Article

The Emergence of Same-Sex Affiliative Preferences among Preschool Peers: A Developmental/Ethological Perspective

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  • Université Bordeaux
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Abstract

Systematic observations of affiliative interaction in 15 stable peer groups were conducted across 3 years in an urban day-care center. These groups contained 193 French-speaking children (98 girls, 95 boys) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted to assess the impact of age and sex on the rate of social activity and the degree of sexual segregation. Analysis of variance revealed that rate of affiliative activity increased as a linear function of age. Older children exhibited stronger preference for same-sex social partners than younger children, and a significant age X sex interaction showed that girls began to prefer same-sex peers earlier than boys, who subsequently surpassed girls in sexual discrimination. Trend analyses revealed different functions for boys and girls in the development of same-sex preferences. The utility of a 2-process model for understanding sex differences in social development and peer socialization is discussed.

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... The data used to validate the current model came from classroom observations of 10 naturally occurring groups of children (preschool or day care classes). These groups were originally described in a series of articles by Strayer and his colleagues, who have been interested in issues of affiliation and dominance (Lafreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984;Strayer, 1980;Strayer & Noel, 1986;Strayer & Trudel, 1983). Two groups were English Canadian (one from Vancouver, BC, another from Waterloo, ON), while the remaining eight were francophone groups from Montreal, Quebec. ...
... Note: Observed data are from Strayer (1980), Strayer & Trudel (1984), Strayer & Noel (1986, and LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier (1984). Estimated values are averages from sets of 10 groups. ...
... Observed ( )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Note: Observed means and standard deviations were derived from 10 groups of preschoolers reported in Strayer (1980), Strayer & Trudel (1984), Strayer & Noel (1986), and LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier (1984). Means and standard deviations for the model were derived from 100 simulated groups whose Ns matched the actual groups (14 to 19 children). ...
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A computer program is described that simulates the emergence of affiliation networks in preschool groups and examines theoretical issues raised by the model, including general issues of validation. The simulation implies that triadic interactions, although observed in preschool groups, are not essential in the formation of affiliative structures (contra F. Strayer and J. Noel, 1986) and that, in this age range, therefore, polyadic friendship groupings can be understood as sets of dyadic relationships. The model also demonstrates how group structures can be generated without reference to group-level processes (contrast W. Hartup, 1983). It also focuses attention on the role played by preference formation in social isolation, by demonstrating that inhibition of preferences can give rise to isolation. The model also suggests that social outcomes are best described by nonlinear functions (cf. W. Roberts; see record 1987-03785-001 ). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
... Par les jeux (Barbie, poupée bébé, mini-aspirateur…) que les adultes leur proposent, les petites filles sont ainsi invitées à devenir des femmes séduisantes, attentives à leur corps, à la maternité et aux soins de ménage… Alexander et Hines (1994) Dès deux ans, des préférences se marquent également par rapport au choix des compagnons de jeu. Les interactions sont plus fréquentes entre pairs du même sexe ; la préférence pour les partenaires du même sexe augmente proportionnellement avec l'âge (La Frenière, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984) et devient systématique vers 5 ans (Fagot, 1984 ;Smetana et Letourneau, 1984). Suite à une étude concernant les préférences affiliatives chez 98 filles et 95 garçons montréalais âgés de 1 à 6 ans, La Frenière et al. (1984) pensent que les enfants choisissent des pairs de même sexe parce qu'ils partagent les mêmes activités qu'eux. ...
... Les interactions sont plus fréquentes entre pairs du même sexe ; la préférence pour les partenaires du même sexe augmente proportionnellement avec l'âge (La Frenière, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984) et devient systématique vers 5 ans (Fagot, 1984 ;Smetana et Letourneau, 1984). Suite à une étude concernant les préférences affiliatives chez 98 filles et 95 garçons montréalais âgés de 1 à 6 ans, La Frenière et al. (1984) pensent que les enfants choisissent des pairs de même sexe parce qu'ils partagent les mêmes activités qu'eux. ...
Chapter
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Dès un très jeune âge, les lettres des enfants adressées à Saint-Nicolas et les commandes formulées au Père Noël sont conformes à une image stéréotypée du féminin et du masculin. Les petites filles souhaitent une poupée, un landau ou un fer à repasser alors que les garçons demandent une voiture, un camion de pompier ou un robot. Offrons-nous des poupées aux filles et des petites voitures aux garçons parce qu'ils adorent ça ou apprécient-ils ces jouets parce que nous leur en offrons ? Il est difficile de donner une réponse claire à cette question. Après une définition des concepts impliqués, cet article se propose dans un premier temps d'étudier le développement des connaissances, des attitudes et des comportements sexuellement stéréotypés chez les enfants en faisant référence à diverses perspectives théoriques : la théorie psychanalytique, la théorie de l'apprentissage social et la théorie 2 cognitivo-développementale. Dans un deuxième temps, il s'intéresse aux stéréotypes sexuels dans l'univers ludique (jouets, compagnons de jeu). La revue de différentes recherches empiriques permet de montrer divers aspects des stéréotypes de sexe, aspects tant affectifs que cognitifs, tant comportementaux que sociaux, qui apparaissent liés dans leur développement.
... Dès deux ans, des préférences se marquent également par rapport au choix des compagnons de jeu. Les interactions sont plus fréquentes entre pairs du même sexe ; la préférence pour les partenaires du même sexe augmente proportionnellement avec l'âge (La Frenière, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984) et devient systématique vers 5 ans (Fagot, 1984 ;Smetana et Letourneau, 1984). Suite à une étude concernant les préférences affiliatives chez 98 filles et 95 garçons montréalais âgés de 1 à 6 ans, La Frenière et al. (1984) pensent que les enfants choisissent des pairs de même sexe parce qu'ils partagent les mêmes activités qu'eux. ...
... Les interactions sont plus fréquentes entre pairs du même sexe ; la préférence pour les partenaires du même sexe augmente proportionnellement avec l'âge (La Frenière, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984) et devient systématique vers 5 ans (Fagot, 1984 ;Smetana et Letourneau, 1984). Suite à une étude concernant les préférences affiliatives chez 98 filles et 95 garçons montréalais âgés de 1 à 6 ans, La Frenière et al. (1984) pensent que les enfants choisissent des pairs de même sexe parce qu'ils partagent les mêmes activités qu'eux. Zaouche-Gaudron (1997, p. 165) émet quant à elle l'hypothèse que l'enfant choisissant d'imiter le modèle adulte de même sexe pourrait adopter simultanément une attitude comparable avec les pairs. ...
Chapter
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From a very young age, the letters children address to Santa Claus conform to a stereotypical image of girls and boys. Girls want a doll, a pram or an iron while boys ask for a car, a fire truck or a robot. Do we give girls dolls and boys little cars because they love it or do they like these toys because we offer them? It is difficult to give a clear answer to this question. After a definition of the concepts involved, this article first proposes to study the development of sexually stereotyped knowledge, attitudes and behavior in children by referring to various theoretical perspectives: psychodynamic theories, as well as social learning and cognitive-developmental theories. In a second time, we tackle gender stereotypes in child's "play world" (toys, playmates, games). The review of various empirical research shows various aspects of gender stereotypes. These affective, cognitive, behavioral and social aspects appear to be linked in their development.
... Strayer i Gauthier, 1984), osiąga ona szczyt ok. 11. roku życia (Stockard, 2006). ...
... Podobnie jest w Europie: blisko 80% osób wskazanych jako przyjaciele przez trzynastoletnich Hiszpanów było tej samej płci (Babarro, Diaz-Aguado, Martinez Arias i Steglich, 2016). U chłopców homofilia pojawia się później niż u dziewczynek (La Freniere i in., 1984), ale jest silniejsza i trwalsza. Badania podłużne zespołu Susan McHale (McHale, Kim, Whiteman i Crouter, 2004), oparte na dzienniczkach jedenastoletnich dzieci, wykazały, że chłopcy w ciągu tygodnia spędzali na zabawach z innymi chłopcami około 195 minut, a z dziewczynkami 42 minuty, natomiast dziewczynki bawiły się z innymi dziewczynkami przez 109 minut, zaś z innymi chłopcami przez 43 minuty. ...
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In this study – based on a Polish nationwide, representative sample of third grade primary school pupils – we analysed the relationships between position within the peer network, its structural features (cohesion, hierarchy) and preferences for heterophily (PH), i.e. the frequency of choosing children of the other sex as liked. The analysis used two-part multi level modelling. The results indicate that: (1) PH is relatively rare; (2) girls have a slightly higher PH level than boys; (3) PH is associated with a low position within peer networks among boys but not among girls; (4) the impact of network density and centralization (network measures at the class level) on PH is not consistent as it varies depending on whether the occurrence or intensity of PH is taken into account and it additionally differs for boys and girls. The article discusses potential changesin the functions performed bPH during primary school. Tematem artykułu są związki zachodzące między pozycją zajmowaną w sieci rówieśniczej oraz jej cechami strukturalnymi (spójnością, hierarchicznością) a preferencjami heterofilnymi, czyli częstością wskazywania osób odmiennej płci jako lubianych. W analizach wykorzystano dane pochodzące z badania przeprowadzonego na ogólnopolskiej, reprezentatywnej próbie uczniów trzecich klas szkół podstawowych i przeprowadzono dwuczęściowe modelowanie wielopoziomowe. Wyniki wskazują, że: (1) preferencje heterofilne są stosunkowo rzadkie; (2) dziewczynki wykazują nieco wyższy ich poziom niż chłopcy; (3) preferencje heterofilne wiążą się z niską pozycją w ramach sieci rówieśniczej wśród chłopców, wśród dziewcząt taka zależność nie występuje; (4) oddziaływanie gęstości oraz scentralizowania sieci na poziomie klasy na preferencje heterofilne nie jest spójne; różnicuje się ono w zależności od tego, czy bierze się pod uwagę występowanie czy też natężenie tego zjawiska; dodatkowo jest ono odmienne wśród chłopców oraz dziewcząt. W artykule dyskutuje się potencjalne zmiany w funkcjach pełnionych przez preferencje heterofilne w okresie szkoły podstawowej.
... Come dimostrano i dati del citato studio di Katz e Zalk (1974), schematizzati nella Figura 3, le bambine si identificano con il proprio genere di appartenenza prima e con maggior frequenza rispetto ai bambini. Questo dato spiega perché, quando si tratta di scegliere un compagno di giochi, le bambine sono tendenzialmente più precoci dei bambini nell'esprimere una preferenza nei confronti di un same-sex playmate, come mostra una ricerca condotta da LaFreniere, Strayer, Gauthier (1984). ...
... Percentuali di scelta di same-sex playmates in bambini di età compresa fra un anno e mezzo e cinque anni e mezzo.Fonte: Adattato da LaFreniere,Strayer, Gauthier (1984). ...
... Истраживања су указала на постојање хомофилије по питању пола још код деце, која од раног детињства имају тенденцију да се више играју са вршњацима истог пола. Полна сегрегација се раније примећује код девојчица (већ око 27 месеци старости), да би склоност ка друштву деце истог пола до поласка у школу (тачније са 6 година) била много израженија код дечака (La Freniere et al., 1984). Аутори разматрају различита објашњења ове појаве, укључујући факторе подстицаја друштва и когнитивну компатибилност, али ипак подржавају гледиште да је узрок компатибилност у понашању, тј. ...
... различита интересовања која имају дечаци и девојчице на том узрасту. Аутори свој став поткрепљују резултатима различитих истраживања која сведоче, на пример, о томе да деца старости 1 године, дакле пре почетка полне сегрегације, бирају различите играчке, или да се у понашању дечака примећују знатно агресивније и грубље игре (детаљније у La Freniere et al., 1984Freniere et al., : 1963. Андерсен и Хајсок (Andersen and Hysock, 2009), с друге стране, истичу утицај друштва и културе у обликовању родних улога, показујући да дечаке и девојчице третирамо различито од самог рођења, и да чак и мале разлике (којих најчешће нисмо ни свесни) у опхођењу према деци различитог пола имају утицаја на формирање идеја о роду ком деца припадају. ...
Article
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This paper examines gender differences in different types of social networks. One of the main concepts relevant for studying gender differences is homophily, which refers to the tendency of people to interact more with similar individuals. In this paper homophily is analysed within the structural perspective which explains that the structures of our networks depend primarily on opportunities for social interactions, i.e. the composition and dynamics of the social context in which these interactions are embedded. Homophily is evident among males and females as early as in childhood, only to be even more prominent in school and adult years. Sex segregation is probably the most evident in the organisational context, where it has detrimental effects on women's careers, as women are generally underrepresented in positions of power and authority. Research in the last two decades pointed to the facts: 1) that men and women have very different types of organisational networks, 2) that successful men and women adopt different strategies to reach similar career objectives and acquire similar resources, and 3) that organisations also need to be actively involved in solving these gender-related issues.
... À partir de ces critères et de plusieurs échanges avec leurs enseignants respectifs, deux pairs au développement typique ont donc pris part à cette étude. Par ailleurs, dans la mesure où les enfants interagissent de manière préférentielle avec d'autres enfants du même sexe dès l'âge de 3 ans (La Frenière, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984), et que cette ségrégation sexuée s'accentue tout au long de l'enfance (Ruble, Martin & Berenbaum, 2006), nous avons fait le choix de n'inclure que des pairs masculins dans cette étude. Ainsi, les deux enfants au développement typique étaient des garçons, âgés de 10 ans et scolarisés en classe de CM2. ...
Article
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Le Trouble du Spectre de l’Autisme se caractérise principalement par une perturbation du fonctionnement sociocommunicatif. En milieu scolaire, les difficultés socio-communicatives des enfants avec un TSA limitent les interactions avec leurs camarades de classe au développement typique. Aussi, l’implantation d’interventions spécifiques centrées sur le développement des compétences sociales est essentielle pour favoriser l’inclusion scolaire et sociale des enfants avec un TSA. Cette recherche a pour objectif d’analyser les effets d’une intervention de médiation par les pairs en contexte d’activités partagées sur une tablette tactile. Deux binômes composés d’un enfant avec un TSA et d’un enfant typique ont été constitués. Chaque enfant tuteur a été formé à utiliser des stratégies visant à faciliter les interactions sociales avec son camarade TSA. Les résultats montrent une augmentation des comportements sociaux positifs, ainsi qu’une diminution des comportements sociaux agonistiques chez les deux enfants avec un TSA. Les implications et les limites de ces premiers résultats encourageants sont discutées dans la perspective de favoriser l’inclusion scolaire et sociale des enfants avec un TSA.
... Starting from early childhood, boys prefer toy guns, swords, and vehicles, whereas girls prefer dolls, tea sets, and other domestic toys (Alexander, Wilcox, & Woods, 2009;O'Brien & Huston, 1985;Pasterski et al., 2005;Ruble, Martin, & Berenbaum, 2006;Servin, Bohlin, & Berlin, 1999;Sutton-Smith & Rosenberg, 1971). Boys and girls also engage in sex-segregated play, spending more time with playmates of their own, than the other, sex (Howes, 1988;LaFreniere, Strayor, & Gauthier, 1984;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987;Pellegrini, Long, Roseth, Bohn, & van Ryzin, 2007). There are also gender differences in play styles, with boys engaging in more rough-andtumble play with peers and fathers than do girls (Jacklin, DiPietro, & Maccoby, 1984;Maccoby, 1998;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987;Pitcher & Shultz, 1983). ...
Article
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Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.
... Participants then completed tasks meant to probe their gender attitudes and gender stereotyping. All tasks were chosen because of past research demonstrating their utility in measuring children's emerging consideration of gender during the preschool years (e.g., LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984;Leinbach, Hort, & Fagot, 1997;Shutts et al., 2013;Weisman, Johnson, & Shutts, 2015), thereby allowing us to explore possible decreased consideration of gender among children in the GN school. At the end of the session, we also tested children's ability to identify the gender of target stimuli from the tasks. ...
Preprint
To test how early social environments affect children’s consideration of gender, 3- to 6-year-old children (N = 80) enrolled in gender-neutral or typical preschool programs in the central district of a large Swedish city completed measures designed to assess their gender-based social preferences, stereotypes, and automatic encoding. Compared with children in typical preschools, a greater proportion of children in the gender-neutral school were interested in playing with unfamiliar other-gender children. In addition, children attending the gender-neutral preschool scored lower on a gender stereotyping measure than children attending typical preschools. Children at the gender-neutral school, however, were not less likely to automatically encode others’ gender. The findings suggest that gender-neutral pedagogy has moderate effects on how children think and feel about people of different genders but might not affect children’s tendency to spontaneously notice gender.
... From early in development, children hold both explicit and implicit preferences for members of their own social groups over members of other social groups. Within Western contexts, young children prefer members of their own gender (La Freniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984;Martin & Ruble, 2004;Shutts, Banaji, & Spelke, 2010;Yee & Brown, 1994), language (Buttelmann, Zmyj, Daum, & Carpenter, 2013;Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007), and sometimes racial group Doyle & Aboud, 1995;Dunham, Baron, & Banaji, 2007;Kircher & Furby, 1971). Indeed, ingroup positivity can be induced in lab-based settings with novel groups based on arbitrary criteria (Dunham, Baron, & Carey, 2011;Richter, Over, & Dunham, 2016). ...
Article
Dehumanization is a complex social phenomenon, intimately connected to intergroup harm and neglect. However, developmental research has only recently started to investigate this important topic. In this chapter, we review research in areas closely related to dehumanization including children’s intergroup preferences, essentialist conceptions of social groups and understanding of relative status. We then highlight the small number of recent studies that have investigated the development of this social bias more directly. We close by making a series of suggestions for future research that will enable us to better understand the nature and causes of this harmful phenomenon.
... À partir de ces critères et de plusieurs échanges avec leurs enseignants respectifs, deux pairs au développement typique ont donc pris part à cette étude. Par ailleurs, dans la mesure où les enfants interagissent de manière préférentielle avec d'autres enfants du même sexe dès l'âge de 3 ans (La Frenière, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984), et que cette ségrégation sexuée s'accentue tout au long de l'enfance (Ruble, Martin & Berenbaum, 2006), nous avons fait le choix de n'inclure que des pairs masculins dans cette étude. Ainsi, les deux enfants au développement typique étaient des garçons, âgés de 10 ans et scolarisés en classe de CM2. ...
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Pour une culture numérique qui favorise un enseignement inclusif “Les conséquences d'un acte sont incluses dans l'acte lui-même.” (George Orwell « 1984 », 1949) Bruno De Lièvre Université de Mons « Big brother is watching you ». Cette phrase a fait frémir des générations depuis 1949. Aujourd’hui, septante ans plus tard, la captation et la protection de nos données numériques sont au cœur d’enjeux considérables. D’une part, pour les entreprises dont l’intérêt principal est de tirer un maximum de profit de leur exploitation et, d’autre part, pour les individus qui souhaitent pouvoir choisir avec qui leurs données sont partagées. Ces tensions entre tendances concomitantes poussent certains à adopter des attitudes protectionnistes qui toutefois ne peuvent pas nous faire oublier combien le numérique est aussi un facteur d’inclusion. Pour les jeunes qui demain devront maîtriser les technologies dans leur vie professionnelle. Pour les personnes âgées qui doivent rester au contact d’un monde qu’elles ont contribué à construire. En ce qui concerne les publics à besoins spécifiques, il faut pleinement les intégrer à ces questionnements fondamentaux de notre société en mutation permanente. Bourdet, Bourdon et Teutsch, du Centre de Recherche en Education de Nantes (CREN), nous proposent une série d’articles centrés sur la thématique de l’usage du numérique en situation d’autonomie réduite. Le fil conducteur est celui de l’effet de ces technologies : dans quelle mesure assurent-elles une meilleure accessibilité ou compensent-elles les difficultés rencontrées ? Briet et al. vous explicitent comment les enfants avec un Trouble de Spectre de l’Autisme voient leurs comportements sociaux positifs augmenter. Garnier, quant à lui, décrit la complémentarité entre le processus d’instrumentation et d’instrumentalisation que ces enfants avec un TSA mettent en œuvre dans l’appropriation de tablettes numériques. Toujours avec un public identique, Lefer-Sauvage et al. montrent que ceux-ci bénéficient largement d’une application d’agenda numérique pour mieux gérer en autonomie leur organisation quotidienne. Pour ce qui concerne des personnes avec déficiences intellectuelles ou sociales qui sont accueillies dans des services d’aide au travail, Le Chêne et Plantard insistent sur la meilleure estime d’eux-mêmes qu’ils acquièrent en même temps qu’une maitrise technologique. Castillan et Lemarie analysent la qualité de l’accès aux ressources pédagogiques dont bénéficient les personnes à déficiences visuelles. Quant à Quillion-Dupré & et al., c’est aux patients âgés atteints de maladie de type Alzheimer qu’ils s’intéressent en vue de prévenir les situations d’isolement et augmenter leur qualité de vie. Ces articles de recherche se positionnent selon un point de vue qui met bien en évidence la richesse du potentiel que les outils numériques peuvent développer chez tout un chacun pour rendre notre société plus agréable à vivre pour tous, car plus soucieuse d’y intégrer toutes les catégories de public, car plus inclusive donc plus humaine. C’est aussi ce à quoi la recherche contribue : participer à l’évolution de notre société au bénéfice de chacun de ces membres. Bonne lecture à toutes et à tous, Pour la Revue Education & Formation, Bruno De Lièvre
... The tendency to interact with samegender peers is a pervasive social phenomenon, occurring across diverse cultures and contexts and persisting across the life span (Maccoby, 1990(Maccoby, , 1995(Maccoby, , 1998Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987;Mehta & Strough, 2009). Preference for same-gender peers begins early (LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984), increases over childhood (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987) and, for the majority of students who identify as heterosexual, only in late childhood and early adolescence is there a shift for many children toward more interest and interactions with the other gender (Dunphy, 1963;Maccoby, 1998). ...
... στο Λεβεντάκου, 2003. Αξίζει να επισημανθεί ότι σύμφωνα με την έρευνα των LaFreniere, Strayer & Gauthier (1984), κυρίως τα κορίτσια ηλικίας δύο ετών προτιμούσαν να παίζουν με συνομηλίκους του ίδιου φύλου, ενώ τα αγόρια δεν έδειχναν μια παρόμοια προτίμηση μέχρι την ηλικία των τριών ετών (LaFreniere, 2011, σελ. 475). ...
... In nursery school four-year-old children spend three times as much time playing with same-sex children as they do with cross-sex children. At six years of age the ratio of same-sex to opposite-sex play increases to 11:1 (see also La Freniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987). To test the relevance of gender group-membership on overimitation performance, we used models of different sex and counterbalanced the children's and experimenter's sex. ...
Thesis
Over evolutionary time, humans have come to populate the most varied environments on planet earth and somehow managed to survive. The key to this extraordinary adaptability seems to rest not exclusively in biological adaptions, but also in cultural adaptations; it is thanks to the skills and information that are transmitted to us from others (i.e. through social learning) that we manage to survive and thrive in such diverse ecologies. One special form of social learning is the imitation of causally irrelevant actions. The imitation of actions that are perceivably irrelevant to reach a certain goal seems to be unique to humans and has been termed ‘overimitation’. At first sight, copying goal irrelevant actions seems to be an inefficient learning strategy. Therefore, the legitimate question arises: Why do we do so? It has been discussed that humans overimitate either because of erroneous causal reasoning, meaning that they do not recognize demonstrated actions as being irrelevant or because of social motivations, e.g., because they want to follow a norm or want to affiliate with the demonstrator. In this thesis, I present three different studies, which tested these explanatory models. Taken together, results of these studies gave reason to think that one of these accounts standing alone is insufficient to explain the phenomenon. Therefore, I am introducing a dual-mode model for overimitation. One mode is blanket copying. Here, irrelevant actions are copied independent of contextual differences. While copying in a blanket fashion, children heuristically copy irrelevant actions without questioning their necessity. This mode is triggered by actions which involve physical contact with the testing object, because it is harder to recognize such actions as being irrelevant. The other mode is reflective copying. Here, whether or not children overimitate is dependent on their goals in a certain situation. This mode of copying is triggered by actions that do not involve physical contact with the testing object can be easily recognized as being causally irrelevant, or by observing a more efficient strategy (not including irrelevant actions). If disclosing the irrelevancy of the demonstrated actions, children’s focus is directed to an alternate efficient option to reach the desired goal. Then, they can actively decide if they would like to copy the demonstrated irrelevant actions or not. Therefore, reflected copying is context depended. According to this integrative framework, overimitation can occur in a blanket and in a reflected fashion. Thus, this model emphasizes that the same observable behavior can have different underlying motivations.
... Homofilia płciowa zaczyna się ujawniać między 18. a 28. miesiącem życia (La Freniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984), staje się wyraźna między 30. a 36. miesiącem, osiągając szczyt około 11. roku (Stockard, 2006), stąd większość relacji społecznych w okresie szkoły podstawowej zachodzi w grupach homogenicznych płciowo. ...
Chapter
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Abstrakt Artykuł poświęcony jest relacjom między dwoma procesami zachodzącymi wśród uczniów kończących drugi etap nauki w szkole podstawowej: (1) włącza-niem osób innej płci w sieci koleżeńskie oraz (2) zmianami poczucia integracji rówieśniczej. Analiza przeprowadzona została w modelach latentnej krzywej rozwojowej (dynamika heterofilii) oraz latentnej różnicy wyników (zmiany poczucia integracji rówieśniczej) i wykorzystywała dane z ogólnopolskiego wzdłużnego badania SUEK (N = 5748). Stwierdzono: na początku klasy 5 szko-5 szko-5 szko-ły podstawowej zjawisko heterofilii jest stosunkowo rzadkie, zdecydowana większość (54,6%) uczniów/uczennic jako osoby przez siebie lubiane wskazuje wyłącznie rówieśników tej samej płci; w badanym okresie odnotowano wzrost preferencji heterofilnych; między początkiem klasy 5 a końcem klasy 6 odno-towano pogorszenie oceny jakości relacji rówieśniczych wśród uczennic, lecz nie wśród uczniów; wykazano wreszcie, że wzrost natężenia heterofilii pod koniec drugiego etapu dodatnio koreluje ze zmianami zachodzącymi w za-kresie poczucia integracji rówieśniczej: im większy wzrost heterofilii między klasą 5 a klasą 6, tym większa poprawa (mniejszy spadek) poczucia integracji z rówieśnikami klasowymi. Artykuł dyskutuje znaczenie uzyskanych wyników. 1 Praca powstała w wyniku realizacji projektu badawczego o numerze 2017/27/B/HS6/00850 finansowane-go ze środków Narodowego Centrum Nauki.
... The tendency to interact with samegender peers is a pervasive social phenomenon, occurring across diverse cultures and contexts and persisting across the life span (Maccoby, 1990(Maccoby, , 1995(Maccoby, , 1998Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987;Mehta & Strough, 2009). Preference for same-gender peers begins early (LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984), increases over childhood (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987) and, for the majority of students who identify as heterosexual, only in late childhood and early adolescence is there a shift for many children toward more interest and interactions with the other gender (Dunphy, 1963;Maccoby, 1998). ...
Article
Despite the fact that most boys and girls are in classrooms together, there is considerable variation in the degree to which their classrooms reflect gender integration (GI). In some classrooms, boys’ and girls’ relationships with each other are generally positive and harmonious. However, in other classes, students tend to only work with classmates of the same gender (i.e., gender segregation, GS), and cross-gender interactions seldom occur or, when they do, they may not be positive. As such, the coeducational context of schools provides no assurance that boys and girls work effectively together to learn, solve academic problems, and support one another in their academic efforts. The purpose of this perspective paper is to call attention to the importance of studying and understanding the role of GI in contemporary U.S. coeducational classrooms. Some of the costs associated with the failure to consider GI also are identified, as are implications for future research and educational practice.
... Especially at the transition from primary to secondary school, which occurs in Austria around the age of 10, social relationships have to be re-established (Pellegrini & Long, 2002). Our subjects, aged 10 to 13 years, were not only observed shortly after this transition, but also very shortly before the onset of puberty around the age of 13, probably the last time in their life-span where contacts to the opposite sex are relatively seldom and same-sex mates are preferred (La Freniere, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984). The earlier onset of puberty in girls might lead to more restraint in physical interactions, and could also account for the less pronounced effects in girls. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social interactions and hierarchical structures in classrooms are studied in a number of scientific disciplines, yet the complexity of such systems makes them hard to investigate. In the present study we explore the relationship between social status and bodily interaction. We developed a novel approach to assess social status in grammar school students by way of measuring the presence in others’ minds: Classmates assessed their peers in intellectual, social and physical domains. Additionally, we measured the amount and nature of physical interactions among classmates during breaks in the classroom. These interactions were tracked with the help of older, trained and regularly supervised students from the same school. This peer-to-peer method generated large amounts of data over a period of two months, during which 168 students were observed repeatedly. Results show that touching behavior is modulated by social status and sex: The amount of physical interaction with classmates increases significantly with social status. Same sex touching of intimate zones such as breasts, lap and buttocks occur more frequently among individuals of similar status as compared to touching the intimate zones of the opposite sex. The latter involves extremely high and low ranked individuals more often than same-sex interactions. This study helps to understand formative interactions within classrooms and gives rise to new questions on the establishment and maintenance of hierarchies in peer groups.
... We chose to examine this question with 5-and 6-year-old children because we know that they are able to extract social meaning from faces (Cogsdill et al., 2014), that social categories influence how they process faces (Dunham et al., 2013;Pezdek et al., 2003) and that they show reliable preferences for their own groups (Dunham & Emory, 2014;Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007;La Freniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984). Lastly, by including 5-PERCEIVING LESS HUMANNESS IN OUTGROUP FACES 8 year-olds, we tested dehumanisation in a somewhat younger age group than other research on this topic. ...
Article
We investigated when young children first dehumanize outgroups. Across two studies, 5- and 6-year-olds were asked to rate how human they thought a set of ambiguous doll-human face morphs were. We manipulated whether these faces belonged to their gender in- or gender outgroup (Study 1) and to a geographically based in- or outgroup (Study 2). In both studies, the tendency to perceive outgroup faces as less human relative to ingroup faces increased with age. Explicit ingroup preference, in contrast, was present even in the youngest children and remained stable across age. These results demonstrate that children dehumanize outgroup members from relatively early in development and suggest that the tendency to do so may be partially distinguishable from intergroup preference. This research has important implications for our understanding of children's perception of humanness and the origins of intergroup bias.
... Cisgender children often show preferences and behaviors that are highly stereotypical of their gender. For example, they show strong preferences for same-gender playmates by age 3 (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27), preferences for gender-typed toys throughout early and middle childhood, and gender-typed clothing preferences (28). ...
Article
Gender is one of the central categories organizing children’s social world. Clear patterns of gender development have been well-documented among cisgender children (i.e., children who identify as a gender that is typically associated with their sex assigned at birth). We present a comprehensive study of gender development (e.g., gender identity and gender expression) in a cohort of 3- to 12-y-old transgender children ( n = 317) who, in early childhood, are identifying and living as a gender different from their assigned sex. Four primary findings emerged. First, transgender children strongly identify as members of their current gender group and show gender-typed preferences and behaviors that are strongly associated with their current gender, not the gender typically associated with their sex assigned at birth. Second, transgender children’s gender identity (i.e., the gender they feel they are) and gender-typed preferences generally did not differ from 2 comparison groups: cisgender siblings ( n = 189) and cisgender controls ( n = 316). Third, transgender and cisgender children’s patterns of gender development showed coherence across measures. Finally, we observed minimal or no differences in gender identity or preferences as a function of how long transgender children had lived as their current gender. Our findings suggest that early sex assignment and parental rearing based on that sex assignment do not always define how a child identifies or expresses gender later.
... Tendencja ta po raz pierwszy ujawnia się między 18. a 28. miesiącem życia (La Freniere, Strayer & Gauthier 1984), staje się wyraźna między 30. a 36. miesiącem, osiągając szczyt około 11. roku (Stockard, 2006). ...
... Selin Kesebir, Sun Young Lee, Judy Qiu and Madan Pillutla Across cultures, young girls and boys segregate into same-sex groups and create distinct peer cultures (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1987;Munroe and Romney, 2006;Whiting and Edwards, 1988). Beginning at around the age of 3, children are increasingly drawn to same-sex peers (La Freniere et al., 1984;Ruble and Martin, 1998). Consequently, they spend substantially more time with same-sex peers. ...
... Starting from early childhood, boys prefer toy guns, swords, and vehicles, whereas girls prefer dolls, tea sets, and other domestic toys (Alexander, Wilcox, & Woods, 2009;O'Brien & Huston, 1985;Pasterski et al., 2005;Ruble, Martin, & Berenbaum, 2006;Servin, Bohlin, & Berlin, 1999;Sutton-Smith & Rosenberg, 1971). Boys and girls also engage in sex-segregated play, spending more time with playmates of their own, than the other, sex (Howes, 1988;LaFreniere, Strayor, & Gauthier, 1984;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987;Pellegrini, Long, Roseth, Bohn, & van Ryzin, 2007). There are also gender differences in play styles, with boys engaging in more rough-andtumble play with peers and fathers than do girls (Jacklin, DiPietro, & Maccoby, 1984;Maccoby, 1998;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987;Pitcher & Shultz, 1983). ...
Article
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Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.
... Participants then completed tasks meant to probe their gender attitudes and gender stereotyping. All tasks were chosen because of past research demonstrating their utility in measuring children's emerging consideration of gender during the preschool years (e.g., LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984;Leinbach, Hort, & Fagot, 1997;Shutts et al., 2013;Weisman, Johnson, & Shutts, 2015), thereby allowing us to explore possible decreased consideration of gender among children in the GN school. At the end of the session, we also tested children's ability to identify the gender of target stimuli from the tasks. ...
Article
To test how early social environments affect children’s consideration of gender, 3- to 6-year-old children (N = 80) enrolled in gender-neutral or typical preschool programs in the central district of a large Swedish city completed measures designed to assess their gender-based social preferences, stereotypes, and automatic encoding. Compared with children in typical preschools, a greater proportion of children in the gender-neutral school were interested in playing with unfamiliar other-gender children. In addition, children attending the gender-neutral preschool scored lower on a gender stereotyping measure than children attending typical preschools. Children at the gender-neutral school, however, were not less likely to automatically encode others’ gender. The findings suggest that gender-neutral pedagogy has moderate effects on how children think and feel about people of different genders but might not affect children’s tendency to spontaneously notice gender.
... A wide range of gendered behavior emerges early in development and grows more complex between the preschool and elementary years. By preschool, children identify with a gender (Fagot, Leinbach, & Hagan, 1986), prefer same-sex playmates (La Freniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984), and engage in gendered play (Smith & Inder, 1993). More complex cultural stereotypes about gender emerge later in development. ...
Article
In the United States, there is an unfortunate yet pervasive gender gap in wages: Women tend to make less than men for doing the same work. One prominent account for why this wage gap exists is that women and men negotiate differently. However, we currently do not know whether differences in negotiation are a product of extensive experience or are deeply rooted in development. Here, we brought data from children to bear on this important question. We gave 240 children between the ages of 4 and 9 years old a chance to negotiate for a bonus with a female or a male evaluator. Boys asked for the same bonus from a male and a female evaluator. Older girls, in contrast, asked for a smaller bonus from a male than a female evaluator. Our findings suggest that a gender gap in negotiation emerges surprisingly early in development, highlighting childhood as a key period for interventions.
... However, it is not clear whether such sex-stereotyped roles are already part of the repertoire of children before 41 months of age. In addition, children begin playing in same-sex play groups during this period (e.g., La Freniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984), with play styles that tend to be more rough/physical in male pairs than in female pairs or opposite-sex pairs (DiPietro, 1981; also see Jacklin & Maccoby, 1978). But, again, gender-segregated play groups and their associated sex-stereotyped play behaviors may be contingent upon constitutionally based predispositions (Maccoby, 1988). ...
Article
We know relatively little about the development of disruptive behaviors (DBs), and gender differences therein. The objective of this study was to describe the continuity and discontinuity in the degree to which young children in the general population are reported to exhibit specific DBs over time. Data came from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. First, the results show that relatively few children exhibit DBs on a frequent basis at 41 months of age. Second, the results show that a majority of children who exhibit a particular DB on a frequent basis at 41 months of age did not do so 1 year earlier. In addition, a majority of children who exhibited a particular DB on a frequent basis at 29 months of age no longer do so 1 year later. Third, gender differences in DBs (boys > girls) are either emerging or at least increasing in magnitude between 29 and 41 months of age. Consistent with the canalization of the behavioral development principle, children who exhibited DBs on a frequent basis at 29 months of age are less likely to stop doing so in the following year if they had exhibited the same behaviors at 17 months of age.
... However, prior work has found that most preschool children will assign gender to a robot, often matching their own, even if is referred to in a non-gendered way by experimenters (Kory, 2014). This may be because preschool children often show affiliation toward same-sex peers (see, e.g., La Freniere et al., 1984). Such affiliation could have affected their behavior, perhaps especially if the gender they assigned to the robot was different from that of the human (female) interlocutor. ...
Article
Social robots are innovative new technologies that have considerable potential to support children’s education as tutors and learning companions. Given this potential, it behooves us to study the mechanisms by which children learn from social robots, as well as the similarities and differences between children’s learning from robots as compared to human partners. In the present study, we examined whether young children will attend to the same nonverbal social cues from a robot as from a human partner during a word learning task, specifically gaze and bodily orientation to an unfamiliar referent. Thirty-six children viewed images of unfamiliar animals with a human and with a robot. The interlocutor (human or robot) oriented toward, and provided names for, some of the animals, and children were given a posttest to assess their recall of the names. We found that children performed equally well on the recall test whether they had been provided with names by the robot or by the human. Moreover, in each case, their performance was constrained by the spatial distinctiveness of nonverbal orientation cues available to determine which animal was being referred to during naming.
... Sex segregation in peer interactions begins early in childhood and continues throughout the lifespan (LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987). In terms of sex differences in friendship structures, females tend to form one or two very close dyadic friendships, whereas males tend to form looser multi-male friendship groups. ...
Article
Friendships provide material benefits, bolster health, and may help solve adaptive challenges. However, a recurrent obstacle to sustaining those friendships—and thus enjoying many friendship-mediated fitness benefits—is interference from other people. Friendship jealousy may be well-designed for helping both men and women meet the recurrent, adaptive challenge of retaining friends in the face of such third-party interference. Although we thus expect several sex similarities in the general cognitive architecture of friendship jealousy (e.g., it is attuned to friend value), there are also sex differences in friendship structures and historical functions, which might influence the inputs of friendship jealousy (e.g., the value of any one friendship). If so, we should also expect some sex differences in friendship jealousy. Findings from a reanalysis of previously-published data and a new experiment, including both U.S. student and adult community participants (N = 993), provide initial support for three predicted sex differences: women (versus men) report greater friendship jealousy at the prospective loss of best friends to others, men (versus women) report greater friendship jealousy at the prospective loss of acquaintances to others, and men's (but not women's) friendship jealousy is enhanced in the context of intergroup contests.
... On a continué tout au long du vingtième siècle à pratiquer l'observation directe des comportements sociaux des enfants (et parfois des adolescents) entre pairs, que ce soit dans leurs conditions de vie habituelles (par exemple, le développement de la ségrégation de sexe entre enfants chez La Freniere, Strayer & Gauthier, 1984) ou dans des situations expérimentales conçues comme analyseurs de manifestations comportementales spécifiques (par exemple, les comportements d'imitation réciproque simultanée chez Nadel & Baudonnière, 1980). L'observation directe peut être indispensable pour étudier certaines habiletés sociales ou l'organisation séquentielle des comportements sociaux. ...
... Research has yet to establish exactly when the universal facial expression for contempt first arises in development though some researchers posit that contempt is one of the last emotions to develop in children (Fridlund, Ekman, & Oster, 1987). Research has documented how children, even under the age of three, can show preferences for gender, age, and linguistic ingroups (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007;LaFreniere, Strayer, & Gauthier, 1984;Shutts, Banaji, & Spelke, 2010). Children do not however begin to exhibit group preferences until age five (Dunham, 2011), and during this time they become sensitive to relative status (Bigler, Brown, & Markell, 2001), group size (Brown & Bigler, 2002), and within-group fairness norms (Mulvey, Hitti, Rutland, Abrams, & Killen, 2014). ...
Article
Enactments of contempt and counter-contempt often occur when patient and analyst become embroiled in power struggles about the nature of reality. The patient feels shamed for being deemed “out of touch with reality” while the therapist feels shamed in retaliation for being a moralistic critic making arrogant assertions about the true nature of reality. Working through enactments of contempt and counter-contempt requires that the analyst acknowledge contempt in the countertransference and how it shames the patient. It also requires working toward greater acceptance of patient behavior that seems highly offensive as the analyst may feel shamed by the patient’s contempt for the analyst’s viewpoint, approach to treatment, and personality.
Article
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The paper is focused on the use of reading as a tool of deconstruction of gender stereotypes in early childhood. The gender stereotypes appear in children very early. At the age of two or three years' boys and girls know how to i m p l e m e n t r u d i m e n t a r y s t e r e o t y p i c a l associations and use gender categories competently. At the age of 5-6 years' children show discriminatory attitudes and clearly signs of prejudice towards the outgroup. Reading aloud to preschool children (0-6 years) offers an important tool to deal with complexity of reality. By reading a child builds a relationship with the world and learns to use different points of view. Three conditions are necessar y to be successful in reading aloud to early: a conscious choice of books, an accurate educational planning, an appropriate training course. By the projects Leggere senza stereotipi and La scuola fa differenza we present an example of use of reading for riduction of stereotypes and gender bias in three educational experiences.
Article
Smiling has been more widely investigated than laughing and both have been the focus of studies specially in the mother-infant interaction. In the present study, older children (4-5 ys) were observed while interacting, and, following CHEYNE'S (1976) suggestion, three categories of smiles were recognized: with no teeth exposure, with upper teeth exposure, with upper and lower teeth exposure. Laughter, which was not examined by that author, was added to this analysis. A group of 19 children (8 boys, 11 girls) was followed through a focal-Individual Sampling Method. Each Focal-Individual was submitted to six ten-minute observation sessions. It was verified that the upper teeth exposure category was significantly more frequent than the other forms of expression. The frequencies of the smile with upper and lower teeth exposure and the laughter were equivalent and both were more frequent than the smile with no teeth exposure. A significant negative correlation between the smile with no teeth exposure and that with upper teeth exposure, and also a significant positive correlation between the smile with upper and lower teeth exposure and laughter were found. Our results confirm Cheyne's suggestion that smiling is an heterogeneous motivational category, although the pattern of correlations found was not exactly the same: Cheyne found a negative correlation between the smile with no teeth exposure and the smile with upper and lower teeth exposure.
Chapter
This chapter describes relevant theory, research, and challenges to the development of a 6-year experiment with a school-based intervention called the Sanford Harmony Program (SHP). Recent research has demonstrated that young preschool-age children show both selection effects and peer influence: they selected others based on their gender and they were influenced by peers with whom they spent time to become more similar to those peers in the level of their gender-typed activities. Based on this evidence, and again supporting the use of intergroup contact theory, we were confident that, if children spent time with other-gender peers, there was potential for those peers to provide learning opportunities even for the youngest children in the intervention. The chapter discusses several challenges in the development of SHP. The broad goal of SHP is to improve children's relationships with other children in their classes, especially children of the other gender.
Article
The goal of this study is to analyse sources of variation, residing within the individual or within the relationship, in the ability to balance co-operative and competitive behaviours in a dyadic context. The ability to balance these two tendencies can be considered fundamental to successful adaptation within a social unit because co-operation may be essential in raising offspring, competing with other groups or in generating resources, whereas egoistic behaviour may protect the individual from exploitation or otherwise enhance reproductive success. Research is reviewed on the influence of social structures and relationships on co-operation in peer groups, and the origin and developmental significance of individual differences in co-operative abilities. Finally, a research programme investigating the conjunction of kin and peer relations is described, emphasising the role of affective synchrony, behavioural contingency, and reciprocity in shaping and sustaining co-operative behaviour as a conditional strategy.
Article
Early childhood is an important developmental period for network formation. However, the observational methods used for measuring young children’s networks present challenges for capturing both positive and negative ties. To overcome these challenges, we explored the use of a bipartite projection backbone model for inferring both negative and positive ties from observational data of children’s play. Using observational data collected in one 3-year-old (N = 17) and one 4-year-old (N = 18) preschool classroom, we examined whether patterns of homophily, triadic closure, and balance in networks inferred using this method matched theoretical and empirical expectations from the early childhood literature. Consistent with this literature, we found that signed networks inferred using a backbone model exhibited gender homophily in positive ties and gender heterophily in negative ties. Additionally, networks inferred from social play exhibited more closed and balanced triads than networks inferred from parallel play. These findings offer evidence of the validity of bipartite projection backbone models for inferring signed networks from preschoolers’ observed play.
Article
Despite extant evidence of negative peer treatment of transgender adolescents and adults, little is known about how young children perceive transgender peers, particularly those who have socially-transitioned, or are living in line with their gender, rather than sex at birth. Whereas children have been shown to be averse to gender nonconformity in peers, because many transgender children appear and behave in ways consistent with their expressed gender (but not their sex at birth), it is unclear how children evaluate these identities. In two studies, we investigated 5- to 10-year-old children's (N total =113) preferences for transgender vs. gender-"typical" peers who either shared their gender identity or did not. We also examined whether children categorize transgender peers by their sex or expressed gender, as this might inform their evaluations. Children preferred cisgender peers over transgender peers; however, they also liked peers of their own gender rather than the other gender (e.g., female participants preferred girls over boys), demonstrating that the oft-documented own-gender bias plays an important role even when children are reasoning about transgender peers. Children did not reliably categorize transgender peers by sex or gender; yet, those who categorized transgender peers by their sex showed greater dislike of transgender peers. The current studies are the first to investigate cisgender children's attitudes toward transgender children, and suggest that perceptions of gender categorization and conformity play a role in children's evaluations of transgender peers.
Article
Objectives: This study examines childhood gender nonconformity (GNC) in conjunction with the phenomenon in which young children describe memories of a purported previous life. Methods: In a case-control study of 469 children reporting past-life memories, we used logistic regression to examine predictors of GNC, measured by documented gender nonconforming behaviors. Results: Children who remembered a life involving a different natal sex were much more likely to exhibit GNC than children who remembered a same-sex life. Conclusions: After exploring potential explanations, we conclude that past-life memories represent a novel factor that may be associated with the development of GNC.
Thesis
Les représentations culturelles associées au féminin et au masculin changent suivant les lieux et les époques. Le concept même de genre évolue et fait débat. Comme toute forme de catégorisation, les stéréotypes de genre tendent à nous enfermer dans une représentation forcément réductrice puisque l’individu est par nature singulier. Mais c’est également à travers les stéréotypes que se construit notre identité de genre. Le jeu est un vecteur majeur de la socialisation dans l’enfance, il nous est apparu une situation expérimentale de choix pour mettre « à l’épreuve » le comportement des parents et des enfants à l’égard des stéréotypes de genre. Notre étude est centrée sur l’observation d’interactions de jeu entre les parents et leurs enfants de trois ans. Trois jouets leur ont été proposés : un jouet stéréotypé féminin, un jouet stéréotypé masculin et un jouet considéré comme mixte. L’originalité de notre étude repose sur une analyse conjointe du contenu verbal des interactions et de la manipulation des jouets, associée à un test de catégorisation des jouets et à des questionnaires parentaux. Les résultats de cette recherche montrent que les parent se sont davantage orientés vers le jouet neutre par rapport aux enfants et que les pères l’ont davantage manipulé que que les mères. Il est probable que le contexte particulièrement prégnant de sensibilisation aux menaces que peuvent représenter les stéréotypes explique les incitations parentales observées. Les enfants se sont néanmoins orientés préférentiellement vers le jouet stéréotypique de leur sexe, manipulant peu le jouet neutre, et les garçons ont opéré des choix plus stéréotypés que les filles en première intention de jeu, comme cela a déjà été observé. L’analyse lexicométrique associée à la manipulation des jouets révèle, quant à elle, que la manipulation du jouet stéréotypé masculin, le garage de pompiers, s’accompagnait moins systématiquement de productions verbales, par rapport à la maison de poupées. Ce résultat nous amène naturellement à nous interroger sur le rôle que joue la socialisation genrée précoce dans le développement ultérieur d’habiletés différenciées.
Article
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Children who try to exclude others due to their gender can be considered as “gender enforcers.” Using multiple methods (observations, interviews) and informants (children, teachers, teacher aides), we investigated the prevalence of gender enforcement, the characteristics of gender enforcers, and potential associations of exposure to gender enforcers. Participants were 98 (Mage = 49.47 months, SD = 11.40; 52% boys) preschoolers from a southwestern city in the United States. Results showed that both girls and boys engage in gender-enforcing behavior. Further, findings suggest that aggression and biased gender-related beliefs are associated with gender-enforcing behavior. Children who spent more time (over months) with enforcers were observed to play more with same-gender peers and to show more biased gender cognitions than were children who spent less time with enforcers. The study extends our understanding of how gender norms are enforced in early childhood, and it provides insights that may help to identify young gender enforcers. These findings have potential to inform future research and practice related to gender-based aggression in childhood.
Article
The purpose of this article is to highlight the important role that gender plays in organizing and affecting the quality of the classroom climate. We review research showing how students’ peer relationships tend to be segregated by gender and discuss the consequences of children spending much of their time almost exclusively with same-gender peers, which perpetuates and exaggerates gender segregation. We suggest that a more beneficial pattern is enhancing students’ exposure to other-gender peers—that is, promoting gender integration. We describe the theories that support the benefits of integrating across social groups. Next, we review methods and results of strategies we have used to promote integration. Finally, we draw attention to the issues about gender integration that require further consideration and argue for more research that can help guide the development of effective strategies that build more inclusive environments, practices, and policies for today’s children and youth.
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Prosocial behavior refers to voluntary acts done to benefit another. To date, there is little work examining children’s prosocial behavior toward outgroup members. Across several multi-method multi-informant data sets, I used various statistical methods (e.g., latent change score analysis, mediation and moderation analyses) to examine the predictors, correlates, and development of children’s prosocial behavior toward various outgroup members (e.g., gender, race). In Study 1, I examined the relation between preschoolers’ other-gender friendships and their prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers. Findings showed support for the hypothesis that cross-gender friendships are positively associated with children’s prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers over time. Further, children’s prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers positively predicted children’s later gender attitudes suggesting that fostering intergroup prosocial behavior could be a potentially effective solution to reduce intergroup prejudice. To capture the multifaceted nature of social identities, in Study 2, I examined children’s prosocial behavior toward various ingroup and outgroup members with the intention of exploring the degree of ingroup-ness and testing the transfer effect of intergroup contact. Findings showed that cross-gender friendships were positively predictive of school-age children’s prosocial behavior toward diverse others. Further, cross-race friendships are related to children’s diverse prosocial behavior indirectly through children’s race-based sympathy. Study 3 extended the previous two studies by testing both Intergroup Contact Theory and Social Identity Theory and taking into consideration the social identity of oneself (versus the targets of prosocial behavior). Specifically, I examined the central component of gender identity: children’s perceived same-gender similarity and other-gender similarity, as well as children’s same- and other-gender friendships. Results showed that only intergroup friendships, but not children’s gender identity, were related to children’s prosocial behavior toward same- and other-gender peers. In sum, this basic research has potential to shed light on ways to promote equity and inclusion across various social groups early in development.
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Friendship fundamentally shapes interactions, and predicting other people's affiliations is crucial for effectively navigating the social world. We investigated how 3- to 11-year-old children use three cues to reason about friendship: propinquity, similarity, and loyalty. In past work, researchers asked children to report on their own friendships and found a shift from an early focus on propinquity to a much later understanding of the importance of loyalty. Indeed, attention to loyalty was not standard until adolescence. Across four studies (total N = 900), we used a simpler method in which we asked children to make a forced-choice decision about which of two people a main character was better friends with. Although we replicated the finding that understanding the importance of loyalty increases with age, we also found evidence that even the youngest children tested (3- to 5-year-olds) can use loyalty to predict friendship. Thus, a sophisticated understanding of how social interactions unfold differently between friends and nonfriends may be evident by the preschool years. We also discuss interesting developmental differences in how children weigh the importance of each of these friendship cues.
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Friendships provide material benefits, bolster health, and may help solve adaptive challenges. However, a recurrent obstacle to sustaining those friendships—and thus enjoying many friendship-mediated fitness benefits—is interference from other people. Friendship jealousy may be well-designed for helping both men and women meet the recurrent, adaptive challenge of retaining friends in the face of such third-party interference. Although we thus expect several sex similarities in the general cognitive architecture of friendship jealousy (e.g., it is attuned to friend value), there are also sex differences in friendship structures and historical functions, which might influence the inputs of friendship jealousy (e.g., the value of any one friendship). If so, we should also expect some sex differences in friendship jealousy. Findings from a reanalysis of previously-published data and a new experiment, including both U.S. student and adult community participants (N = 993), provide initial support for three predicted sex differences: women (versus men) report greater friendship jealousy at the prospective loss of best friends to others, men (versus women) report greater friendship jealousy at the prospective loss of acquaintances to others, and men’s (but not women’s) friendship jealousy is enhanced in the context of intergroup contests.
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Although the emergence of gender segregation in early childhood is a well‐established pattern in formal settings (i.e., group childcare, preschool) from research predominantly in North America, little is known about the gender segregation among young children in Sub‐Saharan Africa, especially in contexts of ethnically diverse informal urban settlements. Using naturalistic observations of 62 focal‐children (2‐ to 4‐year‐olds) from 4 ethnic groups (Kamba, Kikuyu, Luo, Maasai) in one informal urban settlement in Kenya, we examined gender segregation in social interactions and proximity to other children in their daily lives. Focal‐children’s ethnicity, age, and gender were considered as potential predictors of gender segregation (i.e., tendency to spend time in close proximity or social interaction with children of their same gender). Ethnicity was the best predictor of gender segregation, as Maasai children exhibited more evidence of gender segregation than children of other ethnicities. Age and gender did not predict patterns of gender segregation in this sample. Findings are discussed with respect to cultural roles related to gender, ethnically diverse urban communities, social development in early childhood, and prevalent assumptions about the universality of gender segregation in early childhood.
Chapter
Although advances in our understanding of transgender/gender nonconforming youth have been achieved, gaps in knowledge remain. Compelling studies have emerged supporting the concept that gender identity is not simply a psychosocial construct, but likely reflects a complex interplay of biologic, environmental, and cultural factors. Replacement of the term gender identity disorder with gender dysphoria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V underscores that a transgender identity, in and of itself, is no longer considered pathologic. Thus clinical concern should focus on the gender dysphoria that may be present, along with concomitant mental health challenges. The first long-term study, based on current models of care, indicates that mental health comorbidities in gender dysphoric youth diminish or resolve when such individuals are provided with gender-affirming treatment, optimally delivered in a multidisciplinary setting. Further prospective, long-term outcome studies are needed to optimize care for transgender/gender nonconforming youth.
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Perception of disability is an important construct affecting not only the well-being of individuals with disabilities, but also the moral compass of the society. Negative attitudes toward disability disempower individuals with disabilities and lead to their social exclusion and isolation. By contrast, a healthy society encourages positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities and promotes social inclusion. The current review explored disability perception in the light of the in-group vs. out-group dichotomy, since individuals with disabilities may be perceived as a special case of out-group. We implemented a developmental approach to study perception of disability from early age into adolescence while exploring cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of children’s attitudes. Potential factors influencing perception of disability were considered at the level of society, family and school environment, and the individual. Better understanding of factors influencing the development of disability perception would allow the design of effective interventions to improve children’s attitudes toward peers with disabilities, reduce intergroup biases, and promote social inclusion. Based on previous research in social and developmental psychology, education, and anthropology, we proposed an integrative model that provides a conceptual framework for understanding the development of disability perception.
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