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Gender Stereotypes and Women's Reports of Liking and Ability in Traditionally Masculine and Feminine Occupations

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Abstract

Gender stereotypes were examined for their causal influence on women's reported liking for and perceived ability to succeed in traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. One hundred twenty-one women were assigned to either a gender-stereotype activation or filler task and then completed measures of liking for, and perceived ability to succeed in, traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. Strongly gender-identified women showed significantly greater liking for feminine occupations in the stereotype-activation condition than in the control condition. However, more weakly identified women did not show the same effect. In contrast, women weak in gender identification reported an increase in perceived ability for feminine occupations when stereotypes were activated than in the control condition. Activating gender stereotypes did not shift reported liking or perceived ability in traditionally masculine occupations. These results demonstrate the theoretical and practical importance of gender stereotypes on women's career-related attitudes.

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... We argue that influential positions, in terms of high indegree centrality, are likely to grant individuals with responsibility, obligation, and expectation to follow the norms of their feminine/masculine occupation to fit to their occupational identity (Ashcraft, 2013), to gain legitimacy based on role congruence (Eagly, 1987), and to accrue social capital (Oswald, 2008), thereby, maintain their central status. As such, the tendency of individuals to give negative cites will vary depending on whether the indegree centrality is in a feminine or a masculine occupation. ...
... When it comes to specifically higher indegree centrality position in positive ties, employees occupying these valuable positions in a feminine occupation maintain their social capital and career success by complying with the feminine occupational characteristics (Oswald, 2008). So, employees with higher indegree centrality in positive ties accrue 'emotional capital' valued in feminine occupations by investing in emotion management skills and being highly sensitive to others, including their colleagues (Cottingham, 2016). ...
... So, employees with higher indegree centrality in positive ties accrue 'emotional capital' valued in feminine occupations by investing in emotion management skills and being highly sensitive to others, including their colleagues (Cottingham, 2016). Feminine occupations provide a sensitive and communal atmosphere (Diekman & Goodfriend, 2006;Oswald, 2008) and therefore higher indegree centrality in positive ties is less likely to generate negative cites towards colleagues as being in a valuable network position, there is an expectation to show care, warmth, and collegiality to maintain the feminine environment of cooperation. Thus, in a feminine occupation, higher indegree centrality in positive ties may not result in negative cites to colleagues. ...
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Negative ties and gender (as a contextual variable) have remained under-studied in the social networks research in management. Drawing on occupational gender-typing theory, the paper hypothesizes that the relationship between indegree centrality of employees in a positive ties-based network and their tendency to cite their colleagues in negative ties differs in a feminine and a masculine occupation. Using network data from two organizations in India, the paper shows that in a feminine occupation (nursing), the higher the indegree centrality of the employees in a positive ties-based network, the less likely are they to cite negative ties whereas, in a masculine occupation (mining), the higher the indegree centrality of the employees in a positive ties-based network, more likely are they to cite negative ties. We make a theoretical contribution by extending the occupational gender-typing theory in social networks research by theorizing and examining the distinctive effects of the context – feminine and masculine occupations – on networks and work relations. We also discuss the managerial implications of the study.
... To respond to this question, we directly activate gender stereotypes in Study 1 (Oswald 2008) and employ an indirect yet practically-relevant manipulation based on a threat paradigm in Study 2 . The present research contributes to a growing body of research devoted toward understanding how women's civic virtue is viewed in a work context. ...
... Please rate the extent to which you believe people of the same gender as you have the following traits." Subsequently we provided a list of 10 agentic (e.g., "assertive," "dominant," "daring") and 10 communal (e.g., "affectionate," "nurturing," "warm,") adjectives (Eagly and Karau 2002;Madera et al. 2009;Oswald 2008). In the non-activated gender stereotype condition, participants proceeded to the next task. ...
... While researchers have argued that participants in laboratory research may be younger and more open to gender equity (Heilman and Eagly 2008)-which would make our findings conservative-field research is needed. We used several priming methods, one focused on gender stereotypes (Oswald 2008), the other on threat (Jost and Kay Fig. 4 Plot of two-way interaction between target gender and threat on task performance (Study 2). Note. ...
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We examined the extent to which observers’ expectations of target employees’ civic virtue organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are a function of both observer- (gender stereotype activation, threat) and target-related (gender) influences. Consistent with a role congruity perspective, we proposed that civic virtue (constructive involvement in the political governance process of the organization) will be expected to a lesser extent of women, but only when gender stereotypes are activated. We confirm this hypothesis across two studies. In Study 1, based on a sample of 187 U.S. undergraduate students (101 women, 86 men), we show that less civic virtue is expected of women when observers’ gender stereotypes are experimentally activated (vs. the non-activated condition). Using an additional sample of 197 U.S. undergraduate students (Study 2; 118 women, 79 men), we extend our findings by demonstrating that less civic virtue was expected of women in a high (vs. low) threat (manipulated) condition. Findings for men are included for comparative and general informational purposes only. We observed no significant changes in civic virtue expectations for men due to our study manipulations. Our research extends prior studies by showing that expectations for civic virtue are diminished for women, but only when gender stereotypes and threat are activated.
... Bireylerin uygun olarak gördükleri işlerde çalışmadıkları durumlarda nasıl bir sonucun ortaya çıktığını gösteren çalışmalar da mevcuttur. Oswald (2008)'in çalışmasında kadınların kariyer seçiminde stereotiplerin kadın eğer feminen olarak algılanmayan bir alan seçmişse, o alandan ayrılmasına sebep olduğu bulunmuştur. Geleneksel olarak daha maskülen algılanan bölümlerde öğrenim gören kadınların daha fazla stereotip tehdidi ve ayrımcılığı yaşadıkları ve okudukları bölümden ayrılma eğilimlerinin feminen olarak algılanan bölümlere göre daha yüksek olduğu raporlanmıştır. ...
... In literature, there are numerous studies that examines the occupational stereotypes (Miller & Hayward, 2006;Oswald, 2008;Gadassi & Gati, 2009;Pinar, McCuddy, Birkan & Kozak, 2011;Adachi, 2013;Peters, Ryan & Haslam, 2015;Forsman & Barth, 2017) but it can be said that the studies that about the occupation in tourism sector (Arli, 2013;Pinar McCuddy, Birkan & Kozak, 2011) are limited. Besides that, the study has originality as far as no study using an implicit technique such as imaginary scenario examining occupational gender stereotypes exist. ...
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, turizm sektöründe yer alan 10 farklı iş pozisyonuna yönelik mesleki toplumsal cinsiyet algılamalarını ortaya koymaktır. Hayali senaryo tekniğinden yararlanılarak 388 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen veriler ile turizm sektöründeki mesleklerin cinsiyet algısı belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışmada ayrıca katılımcıların mesleğe yönelik bilgi düzeylerinin mesleki toplumsal cinsiyet algılamaları üzerinde fark yaratıp yaratmadığını tespit etmek için turizm eğitimi alıp almadıkları, sektörel deneyime sahip olup olmadıkları, konaklama ve yurtdışı deneyimleri de ölçülmüştür. Sonuç olarak, çalışmaya katılan üniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyetlerinin turizm sektöründeki iş pozisyonlarına yönelik cinsiyet algılarında anlamlı bir farka sebep olduğu görülmekteyken, mesleğe yönelik bilginin (eğitim ve deneyimlerin) etkisinin sınırlı olduğu söylenebilir. Literatüre yansıdığı kadarı ile turizm sektöründe mesleki toplumsal cinsiyet algılamalarının çözümlenmesine yönelik bir araştırmanın olmaması çalışmanın özgün değerini oluşturmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Toplumsal cinsiyet, Mesleki toplumsal cinsiyet, Stereotip, Turizm sektörü. Abstract The aim of this study is to reveal occupational gender stereotype perceptions towards 10 different job positions in tourism sector. Using the imaginary scenario technique, the data obtained from 388 university students and the gender perception of these professions in the tourism sector were tried to be determined. The study also measured whether the knowledge of the occupational level of the participants, tourism education status, job experience in tourism sector and their experiences about being abroad causes to a significant difference on occupational gender perceptions. As a result, it can be said that the gender of university students participating in the study caused a significant difference in gender perceptions of job positions in tourism sector, while the effect of knowledge (education and experience) related to the profession was limited. As it is reflected in the literature, the lack of research to solve occupational gender perceptions in the tourism sector constitutes the original value of the study.
... Indeed, when they are offered a leadership position which is precarious because the organization is crisis and the leader role is lacking social resources, women think it will be difficult to fulfill their gendered leader role, and are doubtful whether they will be able to establish acceptance among their subordinates (Rink et al., in press). This research corroborates prior work demonstrating that both women and men react negatively to work situations in which the dominant characteristics are incompatible with their own gender-based leadership role (e.g., Oswald, 2008; Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008). To conclude, this research suggests that the presence of women on the glass cliff cannot simply be attributed to a failure of women to recognize the precariousness of such positions. ...
... In sum, the research available to date suggests that female leaders are likely to be placed in glass cliff positions that lack social resources, because they are seen to possess stereotypical female leadership abilities. This is the case even though these women in fact find these positions highly unattractive, indicating that they are well aware of the liabilities involved in accepting such a precarious leadership position (see also Oswald, 2008; Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008). As such, the appointment process as well as women's and men's own evaluations of glass cliff positions are guided by broader gendered expectations about leadership, together with the likelihood that they endorse gender stereotypical self-views due to their inclination to identify with their gender group. ...
Article
This contribution focuses on women in leadership positions. We propose that two convictions are relevant to the effects of having women in high places. On the one hand, women as a group are expected to employ different leadership styles than men, in this way adding diversity to management teams. On the other hand, individual women are expected to ascend to leadership positions by showing their ability to display the competitiveness and toughness typically required from those at the top. We posit that both convictions stem from gendered leadership beliefs, and that these interact with women's self-views to determine the effectiveness of female leaders. We develop an integrative model that explains the interplay between organizational beliefs and individual-self definitions and its implications for female leadership. We then present initial evidence in support of this model from two recent programs of research. The model allows us to connect “glass cliff” effects to “queen bee” effects showing that both relate to the perceived salience of gender in the organization, as well as individual gender identities. Each of these phenomena may harm future career opportunities of women, be it as individuals or as a group. We outline how future research may build on our proposed model and examine its further implications. We also indicate how the model may offer a concrete starting point for developing strategies to enhance the effectiveness of women in leadership positions.
... For example, Shih, Pittinsky, and Ambady (1999) found that Asian American women's math performance was worse when their female identity was salient, but improved when their Asian identity was salient. Oswald (2008) found that activating gender stereotypes resulted in women reporting greater perceptions of their abilities, and perceived liking, for traditionally-feminine occupations. Thus, research suggests that the activation of gender-based stereotypes can result in stereotyped task performance and preferences. ...
... Stereotypes about gendered cognitive abilities are especially problematic when we consider the potential implications for career choices (Eccles, 1987;Oswald, 2008). If women have internalized stereotypes about their academic skills, even the positive stereotypes about women being more verbally skilled, then this might direct women into traditionally-feminine fields despite their natural talents. ...
Article
The process and implications of gender-based self-stereotyping are examined in this paper. Women displayed a tendency to selectively self-stereotype for personality and physical traits such that they endorsed positive stereotypic traits and denied negative traits as descriptive of the self and closest women friends. However, negative traits were endorsed as descriptive of women in general. Cognitive stereotypes were endorsed as more descriptive of all women than of the general university student. The tendency to selectively self-stereotype on physical traits was positively associated with appearance, social, and performance self-esteem. The results are discussed for their theoretical and practical implications.
... The traditional gender-biased culture of engineering may have influenced the lack of these competencies because it tends to be highly dominated by traditionally maleoriented values (i.e., agentic, technical orientation, assertiveness, focus on self-interest, minimum communication, and rationality without creativity) (Denissen, 2010;Jorgenson, 2002;Oswald, 2008). Casimir and Dutilh (2003) conducted a cross-country analysis that detected an inverse relationship between traditional male gender values and sustainable ideologies. ...
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As the social and environmental demands evolve, business organizations specializing in engineering are required to reconsider their gender policies and practices to retain competitive advantage. This conceptual article highlights that the movement towards sustainability could encourage organisations to achieve critical constructs of workplace gender inclusion. This article uses the Sustainable Human Resource Management (HRM) framework and Ethics of Care approach as the theoretical foundation to create a conceptual model on inclusion. The model specifically helps to understand how the assumptions and beliefs of internal organizational stakeholders contribute toward adopting care-based values to promote gender inclusivity in engineering workplaces. In conclusion, the article highlights the need for more empirical research on the Sustainable HRM approach and how it can help to foster an inclusive workplace.
... As a result, these early career preferences may have a lasting impact and perpetuate the existing gender divide in work. Although researchers have extensively studied the impact of gender stereotypes (Oswald, 2008) on occupational interests, less work has examined how other facets of socialization, such as felt pressure to conform to gender norms and perceived occupational knowledge, may contribute to gender differences in children's occupational interest. The current study investigated whether gender, perceived occupational knowledge, occupational gender stereotypes, and as felt pressure to conform to gender norms predicted elementary aged children's occupational interests in a sample of low-SES children. ...
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This study investigates how perceived occupational knowledge, gender stereotypes, and pressure to conform to gender norms influence children’s career interests in a sample of fourth and fifth grade children (n = 178, Mage = 9.78 years, 46.6% girls). Children were interested in and perceived that they knew more about own gender dominated occupations, compared to other gender dominated occupations. Gender moderated the effect of gender conformity pressure and gender stereotypes on interest in female-dominated but not male-dominated occupations. Boys were less interested in female-dominated occupations when they felt pressure to conform to gender norms and held more stereotypical beliefs about those occupations. These results suggest that perceived occupational knowledge is an important, yet overlooked, factor in understanding gender differences in children’s occupational interests.
... Because STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) disciplines and the IT field are typically considered to be men-dominant professions and are associated with masculine attributes (Cundiff et al., 2013;Kiefer & Sekaquaptewa, 2007;Michie & Nelson, 2006;Smeding, 2012;Trauth et al., 2016), it is likely that women who have strong feminine gender identity would decide (consciously or subconsciously) that the IT profession is inappropriate for them. For example, Oswald (2008) showed that women who have strong prejudices about professions prefer feminine occupations. This line of reasoning may also apply in the university setting, regarding a major and a future profession selection. ...
Article
Gender inequality in the IT profession is an acute issue with major individual, societal, and national implications. In this study, we build on the individual differences theory of gender and IT and extend it to account for subconscious processes that may drive women away from IT university majors and IT career choices. We specifically theorize on how the asymmetric roles of explicit and implicit gender identity facets impact the major selection of men and women students and affect their decisions to pursue the IT profession. To do so, this study introduces the concept of implicit gender identity, defined as the degree to which men and women subconsciously, automatically, and uncontrollably associate themselves with the masculine and feminine gender groups, respectively. We obtained data from 185 pre-major selection university students by means of a survey and the Implicit Association Test. The findings revealed that implicit gender identity was a significant predictor of IT major and career choices for women but not for men university students. Explicit gender identity had no influence on IT major and career choices for men or women university students. Nevertheless, men's and women's IT major and career choices appear to be similarly influenced by normative pressures. IT skills and IT work experience also impact such choices. Ultimately, this study shows that implicit gender identity can be a factor that drives women university students away from the IT profession and contributes to the gender gap in the field.
... Consequently, men's value of such activities is linked to their relatively greater probability of entering engineering fields. Thus the internalization of gender roles and accompanying goals and preferences has been found to lead to the endorsement of gender-stereotypic career interests (Evans and Diekman, 2009) and, more specifically, to gender differences in the likelihood of choosing to enter the engineering field (Frehill, 1997;Oswald, 2008). ...
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Attracting women to the engineering profession has been a topic of ongoing discussion and examination. In light of perceptions of what it means to be an engineer, both male and female students are navigating and aligning their future career goals based on their understanding of engineering as a profession. This study examines 1) the extent to which there are gender differences in affinity towards elements of professional practice (framing and solving problems, tinkering, collaboration, analysis, design, and project management) and 2) whether gender differences in affinity towards these practices contribute to the gender gap in engineering professional identification. Survey data was collected from 2256 undergraduate engineering students in three majors at one large public institution. Results show significant gender differences in affinities towards five of the six professional practices considered. Additionally, multivariate regression analyses revealed the gender gap in engineering professional identification is partially explained by differences in these affinities towards engineering professional practices. Further analyses also revealed that affinity towards framing and solving problems was a stronger predictor of engineering professional identification for female students than for male students. Implications of results are discussed.
... which workers are perceived as stereotypically masculine (Haines, Deaux, & Lofaro, 2016;Oswald, 2008). As such, male leaders' (gender) role congruity should be low in the education domain and high in the engineering domain. ...
Article
Members of high-status groups (e.g., men) often lead social justice efforts that seek to benefit low-status groups (e.g., women), but little is known about how observers respond to such instances of visible and influential solidarity. We presented information about a non-profit organization seeking to address gender (Study 1, N = 198) or racial (Study 2, N = 216) inequality, in which the leadership team was manipulated to include a numerical majority of either high-status group members or low-status group members. Members of low-status groups who read about the majority high-status leadership team reported lower levels of collective action intentions, compared to those who read about the majority low-status leadership team. Mediation analyses (Studies 1 and 2) and an experimental-causal-chain design (Study 3, N = 405) showed that lower collective action intentions in response to the majority high-status leadership team were mediated by participants’ perception of a specific problem presented by high-status group leaders (lower awareness of inequality) and lower levels of hope. Study 4 (N = 555) demonstrated that low-status group members responded more negatively to a majority high-status leadership team in an organization seeking to benefit their low-status ingroup (solidarity context), compared to organizations seeking to benefit other groups (non-solidarity contexts). Results provide the first evidence that the presence of influential high-status group leaders can discourage members of low-status groups from joining a social justice effort that seeks to benefit their ingroup, and that these negative responses extend beyond preferences predicted by frameworks of ingroup bias and role congruity.
... Oswald'ın [9] "Cinsiyet Klişeleri ve Kadınların Geleneksel Eril ve Kadınsı Mesleklerden Hoşlanma ve Yetenekleri Raporları" çalışmasında kadınların kariyer tercihlerini genellikle kadınsı mesleklerdeki genel başarı oranlarına göre yaptıkları belirlenmiştir. ...
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İş hayatında çalışanların yönetsel pozisyonlara gelememelerindeki -bireysel, örgütsel ve toplumsal etmenlerin bir araya gelmesiyle oluşan- görünmez engeller “cam tavan” olarak tanımlanmıştır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de kamu ve özel sağlık kuruluşlarının radyoloji departmanlarında kadın radyoloji çalışanlarının yükselmelerini engelleyen faktörler ile ilgili katılımcıların -sosyo-demografik özellikleri göz önünde bulundurularak- farkındalığını, algı ve tutumlarını, cam tavan faktörleri ve cam tavan farkındalığı ölçekleri ile tespit etmeyi amaçlamıştır. Çalışma ile ilgili tüm sonuç ve değerlendirmelerin etkisi, anket uygulanan 316 kişinin algı ve tutumlarıyla sınırlıdır. Cam tavan/cam tavan sendromu üzerine çalışmalar birçok alanda yapılmış olup, radyoloji ünitelerinde, bu çalışma ile bu konuya ilk defa yer verilmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Cam tavan, Toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri, Radyolojide kadın yöneticiler
... Kadınlar kariyer tercihlerini genellikle feminen mesleklerdeki genel başarı oranlarına göre yapmaktadırlar (Oswald, 2008). Diğer taraftan kadınların cinsiyet eşitsizliği, düşük sosyal statüyü kabullenmeleri sonucunda, cinsiyet ile ilgili bireysel stereotipler oluşturmaları işgücünün işlere göre bölümlenmesine de yol açmaktadır (Schmitt ve Wirth, 2009). ...
... Gender stereotypes includes both explicit and implicit beliefs about female inferiority in mathematics (Bhana, 2005;Nosek et al., 2002), and could possess an important impact on girls and women by impairing their math performance (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999), and learning process (Appel, Kronberger, & Aronson, 2011). Oswald (2008) showed the interplay between stereotype activation and gender identification in the area of linking and sense of ability of gendertyped occupations. Additionally, Tomasetto, Alparone and Cadinu (2011) demonstrated that parents' stereotype endorsement also shape the way children are affected by stereotype-driven effect, like stereotype threat. ...
... Por su parte, Rodríguez, Lameiras, Carrera y Faílde (2010) en su investigación con alumnado de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria verificaron la existencia de un elevado nivel de sexismo interiorizado hacia las adolescentes. En esta franja de edad también se han apreciado sesgos en las preferencias académicas y laborales de los alumnos y alumnas (Ricoy y Sánchez-Martínez, 2016), así como en la capacidad percibida por las mujeres para ser exitosas en profesiones tradicionalmente masculinas (Oswald, 2008). Asimismo, se ha comprobado la existencia de actitudes poco favorables hacia la igualdad de género entre el alumnado de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (Azorín, 2017), aunque se aprecia un mayor grado de sensibilización entre las estudiantes que entre sus compañeros (García Pérez et al., 2010). ...
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El logro de una ciudadanía más respetuosa y sensible con la diversidad exige del reconocimiento de las creencias sexistas y estereotipadas que, aún hoy en día, persisten en nuestra sociedad. Con este objetivo, el presente trabajo pretende identificar la presencia de estereotipos de género entre el alumnado de Formación Profesional, comprobando, además, la existencia de posibles diferencias en función del sexo y del nivel del ciclo formativo cursado (grado medio o grado superior). Para ello, se utiliza la Escala de Actitudes de Rol de Género con una muestra de 135 estudiantes de ciclos formativos de un centro integrado público de formación profesional de la provincia de Alicante. La prueba t de Student confirmó la existencia de significativas diferencias según sexo y nivel estudiado. En cuanto al sexo, las chicas obtuvieron medias significativamente más altas al defender la igualdad de género en el ámbito familiar, así como la corresponsabilidad a la hora de realizar las tareas domésticas. Por el contrario, los chicos alcanzaron medias significativamente más altas en el sexismo familiar, apostando por un estilo educativo diferenciado y bajo la responsabilidad de la madre. Por otro lado, fueron los estudiantes de ciclos formativos de grado superior quienes obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en la distribución equitativa de las tareas domésticas. Ante los resultados obtenidos, se considera necesario introducir medidas de sensibilización en materia de igualdad de género en el ámbito de la Formación Profesional, como estrategia exitosa de atención a la diversidad.
... Past research demonstrated that occupations are gender-stereotyped not only by adults, but also already by children of preschool age (Bigler & Liben, 1992, Gadassi & Gati, 2009, Lawrie & Brown, 1992, Mulvey & Killen, 2015, Oswald, 2008. Children simultaneously classify whether and how a certain profession would match their self-concept, which is constantly evolving within the gender schema. ...
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Purpose - There exist a number of approaches that attempt to explain the occupational choices of youth from different perspectives. The social cognitive theory and the self-efficacy approach, to name the most influential, emphasize the centrality of cognitive abilities of individuals in making a career choice, and look at professional orientation primarily through the lenses of micro factors. This chapter extends existing approaches by accentuating the importance of cultural traditions and stereotypes for occupational choices. Methodology/approach - This chapter uses official statistical data ranging from the rise of the USSR to the present day. These have been collected by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) and were partly retrieved from archives. Findings - After a review of extant theoretical frames pertinent to career choices, this chapter suggests a theory of occupational choices through the lenses of gender, thus deploying Sandra L. Bem's (1973, 1981) framework on gender schema. Proposing a theoretical model that links micro and macro factors, the chapter then demonstrates how the approach functions in the Russian post-socialist context. Originality/value - The novelty consists of incorporation of sociocultural aspects of occupational choices, thus allowing a scope for comparative research. Additionally, the proposed model of gendered career choices can be employed for explaining differences within sexes. Besides, the model argues that not primarily intelligence but often external factors shape career choices.
... In human beings, self-reported confidence can be influenced by factors other than ability or performance. These factors include gender stereotypes, which can lead to lower levels of confidence in the sex that is perceived to be less competent (Oswald, 2008). The psychological literature on confidence strongly suggests that women have lower confidence than men in a variety of contexts. ...
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Lack of confidence in one's own ability can increase the likelihood of relying on social information. Sex differences in confidence have been extensively investigated in cognitive tasks, but implications for conformity have not been directly tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in a task that shows sex differences in confidence, an indirect effect of sex on social information use will also be evident. Participants (N = 168) were administered a mental rotation (MR) task or a letter transformation (LT) task. After providing an answer, participants reported their confidence before seeing the responses of demonstrators and being allowed to change their initial answer. In the MR, but not the LT, task, women showed lower levels of confidence than men, and confidence mediated an indirect effect of sex on the likelihood of switching answers. These results provide novel, experimental evidence that confidence is a general explanatory mechanism underpinning susceptibility to social influences. Our results have implications for the interpretation of the wider literature on sex differences in conformity.
... Even though the private and public spheres of human lives are usually intertwined and can hardly be treated as independently standing from each other, these two areas will be separated in & Cromby, 1999) Firstly, a brief explanation of what is considered to be 'change' in this study is provided. Sociological literature identifies two broad types of views/perceptions/beliefs about gender roles (Berridge et al., 2009; Lenton, Bruder, & Sedikides, 2009; Oswald, 2008; Prentice & Carranza, 2002): A traditionalist type of view. People's beliefs about gender roles are rooted in segregated gender roles in which women are responsible for children, home and other issues related to the private sphere. ...
... Indeed, teachers may ''take cover'' and protect themselves from struggling with mathematical teaching situations that create anxiety for them. Across the literature base, there is a growing consensus that a confident and competent mathematics teacher is a vital necessity in the classroom (Ball et al. 2005;Beilock et al. 2010;Gavin and Reis 2003;Huebner 2009;Marx and Roman 2002;Mizala et al. 2015;Oswald 2008). ...
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Mathematics education researchers have investigated mathematics anxiety in prospective elementary teachers. While many of these studies have focused on the bodily sensations and emotions of mathematics anxiety, particularly those felt in assessment situations, opportunities remain to investigate how prospective elementary teachers interpret their experiences with mathematics anxiety and connect them over time to compose personal histories of mathematics anxiety. Currently, over 90 % of elementary teachers in US schools are women, and women have been shown to suffer more from mathematics anxiety than do men. In this article, I analyze how one woman prospective elementary teacher described, explained, and related her experiences of mathematics anxiety across her personal narratives of learning mathematics as a K-12 student and of learning to teach mathematics as a college student in a teacher preparation program. My research demonstrates that experiences of mathematics anxiety may persist beyond assessment situations to influence women prospective elementary teachers’ larger mathematical histories. I also show that women prospective elementary teachers may interpret mathematics anxiety as specific fears (e.g., loss of opportunities for social participation) and may develop particular coping strategies related to those fears. Finally, I point out that while a coping strategy may be used consistently across K-12 mathematics learning and undergraduate teacher preparation, and may even offer a woman prospective elementary teacher some relief from mathematics anxiety, it may also limit her mathematics learning and professional development. To conclude, I present implications of my research for mathematics teacher educators.
... Occupational or career choices are determined by a host of factors, such as self-efficacy, ability, and interests (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). Other people (e.g., parents, family friends, educators) can also play an important role in the choices women make, particularly in fields where negative stereotypes about women exist (Oswald, 2008). Indeed, the presence of female experts and peers in male-dominated fields increases the participation of other women (Cheryan, Drury, & Vichayapai, 2013;Dasgupta, 2011) and reduces the perceived stereotyped masculinity of the field (Young et al., 2013). ...
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Because women are in the minority in masculine fields like finance and banking, women in these fields may experience stereotype threat or the concern about being negatively stereotyped in their workplace. Research demonstrates that stereotype threat among women in management and accounting leads to negative job attitudes and intentions to quit via its effects on identity separation, or the perception that one’s gender identity is incompatible with one’s work identity. The current work extends this research to related outcomes among women in finance. In this study, 512 women working in finance completed a survey about their work environment, their well-being at work, and whether they would recommend the field of finance to younger women. Results showed that, to the extent women experienced stereotype threat in their work environment, they reported diminished well-being at work and were less likely to recommend their field to other women, and these outcomes were mediated by identity separation. Recruitment and retention of women into fields where they have been historically underrepresented is key to achieving the “critical mass” of women necessary to reduce perceptions of tokenism as well as stereotyping and devaluing of women. The current work sheds light on psychological factors that affect these outcomes.
... This idea is supported by the general theorizing that social stereotypes are inferred and generated based on information about the status that the social groups have in society (Eagly, 1987;Eagly & Steffen, 1984), and by the empirical evidence showing that exposure to gender stereotypes can impact women's cognition and behavior. For example, with respect to women and science it has been demonstrated that exposure to gender stereotypes impedes cognitive performance in school-aged girls (Huguet & Régner, 2007, encourages greater preference for feminine occupations in gender-identified women (Oswald, 2008), and affects women and men's educational and occupational choices (Eccles, Jacobs, & Harold, 1990). ...
Article
Imagining oneself in a stereotyped role may not only increase women's endorsement of stereotypes about women and science, but also stifle broader concerns about social change. In the experiment, 81 women imagined themselves on a stereotypical or a counter-stereotypical career path (vs. a control condition). Participants in the stereotypical imagery condition endorsed to a higher extent the stereotypes about women and science, and crucially, were more resistant to social change in general. Stereotype endorsement mediated the relationship between exposure to stereotypes and resistance to social change. Results imply that tackling occupational gender stereotypes is crucial not only because they exclude women from male-dominated careers, but also because of a potentially pervasive negative impact on broader egalitarian concerns.
... Also Oswald (2008) has shown that strongly identified women had significantly greater liking for a feminine occupation after being exposed to gender stereotypes whereas weakly identified women did not show this. Thus, stereotype activation had a differential effect on women depending on their gender identification. ...
Article
The current study adopts a relational perspective of sex stereotyping by taking into account the perceiver’s group membership, the target group, and the content of the stereotype. We asked women and men to report their personal beliefs about men and women on three characteristics: competence, warmth and morality. The results showed that participants were engaging in three different patterns of sex stereotyping: traditional sex stereotyping (both sexes rated similarly by both male and female participants on traditional stereotypes), traditional in-group favoring sex stereotyping (participants favor his/her own group on a stereotype traditionally associated with his/her group), and counter-traditional sex stereotyping (participants favor his/her own group on a stereotype not traditionally associated with his/her group). This suggests that there can be consensus as well as contention on sex stereotypes.
... This occurs at the level of the occupation (Cohen & Huffman, 2003;Maume, 1999), the market (Cohen & Huffman, 2007), and the specific job type (Huffman & Cohen, 2004). Similarly, women are stereotyped as having less potential in male-typed jobs (Oswald, 2008). ...
... Because there are less women as a leader than men it is necessary identify if women has more obstacles to exert leadership. One of these obstacles comes from psychological gender differences in selfefficacy (Else-Quest et al., 2012; Gibson and Lawrence, 2010; Hyde, 2013; Kling et al., 1999;Major, 1994;Oswald, 2008). It is another cognitive component, refers to a person's belief in her or his ability to accomplish a particular task. ...
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When a group of persons begins to interact, various differences between the members begin to appear. The pattern of relationships change according to the nature of the task and the most influential person became to be the leader. The aim of the present work is study whether men and women leader are fundamentally different or similar, reviewing the different relationships that exist when a group agrees a division of labour, roles, and responsibilities. It is also important to explore how the way of leadership influences the evolution of the whole group. Leaders must be chosen because of the characteristics that they possess. They should be seen as best suited to lead in particular situations and when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these, traditional feminine behaviour could be favoured in new business scenarios.
... Therefore, the study will investigate the following two hypothesis: H1: Women in the games industry will have low gender identification at work (oneway). Research has found that strongly gender identified college women liked feminine occupations significantly more than less strongly identified women (Oswald 2008). Therefore, women in the male dominated games industry will have low gender identification. ...
... Female politicians can bridge the gap between women's informal political methods and the formal political world. Additionally, female representatives serve as role models, giving women confidence to engage in the masculine domain of politics (Oswald, 2008). Some women take pride in the political careers of other women, leading to more favorable views of formal politics and increased levels of female participation (High-Pippert & Comer, 1998). ...
Article
Gender quotas, decentralization of irrigation management, and reliance on MGNREGA for labor provision challenge the traditional patriarchal canal management system by institutionalizing women as formal decision-makers and members of the irrigation labor force in northern India. Based on a survey of 592 women in rural Himachal Pradesh, this paper quantitatively analyses how these policies affect women’s engagement in formal political processes. Results indicate that factors from the private and individual domains influence female participation in formal political processes. Most importantly, India’s gender inclusive policies provide women with the opportunity to legitimately engage in formal political processes governing resource management.
... Women whose attitudes reflected a lesser preference for masculine occupations decided to pursue a gender-stereotypical major. As discussed byOswald (2008) andWolfe and Betz (1981), college women's occupation choices typically follow gender stereotypes. Our study extends this previous literature by suggesting that college women's selections of academic major may also follow gender stereotypes. ...
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We investigated US college students’ gender-typed attitudes about occupations for themselves as a predictor of their real-world decisions regarding an academic major and intended future career. We also investigated US college students’ attitudes about the appropriateness of gender-typed occupations for other men and women. The sample (N = 264) was mostly Caucasian and was drawn from a large state university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. An established self-report measure (see Liben and Bigler 2002) was used to assess attitudes about occupations for the self and other people. Gender-typed majors and intended careers were categorized using a coding scheme that was developed for the study. College students preferred gender-stereotypical occupations for themselves. Women’s, but not men’s, preferences for gender-typed occupations predicted their decisions about their academic major and the career they intended to pursue. Both men and women reported that men should only hold masculine occupations, but that women should hold both masculine and feminine occupations. We discuss the implications of our results for understanding the gender gap in occupations in the US, such as the underrepresentation of women in STEM careers and barriers for men in stereotypically female occupations.
... This process is referred to as gender typing (Kohlberg, 1966;Kohlberg & Ullian, 1974), and holds implications for the development of sex-role identity and integration of masculinity and femininity into an individual's self-concept and gender schema (Bem, 1981;Knafo, Iervolino, & Plomin, 2005;Spence, 1993). Highly gender typed individuals are motivated to keep their behaviour and self-concept consistent with traditional gender norms (Bem, 1975;Bem & Lenney, 1976;Maccoby, 1990;Martin & Ruble, 2004), and this also applies to academic domains (Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2002;Oswald, 2008;Steffens & Jelenec, 2011). Others may integrate aspects of both masculine and feminine identification into their self-schema, termed androgyny (Bem, 1984;Spence, 1984). ...
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Although gender-related differences in highly gender typed cognitive abilities are of considerable interest to educators and cognitive researchers alike, relatively little progress has been made in understanding the psychological processes that lead to them. Nash (1979) proposed a gender-role mediation hypothesis for such differences, with particular emphasis on spatial ability. However, changes in gender equality and gender stereotypes in the decades since merit a re-examination of whether a gender-role association still holds (Feingold, 1988). A meta-analysis of 12 studies that examined gender-role identity and mental rotation performance was conducted. These included studies from the United Kingdom, Canada, Poland, Croatia, and the United States of America. The mean effect size for masculinity was r = .30 for men and r = .23 for women; no association was found between femininity and mental rotation. This effect size was slightly larger than that found previously by Signorella and Jamison (1986), and exceeds many other factors known to influence spatial ability. The implications of gender-role mediation of gender differences are discussed and future research directions are identified.
... For example, people who are interested in realistic activities and who are less interpersonally oriented tend to be drawn to academic majors and occupations in engineering and science fields . Further, other research has shown that men and women who choose to enter such occupations tend to endorse a more traditional and conservative view with regard to gender roles (Dodson & Borders, 2006;Hirschi, 2010;Leaper & Van, 2008;Mahalik, Perry, Coonerty-Femiano, Catraio, & Land, 2006;Oswald, 2008;Tokar & Jome, 1998). The findings from the present study are consistent with this body of literature: For example, more traditional students reported higher realistic interests, less openness to new experiences, and lower levels of agreeableness ( Table 2); this pattern of results was present for both genders. ...
Article
The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of course type, instructor and student gender, and student individual differences (domain-specific vocational interests and confidence, personality, and gender role attitudes) on student evaluation of teaching (SET) scores. A sample of 610 college students (372 female) rated hypothetical instructors described in a vignette on eight common dimensions of teaching effectiveness. Mean SET ratings were not significantly different across instructor gender and course type. A series of multiple regressions revealed, however, that student individual differences explained a significant proportion of the variance in SET ratings. The most salient traits that were significantly related to SET ratings were agreeableness, conscientiousness, conventional and investigative confidence, and gender role attitudes. In addition, female students gave significantly higher mean ratings than male students independent of course type or instructor gender. This effect was eliminated when statistically controlling for students' individual differences. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that student individual differences can bias SET scores, which poses a threat to the validity of the ratings.
... The issue of whether the job acquisition difficulty differences currently found were likely to result from perceived discrimination, or whether responses were governed more by the influence of stereotypes and prevailing ideologies, is a complex one worthy of further research. Such research should include the issue of occupational gender stereotyping in perceptions of difficulties in obtaining graduate-level employment (Evans & Diekman, 2009;Oswald, 2008). ...
Article
Ethnic and gender differences in perceptions of graduate job acquisition difficulty among U.K. post-higher education job seekers were investigated. Two main hypotheses were compared: the double jeopardy hypothesis (DJH), suggesting an additive or interactive increase in perceived difficulty associated with membership of different disadvantaged demographic categories; and the ethnic prominence hypothesis, arguing for the salience of ethnicity over gender in perceptions. Graduates and final year students (N= 800) from Black, Indian, Pakistani/Bangladeshi, and White ethnic backgrounds rated the level of difficulty that a suitably qualified man and woman from their own ethnic background would encounter in attaining 10 graduate jobs. Interactions between participant ethnic background and gender of job seeker rated were examined in the context of the competing hypotheses. The perceptions of men, and Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi women, were consistent with the additive DJH, whereas Black women's perceptions were not. It is concluded that: (1) the perceptions of the latter group may reflect knowledge of Black male disadvantage, or negative stereotyping with respect to employment in the U.K. graduate labour market; and (2) perceptions of double jeopardy by some female graduates may have negative effects on their job seeking endeavours.
... Women showed the opposite pattern of associations, demonstrating strong, positive in-group stereotypes. This finding is important given gender stereotypes' causal influence on women's liking for and perceived ability to succeed in masculine and feminine domains (Oswald, 2008). ...
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In two studies, we investigated implicit gender stereotypes of successful managers. Using an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) named the Successful Manager IAT (SM-IAT) in Study 1, we found that male participants were more likely to implicitly associate men with successful manager traits and women with unsuccessful manager traits compared to reversed pairings. Women, individuals high in internal motivation to respond without sexism, and those low in external motivation to respond without sexism showed positive implicit associations between women and successful manager traits. In contrast, all participants showed positive views of women on workplace-contextualized explicit measures of gender stereotypes. The findings of Study 2 also revealed that implicit gender stereotypes predicted hypothetical workplace outcomes, such that a greater implicit association of men with successful manager traits, and women with unsuccessful manager traits, was linked to increased workplace rewards assigned to male managers by both male and female participants. The findings of our studies have important implications for both gender stereotyping researchers and workplace practitioners. Theoretically, our studies suggest that explicit and implicit stereotypes of female managers diverge, with implicit stereotypes being more likely to highlight traditional, often negative, views of female managers. Our findings point toward a better understanding of female managers' challenges in the workplace.
... The preference of women for work in care-giving fields is documented in the literature (Barker and Feiner 2009;Forrester 2005;Oswald 2008). However, there appears to be a shift in requirements even in such traditionally feminist professions as elementary school teaching to a more masculine culture of management and performance (Forrester 2005). ...
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In the modern world, women have acquired formal education, become professionals in the workforce, and are equal to men according to law. Yet cultural and social mores continue to characterize a woman as one who acts according to stereotypes. For these reasons and others, teaching has long been considered a woman's profession. Realization of the social and economic values of the modern world lies in our ability to advance intellectually. Are women teachers, who have succeeded in entering public life, able to advance in their profession through the realization of their intellectual potential? The authors examine the anomaly of continuity and change in the status of women in the teaching profession through a feminist interpretive reading. They maintain that, despite the significant changes that have occurred in how we view a woman's place in modern society, there is ‘continuity’ in the definition of the professional role of women as teachers. The reading will be based on material obtained from in‐depth interviews with teachers describing their professional outlook. The uniqueness of this study lies in the fact that women are researching the narratives of other women and analyzing women's discourse from their standpoint as women.
... For example, in traditionally male occupations such as doctors or managerial positions, masculine traits such as ambition, competitiveness, and dominance are encouraged while in many traditionally female occupations, such as nursing and elementary teaching, characteristics such as gentleness, caring, and cheerfulness are seen as essential (Weichselbaumer, 2004). Research demonstrates that gender stereotypes can influence people's perceptions about the appropriateness of various occupations for women and men, and may even affect peoples' liking and perceived ability for occupations that are traditionally considered "gender appropriate" (Oswald, 2008). Careers that are viewed as traditionally gender appropriate may be defined as those where one gender typically comprises greater than 75% of those employed in the field. ...
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This between-subjects study investigated the effect of traditional versus nontraditional business attire on attitudes toward men in differing occupations, as well as expected workplace outcomes. Eighty-seven university students were shown one of two possible photos of a single male model and then asked questions regarding expected workplace experiences in 10 different occupations. In one condition the model was wearing traditional attire while in the other he was wearing nontraditional attire. Results indicated that the male wearing nontraditional attire was expected to earn a lower starting salary and experience more verbal harassment compared to the traditionally attired male independent of occupation type. The results also showed that the nontraditionally attired male was perceived to have higher ability in stereotypically female occupations than the traditionally attired model. The traditionally attired male, on the other hand, was thought to have a greater likelihood of being hired into a traditionally male occupation and a greater likelihood of being promoted regardless of occupation type than the nontraditionally attired male. Results suggest that choice of attire for men impacts the expectations related to occupational and career outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The death of George Floyd on 25 May 2020 again left people asking why U.S. police officers so commonly resort to the use of deadly force when interacting with Black individuals. The current article proposes that media, combined with cultivation theory and social cognition concepts may create implicit biases that are potential contributors to this problem. Police officers have a greater vulnerability to these biases because intake of crime-related media positively predicts their interest in selecting law enforcement as a career. Other predictors of an interest in working in law enforcement, and implications of these findings, are discussed.
Article
Peer tutoring in STEM has risen in popularity in the past several years and has been proposed as one method of reducing gender disparities in STEM outcomes. Yet, the ways in which students and peer tutors engage with each other remain largely unexplored. In this study, we employed a multi-method approach to investigate whether students’ and tutors’ engagement behaviors and affective experiences during peer tutoring interactions in STEM fields differed by gender. Sixty unacquainted undergraduate college students formed student-tutor pairs and participated in videotaped thirty-minute tutoring sessions in the lab, all of which covered STEM topics (Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics, Mathematics, and Physics). We found no consistent gender differences across three measures of behavioral engagement: men and women talked for a similar amount of time, they did not differ in four of five types of questions asked (i.e., “clarification” and “knowledge” questions for tutors, and “feedback” and “more information” questions for students), and they were perceived as equally engaged by outside coders. One behavioral difference emerged: men students asked more “repeat” questions than women students. In contrast, consistent gender differences across four measures of affective experiences were found: women reported more anxiety and less confidence relative to men, they were perceived as less confident by outside coders relative to men, and women tutors evaluated their own performance less positively than men tutors. These findings suggest that despite being similarly engaged as men in peer tutoring interactions, women face psychological barriers in this context that may inhibit them from pursuing advanced degrees or careers in STEM.
Article
In this article, we combine insights from basic psychological needs theory and the social identity approach to propose that perceptions of organizational support enhance the basic need satisfaction of employees with disabilities, which yields higher levels of task performance. We also suggest that disability group identification strengthens this mediational process. We tested our hypotheses with two quantitative field studies that were conducted in France and based on matched employee-supervisor data. Using a sample of employees working in companies that specialize in the employment of persons with disabilities, Study 1 aimed to provide initial evidence for the mediating role of basic need satisfaction. Study 2 aimed to replicate the findings of Study 1 in less specific contexts while testing the moderating role of disability group identification. Next, the methodological limitations of these investigations were addressed in two quantitative post hoc studies. The results of these studies support our model and generate new knowledge about whether, why and when the perception of favorable treatment contributes to the job performance of employees with disabilities. We also discuss the practical implications of our findings and provide suggestions for human resources managers.
Chapter
Why women are underrepresented in certain careers has been a pertinent question for career researchers and scholars interested in gender equality issues for decades. Researchers have been particularly interested in the lack of women in science, engineering, and technology careers, as well as those with high mathematics content. Throughout this book, the authors have highlighted why gendered occupational segregation is an issue for both gender equality and essential in addressing the skills shortage in some occupations. They have aimed to give readers an overview of key areas to consider in assessing gendered occupational segregation. Importantly, the authors wanted to highlight the multifaceted variables involved in perpetuating and reinforcing gendered occupational segregation, especially for women in science, engineering, and technology careers. They have demonstrated how a multiplicity of interacting influences shape women’s careers. In particular, this book has emphasised the role of psychological, organizational, and social factors in understanding career roles and trajectories. Many books have looked at women’s underrepresentation in the ICT and SET industries; however, this book has taken into account not only these male dominated industries but has also included other male dominated industries such as construction, and the new industry of computer games, in order to understand the reasons behind this underrepresentation.
Chapter
This chapter aims to: look at gendered expectations and stereotypes; identify what is viewed as gender appropriate behaviour that contributes to the barriers women face in terms of their careers; consider how an individual’s gender role attitude can influence career choice; discuss the dominant theory in the area, social role theory, and how this is an important theory when looking at women’s roles within the workplace especially women working in gender incongruent occupations and industries, as the theory is concerned with gender stereotypes and gender role expectations; and discuss the role identity plays in career development and choice.KeywordsStereotypes, Stereotype Threat, Solo Status, Gender Role Attitudes, Gender Role Identity.
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There is limited research providing guidelines to CEOs, particularly female CEOs, about the efficacy of different responses (i.e. apology and denial) in the aftermath of an insider privacy breach incident. The study synthesizes a multitude of theories under three categories male-gender bias, same-gender bias and opposite-gender bias and uses them along with organizational justice theory to investigate the moderating role of the interaction between CEO gender and the user gender on trust restoration process after an insider breach incident. Trust restoration process is compared across different trust beliefs—ability, benevolence, and integrity. The findings show that the CEO-user gender interaction significantly shapes the trust restoration process. The findings also show that the forces that shape the initial trust work differently for trust restoration and are shaped by the underlying CEO gender—user gender combination. The research has several theoretical, managerial and social implications, and enlists several future research ideas.
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Occupational interests become gender differentiated during childhood and remain so among adults. Two characteristics of occupations may contribute to this differentiation: the gender of individuals who typically perform the occupation (workers’ gender) and the particular goals that the occupation allows one to fulfill, such as the opportunity to help others or acquire power (value affordances). Two studies tested hypotheses about whether U.S. 6- to 11-year-olds show gender differences in their interest in novel jobs that were depicted as (a) being performed by men versus women and (b) affording money, power, family, or helping values. In Study 1, 98 children rank-ordered their preferences for experimentally-manipulated novel jobs, and they answered questions about their occupational values and the value affordances of jobs in which men and women typically work. In Study 2, a second sample of 65 children was used to test the replicability of findings from Study 1. As hypothesized, children were more interested in jobs depicted with same- than other-gender workers in both studies. Boys showed greater interest than did girls in novel jobs depicted as affording money in Study 1, but not Study 2. Explicit knowledge that men and women typically work in jobs that afford differing values increased with participants’ age.
Article
This study builds on research on the power of counter-stereotypical cues, as well as intergroup contact theory, to consider whether interactions with a female teacher and female peers in a high school engineering classroom decrease male students' gender/science, technology, engineering, and math stereotypical beliefs and whether this varies according to the initial strength of their stereotypical views. Analyses reveal that among male students who initially reject stereotypes of male superiority, more female peers in the classroom leads to a further decrease in their stereotypical views by the end of the year. In contrast, boys who held strong stereotypical beliefs became less stereotypical by the end of the course when they had a female teacher. Implications for future research and current educational reforms are discussed.
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Four female students studying a games course at one UK University took part in a qualitative study of face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Although a small sample, the study provided an interesting insight into the experiences of the females on the course as well as their views of entering (or at least potentially entering) the male dominated computer games industry. The findings related by the chapter reveal that females choose to study games because they enjoyed playing games. Despite all participants experiencing the course positively, there was some apprehension about going into the industry. Interestingly, the study suggests the male dominated working environment may be off-putting to women, even to women studying and interested in going into that area of work. The main themes that emerged in regard to the negativity associated with the industry were the long hours culture and potential sexism within the industry.
Article
A quantitative content analysis examined gender and racial stereotypes concerning victim and offender status in fictional crime-based dramas from the 2010–2013 seasons of basic cable television programming in the U.S. Coders documented variables for 983 characters across 65 episodes of television. The study predicted male television characters would stand greater chance than female television characters of being perpetrators of violence and crime. Meanwhile, female television characters would stand greater chance than male television characters of being victims of crime and violence. A z-test of proportions supported these hypotheses, except when it came to a comparison of male and female television characters who appeared as victims of violence. A research question addressed the gender (male, female) and racial (Black, White) composition of crime and violence perpetration and victimization. Chi square and z-test analyses confirmed White female television characters stood greater chance of being victims of crime than White male, Black female, and Black male television characters. White female television characters stood the greatest chance of being victims who suffer serious harm or death. White women stood a greater chance of being rape or sexual assault victims, being victims of serious harm at the hands of an assailant, and being attacked by a stranger. Cultivation theory informed the discussion, proposing that persistent exposure to such stereotypical content may nurture skewed perceptions concerning the prevalence of crime targeting women, and especially White women, in the real world.
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This paper explores the adolescent female perspective on women's participation as leaders in society. Using a qualitative approach, the study outlined in this paper investigated this phenomenon through the use of student focus groups. Participants were students in their final year of schooling from secondary girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South Africa. This study found that students identified the patriarchal nature of leadership positions, women's possible lack of desire to hold a leadership position, and the impact of gender stereotypes as concerns. However, students were mostly positive with regard to their ability to overcome these issues in the future. It is recommended through the findings of this study that girls are given voice through their formal schooling in order to discuss issues of gender and leadership, and as a consequence, an awareness of issues concerning gender inequity may be created.
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Adolescents’ wishful identification with televised scientist characters was examined as related to interactions among the following variables: gender of participant, gender of scientist character, program genre, and selected character attributes. Findings indicated some gender differences in adolescents’ wishful identification with scientist characters they viewed on television. Boys showed more wishful identification with male scientist than with female scientist characters for all character attributes, and girls showed more wishful identification with female scientist than with male scientist characters portrayed dominant or as working alone. Both girls and boys showed more wishful identification with scientist characters in drama programs than for those in cartoon and educational programs across all character attributes. Both girls and boys showed more wishful identification for some character attributes depending on the program genre viewed. Implications of these findings for producers of television programs and other media are discussed related to efforts to encourage adolescent girls’ interest in science careers.
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The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women’s interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance and stated interests or the same role model who did not embody these stereotypes. Participants and role models engaged in an interaction that lasted approximately 2 minutes. Interest in majoring in computer science was assessed following the interaction and 2 weeks later outside the laboratory. Results revealed that exposure to the stereotypical role model had both an immediate and an enduring negative effect on women’s interest in computer science. Differences in interest at both times were mediated by women’s reduced sense of belonging in computer science upon interacting with the stereotypical role model. Gender of the role model had no effect. Whether a potential role model conveys to women a sense of belonging in the field may matter more in recruiting women into computer science than gender of the role model. Long-term negative effects of exposure to computer scientists who fit current stereotypes in the media and elsewhere may help explain current gender disparities in computer science participation.
Article
In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In Study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women’s evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men’s evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes.
Book
Gender segregation is an issue that still exists in today's society. With the dominance of men in the science, engineering, and technology sectors, there is still a question of the underrepresentation of women. It is even apparent that in the positions that are predominately female, such as nursing, men still hold more senior managerial positions than women. Gendered Occupational Differences in Science, Engineering, and Technology Careers provides an overview of women in male dominated fields, specifically in science, engineering, and technology, and examines the contributing factors in this concern. This collection of research is relevant to academics and students in social and behavioral sciences in addition to gender and organizational researchers and scholars.
Article
Gender features strongly in most societies and is a significant aspect of self-definition for most people. Following a brief description of views on gender identity from the perspectives of humanistic social science, sociology, and psychology, this chapter provides an analysis of gender identity development from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Social cognitive theory describes how gender conceptions are developed and transformed across the life span. Through a combination of personal and sociostructural factors, people construct self-conceptions of gender, which influence gender-related conduct through the motivational and self-regulatory processes associated with gender identity. A broad range of social influences including parents, peers, the media, and other social systems contribute to the development of gender conceptions and to the self-regulatory processes linked to them. However, people are not simply products of the varying social systems that impinge on them. Rather, it is shown that people contribute to transforming their gender conceptions and bringing about social change. Gender roles are changing through people’s actions which affect the social subsystems that influence the development and transformation of gender identity.
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Recent theory and research suggest that certain situational factors can harm women’s math test performance. The three studies presented here indicate that female role models can buffer women’s math test performance from the debilitating effects of these situational factors. In Study 1, women’s math test performance was protected when a competent female experimenter (i.e., a female role model) administered the test. Study 2 showed that it was the perception of the female experimenter’s math competence, not her physical presence, that safeguarded the math test performance of women. Study 3 revealed that learning about a competent female experimenter buffered women’s self-appraised math ability, which in turn led to successful performance on a challenging math test.
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This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat effect with participants performing significantly better on the task in the low threat condition. Additional analyses of the test takers’ racial identity profiles under high and low threat conditions revealed a significant interaction between Internalization status attitudes and the type of threat condition. In the low stereotype threat condition, Internalization status attitudes moderated performance on the intellectual task (i.e., items from the verbal section of the GRE). In this condition, after controlling for SAT verbal score, students who strongly endorsed Internalization racial identity attitudes correctly solved more items than students who did not identify as strongly with Internalization status attitudes. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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This study investigated the interactive influences of diagnosticity instructions, gender, and ethnicity as they related to task performance. In a laboratory experiment of 120 male and female, Latino and White college students, both a gender-based and an ethnicity-based stereotype-threat effect were found to influence performance on a test of mathematical and spatial ability. Closer inspection revealed that the gender effect was qualified by ethnicity, whereas the ethnicity effect was not qualified by gender. This suggests that the ethnicity of Latino women sensitized them to negative stereotypes about their gender, leading to a performance decrement in a context in which stereotype threat was activated. In contrast, it appeared that the gender of Latino women did not sensitize them to negative stereotypes about their ethnicity, because both male and female Latinos evidenced ethnicity-based stereotype threat. These findings have implications for the interplay between multiple group identities as they relate to concern for confirming negative stereotypes.
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This research extended stereotype-threat effects outside of the academic domain and to a nonstigmatized group. Female and male students performed three decision tasks: lexical, valence, and affective processing. Half of the participants were told that, in general, men are poorer performers than are women in affective processing tasks. No differences between conditions were observed for the lexical and valence tasks. By contrast, for the affective task, threatened men made significantly more errors than did participants in the other three conditions. More precisely, threatened men tended to accept as affective words that were not affective. This latter result suggests that threatened men decreased their threshold for affectivity “to prove” the inapplicability of the stereotype to themselves. Moreover, stereotype endorsement did not mediate the results. Identification with the affective domain, on the other hand, moderated the effect of stereotype threat. Discussion considers the consequences of these findings for everyday interactions.
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This web page calculates simple intercepts, simple slopes, and the region of significance to facilitate the testing and probing of two-way interactions estimated in latent curve analysis (LCA) models. In LCA, repeated measures of a variable y are modeled as functions of latent factors representing aspects of change or latent curves, typically an intercept factor and one or more slope factors. We use the standard structural equation modeling (SEM) notation to define equations, and we assume that the user is knowledgeable both in the general SEM and in the testing, probing, and interpretation of interactions in multiple linear regression (e.g., Aiken & West, 1991). The following material is intended to facilitate the calculation of the methods presented in Curran, Bauer, and Willoughby (2004), and we recommend consulting this paper for further details.
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This chapter focuses on a model of achievement-related choices and the ongoing Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions study. After reviewing the support for this model, we provide a brief overview of recent evidence supporting the power of the most proximal predictors of achievement-related choices, expectations for success and subject task value. In the final section, we discuss more specifically how gender roles relate to the model and how gender roles can lead to different educational and occupational choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) emphasizes cognitive-person variables that enable people to influence their own career development, as well as extra-person (e.g., contextual) variables that enhance or constrain personal agency. Although the theory has yielded a steady stream of inquiry and practical applications, relatively little of this work has examined SCCT's contextual variables or hypotheses. In this article, several avenues for stimulating study of the contextual aspects of career behavior are considered. In particular, the authors (a) examine "career barriers," a conceptually relevant construct, from the perspective of SCCT; (b) advocate study of contextual supports as well as barriers; and (c) propose additional context-focused research and practice directions derived from SCCT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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To the degree that sexist humor is disparaging to women, then women are likely to respond in more complex ways than simply finding it to be funny or not. In the present study, we assessed several reactions to each of the jokes immediately after they were heard (e.g., funniness, comfort, interest). In addition we measured mood and self-esteem after being exposed to entire sets of jokes. 60 females (ages 16–59) were randomly assigned to a condition in which they heard either sexist jokes or attorney jokes. Measures included the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Brief Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale. The Facial Action Coding System was used to code Ss' facial expressions associated with a particular joke. The study demonstrates that amusement is not the only or even the most significant reaction that women have to sexist jokes. Women hearing sexist jokes reported feeling less amused and more disgusted. They also report being more angry, hostile, determined, and surprised than women hearing nonsexist jokes. Their faces also revealed some adverse effects. Women exposed to sexist jokes displayed more eye rolling (possibility of contempt) and touched their faces more often (possibility of embarrassment) than women exposed to nonsexist jokes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article presents a social cognitive framework for understanding three intricately linked aspects of career development: (a) the formation and elaboration of career-relevant interests, (b) selection of academic and career choice options, and (c) performance and persistence in educational and occupational pursuits. The framework, derived primarily from Bandura's (1986) general social cognitive theory, emphasizes the means by which individuals exercise personal agency in the career development process, as well as extra-personal factors that enhance or constrain agency. In particular, we focus on self-efficacy, expected outcome, and goal mechanisms and how they may interrelate with other person (e.g., gender), contextual (e.g., support system), and experiential/learning factors. Twelve sets of propositions are offered to organize existing findings and guide future research on the theory. We also present a meta-analysis of relevant findings and suggest specific directions for future empirical and theory-extension activity.
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Two studies were designed to examine the costs of stereotype endorsement for women's self-perceptions, career intentions, and susceptibility to stereotype threat in the math domain. Study 1, a survey of women majoring in math-related fields, revealed that women who believe that status differences between the sexes are legitimate were more likely to endorse gender stereotypes about women's math abilities, which in turn predicted more negative self-perceptions of math competence and less interest in continuing study in one's field. In Study 2, women who tended to endorse gender stereotypes were found to be more susceptible to the negative effects of stereotype threat on their math test performance. The implications of these results for research on stereotype endorsement and women's math achievement are discussed.
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Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies 1 and 2 varied the stereotype vulnerability of Black participants taking a difficult verbal test by varying whether or not their performance was ostensibly diagnostic of ability, and thus, whether or not they were at risk of fulfilling the racial stereotype about their intellectual ability. Reflecting the pressure of this vulnerability, Blacks underperformed in relation to Whites in the ability-diagnostic condition but not in the nondiagnostic condition (with Scholastic Aptitude Tests controlled). Study 3 validated that ability-diagnosticity cognitively activated the racial stereotype in these participants and motivated them not to conform to it, or to be judged by it. Study 4 showed that mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic. The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed.
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In an examination of group members' responses to the threat of negative in-group characterizations, sorority/fraternity members were asked to rate themselves, their own sorority/fraternity, sororities/ fraternities in general, and students in general on attributes that were stereotypic of sororities/ fraternities. Results showed that individuals selectively self-stereotyped-they embraced positive stereotypes as highly descriptive of themselves and their closest in-groups but rejected negative stereotypes. They did not, however, deny that negative stereotypes were accurate or valid-they continued to accept them as typical of sororities/fraternities in general. This represents a protective, creative response to the threat posed by exposure to negative group attributes, in which self-stereotyping as a result of self-categorization is selective rather than complete.
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This research demonstrates that subliminally activated stereotypes can alter judgments about oneself and can change cognitive performance. In the first study, an intervention that activated positive stereotypes of aging without the participants' awareness tended to improve memory performance, memory self-efficacy, and views of aging in old individuals; in contrast, an intervention that activated negative stereotypes of aging tended to worsen memory performance, memory self-efficacy, and views of aging in old participants. A second study demonstrated that for the strong effects to emerge from the shifting stereotypes, the stereotypes must be important to one's self-image: Young individuals randomly assigned to the same conditions as the old participants in the first study did not exhibit any of the significant interactions that emerged among the old participants. This research highlights the potential for memory improvement in old individuals when the negative stereotypes of aging that dominate the American culture are shifted to more positive stereotypes.
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College students, especially women, demonstrated negativity toward math and science relative to arts and language on implicit measures. Group membership (being female), group identity (self = female), and gender stereotypes (math = male) were related to attitudes and identification with mathematics. Stronger implicit math = male stereotypes corresponded with more negative implicit and explicit math attitudes for women but more positive attitudes for men. Associating the self with female and math with male made it difficult for women, even women who had selected math-intensive majors, to associate math with the self. These results point to the opportunities and constraints on personal preferences that derive from membership in social groups.
Article
The activation of positive stereotypes has been shown to produce academic performance boosts. Evidence regarding the role of self-relevance in producing such effects has been mixed. The authors propose that the subtlety of stereotype activation plays a key role in creating performance boosts among targets and nontargets of stereotypes. Study 1 found that subtle stereotype activation boosted performance in targets, but blatant activation did not. Study 2 was conducted on both targets and nontargets using different methods of stereotype activation. Again, targets showed performance boosts when stereotypes were subtly activated but not when they were blatantly activated. Nontargets, however, showed boosts in performance only when stereotypes were blatantly activated. The role of self-relevance in mediating sensitivity to stimuli is discussed.
Chapter
Humor may not always be a means of evoking amusement and it is a known fact that hostility that cannot be expressed directly can be safely and subtly expressed by humor. As seen in studies performed by Cantor and Zillman, women are often the center of disparaging jokes, and this is classified as sexist humor. At times, sexist jokes meaning no harm can also be perceived as a means of transmitting discriminatory behavior. This chapter illustrates the responses of women to this kind of sexist humor. Sexism is now being newly looked upon and analyzed, as the current gender attitudes are seen to be more complex in nature when compared to previous results evaluated with the help of uni-dimensional measures. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), devised by Glick and Fiske, analyzes both hostile and benevolent sexism, and help in understanding the reception of sexist jokes by women. Verbal and nonverbal responses of women to sexist humor have been further studied with the help of facial action coding system (FAC). At times, sexist humor can cause serious damage and it is important to know the responses and reactions of women to this behavior.
Conference Paper
This study examined the utility of social cognitive career theory (SCOT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) in predicting engineering interests and major choice goals among women and men and among students at historically Black and predominantly White universities. Participants (487 students in introductory engineering courses at 3 universities) completed measures of academic interests, goals, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and environmental supports and barriers in relation to engineering majors. Findings indicated that the SCCT-based model of interest and choice goals produced good fit to the data across gender and university type. Implications for future research on SCCT's choice hypotheses, and particularly for the, role of environmental supports and barriers in the choice of science and engineering fields, are discussed.
Article
A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
Article
College students, especially women, demonstrated negativity toward math and science relative to arts and language on implicit measures. Group membership (being female), group identity (self = female), and gender stereotypes (math = male) were related to attitudes and identification with mathematics. Stronger implicit math = male stereotypes corresponded with more negative implicit and explicit math attitudes for women but more positive attitudes for men. Associating the self with female and math with male made it difficult for women, even women who had selected math-intensive majors, to associate math with the self. These results point to the opportunities and constraints on personal preferences that derive from membership in social groups.
Article
The objective of this study was to explore, using Q-methodology, women's subjective reactions to and experiences with mathematics. Ninety-six undergraduate women from a private university conducted Q-sorts on items that related to their personal experiences, attitudes, and belief/awareness of gender stereotypes for math. On the basis of the Q-factor analysis, three unique perspectives toward math emerged. The perspectives were classified as “Successfully Encouraged,” “Stereotypically Discouraged,” and “Mathematically Aversive.” These groupings were differentiated by their variety of experiences, attitudes, and awareness of stereotypes about math. Measures of math self-schema, math anxiety, and self-reported math ability were also used to interpret the groupings. This research revealed the women's various experiences with and attitudes toward math. The findings are integrated with previous theories in order to understand women's underrepresentation in math-related fields.
Article
Recent research has shown that the presence of stereotype-relevant environmental cues can inadvertently bias people's judgments of others in the direction of the stereotype. The present research demonstrated analogous activation effects on self-stereotyping. In two experiments, the effects of stereotype activation on the tendencies to stereotype others and to self-stereotype were examined. Experiment 1 tested whether incidental exposure to gender-related materials might activate gender stereotypes and hence affect perception of another person. Experiment 2 investigated gender stereotype activation effects on female and male high school students' self-presentation behaviors. The results showed that incidental exposure to stereotype-relevant environmental cues increased both stereotyping and self-stereotyping tendencies. The findings were discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the basic principles of knowledge activation and application, and for reducing stereotyping and self-stereotyping.
Article
Abstract—Recent studies have documented that performance in a domain is hindered when individuals feel that a sociocultural group to which they belong is negatively stereotyped in that domain. We report that implicit activation of a social identity can facilitate as well as impede performance on a quantitative task. When a particular social identity was made salient at an implicit level, performance was altered in the direction predicted by the stereotype associated with the identity. Common cultural stereotypes hold that Asians have superior quantitative skills compared with other ethnic groups and that women have inferior quantitative skills compared with men. We found that Asian-American women performed better on a mathematics test when their ethnic identity was activated, but worse when their gender identity was activated, compared with a control group who had neither identity activated. Cross-cultural investigation indicated that it was the stereotype, and not the identity per se, that influenced performance.
Article
Men tend to achieve higher response accuracy than women on surveys of political knowledge. We investigated the possibility that this performance gap is moderated by factors that render the communicative context of a survey intellectually threatening to women and thereby induce stereotype threat. In a telephone survey of college students' political knowledge, we manipulated two factors of the survey context: the alleged diagnosticity of the question set (i.e., whether it was portrayed as being sensitive to potential gender differences) and the gender of the interviewer. Consistent with previous studies of political knowledge, men scored higher than women overall. However, as predicted, this difference was reliably moderated by the manipulated factors. Women's scores were not reliably different from men's when the survey was portrayed as nondiagnostic and when women were interviewed by female interviewers. Diagnosticity and interviewer gender had no effects on men's scores. Consistent with previous research on stereotype threat, these results suggest that explicit and implicit cues reminding women of the possibility that they might confirm a negative gender stereotype can impair their retrieval of political knowledge.
Article
The existence of substantial sex differences in vocational preferences is important, given the prominent role assigned vocational preferences as a link between underlying interests and vocational choice. Strong Interest Inventory (SII) responses of 16,484 males and females, ages 18 to 22, were analyzed to determine whether relationships between measured interests and vocational preferences were equivalent for the two sexes. Using differential item functioning (DIF) analysis techniques, sex-related differentials in responses to 28 SII occupational title items were estimated, after controlling for 1, 3, or 6 General Occupational Theme scale scores. Significant sex-related DIF was found on most of the occupations. Further, the sex-related DIF was strongly correlated with sextype ratings for the occupations. These results suggest that sex differences in vocational preference are not fully explained by differences in measured vocational interests, and that vocational preferences may not be equivalent indicators of underlying interests for males and females.
Article
This research applies a social identity perspective to situations of stereotype threat. It was hypothesized that individuals would be more susceptible to the performance-inhibiting effects of stereotype threat to the extent that they are highly identified with the group to which a negative stereotype applies. A quasi-experimental study with male and female college students revealed that individual differences in gender identification (i.e., importance placed on gender identity) moderated the effects of gender identity relevance on women's (but not men's) math performance. When their gender identity was linked to their performance on a math test, women with higher levels of gender identification performed worse than men, but women with lower levels of gender identification performed equally to men. When gender identity was not linked to test performance, women performed equally to men regardless of the importance they placed on gender identity.
Article
When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicamentstereotype threatand hypothesize that the apprehension it causes may disrupt women's math performance. In Study 1 we demonstrated that the pattern observed in the literature that women underperform on difficult (but not easy) math tests was observed among a highly selected sample of men and women. In Study 2 we demonstrated that this difference in performance could be eliminated when we lowered stereotype threat by describing the test as not producing gender differences. However, when the test was described as producing gender differences and stereotype threat was high, women performed substantially worse than equally qualified men did. A third experiment replicated this finding with a less highly selected population and explored the mediation of the effect. The implication that stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, even those that have been attributed to genetically rooted sex differences, is discussed.
Article
This study examines the role of gender stereotypes in justifying the social system by maintaining the division of labor between the sexes. The distribution of the sexes in 80 occupations was predicted from participants’ beliefs that six dimensions of gender-stereotypic attributes contribute to occupational success: masculine physical, feminine physical, masculine personality, feminine personality, masculine cognitive, and feminine cognitive. Findings showed that, to the extent that occupations were female dominated, feminine personality or physical attributes were thought more essential for success; to the extent that occupations were male dominated, masculine personality or physical attributes were thought more essential. Demonstrating the role of gender stereotypes in justifying gender hierarchy, occupations had higher prestige in that participants believed that they required masculine personality or cognitive attributes for success, and they had higher earnings to the extent that they were thought to require masculine personality attributes.
Article
The goals of this study were to contrast stereotype threat and self-stereo-typing accounts of behavioral assimilation to age stereotypes and to investigate the role of identity in that process. Based on random assignment, 89 adults in late middle-age (48-62 years; M = 54) were told that their memory performance would be compared to that of people over 70 (low threat condition), people under 25 (high threat condition), or they received no comparison information (control). Results showed that participants primed with the presumably non-threatening category "older adults" performed significantly worse on a word recall test than participants primed with the category "younger adults" and participants in the control condition. The results were moderated by implicit age identity - only participants who had begun making the identity transition into older adulthood were affected by the manipulation. These findings offer evidence that self-stereotyping and stereotype threat are distinct explanations for stereotype assimilation and offer support for a self-stereotyping account of behavioral assimilation to stereotypes.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Occupational sex segregation continues to exist and the occupational career paths of women and men continue to differ. This article proposes a model to explain these persistent, gender-role linked trends, summarizes evidence to support the proposed mediating psychological mechanisms, and discusses the social experiences that shape gender differences on these mediators. In addition, the article reviews the economic and psychological costs often associated with the traditional female choices and proposes interventions aimed at achieving a more gender—fair social system that does not devalue traditionally female domains. The proposed model links occupational choices to expectations for success and subjective task value, which, in turn, are linked to gender-role socialization, self schemas, and anticipated role and task demands. The importance of subjective task value is stressed, as is the need to study women's achievement-related choices from the women's perspective.
Article
Social cognitive career theory proposes that contextual supports and barriers play key roles in the career choice process, yet little research has examined hypotheses involving these variables. Participants (111 college students) completed measures of math/science-related course self-efficacy, coping efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals, and perceived contextual supports and barriers. Findings indicate that self-efficacy and outcome expectations were jointly predictive of interests and choice intentions. Support and barrier percepts produced only weak direct relations to choice, though barrier percepts were found to moderate interest-choice relations. A model portraying barriers and supports as linked to choice indirectly (via their impact on self-efficacy) produced better fit to the data than did a model specifying barriers and supports as directly linked to choice. Implications for future research and counseling are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett, 1994) and general social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1999, 2000) posit somewhat different relations between contextual variables and choice actions. The authors tested the predictions of these 2 model variations. Participants (328 students in an introductory engineering course) completed measures of SCCT's person (self-efficacy, coping efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, academic goals) and contextual variables (environmental supports and barriers) related to the pursuit of engineering majors. Findings indicated good support for a model portraying contextual supports and barriers as linked to choice goals and actions (i.e., persistence in engineering) indirectly, through self-efficacy, rather than directly, as posited by SCCT. Implications for future research on SCCT's choice and environmental hypotheses are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the utility of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) in predicting engineering interests and major choice goals among women and men and among students at historically Black and predominantly White universities. Participants (487 students in introductory engineering courses at 3 universities) completed measures of academic interests, goals, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and environmental supports and barriers in relation to engineering majors. Findings indicated that the SCCT-based model of interest and choice goals produced good fit to the data across gender and university type. Implications for future research on SCCT's choice hypotheses, and particularly for the role of environmental supports and barriers in the choice of science and engineering fields, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined whether handwriting can act as a tool to monitor the influence of negative self-stereotypes on the elderly. Handwriting samples of 20 Ss (mean age 71 yrs) were randomly selected, with half of the sample taken from individuals who had been subliminally exposed to positive stereotypes of aging while the other half was taken from individuals who had been subliminally exposed to negative stereotypes of aging. The handwriting samples were produced both before and after the priming. 40 individuals (aged 16–36 yrs) then judged the handwriting samples according to how much they felt the samples were characterized by six attributes: accomplished, confident, deteriorating, senile, shaky, and wise. The age of each writer was also guessed. Results found that judges were able to distinguish the writers who had been exposed to the negative stereotypes from those exposed to positive stereotypes. It is concluded that self-stereotypes influence mental functioning and behavior in the elderly. The possibility of using handwriting as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the effects of negative self-stereotyping of aging is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Gender segregation continues to exist in many activity and occupational domains. This article uses the expectancy effect perspective to analyze the role parents may play in influencing their children to engage in gender role stereotyped activities. It outlines the theoretical bases for such effects, and discusses how to distinguish between accuracy and perceptual bias in parents' gender role differentiated perceptions of their children's competencies and interests. Then it summarizes the results of a series of studies, which show that parents distort their perceptions of their own children in gender role stereotypic activities such as math and sports, that the child's gender affects parents' causal attributions for their children's performance in gender role stereotypic activities, and that these perceptual biases influence the children's own self-perceptions and activity choices. Finally, the article presents a theoretical model of how these processes may occur.
Article
Despite recent efforts to increase the participation of women in advanced educational training and high-status professional fields, women and men are still concentrated in different occupations and educational programs, and women are still underrepresented in many high-status occupational fields-particularly those associated with physical science, engineering, and applied mathematics. Many factors, ranging from outright discrimination to the processes associated with gender role socialization, contribute to these gendered patterns of educational and occupational choices. This paper summarizes a set of social and psychological factors that Eccles and her colleagues have been studying for the past 15 years in an effort to understand the occupational and educational choices of women and men. The paper summarizes the key features of the theoretical model they developed and provides an overview of the empirical support now available for key aspects of this model. The implications of this model for understanding the link between gender roles and gendered educational and occupational decisions are discussed.
Article
This study examined the perceptions of undergraduate women in male-dominated academic areas. First-year and final-year female undergraduates in a male-dominated academic area (i.e., math, science, or engineering) reported higher levels of discrimination and stereotype threat than women in a female-dominated academic area (i.e., arts, education, humanities, or social science), and men in either a male- or female-dominated academic area. Moreover, women in a male-dominated academic area were most likely to report thinking about changing their major. These findings suggest that female college students majoring in math, science, and engineering continue to perceive additional gender-based obstacles in their field.
Article
Research on the effect of stereotype threat has consistently shown that a reduction of stereotype threat due to decreased salience of negative stereotypic expectations in testing situations results in a performance boost. This article reports on an experiment (n = 75 high school students) designed to test the impact of increased salience of negative stereotypic expectations on math performance. As expected, female participants in the condition of heightened salience of negative stereotypic expectations underperformed in comparison to their control group counterparts. Moreover, it was found that the effect of blatant stereotype threat resulted in increased self-handicapping tendencies in women, which in turn led to significantly impaired math performance.
Article
We drew on gender identity theory (Spence, 1993) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) to examine the structure and content of college students’ gender self-stereotypes and how their selective self-stereotyping relate to academic self-schema, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Although students were aware of the gender stereotypes and perceived them to be true “in general,” when asked, which traits were self-descriptive, participants engaged in selective self-stereotyping. Participants tended to report that positive stereotypes were more self-descriptive than group-descriptive, whereas negative stereotypes were more group-descriptive than self-descriptive. The tendency to selectively self-stereotype personality and physical traits was associated with increased personal and collective self-esteem. Selective self-stereotyping in cognitive domains was associated with academic self-schemas for men. The results provide an interesting perspective into the structure, content, and function of gender self-stereotypes. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.
Article
The goal of the present research was to demonstrate the influence of perceiver motivations on perceptions of in-group and out-group homogeneity. Based on Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (Brewer, 1991), it was predicted that arousal of assimilation and differentiation needs (through threats to intragroup standing and intergroup distinctiveness) would lead to heightened perceptions of both in-group and out-group homogeneity. Because perceived homogeneity enhances both intragroup assimilation and intergroup contrast, such perceptions can serve both the need for increased inclusion within the in-group and the need for increased distinctiveness between in-group and out-group. As predicted, compared to no-arousal controls, participants in the assimilation and differentiation arousal conditions showed heightened perceptions of in-group and out-group homogeneity, greater perceived in-group stereotypicality, and the tendency to be more restrictive in defining in-group membership.
Article
Stereotype threat impairs performance in situations where a stereotype holds that one’s group will perform poorly. Two experiments investigated whether reminding women of other women’s achievements might alleviate women’s mathematics stereotype threat. In Experiment 1, college women performed significantly better on a difficult mathematics test when they were first told that women in general make better participants than men in psychology experiments. In Experiment 2, college women performed significantly better on a difficult mathematics test when they first read about four individual women who had succeeded in architecture, law, medicine, and invention. The results are seen as having implications for theories of stereotype threat, self-evaluation, and performance expectations.
Article
Stereotype threat research provides insight into how the low standardized test scores of students from stigmatized social groups may derive in part from the negative performance expectations about these groups. Because these students belong to many social groups, one means of mitigating the threat is to remind them of their membership in groups for which there are positive performance expectations. We tested this hypothesis by priming different social identities among undergraduates prior to administering a standardized test of spatial reasoning, the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. We found that females who were primed to contemplate their identity as students at a selective private college performed better than those who were primed to contemplate their sex or a test-irrelevant identity. For males, priming their sex increased performance relative to the test-irrelevant or private college student primes. These results demonstrate the potential of reminding students of their achieved identities (e.g., private college student) in an effort to subdue evaluation apprehension created by negative stereotypes about their ascribed identities, such as being female in the case of spatial abilities.
Article
Women working in male-dominated environments may find themselves to be the only woman present, and that negative stereotypes about women persist in the environment. This experiment tested women’s performance in solo status (SS: being the only woman present) and under stereotype threat (ST: when women are stereotyped as poor performers). White male and female participants (157) learned information, then tested on it in an opposite-gender (SS) or same-gender group (nonsolo). In addition, the information was described as being traditional math material (ST) or a type of math information impervious to gender stereotypes (no threat). Women performed more poorly in SS than nonsolos, and under ST than no threat. Experiencing both factors was more detrimental to women’s performance than experiencing one or the other. Men’s performance was the same across all conditions. Performance expectancies partially mediated the effect of SS, but not ST, on performance.
Article
In three studies, we examined the effect of a self-relevant category prime on women’s attitudes towards the gender-stereotyped domains of arts (positively stereotyped) and mathematics (negatively stereotyped). In Study 1, women who were subtly reminded of the category female (Study 1a) or their gender identity (Study 1b) expressed more stereotype consistent attitudes towards the academic domains of mathematics and the arts than participants in control conditions. In Study 2, women who were reminded of their female identity similarly demonstrated a stereotype-consistent shift in their implicit attitudes towards these domains relative to women in a control condition. The potential role of the working self-concept in mediating social category priming effects as well as the practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
A longitudinal study was conducted to test the mediational role of efficacy expectations in relation to sex differences in the choice of a math/science college major. Data on 101 students were gathered prior to their entering college and then again after they had declared a major 3 years later. Path analytic results support the importance of both math self-efficacy beliefs and vocational interest in mathematics in predicting entry into math/science majors and mediating sex differences in these decisions. Also, students who described themselves as more extroverted were less likely to take additional math classes in high school. Students with stronger artistic vocational interests chose majors less related to math and science. School personnel are strongly encouraged to develop programs that challenge the crystallization of efficacy beliefs and vocational interest patterns before students enter college.