Respect in Close Relationships: Prototype Definition, Self-Report Assessment, and Initial Correlates

ArticleinPersonal Relationships 9(2):121-139 · June 2002with 2,660 Reads 
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Abstract
Researchers who study romantic relationships have mentioned respect as a factor contributing to relationship success, but little effort has been made to define respect, measure it, or discover how it relates to other relationship constructs. In Study 1 a prototype methodology was used to identify consensual features of respect. Participants in Study 2 rated the centrality of the features of respect and completed a new prototype-based respect-for-partner scale that was highly reliable and correlated in predictable ways with avoidant attachment and evaluative aspects of partner descriptions. In Study 3, the new respect scale predicted relationship satisfaction better than scales measuring liking, loving, attachment-related anxiety and avoidance, and positive and negative partner qualities. Suggestions are offered for future research on respect.

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  • ... In close interpersonal contexts, for example, one may be warranted in giving priority to certain aspects of others' characters for the purpose of appraising their suitability for continued relationship; when they prove grossly substandard, one's reactive contempt may signal to them a need for reform. Ultimately, the corrosive effects of a reactive contempt that decays into nonreactive contempt may serve the important emotivational goal of dissolving the relationship (Frie & Shaver 2002;Gottman & Levenson 1992). Not only the morally depraved but also those more mundanely bad are thus, even in a dignity culture, legitimate targets for contempt. ...
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  • ... It was found that higher levels of respect were positively linked with liking (Frei & Shaver, 2002), selfesteem (Ellemers, Doosje, & Spears, 2004), relationship satisfaction (Frei & Shaver, 2002); and negatively linked with lower levels of negative social behavior (Clemans, Graber, & Bettencourt, 2012), disrespectful behaviors and dating violence (Martin, Houston, Mmari, & Decker, 2012); bullying (Langdon & Preble, 2003). ...
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  • ... We propose that the lack of psychometrically sound measures for the various dimensions of interpersonal listening and, thus, the difficulty of determining its multidimensionality, suggests that interpersonal listening is what Rosch (1978) called a Fuzzy Category (FC). An FC has no simple classical definition based on necessary and sufficient features and shades off into conceptually-related categories or concepts (Frei & Shaver, 2002). To define a FC, a two-step prototype methodology must be used: (1) gathering freely listed features of the construct and (2) collecting ratings indicating the degree of centrality of each features for the definition of the constructs (Fehr & Russell, 1991). ...
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  • ... For example, research on layperson perception of the construct of respect suggests that honesty and loyalty, for example, are much more central to the definition of respect than is listening is (cf. Table 2 in Frei & Shaver, 2002). Another related construct is responsiveness, which is defined as "a process by which individuals come to believe that relationship partners both attend to and react supportively to central, core-defining features of the self" (Reis, Clark & Holmes in Mashek & Aron, 2004). ...
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  • ... Such nerves and dread tend to raise their heads every once in a while and one needs to figure out how to manage the issues viably and in a developed ways. In a dependable and tasteful relationship, it is crucial to indicate shared regard for distinction, bolster, cooperative way to deal with conformity, and space for self-improvement 22,23 . ...
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  • ... In close interpersonal contexts, for example, one may be warranted in giving priority to certain aspects of others' characters for the purpose of appraising their suitability for continued relationship; when they prove grossly substandard, one's reactive contempt may signal to them a need for reform. Ultimately, the corrosive effects of a reactive contempt that decays into nonreactive contempt may serve the important emotivational goal of dissolving the relationship (Frie & Shaver 2002;Gottman & Levenson 1992). Not only the morally depraved but also those more mundanely bad are thus, even in a dignity culture, legitimate targets for contempt. ...
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  • ... In close interpersonal contexts, for example, one may be warranted in giving priority to certain aspects of others' characters for the purpose of appraising their suitability for continued relationship; when they prove grossly substandard, one's reactive contempt may signal to them a need for reform. Ultimately, the corrosive effects of a reactive contempt that decays into nonreactive contempt may serve the important emotivational goal of dissolving the relationship (Frie & Shaver 2002;Gottman & Levenson 1992). Not only the morally depraved but also those more mundanely bad are thus, even in a dignity culture, legitimate targets for contempt. ...
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  • ... It has been shown that listening is not necessarily isomorphic with some constructs, but not with all. For example, listening is not isomorphic with respect, as studies on laypeople's perception of the construct of respect suggest that honesty and loyalty, for example, are much more central to its definition than is listening (Frei & Shaver, 2002). In contrast, although listening and responsiveness are distinguishable theoretically, we are not aware of empirical work establishing this. ...
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  • ... In close interpersonal contexts, for example, one may be warranted in giving priority to certain aspects of others' characters for the purpose of appraising their suitability for continued relationship; when they prove grossly substandard, one's reactive contempt may signal to them a need for reform. Ultimately, the corrosive effects of a reactive contempt that decays into nonreactive contempt may serve the important emotivational goal of dissolving the relationship (Frie & Shaver 2002;Gottman & Levenson 1992). Not only the morally depraved but also those more mundanely bad are thus, even in a dignity culture, legitimate targets for contempt. ...
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  • ... In close interpersonal contexts, for example, one may be warranted in giving priority to certain aspects of others' characters for the purpose of appraising their suitability for continued relationship; when they prove grossly substandard, one's reactive contempt may signal to them a need for reform. Ultimately, the corrosive effects of a reactive contempt that decays into nonreactive contempt may serve the important emotivational goal of dissolving the relationship (Frie & Shaver 2002;Gottman & Levenson 1992). Not only the morally depraved but also those more mundanely bad are thus, even in a dignity culture, legitimate targets for contempt. ...
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    Prejudice, like contempt, is a general evaluation rather than a specific emotion. I explore the idea that emotions and attitudes are conceptually distinct by applying Gervais & Fessler's model to the intergroup context. I argue that prejudice is an affective representation of a social group's relational value (friend or foe) and dispute the idea that there are many distinct prejudices.
  • ... In close interpersonal contexts, for example, one may be warranted in giving priority to certain aspects of others' characters for the purpose of appraising their suitability for continued relationship; when they prove grossly substandard, one's reactive contempt may signal to them a need for reform. Ultimately, the corrosive effects of a reactive contempt that decays into nonreactive contempt may serve the important emotivational goal of dissolving the relationship (Frie & Shaver 2002;Gottman & Levenson 1992). Not only the morally depraved but also those more mundanely bad are thus, even in a dignity culture, legitimate targets for contempt. ...
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  • ... Her button highlights the exchange of respect as a central aspect of social relationships. Frei and Shaver (2002) found that respect in a close personal relationship is a better predictor of relationship satisfaction than is either liking or loving the other person. They identified multiple definitions of respect, including "an attitude or disposition toward a particular person based on his or her perceived good qualities" (p. ...
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  • ... More research is needed, however, (a) to confirm its factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis on new samples; (b) to establish its generalizability beyond the business context and the languages and cultures in which it was tested (Hebrew in Israel and English in the United States; (c) to establish its predictive validity and, especially, the divergent validity of the constructive versus destructive facets of listening; (d) to test its incremental validity relative to other existing listening scales; and (e) to test whether a different method of sampling the universe of perceived listening will yield a similar structure. For example, a new pool of listening items could be created by asking laypeople to offer defining attributes of listening (Bodie, St. Cyr, Pence, Rold, & Honeycutt, 2012) and use these definitions to build a scale (Frei & Shaver, 2002) and compare it to the FLS. ...
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  • ... Scholars with different theoretical perspectives agree that the most common emotional response to a partner's positive behaviors is a blend of joy (being pleased about having obtained a desirable relational outcome), respect and admiration (viewing the partner's actions as praiseworthy), and love (regarding the partner in a warm, positive way), which may also induce feelings of gratitude (e.g., Frei & Shaver, 2002;Heider, 1958;Ortony, Clore, & Collins, 1987). For example, Weiner (1985) claimed that people feel grateful within close relationships when they feel happy about receiving a positive outcome and recognize that their partner was responsible for it. ...
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  • ... The spirit of collectiveness and sharing will strengthen relationships in any organizations. Frei and Shaver (2002) describe respect as a social or attitudinal construct that guides people's social behaviour toward others and in most instances, it regulates relationships. Mangaliso (2001:32) explains that treating others with respect and dignity is central to the notion of Ubuntu. ...
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  • ... Moreover, listening is a fuzzy construct that overlaps with many others (e.g., empathy, respect, responsiveness), but is not isomorphic with them. For example, studies on laypeople's perception of the construct of respect suggests that honesty and loyalty, for example, are much more central to its definition than is listening (Frei & Shaver, 2002). Another related construct is responsiveness, which is defined as "a process by which individuals come to believe that relationship partners both attend to and react supportively to central, core-defining features of the self" (Reis, Clark, & Holmes, 2004). ...
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  • ... Rosch's work revolutionized the way that social scientists think about and study concepts, particularly those that have defied classical definition in the past. By now, there is considerable evidence that many concepts, including many relationshiprelevant concepts, are organized as prototypes (e.g., emotion (Fehr & Russell, 1984;Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, & O'Connor, 1987), love (Aron & Westbay, 1996;Fehr, 1988;Fehr & Russell, 1991;Fitness & Fletcher, 1993), commitment (Fehr, 1988), anger (Fehr & Baldwin, 1996;Russell & Fehr, 1994), jealousy (Fitness & Fletcher, 1993;Sharpsteen, 1993); forgiveness (Friesen & Fletcher, 2007;Kearns & Fincham, 2004), and respect (Frei & Shaver, 2002)). ...
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  • ... Here we discuss these concepts and how they relate to competence in scientific professions. Respect is a multi-dimensional concept encompassing factors such as admiration, listening, sharing, and trust, and is important for the success of any personal or professional relationship [9,[21][22][23]. Feeling respected as a member of a group is important in forming a sense of group identity and commitment to a group, in this case the scientific profession [24]. ...
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  • ... The measures of the present study were adopted from existing studies in the consumer behavior and tourism literature (Ajzen, 1991;Baloglu & McCleary, 1999;Bamberg & Schmidt, 2003;Byun & Jang, 2018a, 2018bCarroll & Ahuvia, 2006;Cho, 2011;Frei & Shaver, 2002;Han, 2015;Hwang & Lee, 2018;Hwang & Lyu, 2018;Hwang & Park, 2018;Lee et al., 2013;Montgomery & Stone, 2009;Oliver, 2010). All measurement items were evaluated with multi-items and a seven-point Likert's scale from "strongly disagree" (1) to "strongly agree" was used. ...
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    This study aimed to uncover the role of an airline’s environmental corporate social responsibility in conjunction with building loyalty intentions of its customers while considering the mediating impact of its brand image, love and respect, as well as the moderating effect of environmental concerns. Our results from the structural analysis showed the salient role of environmental corporate social responsibility in determining loyalty intentions, and it was also a significant contributor to improving brand image, love, and respect that acted as significant mediators. Moreover, the results demonstrated a significant moderating effect of environmental concern on the brand respect and loyalty relationship.
  • ... Researchers have found that people scoring higher on avoidant attachment are more likely to adopt an individualistic orientation and reject selftranscendent, other-oriented values (e.g., De Dreu, 2012; Hawley, Shorey, & Alderman, 2009;Mikulincer, Gillath, et al., 2003). Moreover, they tend to have more disrespectful and cynical attitudes toward others (e.g., Frei & Shaver, 2002;Mak, Yee Han, You, Jin, & Bond, 2011), are more likely to feel uncomfortable in social groups, and are less likely to identify with groups and their causes (e.g., Rom & Mikulincer, 2003;Smith, Murphy, & Coats, 1999). This social orientation may reduce readiness to selfsacrifice, because martyrdom entails self-transcendence and emphasis on the "greater good." ...
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  • ... Such behaviors trigger the attention of the receiver and lead to positive outcomes, such as liking the enactor more, finding them more socially and physically attractive, and deeming them as an interesting and valuable interaction partner (Afifi & Burgoon, 2000;Afifi & Metts, 1998). Thus, a positive violation typically provides an evaluative boost for the actor and, on a relational level, can subsequently increase relationship satisfaction (Frei & Shaver, 2002;Gordon et al., 2012;Vangelisti & Daly, 1997). ...
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  • ... Prototype analysis has been used to develop instruments assessing various kinds of emotions: love and types of love (Aron & Westbay, 1996;Fehr, 1994;Fehr & Sprecher, 2009), respect (Frei & Shaver, 2002), boredom and feeling of absence (Harasymchuk & Fehr, 2012;Le et al., 2008), and relationship quality (Hassebrauck & Fehr, 2002), to quote a few. ...
    Article
    Saudade is a psychological experience resulting from the absence of significant others or familiar places. Four studies were conducted in view of creating a measure of saudade derived from previous prototype analyses. Data from four samples were collected: two samples of Portuguese undergraduate students, one sample of Portuguese adults, and one sample of Portuguese adolescents. Through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, a three-factor latent structure of saudade was identified: Missing Close Others, Lack of Intimacy, and Longing for the Past. This three-factor structure was meaningfully associated with theoretically related constructs such as life satisfaction, negative affect, loneliness, love satisfaction, self-esteem, or neuroticism and was not associated with theoretically unrelated constructs such as tolerance or openness.
  • ... Hún er álitin vera einhvers virði. Haegt er að bera virðingu fyrir gildum og virði annarra, afrekum og haefni manneskjunnar en einnig fyrir rétti annarra, skyldum og siðalögmálum (Frei og Shaver, 2002). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Í íslenskum og erlendum samfélögum bendir margt til þess að vanvirðingar gæti gagnvart kynverund einstaklingsins og er MeToo-byltingin dæmi um viðbragð við þeim vanda. Tilgangur þessarar rannsóknar er að varpa ljósi á hugtökin virðingu og vanvirðingu í sambandi við kynheilbrigði ungs fólks og út frá rétti þess til kynheilbrigðis. Gerð var endurgreining á tveimur eigindlegum rannsóknum sem byggðust á viðtölum við unga menn. Einnig var byggt á MeToo-frásögnum af kynferðisofbeldi gagnvart unglingsstúlkum. Gögnin voru greind út frá virðingu og vanvirðingu. Niðurstöður sýna að sjálfsvirðing er ungum karlmönnum mikilvæg í jafningjahópum en einnig við kaup og notkun smokka. Þeim finnst mikilvægt að virða samþykki hins aðilans og telja virðingu vera einn af lykilþáttum góðs kynlífs. Vanvirðing ungra manna birtist í umræðu um ráðandi karlmennsku en einnig þegar samþykki fyrir samförum er hunsað. Lýsingar á nauðgun unglingsstúlkna sýna fram á mikla vanvirðingu gagnvart rétti þeirra til kynheilbrigðis. Niðurstöðurnar benda til þess að virðing sé mikilvæg fyrir vellíðan einstaklingsins sem kynveru og hið gagnstæða gildi um vanvirðingu. Fræða þarf ungt fólk um rétt þess til kynheilbrigðis og um einkennandi þætti heilbrigðs kynferðislegs sambands.
  • ... Individual differences in attachment have also been found to be associated with how people respond to their partner more generallywhether this be positive or negative in nature. Secure people have been found to show greater admiration, respect, and gratitude toward their partners compared with insecure people (Frei & Shaver, 2002;. Secure people tend to respond with controlled expressions of anger and frustration during conflicts, without reflecting hatred, hostility, or vengeance toward the partner (Collins, 1996;Kachadourian, Fincham, & Davila, 2004;Mikulincer & Shaver, 2008). ...
    Chapter
    Here we adopt an attachment theoretical perspective on relationship maintenance, based on the idea that a romantic relationship is an attachment bond. In doing so, we emphasize the role of normative attachment processes. We commence by introducing the attachment behavioral system and its three functions of proximity seeking/maintenance, safe haven, and secure base. We then describe the associations between normative attachment processes and relationship maintenance, including a discussion of evolutionary functions. The following part of the chapter explains how individual differences in attachment organization emerge based on early experiences with attachment figures, and why these differences are associated with relationship maintenance. Next we review the literature on the associations of attachment style with three maintenance behaviors that have been widely studied in relation to attachment: support, communication, and commitment-enhancing behaviors. We conclude our chapter by discussing the association between attachment style and relationship satisfaction, which is regarded as an indicator of successful relationship maintenance. Overall, the normative processes of the attachment system align well with relationship maintenance behaviors, and attachment security tends to positively predict the enactment of maintenance behaviors.
  • ... A brand forms respect through performance which, in turn, positively influences trust and reputation. Many psychologists and sociologists agreed that brand respect is a key to build a strong interrelationship between consumers and a brand (Frei and Shaver, 2002;Gottman, 1996;Hendrick et al., 2006;Zacchilli et al., 2009). The first component, trust, is associated with an effort to understand consumers and satisfy their expectations. ...
    Purpose: This study aims to identify the structural relationships among the drivers of lovemarks (mystery, sensuality, intimacy, trust, reputation and performance), lovemarks (brand love and brand respect) and loyalty of a name-brand coffee shop. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted, and after eliminating the outliers, a total of 401 data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS statistical packages. Findings: The results of the current study indicate that both customers’ brand love and respect are positively related to their brand loyalty and sensuality, intimacy, trust among drivers of lovemarks directly affecting their brand loyalty, suggesting that the theory of lovemarks is useful to understand the process of generating brand loyalty. Moreover, it was revealed that reputation and performance are significant antecedents of brand respect, while mystery, sensuality and intimacy are important to explain brand love. Practical implications: The present research informed that effectively dealing with two constituents of lovemarks (brand love and brand respect) are of utmost importance in building patrons’ brand loyalty. In addition, patrons’ cognitive and emotional experiences should be improved to boost the level of loyalty for a name-brand coffee shop. Originality/value: This study made a contribution to the literature by conceptually and empirically evaluating lovemarks’ dimensions simultaneously in the name-brand coffee shop environment. In addition, this research was the first attempt to explicate loyalty formation for a name-brand coffee shop by using the lovemarks theory.
  • ... However, it is unclear whether task-related competence also influences self-respect. In addition to qualities relating to moral integrity and principled behavior, admirable qualities such as being inspiring and possessing talents, intellectual qualities, and skills (Frei & Shaver, 2002;Hamilton & Fallot, 1974;Prestwich & Lalljee, 2009) have been shown to influence respect for others. This raises the question of whether task-related competence influences self-respect in addition to principled, honorable, and moral behavior. ...
    Article
    The concept of self-respect has received little attention in the psychological literature and is not clearly distinguished from self-esteem. The present research sought to empirically investigate the bases of self-respect by manipulating adherence to morals together with interpersonal appraisals (IAs), or task-related competence, in hypothetical scenarios (Studies 1a and 1b) and a situation participants relived (Studies 2 and 3). Participants’ levels of state self-respect and self-esteem were measured. Studies 1 to 3 found main effects of adherence to morals on self-respect, with self-respect mediating the effect of adherence to morals on self-esteem, but little support for competence and IAs directly influencing self-respect. Self-respect uniquely contributed to anticipated/felt self-esteem alongside competence or IAs. The pattern of results supports the conceptualization of self-respect as a component of self-esteem associated with morally principled conduct, distinct from performance and social self-esteem. The findings have implications for our understanding of self-esteem and moral behavior. The pre-print full text can be accessed here: https://chesterrep.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10034/622716/Self-respect%20paper%202019-05-28_2(ChesterRep).pdf?sequence=1
  • ... The literature suggests that there are at least four ways in which men can publicly support gender equality: Men might engage in political activism (Iyer & Ryan, 2009;Stewart, 2016;Subašić et al., 2008;White, 2006), speak up when witnessing gender inequality (Cihangir et al., 2014;Czopp & Monteith, 2003;Czopp, Monteith, & Mark, 2006;Drury & Kaiser, 2014;Eliezer & Major, 2011;Rasinski & Czopp, 2010;Stangor et al., 2003), show a general interest in discourse on gender equality (Houvouras & Carter, 2008;Kaufman & Kimmel, 2011;Lemaster, Strough, Stoiko, & DiDonato, 2015), and foster an inclusive workplace culture (Armstrong, 2016;Liff & Cameron, 1997). Within the domestic sphere, men's support might include treating one's partner respectfully (Frei & Shaver, 2002;Hendrick & Hendrick, 2006;Hirsch, 2003;Vannoy, 1996), an equal division of household chores (Deutsch, 1999;Dotti Sani, 2014;Kosakowska-Berezecka et al., 2016;Lyness & Brumit Kropf, 2005), and equal involvement in parenting and childcare (Deutsch, 1999;Gärtner, 2007;Haas, 2003;Kato-Wallace et al., 2014;Scambor et al., 2014). While these behaviours are certainly important with regard to female romantic partners they can further be applied to female relatives, friends, or housemates. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    In this paper, we develop and validate the 16‐item Support for Gender Equality among Men Scale (SGEMS) across four studies. Drawing on exploratory (Study 1, n = 322) and confirmatory (Study 2, n = 358; Study 4, n = 192) factor analysis, we determine a two‐factor structure: public and domestic support for gender equality. In Study 3 (n = 146) and Study 4, we validate the scale by establishing its relationship with, among others, several prominent measures of sexism, a behavioural measure, and social desirability. The scale fills a psychometric gap in the literature: To date, no validated measure of support for gender equality, measuring both attitudes and behavioural intentions and focusing specifically on men, exists. Considering the recent increase in interest in men as allies of the feminist movement the scale functions as a useful tool to explore the topic in depth in future research.
  • ... Immordino-Yang et al. (2009) made a point of stating that none of the narratives about admiration that they used were based on the lives of celebrities. Furthermore, some MAS items were derived from the Respect for Partner Scale, the very title of which implies a personal relationship (Frei & Shaver, 2002). It seems clear to us that in order to meaningfully respond to items about the honesty, loyalty, generosity, selflessness, and compassion of an admired person, one would need to know that admired person quite well. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This study examines whether the admiration of celebrities is the same or different from admiration of other persons. The Multidimensional Admiration Scale, Rubin’s Liking Scale, and the Celebrity Attitude Scale were administered to 190 participants from four American universities. Participants were randomly assigned to fill out either the “most admired person” version or the “favorite celebrity” version (n = 96) of the three scales. We hypothesized that the Multidimensional Admiration Scale is a valid measure of admiration for individuals who are familiar with the morality of the target person, but is invalid for measuring admiration for celebrities. Arguably, this is partly because celebrities are admired mostly for their ability to entertain, and not their morality, which is often unknown or little is known to their fans. The results generally confirmed our hypotheses. The Multidimensional Admiration Scale was not intended as a measure of admiration for celebrities and is not recommended to be used for that purpose.
  • ... 17 However, respect also involves judgements regarding the respect-worthiness of the object of respect and feelings relating to experiencing the person as valuable; it is an attitude. [18][19][20][21] Two main bases for respect have been identified: humanity, which makes people inherently worthy (this form is referred to as unconditional or recognition respect) and character-related merits and achievements (conditional or appraisal respect). 18,22 Respect differs from the attitude of liking, in that it is owed to a person who demonstrates attributes that command recognition and appreciation, regardless of personal affinities and needs. ...
    Article
    Background:: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known about the influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question:: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses' communication of respect? Research design and participants:: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based UK registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations:: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings:: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: 'private self: personal attitudes', 'outward self: showing respect' and 'reputational self: being perceived as respectful'. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses' reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion:: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and inter-personal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care. Conclusion:: Findings stress the need for improved conceptualisations of respect in healthcare settings to formally recognise the complex attitudinal and socially constructed nature of respect and for appropriate professional training to improve its communication.
  • ... Roberts (2004) also stated that brand respect can be defined as consumers' positive awareness to a certain brand. It is usually accepted by various psychologists and sociologists that brand respect is a core to make a robust interrelationship between consumers and a brand (Frei and Shaver, 2002;Hendrick and Hendrick, 2006). According to the level of love and respect, products or brands can be divided into four types with four different regions. ...
  • ... Cassidy & Shaver, 2008;Gillath, Karantzas, Fraley, 2016). With regard to emotional and social functioning, attachment security in adulthood is robustly linked to higher relationship satisfaction and family functioning (Pedro, Ribeiro, & Shelton, 2015), greater social skills and emotional intelligence (DiTommaso, Brannen-McNulty, Ross, & Burgess, 2003;Kafetsios, 2004), and finally, greater knowledge and abilities on how to maintain and stabilize close bonds across the lifespan (Anders & Tucker, 2000;Frei & Shaver, 2002;Kirkpatrick & Hazan, 1994). ...
  • ... Respectful romantic relationships have notable impacts on quality of life, psychological, and physical well-being [3]. A wide variety of studies on the importance of respect; concentrated on both direct and indirect predictors of respect [4], kindness [5], contemporary sexism and discrimination [6], conceptualization of respect [7], preventing gender-based violence [8], value education [9,10,11], respectful relationships program [12]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Respect, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness can be associated with positive psychological functioning. In this study, subjective vitality was examined as a mediator on the relationship between respect toward partner and subjective happiness on a teachers’ sample. The study is a quantitative cross-sectional mediation study. The data were collected from 172 married teachers by a questionnaire package that included the Respect toward Partner Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Findings show that subjective happiness is predicted positively by respect toward partner and subjective vitality. Subjective vitality is predicted positively by respect toward partner. Also, the relationship between respect toward partner and subjective happiness is partially mediated by subjective vitality. Understanding the role of respect within close relationships could facilitate the development of interventions to enhance communication between partners about safety attitudes and decrease partner violence. Implications and limitations have been discussed within the scope of the relevant literature.
  • ... When one is seeking to identify the defining characteristics of abstract concepts, it may be easier to understand the concept when it is organized around the best examples, called prototypes (Fehr, 1988(Fehr, , 2005. Researchers have examined the prototypical conceptions of abstract concepts such as love (Fehr, 1988(Fehr, , 1993, respect (Frei & Shaver, 2002), and humiliation (Elshout, Nelissen, & van Beest, 2017). Dimensions underlying a set of prototypical features of a construct can be compared with experts' theories, resulting in support for or elaboration of those theories (Aron & Westbay, 1996;Fehr & Russell, 1991). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Theories of culture, cognition, and social relations suggest there may be differences in conceptions of forgiveness between the members of East Asian and Western cultures, but few researchers have examined this issue. This article builds on previous research on prototypes of forgiveness in the United States to address the question “What is forgiveness?” in Japan. In Studies 1a and 1b, we investigated Japanese conceptions of forgiveness. Study 2 demonstrated that forgiveness features that U.S. and Japanese participants generated are meaningfully different. Compared with Americans, Japanese participants focused more on aspects related to relationship harmony; they seemed to emphasize an adjustment motive and decisional forgiveness. They also put less emphasis on emotional forgiveness and attention to individuals in comparison with Americans. Our results suggest that the high value placed on relationship maintenance in Japan leads to different understandings of forgiveness. Inclusion of culturally diverse conceptions into the definition of forgiveness aids further understanding of forgiveness, which, in turn, enhances the development and application of existing theories.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Student respect toward teachers is traditionally considered in terms of behavior or authority. Yet, because of cultural differences and historic oppression of marginalized students in schools, not all students express respect in ways in which teachers are familiar. Because of structural inequalities and individual differences, standard behavioral definitions of respect are insufficient to address how students and teachers actually experience respect in the classroom. Using a comparative case study design, this study examined two female White novice teachers’ beliefs and experiences of student respect within a novel relational respect framework. Results identified that teachers’ respect beliefs were based on notions of authority, while respect experiences reflected authority and relationship-based respect. Importantly, these relationships were conceptualized as role model and friend-based respect. To help novice teachers balance their roles as both caring and authoritative figures, I propose that student respect should be thought of in relational, rather than behavioral, terms, and that teachers need to employ cultural competence when developing and maintaining their student–teacher relationships.
  • Article
    This study developed a sturdy theoretical framework explicating customers’ behavioral intentions for socially responsible airlines by considering the influence of perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR). Our findings demonstrated the critical role of these variables in determining intentions. The CSR dimensions were sufficiently captured by their global higher-order factor. In addition, perceived CSR directly/indirectly triggers its subsequent variables. Moreover, the relationship strength among brand attitude, trust, and intentions was fortified by customers’ awareness of need for airlines’ CSR activities/promotions. This study provides valuable insights regarding why airline CSR is of essence and how perceived CSR is related to airline customer behaviors.
  • Article
    Respect is conceptualized as one of the fundamental bases of most relationships, particularly close relationships. Respect in close, romantic relationships has been studied only recently (Frei & Shaver, 2002; Hendrick & Hendrick, 2006), and the current paper describes a study designed to build on notions of respect as deeply important in relationships. Some 314 college students participated in the study. Participants read a scenario about a dating couple, John and Linda, who were ostensibly in a psychology experiment during which they rated their respect for each other. John (or Linda) had rated self as having either "extremely high respect" or "moderately low respect" for the partner. Participants were asked to imagine that they were John (or Linda) and then rate the hypothetical partner on love attitudes, relationships satisfaction, commitment, and self-disclosure. Participants also gave their own personal ratings of John (or Linda) on several trait adjectives. The design was a 2 (gender of participant) x 2 (John/Linda) x 2 (high/low respect) factorial experiment. The main effect for respect was significant for 15 of 18 total variables, with an extremely high versus moderately low respected partner garnering more favorable ratings in nearly every case. Respect thus appears to be an important part of the intrinsic meaning of a close, romantic relationship.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the connections that narcissistic admiration (i.e., assertive self-enhancement) and narcissistic rivalry (i.e., antagonistic self-protection) had with respect in romantic relationships. The results of Study 1 (N= 432) revealed that narcissistic admiration was positively associated with perceived respect from partner and respect toward partner, whereas narcissistic rivalry was negatively associated with perceived respect from partner and respect toward partner. In addition, individuals with high levels of narcissistic admiration reported low levels of romantic relationship functioning when they perceived low levels of respect from their current partner. The results of Study 2 (N= 334 [167 romantic dyads]) revealed that the narcissistic admiration of women was positively associated with their perceptions of respect from their male partners as well as the actual levels of respect they received. In contrast, narcissistic rivalry was negatively associated with the actual levels of respect that men and women received from their partners as well as the levels of respect their partners perceived from them. Discussion focuses on the implications that respect may have for the romantic relationships of narcissistic individuals.
  • Book
    Relationship maintenance encompasses a wide range of activities that partners use to preserve their relationships. Despite the importance of these efforts, considerably more empirical focus has been devoted to starting (i.e. initiation) and ending (i.e. dissolution) relationships than on maintaining them. In this volume, internationally renowned scholars from a variety of disciplines describe diverse sets of relationship maintenance efforts in order to show why some relationships endure, whereas others falter. By focusing on 'what to do' rather than 'what not to do' in relationships, this book paints a more comprehensive picture of the forms, functions, and contexts of relationship maintenance. It is essential reading for scholars and students in psychology, communication, human development and family science, sociology, and couple/marriage and family therapy.
  • Article
    Gervais & Fessler's defense of a sentiment construct for contempt captures features distinguishing the phenomenon from basic emotions and highlights the fact that it comprises a coordinated syndrome of responses. However, their conceptualization of contempt as the absence of respect equivocates. Consequently, a “dignity” culture that prescribes respect does not thereby limit legitimate contempt in the manner the authors claim.
  • Book
    Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - On-Again, Off-Again Relationships - by René M. Dailey
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Amanah merupakan fondasi dasar dalam relasi social manusia. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua studi. Studi 1 bertujuan untuk menemukan konsep amanah menggunakan prototype metodologi dengan jumlah partisipan sebanyak 444 partisipan. dan pada studi 2 bertujuan untuk membuat alat ukur amanah berdasarkan hasil studi 1 dengan jumlah patisipan sebanyak 201 partisipan. Hasil penelitian studi 1 menunjukkan bahwa orang amanah adalah orang dapat dipercaya, dan memiliki karakter positif. Sementara hasil studi 2 menunjukkan bahwa amanah memiliki reliabilitas yang baik dan merupakan konstrak yang bersifat unidimensional yang terbentuk atas tiga faktor, yaitu integritas, melaksanakan tugas dan kebajikan. Implikasi penelitian dibahas dalam konteks pengukuran psikologi dan islam
  • The heart of parenting: How to raise an emotionally intelligent child
    • J M Gottman
    Gottman, J. M. (1996). The heart of parenting: How to raise an emotionally intelligent child. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • The psychodynamics of adult romantic attachment
    • P R Shaver
    • C L Clark
    Shaver, P. R., & Clark, C. L. (1994). The psychodynamics of adult romantic attachment. In J. M. Masling & R. F. Bornstein (Eds.), Empirical perspectives on object relations theory (pp. 105-156). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Patterns of attachment: Assessed in the strange situation and at home
    • M D S Ainsworth
    • M C Blehar
    • E Waters
    • S Wall
    Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: Assessed in the strange situation and at home. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Respect: An exploration
    • S Lawrence-Lightfoot
    Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2000b). Respect: An exploration. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
  • Close relationships: A sourcebook
    • C Hendrick
    • Hendrick
    Hendrick, C., & Hendrick, S. S. (Eds.). (2000). Close relationships: A sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Attachment and loss Separa-tion: Anxiety and anger New York: Basic Books Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview
    • J Bowlby
    • K A Brennan
    • C L Clark
    • P R Shaver
    Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2, Separa-tion: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books. Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76).
  • Reexamining basic dimensions of natural language trait descriptors
    • A Tellegen
    • N G Waller
    Tellegen, A., & Waller, N. G. (1987). Reexamining basic dimensions of natural language trait descriptors. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago.
  • Relationship morality
    • J Kellenberger
    Kellenberger, J. (1995). Relationship morality. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Separation: Anxiety and anger
    • J Bowlby
    Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2, Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.
  • Commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust in close relationships
    • J Weiselquist
    • C E Rusbult
    • C A Foster
    • Agnew
    Weiselquist, J., Rusbult, C. E., Foster, C. A., & Agnew, C. R. (1999). Commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 942–966.
  • Special issue: Classical sources of human strength: A psychological analysis
    • M E Mccullough
    • Snyder
    McCullough, M. E., & Snyder, C. R. (Eds.). (2000). Special issue: Classical sources of human strength: A psychological analysis. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19 (1).
  • The measurement of perceived relationship quality compo-Appendix
    • G J O Fletcher
    • J A Simpson
    • G Thomas
    Fletcher, G. J. O., Simpson, J. A., & Thomas, G. (2000). The measurement of perceived relationship quality compo-Appendix: (continued)
  • Why marriages succeed or fail . . . and how you can make yours last
    • J M Gottman
    Gottman, J. M. (1994b). Why marriages succeed or fail... and how you can make yours last. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Article
    Three studies assessed the construct validity of the self- and other-model dimensions underlying the 4-category model of adult attachment (Bartholomew, 1990). Five methods were used to assess the hypothesized dimensions: self-reports, friend-reports, romantic partner reports, trained judges' ratings of peer attachment, and trained judges' ratings of family attachment. In each study, the convergent and discriminant validity of the dimensions were assessed by multitrait-multimethod matrices and by confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 related the latent attachment dimensions to theoretically relevant outcome latent variables. As predicted, individuals' self models converged with direct measures of the positivity of their self-concepts, and individuals' other models converged with direct measures of the positivity of their interpersonal orientations. Study 3 related the latent attachment dimensions to 3 alternate self-report measures of adult attachment and showed that the 2 dimensions serve as an organizing framework for the different measurement approaches.
  • Chapter
    As a construct of psychological relevance, commitment has for some time been the focus of numerous programs of research, including explorations in decision making (Edwards, 1954; Festinger, 1957), deviation, and conformity in group settings (Kiesler & Corbin, 1965; Kiesler & Kiesler, 1969; Kiesler, Zanna, & De Salvo, 1966); the maintenance of costly courses of action (Staw, 1976, 1981; Staw & Fox, 1977); and job turnover (Aranya & Jacobson, 1975; Grusky, 1966; Porter, Crampon, & Smith, 1976). However, the examination of commitment specifically within the context of close relationships is a relatively recent development, with most theoretical treatments of the construct emerging after 1965 and most empirical studies being published after 1980. Given the relatively long history of research on interpersonal relationships, it is somewhat perplexing that the critical examination of commitment has been so late in coming to this area.
  • Article
    "Construct validation was introduced in order to specify types of research required in developing tests for which the conventional views on validation are inappropriate. Personality tests, and some tests of ability, are interpreted in terms of attributes for which there is no adequate criterion. This paper indicates what sorts of evidence can substantiate such an interpretation, and how such evidence is to be interpreted." 60 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
  • Article
    A virtue is defined as any psychological process that enables a person to think and act so as to benefit both him- or herself and society. Character is a higher-order construct reflecting the possession of several of the component virtues. The process by which the topics of virtue and character fell out of favor in psychology is reviewed, with a call for a rebirth of interest in these concepts in the interface of clinical, counseling, social, and personality psychology.
  • Book
    Part I Models of love and satisfaction in close relationships: marital satisfaction in evolutionary psychological perspective, Shackelford, Buss attachment and relationship satisfaction across the lifespan, Koski, Shaver love and satisfaction, Hendrick a hierachical model of love and its prediction of satisfaction in close relationships, Barnes, Sternberg philosophy as a model of relationship satisfaction, Hojjat. Part II Satisfaction over the course of close relationships: a temporal view of relationship satisfaction and stability, Berscheid, Lopes marital satisfaction and spousal interaction, Feeney, Noller, Ward "rethinking" satisfaction in personal relationships from a dialectical perspective. Erbert, Duck. Part III Conflict and satisfaction in close relationships: angry at your partner? Think again, Christensen, Walczynski marital quality - a new theoretical perspective, Fincham, Beach, Kemp-Fincham. Part IV Psychotherapy and satisfaction in close relationships: acceptance in couple therapy and its implications for the treatment of depression, Cordova, Jacobson the the erosion of satisfaction over time and how to prevent it, Cordova, Markman, Laurenceau a schema-focused perspective on satisfaction in close relationships, Young, Gluhoski.
  • Article
    It is proposed that satisfying, stable relationships reflect intimates' ability to see imperfect relationships in somewhat idealized ways-to make a leap of faith. Both members of dating and married couples completed a measure of relationship illusions, tapping idealized perceptions of the partners' attributes, exaggerated perceptions of control, and unrealistic optimism. Results of concurrent analyses revealed that relationship illusions predicted greater satisfaction, love, and trust, and less conflict and ambivalence in both dating and marital relationships. A longitudinal follow-up of the dating sample revealed that relationships were more likely to persist the stronger individuals' initial illusions. Relationship illusions also predicted increases in later satisfaction but not vice versa. These results suggest that positive illusions capture a prospective sense of conviction or security that is not simply isomorphic with satisfaction.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    in this chapter we will examine the development and impact of trust in the context of close relationships we will begin with a definition of trust and a discussion of its roots in individuals' interpersonal histories we will go on to explore the development of trust in intimate relationships, emphasizing how its foundations are colored by the seminal experiences that mark different stages of interdependence we will then consider the various states of trust that can evolve and their consequences for people's emotions and perceptions in established relationships (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Examined the effect of self-disclosure on marital satisfaction in couples and also introduced attitude similarity as a possible predictor of marital satisfaction. 51 couples (mean age 30.6 yrs) completed 5 test instruments, including a self-disclosure scale, 2 marriage satisfaction scales, an attitude survey, and a demographic questionnaire. Results (1) revealed high reciprocity between spouses on most measures, (2) found a consistent positive relationship between self-disclosure and marital satisfaction, (3) substantiated self-disclosure as a significant predictor of marital satisfaction, and (4) demonstrated that attitude similarity had a strong positive relationship to marital satisfaction. Findings provide a firm basis for self-disclosure and attitude similarity as important predictors of marital satisfaction. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
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    Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Study 1 identified a 3-dimensional latent structure of the prototype of love, based on factor analyzing centrality ratings of 68 prototypical features of love identified by B. Fehr (see record 1989-04996-001); we labeled these Passion, Intimacy, and Commitment. Studies 2 and 3 cross-validated this result with new samples. Study 4 showed convergent and discriminant validity of scales based on these dimensions and compared results with the centrality-rating method to an alternative prototype-relevant method. Study 5 found convergent and discriminant validity with a version of R. J. Sternberg's (1988) Triangular Love Scale. Study 5 also obtained the same 3-dimensional structure for both people's concept of love and descriptions of their own love relationships but the emphasis among dimensions corresponded only moderately between concept and descriptions. Study 6 showed correspondences between prototype-feature dimensions and love styles (C. Hendrick & S. Hendrick, see record 73:13421; J. A. Lee, 1977). Study 7 examined a shortened scale for the 3 dimensions and replicated the main results of Study 6 with that scale. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
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    Three studies, involving 146 undergraduates and 68 heterosexual couples, assessed the construct validity of the self- and other-model dimensions underlying the 4-category model of adult attachment. Five methods were used to assess the hypothesized dimensions: self-reports, friend-reports, romantic partner reports, trained judges' ratings of peer attachment, and trained judges' ratings of family attachment. Study 2 related the latent attachment dimensions to theoretically relevant outcome latent variables. As predicted, Ss' self models converged with direct measures of the positivity of their self-concepts, and Ss' other models converged with direct measures of the positivity of their interpersonal orientations. Study 3 related the latent attachment dimensions to 3 alternate self-report measures of adult attachment and showed that the 2 dimensions served as an organizing framework for the different measurement approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Analyzed lay conceptions of love and commitment from a prototype perspective. In Study 1, Ss listed the features of love and/or commitment. In Study 2, centrality (prototypicality) ratings of these features were obtained. In Study 3, central features were found to be more salient in memory than peripheral features. In Study 4, it was shown that it sounded peculiar to hedge central but not peripheral features. In Study 5, central features of love were expected to be more applicable than peripheral features as relationships increased in love. Similarly for commitment, central features were expected to be more applicable than peripheral features as relationships increased in commitment. In Study 6, violations of central features of love were perceived as contributing to a greater decrease in love than were violations of peripheral features. Similarly, violations of central features of commitment were perceived as contributing to a greater decrease in commitment than were violations of peripheral features. I concluded that the findings across several studies fit best with Kelley's (1983) description of love and commitment as largely overlapping but partially independent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
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    Even if superordinate concepts (such as "fruit," "vehicle," "sport") are prototypically organized, basic-level concepts (such as "apple," "truck," "hockey") might be classically defined in terms of individually necessary and jointly sufficient features. A series of 6 studies examined 1 basic-level concept in the domain of emotion, "love," and found that it is better understood from a prototype than a classical perspective. The natural language concept of "love" has an internal structure and fuzzy borders: Maternal love, romantic love, affection, love of work, self-love, infatuation, and other subtypes of love can be reliably ordered from better to poorer examples of love. In turn, each subtype's goodness as an example of love (prototypicality) was found to predict various indices of its cognitive processing. Implications for a scientific definition and typology of love are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
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    The discovery of the Big Seven factor model of natural language personality description (Tellegen, 1993; Tellegen & Waller, 1987; Waller, in press; Waller & Zavala, 1993) challenges the comprehensiveness of the Big Five factor structure. To establish the robustness and cross-cultural generalizability of the seven-factor model, a Big Seven (Tellegen, Grove & Waller, 1991) and a Big Five (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) questionnaire were administered to 2 samples: (1) a sample of 569 community-dwelling volunteers from the US and (2) a sample of 435 Spanish native speakers from Spain. Factor structures from the self- and peer-ratings on the Spanish version of the Big Seven questionnaire largely replicated the American structure (Waller, in press). Nevertheless, some psychologically meaningful item-level differences emerged. These differences suggest that Spaniards attach negative and positive values to self–other perceptions of introversion and unconventionality, respectively. Our findings support the cross-cultural robustness of the Big Seven factors and the advantages of this structure for studying culturally specific differences in personality trait-term evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Reports 7 studies that explored the possibility that the concept of emotion is better understood from a prototype perspective than from a classical one. Specifically it is argued that membership in the concept of emotion is a matter of degree rather than all-or-none (that the concept has an internal structure) and that no sharp boundary separates members from nonmembers (that the concept has fuzzy boundaries). Undergraduates served as Ss in all experiments. As hypothesized, the concept of emotion was found to have an internal structure: Happiness, love, anger, fear, awe, respect, envy, and other types of emotion could be reliably ordered from better to poorer examples of emotion. In turn, an emotion's goodness of example (prototypicality) ranking predicted how readily it comes to mind when one is asked to list emotions, how likely it is to be labeled as an emotion when one is asked what sort of thing it is, how readily it can be substituted for the word emotion in sentences without their sounding unnatural, and the degree to which it resembles other emotion categories in terms of shared features. (54 ref)
  • Article
    The variety of interpersonal relationships in contemporary society necessitates the development of brief, reliable measures of satisfaction that are applicable to many types of close relationships. This article describes the development of such a measure. In Study I, the 7-item Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) was administered to 125 subjects who reported themselves to be "in love." Analyses revealed a unifactorial scale structure, substantial factor loadings, and moderate intercorrelations among the items. The scale correlated significantly with measures of love, sexual attitudes, self-disclosure, commitment, and investment in a relationship. In Study II, the scale was administered to 57 couples in ongoing relationships. Analyses supported a single factor, alpha reliability of .86, and correlations with relevant relationship measures. The scale correlated .80 with a longer criterion measure, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976), and both scales were effective (with a subsample) in discriminating couples who stayed together from couples who broke up. The RAS is a brief, psychometrically sound, generic measure of relationship satisfaction.
  • Article
    Interdependence theory identifies level of dependence and mutuality of dependence as two key properties of interdependent relationships. In ongoing relationships, these structural properties are subjectively experienced in terms of commitment–dependence level is experienced as greater or lesser commitment level, and mutuality of dependence is experienced as greater or lesser perceived mutuality in partners’commitment levels. We examined the associations of these variables with couple well-being using data from two three-wave longitudinal studies. One study examined partners in dating relationships and the second study examined partners in marital relationships. Consistent with predictions, both level of commitment and perceived mutuality of commitment accounted for unique variance in couple well-being: Couples exhibited greater adjustment to the degree that the partners were highly committed to their relationship and to the degree that their commitment levels were mutual. Mediation analyses revealed that the association of mutuality of commitment with couple well-being is partially mediated by negative affect (e.g., anxiety, guilt) and partially to wholly mediated by trust level; perceived mutuality of power is not a reliable mediator of this association.
  • Article
    This research tested three models of how the relationship evaluation components of satisfaction, commitment, intimacy, trust, passion, and love a structured and cognitively represented. Participants in Study 1 rated their intimate relationships on six previously developed scales that measured each construct and on a new inventory-the Perceived Relationship Quality Components (PRQC) Inventory. As predicted, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that, for both sets of scales, the best-fitting model was one in which the appropriate items loaded reliably on the six first-order factors, which in turn loaded reliably on one second-order factor reflecting overall perceived relationship quality. These results were replicated on a different sample in Study 2 and across sex. Implications and advantages of the PRQC Inventory are discussed.
  • Article
    Psychology, like society at large, continues to be baffled by the persistent belief that men and women differ in important psychological ways, in spite of countless studies that fail to demonstrate such differences or that capture them for only a brief moment. New approaches avoid the polarization of `male' and female' traits, emphasizing how and why these qualities change over the life span, across cultures and throughout history. To understand where the differences are, we must look to narrative, power, and the conditions of our lives.
  • Article
    Analyzed lay conceptions of love and commitment from a prototype perspective. In Study 1, Ss listed the features of love and/or commitment. In Study 2, centrality (prototypicality) ratings of these features were obtained. In Study 3, central features were found to be more salient in memory than peripheral features. In Study 4, it was shown that it sounded peculiar to hedge central but not peripheral features. In Study 5, central features of love were expected to be more applicable than peripheral features as relationships increased in love. Similarly for commitment, central features were expected to be more applicable than peripheral features as relationships increased in commitment. In Study 6, violations of central features of love were perceived as contributing to a greater decrease in love than were violations of peripheral features. Similarly, violations of central features of commitment were perceived as contributing to a greater decrease in commitment than were violations of peripheral features. I concluded that the findings across several studies fit best with Kelley's (1983) description of love and commitment as largely overlapping but partially independent.
  • Article
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    In the present study, I intended to determine the similarity between Rubin's (1970) Love Scale components and five of Lee's (1976) six lovestyles in a relatively homogenous sample of 301 16- and 17-year-old British females. Items describing loving behaviors toward a particular individual were formulated to measure these lovestyles together with that of Ludus. The six orthogonal factors extracted from the correlation matrix of these and Rubin's items were called Love, Mutual Love, Respect, Similarity, Physical Attraction and Hostility. The results suggested that Rubin's Love Scale contained elements of Mania and Agape but none of Ludus, which could not be further differentiated. Rubin's (1970) Liking Scale, however, could be further subdivided into Respect (Pragma) and Similarity (Storge).
  • Article
    A new 4-group model of attachment styles in adulthood is proposed. Four prototypic attachment patterns are defined using combinations of a person's self-image (positive or negative) and image of others (positive or negative). In Study 1, an interview was developed to yield continuous and categorical ratings of the 4 attachment styles. Intercorrelations of the attachment ratings were consistent with the proposed model. Attachment ratings were validated by self-report measures of self-concept and interpersonal functioning. Each style was associated with a distinct profile of interpersonal problems, according to both self- and friend-reports. In Study 2, attachment styles within the family of origin and with peers were assessed independently. Results of Study 1 were replicated. The proposed model was shown to be applicable to representations of family relations; Ss' attachment styles with peers were correlated with family attachment ratings.
  • Article
    Recent work on natural categories suggests a framework for conceptualizing people's knowledge about emotions. Categories of natural objects or events, including emotions, are formed as a result of repeated experiences and become organized around prototypes (Rosch, 1978); the interrelated set of emotion categories becomes organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy. At the basic level of the emotion hierarchy one finds the handful of concepts (love, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and perhaps, surprise) most useful for making everyday distinctions among emotions, and these overlap substantially with the examples mentioned most readily when people are asked to name emotions (Fehr & Russell, 1984), with the emotions children learn to name first (Bretherton & Beeghly, 1982), and with what theorists have called basic or primary emotions. This article reports two studies, one exploring the hierarchical organization of emotion concepts and one specifying the prototypes, or scripts, of five basic emotions, and it shows how the prototype approach might be used in the future to investigate the processing of information about emotional events, cross-cultural differences in emotion concepts, and the development of emotion knowledge.
  • Article
    Reports initial results of an attempt to introduce and validate a social-psychological construct of romantic love. Starting with the assumption that love is an interpersonal attitude, an internally consistent paper-and-pencil love scale was developed. The conception of romantic love included 3 components: affiliative and dependent need, a predisposition to help, and an orientation of exclusiveness and absorption. The 13-item love-scale scores were only moderately correlated with scores on a parallel 13-item scale of "liking," which reflected a more traditional conception of interpersonal attraction. The validity of the love scale was assessed in a questionnaire study with 158 undergraduate dating couples and a laboratory experiment with 79 undergraduate dating couples. On the basis of the emerging conception of love, it was predicted that college dating couples who loved each other a great deal (as categorized by their love-scale scores) would spend more time gazing into one another's eyes than would couples who loved each other to a lesser degree. The prediction was confirmed. (22 ref.)
  • Article
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    This meta-analysis included 66 studies (N = 4,176) on parental antecedents of attachment security. The question addressed was whether maternal sensitivity is associated with infant attachment security, and what the strength of this relation is. It was hypothesized that studies more similar to Ainsworth's Baltimore study (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) would show stronger associations than studies diverging from this pioneering study. To create conceptually homogeneous sets of studies, experts divided the studies into 9 groups with similar constructs and measures of parenting. For each domain, a meta-analysis was performed to describe the central tendency, variability, and relevant moderators. After correction for attenuation, the 21 studies (N = 1,099) in which the Strange Situation procedure in nonclinical samples was used, as well as preceding or concurrent observational sensitivity measures, showed a combined effect size of r(1,097) = .24. According to Cohen's (1988) conventional criteria, the association is moderately strong. It is concluded that in normal settings sensitivity is an important but not exclusive condition of attachment security. Several other dimensions of parenting are identified as playing an equally important role. In attachment theory, a move to the contextual level is required to interpret the complex transactions between context and sensitivity in less stable and more stressful settings, and to pay more attention to nonshared environmental influences.
  • Article
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    The present work advances and tests an interdependence-based model of the associations among commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust. Findings from two longitudinal studies revealed good support for model predictions. Commitment-inspired acts such as accommodation and willingness to sacrifice provide diagnostic information regarding a partner's pro-relationship motives. Individuals come to trust their partners when they perceive that their partners have enacted pro-relationship behaviors, departing from their direct self-interest for the good of the relationship. The results of mediation analyses are consistent with a model of mutual cyclical growth in which (a) dependence promotes strong commitment, (b) commitment promotes pro-relationship acts, (c) pro-relationship acts are perceived by the partner, (d) the perception of pro-relationship acts enhances the partner's trust, and (e) trust increases the partner's willingness to become dependent on the relationship. Auxiliary analyses revealed that self-reported attachment style does not account for substantial variance beyond the features of interdependence that form the basis for the present model.
  • Article
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    A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.