important organizational outcomes after accounting for the effects of general mental ability and the Big Five personality traits. Two studies of job incumbents show that EMA consistently demonstrates incremental validity and is the strongest relative predictor of task performance, individually directed OCB, and individually directed and objectively measured deviance.
... Over time, personality research in selection contexts has evolved from examinations of a hodgepodge of traits to a clear focus on the five-factor model constructs and, more recently, to a focus on using facets of the five-factor model for selection and/or looking at compound traits (e.g., proactivity, customer orientation) (for a review, see Hough & Dilchert 2010). Although recent studies have examined specific traits (e.g., affective orientation; Sojka & Deeter-Schmelz 2008) and nonlinear relationships between traits and outcomes (Le et al. 2011), selection-related personality research of late has a greater focus on how to assess than on what to assess, as we discuss below in the section on Self-Report Measures.Cherniss 2010, Harms & Crede 2010, Riggio 2010), to establish the predictive value of emotional intelligence (Blickle et al. 2009, Christiansen et al. 2010), and to document the relative roles of emotion perception, emotion understanding, and emotion regulation in predicting job performance (). We anticipate that continued research will focus on social and emotional skills measurement in selection contexts for two reasons: Technology now allows for innovative and efficient ways of assessing these constructs, and much like personality inventories, these constructs are susceptible to socially desirable responding, making the design of useful tools a challenge (). ...
Article
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Over 100 years of psychological research on employee selection has yielded many advances, but the field continues to tackle controversies and challenging problems, revisit once-settled topics, and expand its borders. This review discusses recent advances in designing, implementing, and evaluating selection systems. Key trends such as expanding the criterion space, improving situational judgment tests, and tackling socially desirable responding are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which technology has substantially altered the selection research and practice landscape. Other areas where practice lacks a research base are noted, and directions for future research are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 65 is January 03, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
... Numerous studies ordinarily observed emotions as a negative impact and were scattered intrusion of mental working that obstacle consistent thought 3 . Conversely, different studies have observed that emotions are crucial to rational thinking 4 . Coleman 5 likewise saw emotions as positive and vital in making an appropriate decision. ...
Article
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Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Job Performance among middle-level management in Indian organisations. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The sample for this study includes 685 managers from five different sectors in India (banking, power, health care, IT and advertising). The data was collected with the help of self report measures i.e. DKEIT used to measure EI and JPI used to gauge the job performance of employees. SPSS 23 was used for statistical analysis. Correlation and regression analysis was performed to find the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The stepwise regression models provide support for the association between EI and job performance. Findings: Employees with high EI are said to have better working relationships with other employees and they reflect higher integrity (Rosete, Ciarrochi, 2005) because they can foster better and positive interactions which thereby lead to better performance (Wong, Law, 2002; Dhani, Sharma, 2016). The results of our study are in line with this and state that employee with high EI are better at team work, punctual, accurate, and more competent as compared to the ones who score low on EI. In accordance with theoretical predictions, EI along with all its components; Emotional Perception, Emotional Appraisal and Emotional Regulation was significantly correlated to all indicators of Job performance, including: Punctuality, competence, accuracy and team work. The present study contributes to a growing body of literature seeking to find the relationship between EI and Job Performance, suggesting EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance. This is one of the first studies where self report measures DKEIT and JPI are used, which makes this study unique. Both of the tools are developed in India which adds value to the study. Application/Improvements: The sample of the study is delimited to middle level management from five service sectors, which is not truly representative of all the employees in the organization and the study can be expanded to the employees of the entire organization and other sectors.
... Numerous studies ordinarily observed emotions as a negative impact and were scattered intrusion of mental working that obstacle consistent thought 3 . Conversely, different studies have observed that emotions are crucial to rational thinking 4 . Coleman 5 likewise saw emotions as positive and vital in making an appropriate decision. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Job Performance among middle-level management in Indian organisations. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The sample for this study includes 685 managers from five different sectors in India (banking, power, health care, IT and advertising). The data was collected with the help of self report measures i.e. DKEIT used to measure EI and JPI used to gauge the job performance of employees. SPSS 23 was used for statistical analysis. Correlation and regression analysis was performed to find the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The stepwise regression models provide support for the association between EI and job performance. Findings: Employees with high EI are said to have better working relationships with other employees and they reflect higher integrity (Rosete, Ciarrochi, 2005) because they can foster better and positive interactions which thereby lead to better performance (Wong, Law, 2002; Dhani, Sharma, 2016). The results of our study are in line with this and state that employee with high EI are better at team work, punctual, accurate, and more competent as compared to the ones who score low on EI. In accordance with theoretical predictions, EI along with all its components; Emotional Perception, Emotional Appraisal and Emotional Regulation was significantly correlated to all indicators of Job performance, including: Punctuality, competence, accuracy and team work. The present study contributes to a growing body of literature seeking to find the relationship between EI and Job Performance, suggesting EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance. This is one of the first studies where self report measures DKEIT and JPI are used, which makes this study unique. Both of the tools are developed in India which adds value to the study. Application/Improvements: The sample of the study is delimited to middle level management from five service sectors, which is not truly representative of all the employees in the organization and the study can be expanded to the employees of the entire organization and other sectors.
... Because ESC is an overarching concept, it may seem as though it includes ''everything'' or that it is a ''grab bag'' of attributes, as some critics complained (Newman et al., 2010). Harms and Credé (2010) in their commentary state that ''ESCs are overinclusive and atheoretical''; and they rhetorically ask, ''If competencies are simply defined by whether or not they relate to important outcomes, and emotional competencies are simply those competencies linked to the experience or perception of emotions, could any characteristic with an emotional component be described as an ESC?'' The answer is, ''Yes.'' ...
Article
The commentaries on my target article expand on it in many useful and enlightening ways, and some provide a glimpse at important new research. The commentaries also point to a few issues raised in the original article that require clarification or elaboration. In this response, I begin by recalling the “big idea” that initially led to interest in emotional intelligence (EI) as a concept, which is that success in life and work depends on more than just the basic cognitive abilities measured by IQ tests. I then clarify what I mean by emotional and social competence (ESC): It is not a single, unitary psychological construct but rather a very broad label for a large set of constructs. After considering whether we really need the ESC concept, I discuss whether the single, comprehensive definition of EI that I proposed in the target article is the best one in light of alternatives suggested in some of the commentaries. Next, I return to the issue of measurement and note new ideas and suggestions that emerge in the commentaries. I conclude by considering the question of how much EI or ESC adds conceptually or predictively to IQ or personality.
... The impact of SC on a business performance has not been observed from the perspective of emotional intelligence (EI) of entrepreneurs and their employees (Khalili, 2011;Singh, 2010) although research has shown that EI directly impacts firm performance (Danquah and Wireko, 2014;Singh, 2010). EI in this study is defined as the ability to intensively identify, critically assess and possess the ability to control the emotions of oneself, others and groups (Harms and Credé, 2010). Evidence from several studies suggest that personality characteristics, EI, creative abilities, as well as social networking and communication activities can all affect the entrepreneurial outcomes of SMEs (Naude et al., 2014). ...
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Purpose Lack of extant studies on the moderating role of emotional intelligence on the relationship between social capital and firm performance necessitated this study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between social capital and small and medium-scaled enterprises’ (SMEs’) performance. Design/methodology/approach A total of 1,532 SMEs were selected through simple random sampling technique from a population of 5,009 SMEs. Structural equation modelling using AMOS was used to analyse the relationship between the variables. Findings The results revealed that social capital has a positive and significant relationship with emotional intelligence. Moreover, the study also showed that emotional intelligence has a positive and significant relationship with SME performance. Finally, the study found that emotional intelligence enhances the relationship between social capital and SME performance. Practical implications SME owner/managers are advised to enact policies that encourage the establishment of meaningful social networks and also help employees understand their emotions while creating social capital as both would help improve the performance of their firms. Originality/value This paper breaks new ground by identifying emotional intelligence as an enabler of SMEs performance where there is adequate social capital.
... This increase in conceptual sophistication has been matched by a proliferation of empirical summaries and meta-analyses. Between 1986 and 2010, meta-analyses of leader individual differences were published focusing on personality and motives (Bono & Judge, 2004;DeRue, Nahrgang, Wellman, & Humphrey, 2011;Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002;Lord et al., 1986;Stewart & Roth, 2007), intelligence (Judge, Colbert, & Ilies, 2004), sex differences (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, & van Engen, 2003;Eagly & Johnson, 1990;Eagly & Karau, 1991;Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995;Eagly, Makhijani, & Klonsky, 1992), and social capacities (Day, Schleicher, Unckless, & Hiller, 2002;Harms & Crede, 2010). These meta-analyses demonstrated significant corrected correlations between particular leader individual differences and various leadership outcomes. ...
Article
In this article, we provide a wide-ranging review of recent research on leader individual differences. The review focuses specifically on the explosion of such research in the last decade. The first purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate various conceptual frameworks describing how leader attributes influence leader emergence and leader effectiveness. The second purpose is to provide a comprehensive review of empirical research on this relationship. Also, most prior reviews primarily examined leader personality traits; this review includes a broader array of leader attributes, including cognitive capacities, personality, motives and values, social skills, and knowledge and expertise. The final broad purpose of this paper is to review and integrate situational and contextual parameters into our conceptual framing of leader individual differences. Few, if any, prior reviews have systematically accounted for the critical role of such parameters in cuing, activating, or delimiting the effects of particular leader attributes. We do so in this article.
... Relationship marketing comes with the framework of strategies for building result-oriented organisation-customer relationship (Yaghoubi et. 2011 Emotional intelligence (EI) is said to be the ability to identify, assess and control the emotions of oneself, of others and of groups (Harms & Credé, 2010). It was first defined by Mayer & Salovey (1997) as "the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions" (p. ...
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This study examined the impact of service providers' emotional intelligence on service quality and customer satisfaction in the telecommunication sector of Ghana. A quantitative research technique was adopted to test hypotheses whose conclusions could be generalised over the telecommunication sector in Ghana. Probability sampling methods were used to select 384 each of customers and employees of all telecommunication firms in Ghana. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation test, partial correlation test, multiple linear regression and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Findings of this study indicated that emotional intelligence is highly positively related to service quality (r = .889, p = .000) and customer satisfaction (r = .573, p = .000). Also, emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. Service quality and emotional intelligence make an interactive effect on customer satisfaction. Emotional intelligence and service quality significantly predict customer satisfaction (p < .05) and account for 57.3% of variance. More importantly, emotional intelligence significantly predicts service quality (p < .05) and accounts for 79% of variance. It is concluded that emotional intelligence significantly predicts both service quality and customer satisfaction, though it predicts service quality more strongly.
... Cilvēki pēc savas dabas ir emocionālas būtnes, bet pastāv būtiskas atšķirības " izpratne par pašu emocijām un citu cilvēku jūtām un emocijām, spēja diskriminēt šīs emocijas un regulēt ar savu domāšanu un darbības, pamatojoties uz šo izpratni. (Harms, Credé, 2010.) Plaši pazīstamais autors un psihologs Daniels Goulmens ir secinājis, ka vienā ziņā prasmīgi līderi stipri līdzinās cits citam: viņiem visiem piemīt augsts emocionālās inteliģences līmenis. ...
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The theme of this article is ,,Emotional intelligence concept interpretation in scientific and branch literature”. The aim of the research is to investigate the main features of leadership - the concepts of emotional intelligence in scientific literature. We encounter a large number of different emotional intelligence definitions, where each author suggests an interpretation of the concept according to his view. In the article author reviews available definitions the concept of emotional intelligence in the scientific literature. Definitions were analyzed according key words. The author of article offers a new definition of emotional intelligence.
... Another recent study (Zysberg et al., 2017) discovered no relation between burnout and personality beyond the effects of emotional intelligence. This study, however, had limitations due to the construct overlap and lack of incremental validity of emotional intelligence (Harms, & Credé, 2010). What is lacking in these studies, however, is a detailed analysis of burnout-personality relationship in students, as there is only one study (Morgan, & Bruin, 2010) to the best of our knowledge that looks at this relationship in students. ...
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The purpose of this research is to explore similarities and differences of student burnout and student depression through educational (engagement in studying) and personal (personality traits) perspective. Due to the claims in literature considering burnout a popular word for depression, the main research question was whether burnout can be considered an independent nosological entity. The study included 135 undergraduate students in a Midwestern university, who filled out self-report questionnaires to measure burnout, depression, engagement, and Big Five personality traits. Correlational analyses showed moderate correlation between burnout and depression, and a similar correlation pattern of burnout and depression with engagement and personality traits. However, several regressional analyses indicated major burnout-depression differences in predicting engagement and personality. Based on these findings, the moderate relationship between the two constructs assumes that burnout belongs to the category of depressive disorders. At the same time, however, it was concluded that the significant differences in the way burnout and depression relate to engagement and personality may suggest that burnout can be differentiated from depression.
... À la lumière de tels résultats, ces auteurs accordent peu de retombées pratiques à l'IÉ. Leur constat est corroboré par Harms et Credé (2010b) qui n'observent pas de validité incrémentielle de l'IÉ quand il s'agit de prédire les différentes formes de leadership ainsi que le rendement à la tâche. L'ensemble de ces résultats montre la difficulté de bien circonscrire la contribution spécifique de l'IÉ par rapport à celles des mesures actuelles de la personnalité et de l'intelligence. ...
... However, well done studies, that account for the effect of personality and intelligence, as done by Cavazotte, Moreno, and Hickmann (2012) have found no effect for emotional intelligence on leadership outcomes. Importantly, results from two meta-analyses show that emotional intelligence, whether measured using self-reported trait-like questionnaires or ability (i.e., performance) tests, does nothing to predict leadership outcomes when controlling for personality and intelligence (Harms & Credé, 2010a, 2010b. ...
Chapter
Good leaders are an essential factor of the business world. Leadership and emotional intelligence are two inseparable concepts given that good leaders must have a high level of emotional intelligence. As a result, it has been common to study emotional intelligence and to look toward relating it with transformational leadership. This is the objective of this research study. The following research involved having 50 participants from an electronics sector company in Portugal respond to the MLQ-S6 Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire from Bass and Avolio (J Eur Indus Training 14: 21–27,1992) in order to identify transformational and transactional leadership dimensions; and also respond to the EIV360—Emotional Intelligence View 360 from Nowack (Facilitator’s guide—Emotional intelligence view 360º, Consulting Tools, Santa Mónica, 1997) to identify the dimensions of emotional leadership competencies. The results of this exploratory study show that the association of emotional intelligence between leadership, as key competencies to potentiate leader performance and determine satisfaction in employee behavior in their professional relationship (Goleman et al. in Os Novos Líderes - A inteligência Emocional nas Organizações, Gradiva, Lisboa, 2002). They also confirm that leadership with transformational traits (visionary for Goleman) lays over a set of emotional competencies with high scores. This study also point to the confirmation that laissez-faire presents an inverse relationship with emotional competencies; however, due to the lack of leaders with clear and strong laissez-faire traits, we cannot here empirically support the relationship between a laissez-faire leadership style and the lack of emotional competencies.
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This study investigates the effects of intelligence, personality traits and emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and the effective performance of leaders in the organizational context. Data were collected from 134 midlevel managers from a large Brazilian company that operates in the energy sector. Our findings suggest that leadership effectiveness, as measured by the achievement of organizational outcomes, is a direct function of a leader's transformational behaviors, and is an indirect function of individual differences (experience, intelligence and conscientiousness) that work through transformational behaviors. A negative effect of neuroticism on leadership effectiveness was also observed. In addition, while emotional intelligence seemed to be statistically related to transformational leadership if considered in isolation, when ability and personality were controlled for, the effect became non-significant. We discuss implications for theory, research and practice.
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This commentary describes two tipping points in the history of research on leader individual differences, and suggests the approach of a third. This third tipping point reflects the use of more multivariate (e.g., multiple leader attributes; multistage models; pattern and profile approaches) perspectives to individual differences and leadership. The four papers in the special issue are described as examples of these perspectives.
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Purpose This paper aims to examine the influence of the emotional intelligence (EI) of the human resources (HR) decision-maker on firm performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as the possible mediating role of the use of a system of HR practices in that relationship. Design/methodology/approach The research involves a sample of 157 managers responsible for HR in SMEs. SMEs are examined because in these firms, decisions are not usually adopted on a collegiate basis. It makes these firms an ideal context for studying the relationship between HR decision-maker’s EI and firm performance. Findings Results show that the HR decision-maker’s EI determines firm performance in terms of generation of valuable HR and financial outcomes. They also confirm the mediating role of the system of HR practices in that relationship. Research limitations/implications This research suggests that an adequate understanding of the importance of EI can guide efforts to boost SMEs competitiveness. Thus, as SMEs are an important part of the business fabric in the majority of developed economies, the implications of this study are significant. Originality/value Findings in this research suggest that the workplace is not managed exclusively on a cognitive basis since emotional competences may play an important role in the HR management and SMEs’ performance.
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Purpose – In 1990, Salovey and Mayer presented a framework for emotional intelligence (EI). This marked the beginning of 20 years of academic research, development, and debate on the subject of EI. A significant amount of previous research has attempted to draw out the relationship between EI and leadership performance. EI has been a uniquely controversial area of the social sciences. EI is based on three simple yet fundamental premises. This manuscript reviews the definitions and models in the field of EI with special emphasis on the Mayer ability model and the connection between EI and leadership. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This paper takes the form of a literature review. Findings – EI appears to have a foothold in both our popular vernacular and our academic lexicon. However, it is not entirely clear what future form it will take. Originality/value – This manuscript explores the current relationship between EI and leadership, discusses the various instruments and scales used to measure the construct, and examines the controversy and criticism surrounding EI. Finally, it illuminates some areas for additional research.
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As projects grow in size and complexity the sizes of teams needed to manage them also increases. This places greater emphasis on the need for the project manager to develop people management skills, commonly called soft skills, of which emotional intelligence (El) has been recognised as an important component. The objective of this research was to investigate the relevance of the Goleman-Boyatzis model of El in dealing with the problems in large projects identified via a literature review. To achieve this end, a Delphi study using project managers who had been involved in the management of projects in excess of $500 million was used. The responses from the Delphi panel were analysed and the results showed that the competencies contained in the Goleman-Boyatzis model had a relevance of 95% or greater to the problems presented to the panel. A ranking of the various competencies contained within the model was also developed, some competencies being found to be more important than others. By confirming the importance of emotional intelligence, as described by the model, this research adds to the understanding of the necessary skills needed by a project manager to successfully manage large projects.
Article
This article tests a new model of social intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence. Online surveys were collected from 467 students in business courses at a large university in the northeastern part of the United States (N = 467). Analyses were conducted using principal component analysis and structural equation modeling. Using AMOS, multiple models of the relationship among these intelligences were developed to determine, as hypothesized, if social intelligence was superordinate to emotional and cultural intelligences, which are presented as distinct but overlapping constructs. Results did not support social intelligence being superordinate to emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence. Findings did support emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence being distinct but related. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This review focuses on parenting practices that are beneficial or antagonistic to the development of emotional and social intelligence in children. We start by reviewing the somewhat nebulous concepts of emotional and social intelligence. This is followed by an examination of the association between well‐known parenting styles such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and directive parenting and various indicators of child emotional and social intelligence. The strategic emotion‐coaching parenting style is also examined for its connections to comparable child outcomes. Parenting practices such as inductive discipline and parental availability also appear to cultivate emotional and social intelligence in children. Finally, overparenting is discussed as a parenting practice that apparently corrupts the development of these traits in emerging adults. We conclude that best practices, where emotional intelligence and social intelligence are the benchmarks, blend parental care and concern with a degree of parental demands on children that are appropriate for their developmental stage.
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This study attempts to examine the impact of emotional intelligence on transformational leadership style and the gender disparity in the hotel industry of Pakistan. A sample of 238 managers was purposively selected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. The techniques like descriptive statistics, correlations, regression and independent sample t-test were used. The results revealed significantly positive impact of emotional intelligence along with its facets on transformational leadership, except facet of appraisal and expression of emotions. Although no significant differences were found between male and female managers on emotional intelligence, yet female managers were found to have more transformational leadership style.
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This article reports the results of an exploratory research study with four organizations that participated in scenario planning. The primary research focus was to determine whether participation in scenario planning affects perceptions of individual emotional intelligence. Results show a statistically and practically significant effect, though several limitations are identified that mandate a conservative interpretation of study findings.
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Emotional intelligence research holds a popular status in current academic and business community. However, emotional intelligence as an independent construct has been debatable with regard to its theoretical and empirical significance ever since it was introduced. Furthermore, conceptual and operational definitions, measuring instruments and questionable validity and subsequent results are highly diverse and even contradictory. In an attempt to bring coherence to the diffuse body of literature on emotional intelligence, we argue how emotional intelligence is different from personality and cognitive intelligence. In light of this, the current paper has discussed previous research findings to gain more insights about emotional intelligence accounting for variance in outcomes not explained by personality and cognitive intelligence. The extant literature review has guided us to conclude that emotional intelligence is a unique construct, distinct from personality and cognitive intelligence. Scope for future research in the emotional intelligence field is also suggested.
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Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) is formally defined as a constellation of emotional perceptions assessed through questionnaires and rating scales (Petrides et al. Br J Psychol 98:273–289, 2007). The construct describes our perceptions of our emotional world (e.g., how good we believe we are in terms of understanding, managing, and utilizing our own and other people’s emotions). Although it has been empirically demonstrated that these perceptions affect virtually every area of our life, the present chapter focuses exclusively on their role in education. We begin with a brief overview of trait EI theory and measures that have been salient in education research, with particular emphasis on scales developed for children and adolescents. Subsequently, we summarize the effects of trait EI on academic performance and related variables across primary, secondary, and tertiary education. The review of the evidence indicates that research-based applications of trait EI theory in educational settings can yield concrete and lasting advantages for both individuals and schools.
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In an increasingly fast-changing, complex and diverse world, social and emotional skills are becoming ever more important. In this paper we present an overview of literature on social and emotional skills, describing the nature and structure of these skills, their development, malleability and factors that influence them, their cross-cultural comparability and their relevance for a wide range of educational, economic and life outcomes. The paper also represents a conceptual framework for the OECD’s new Study on Social and Emotional Skills, an international survey that assesses 10- and 15-year-old students in a number of cities and countries around the world. We focus on the underlying skills within and outside of the widely researched Big Five model that are found to be more predictive and policy relevant. We examine the relationships of these skills with a variety of indicators of individual and societal wellbeing such as education, employment and income, health, and personal well-being. The paper discusses the structure of child’s social and emotional skills and the developmental trajectories of these skills across a lifetime. It presents the evidence of malleability of these skills as well as their relevance across a wide range of cultural contexts.
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The purpose of the study was to compare the emotional intelligence among the underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese students of Dibrugarh University. The study was based on a sample of total 74 (seventy four) students of Dibrugarh University (59 male, 15 female), N1= 8 (6 male, 2 female) from underweight, N2= 53 (44 male, 9 female) from normal weight, N3=8 (4 male, 4 female) from overweight and N4=5 (male) from obese respectively. The Subjects were differentiated with the help of Body Mass Index. The data pretending to study were collected by administrating Emotional Intelligence Scale for Sports Persons (EISS) developed by Rajitha Menon A. and Jayshree Acharya. One Way Analysis of Variance was employed to assess the difference in emotional intelligence among the groups. There was not significant difference in emotional intelligence of among the groups as the calculated F-ratio (1.74) was quit less than the tabulated F-ratio (2.74) at 0.05 level.
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The Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale (ERT Scale) assesses strategies students use to regulate emotion related to academic testing. It has four dimensions: Cognitive Appraising Processes (CAP), Emotion-Focusing Processes (EFP), Task-Focusing Processes (TFP), and Regaining Task-Focusing Processes (RTFP). The study examined the factor structure of each dimension and the incremental validity of the ERT subscales (N = 213 undergraduates). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for CAP and EFP dimensions. TFP and RTFP models had poor fit. The TFP dimension appears to involve a two-factor structure, which may account for why it has been observed to have low internal consistency reliability across studies. Subscales of CAP and EFP dimensions resulted in statistically significant increments in R2 after accounting for self-efficacy for learning and metacognitive self-regulation of learning. The TFP dimension and RTFP subscales did not exhibit incremental validity. The importance of assessing self-regulation of emotion and learning is emphasized.
The construct of conscientiousness: The convergence between lexical models and scales drawn from six major personality questionnaires
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Roberts, B. W., Jackson, J. J., Fayard, J. V., Edmonds, G., & Meints, J. (2009). Conscientiousness. In M. Leary & R. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (chap. 25, pp. 369-381). New York: Guilford.
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate claims that emotional intelligence is significantly related to transformational and other leadership behaviors. Results (based on 62 independent samples) indicated a validity estimate of .59 when ratings of both emotional intelligence and leadership behaviors were provided by the same source (self, subordinates, peers, or superiors). However, when ratings of the constructs were derived from different sources, the validity estimate was .12. Lower validity estimates were found for transactional and laissez-faire leadership behaviors. Separate analyses were performed for each measure of emotional intelligence. Trait measures of emotional intelligence tended to show higher validities than ability-based measures of emotional intelligence. Agreement across ratings sources for the same construct was low for both transformational leadership (.14) and emotional intelligence (.16).
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This study examined the incremental validity of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 after controlling for general cognitive ability and the Big 5 personality factors. The criterion measures used were academic achievement, psychological well-being, peer attachment, positive relations with others, and alcohol use. Results of these analyses suggest that emotional intelligence (EI) explains a significant and moderate to large amount of unique variance for alcohol use and positive relations with others after controlling for cognitive ability and personality. Implications of these results for theory and future research on the ability model of EI are discussed.
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This article presents a meta-analytic review of the Emotional Intellpigence (EI) construct. The first portion of the study examines the relation between EI measures based on two differing models of the construct (i.e., mixed and ability). This study then examines the relation of each of the models separately with cognitive ability and the Big Five personality factors. Results indicate that measures based on the mixed model of EI overlap extensively (i.e., correlate .71 among themselves; k = 12, N = 3,259), whereas mixed measures and ability measures are relatively distinct (.14; k = 13, N = 2,442). Mixed model measures of EI exhibited greater overlap with personality- than ability-based EI measures. Conversely, ability-based EI measures demonstrated a higher correlation with cognitive ability than mixed measures (.34 vs. .13). Implications and suggestions for the measurement of EI are provided.
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There has been much confusion and controversy concerning the concept of emotional intelligence (EI). Three issues have been particularly bothersome. The first concerns the many conflicting definitions and models of EI. To address this issue, I propose that we distinguish between definitions and models and then adopt a single definition on which the major theorists already seem to agree. I further propose that we more clearly distinguish between EI and the related concept of emotional and social competence (ESC). The second issue that has generated concern is the question of how valid existing measures are. After reviewing the research on the psychometric properties of several popular tests, I conclude that although there is some support for many of them, they all have inherent limitations. We need to rely more on alternative measurement strategies that have been available for some time and also develop new measures that are more sensitive to context. The third area of contention concerns the significance of EI for outcomes such as job performance or leadership effectiveness. Recent research, not available to earlier critics, suggests that EI is positively associated with performance. However, certain ESCs are likely to be stronger predictors of performance than EI in many situations. Also, EI is likely to be more important in certain kinds of situations, such as those involving social interaction or significant levels of stress. Context makes a difference.
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In this paper I argue that the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) is invalid both because it is not a form of intelligence and because it is defined so broadly and inclusively that it has no intelligible meaning. I distinguish the so-called concept of EI from actual intelligence and from rationality. I identify the actual relation between reason and emotion. I reveal the fundamental inadequacy of the concept of EI when applied to leadership. Finally, I suggest some alternatives to the EI concept. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Emotional intelligence (El) has been embraced by many practitioners and academi-cians without clear empirical support for the construct. In this rejoinder and extension of an earlier comment, I highlight the importance of using methodologically defensible scientific criteria for conducting or evaluating research. I review literature demonstrat-ing that El models are beset with problems concerning their validity and show that sup-port for the El construct may be based more on tangential speculation than on empirical findings. Although I find some common positions with El researchers such as Prati et al., I underline contradictions and inconsistencies which may cast doubt on the neces-sity of El for understanding and predicting leadership effectiveness. My earlier critique of Prati et al's (2003a) article, proposing that "emotional intelligence" (El) is an indispensable condition for effective leadership was motivated by several reasons. The most impor-tant reason is that too many individuals, including academicians and practitioners, have been capti-vated, even hoodwinked, by the apparent "magic" of El and are oblivious to the fact that many of the claims made by El proponents regarding the apparent necessity of El for leadership or organiza-tional performance are unsubstantiated, exaggerated, misrepresented, or simply false (Antonakis, 2003; Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2002; Zaccaro & Horn, 2003; Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004). This article extends my discussion of Prati et al's (2003a) article and provides my response to Prati et al's (2003b) reply. I will highlight some common positions we hold and differences we have. In addition, I extend this discussion by providing some guidelines—traditionally used in psycho-metric testing—that are useful for guiding or evaluating research concerning the utility of psycho-logical constructs in organizational settings. There are some proponents of El, in the academic and consulting arena, who may be ignorant of established scientific guidelines for conducting or evalu- • Direct all correspondence to:John Antonakis, Ph.D..
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The purpose of this study was to identify higher-order dimensions that explain the relationships among the Big 6 interest types and the Big 5 personality traits. Meta-analyses were conducted to identify an 11 × 11 true score correlation matrix of interest and personality attributes. Cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling were used to identify 3 dimensions that explained relations among the 11 attributes: (a) Interests versus Personality Traits; (b) Striving for Accomplishment Versus Striving for Personal Growth, and (c) Interacting with People Versus Interacting with Things. Overall, results clarified the relationships among interests and personality traits by showing that 3 rather than 2 dimensions best explain the relationships among interests and personality traits.
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This study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and performance outcomes. A total of 69 independent studies were located that reported correlations between EI and performance or other variables such as general mental ability (GMA) and the Big Five factors of personality. Results indicated that, across criteria, EI had an operational validity of .23 (k=59, N=9522). Various moderating influences such as the EI measure used, dimensions of EI, scoring method and criterion were evaluated. EI correlated .22 with general mental ability (k=19, N=4158) and .23 (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience; k=14, N=3306) to .34 (Extraversion; k=19, N=3718) with the Big Five factors of personality. Results of various subgroup analyses are presented and implications and future directions are provided.
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Emotional intelligence has become a fashionable topic in the popular press, and has been heralded as an effective predictor of successful performance. However, little empirical evidence has borne out these claims. The present study was conducted in order to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and personality with academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the EQ-i (total EQ-i score and five EQ-i composite factor scores). Both cognitive ability and personality (in terms of extraversion and self control) were significantly associated with academic achievement. None of the EQ-i factor scores, nor the total EQ-i score, was significantly related to academic achievement.
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The authors review the development of the modern paradigm for intelligence assessment and application and consider the differentiation between intelligence-as-maximal performance and intelligence-as-typical performance. They review theories of intelligence, personality, and interest as a means to establish potential overlap. Consideration of intelligence-as-typical performance provides a basis for evaluation of intelligence-personality and intelligence-interest relations. Evaluation of relations among personality constructs, vocational interests, and intellectual abilities provides evidence for communality across the domains of personality of J. L. Holland's (1959) model of vocational interests. The authors provide an extensive meta-analysis of personality-intellectual ability correlations, and a review of interest-intellectual ability associations. They identify 4 trait complexes: social, clerical/conventional, science/math, and intellectual/cultural.
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In this research, we investigated the psychometrical properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue, Petrides & Furnham, 200350. Petrides , K. V. and Furnham , A. 2003. Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal of Personality, 17: 39–57. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references) in a French-speaking population. In summary, we found that (a) TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable; (b) the United Kingdom four-factor structure (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability) replicated in our data; (c) TEIQue scores were dependent on gender but relatively independent of age; (d) there was preliminary evidence of convergent/discriminant validity, with TEIQue scores being independent of nonverbal reasoning (Raven's [1976]54. Raven , J. C. 1976. Advanced Progressive Matrices Set II, Oxford, , England: Oxford Psychologist Press. View all references matrices) but positively related to some personality dimensions (optimism, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others (alexithymia, neuroticism); (e) there was also preliminary evidence of criterion validity, with TEIQue scores predicting depression, anxiety, and social support as well as future state affectivity and emotional reactivity in neutral and stressful situations; (f) TEIQue scores were susceptible to socially desirable responding; however, (g) TEIQue scores had incremental validity to predict emotional reactivity over and above social desirability, alexithymia, and the Five-factor model of personality. Such results constitute encouraging preliminary findings in favor of the use of the TEIQue.
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