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Sprachwandel: Die unsichtbare Hand in der Sprache

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... Berlin: Duden-Verlag. -Keller, Rudi (1990). Sprachwandel: Von der unsichtbaren Hand in der Sprache. ...
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Im folgenden Beitrag stehen Fragen des Erwerbs und der Vermittlung geschlechterinklusiver Sprache im Fokus. Dazu beziehen wir uns auf die Institutionen Schule und Hochschule. Diese sprachdidaktische Perspektive wird an einzelnen Stellen um eine schul- und hochschulpolitische Perspektive ergänzt.
... Speaking of uplifting a profession, a prostitute is referred to as a "seller of love" in Saudi Arabia (Al Azzam et al. 2017). Address terms that historically were confined to persons of social nobility but came to be doled out to commoners as a flattery, such as the German Frau and the English lady, may be considered examples of talking-up as the initial motivation behind their semantic broadening over time (Keller 1990). The uplifting function of euphemism often involves a shift of focus. ...
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This article provides an overview of the definitions, motivations, functions, and linguistic devices of euphemism.
... For example, no literature at all is cited on p. 143 ("Diese Annahme wird von Forschungserkenntnissen unterstützt, die ..."), on p. 144 ("es hat sich gezeigt, dass die ...", "Wie die Forschung zur Sprachlernentwicklung gezeigt hat, ..."), and on p. 155: ("Hinsichtlich der unterschiedlich ausgeprägten linguistischen Fähigkeiten zeigen die Ergebnisse verschiedener Forschungsprojekte, dass ..."). On p. 147, the author of this chapter (Kees de Bot) introduces "Emergentismus, der im Fall von Sprache so zu verstehen ist, dass ...", but cites neither Keller (1994), nor Hopper (1998), nor any other key literature. He also refers to findings mentioned in other volumes of the series without providing a page number, as on p. 143 ("vergleiche den Band »Sprachenlehren«") and p. 152 ("siehe hierzu den Band »Sprachenlernen und Kognition«"). ...
... Möglich ist auch eine Entstehung innerhalb spezifischer Peer-Groups, wobei die Namen konkreter Personen durch einen "Invisible-Hand-Prozess" (Vgl. Keller 2003) ihren Gebrauchsradius erweitern und Allgemeingut werden. So findet sich etwa Claudia für "dumme Person", Günter für "Mundgeruch", (Voll-)Horst für "Idiot", Jockel für "Blödmann", Jonny für "Depp" (offensichtlicher Zusammenhang mit dem amerikanischen Schauspieler Johnny Depp), Mike für "dicker Mensch", Svenja für "Schwein", Uschi für "Kumpel" etc. Weitere onymische Elemente wie Familiennamen, besonders aber auch Firmen-oder Produktnamen sind in folgenden Konversionen enthalten: hartzen ("chillen, abhängen, Hartz IV empfangen und rumhängen", nach dem früheren VW-Personalvorstand und Namenspatron umstrittener Arbeitsmarktreformgesetze), lidln ("jemanden ausspionieren", nach der Discountkette Lidl, die durch systematische Überwachung ihrer Mitarbeiter in die Schlagzeilen geraten war), meiern ("jemanden mobben"), rolexen ("angeben, protzen" nach dem Luxusuhrenhersteller Rolex), smacksen ("frühstücken", nach einem Produkt der Firma Kellogg's). ...
... On this view, language is seen as a complex adaptive system, i.e. a system whose global properties emerge from independent actions of multiple agents at a local level (see e.g. Frank & Gontier 2010) -a view partly prefigured in Keller's (1994) invisible-hand theory of language change. Finally, it has been suggested that the shared intentionality framework proposed by Tomasello and colleagues (Tomasello et al., 2005, Tomasello, 2008 can bridge the gap between non-human communication and the basic protolanguage presupposed in a grammaticalisation framework along the lines of Heine & Kuteva (see e.g. ...
Article
In recent years, multiple researchers working on the evolution of language have put forward the idea that the theoretical framework of usage-based approaches and Construction Grammar is highly suitable for modelling the emergence of human language from pre-linguistic or proto-linguistic communication systems. This also raises the question of whether usage-based and constructionist approaches can be integrated with the analysis of animal communication systems. In this paper, we review possible avenues where usage-based, constructionist approaches can make contact with animal communication research, which in turn also has implications for theories of language evolution. To this end, we first give an overview of key assumptions of usage-based and constructionist approaches before reviewing some key issues in animal communication research through the lens of usage-based, constructionist approaches. Specifically, we will discuss how research on alarm calls, gestural communication and symbol-trained animals can be brought into contact with usage-based, constructionist theorizing. We argue that a constructionist view of animal communication can yield new perspectives on its relation to human language, which in turn has important implications regarding the evolution of language. Importantly, this theoretical approach also generates hypotheses that have the potential of complementing and extending results from the more formalist approaches that often underlie current animal communication research.
... (64) Vgl. das von Keller (1990) hervorgehobene Prinzip der unsichtbaren Hand. ...
... Wittgenstein's analyses demonstrate that local rule systems like language games are a conditio sine qua non of rationality. What is described as reasonable or rational appears to be the consequence of rules or of processes organised in a rulelike way, and not the reverse (Hayek 1980;Keller 1990;Fischer 1999a, b). Rule-following is a kind of praxis that can only be accounted for pro-gressively, in a feedforward loop, i.e. pragmatically, because any retro-gressive account becomes caught in a vicious circle. ...
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The author deals with the operational core of logic, i.e. its diverse procedures of inference, in order to show that logically false inferences may in fact be right because-in contrast to logical rationality-they actually enlarge our knowledge of the world. This does not only mean that logically true inferences say nothing about the world, but also that all our inferences are invented hypotheses the adequacy of which cannot be proved within logic but only pragmatically. In conclusion the author demonstrates, through the relationship between rule-following and rationality, that it is most irrational to want to exclude the irrational: it may, at times, be most rational to think and infer irrationally. Focussing on the operational aspects of knowing as inferring does away with the hiatus between logic and life, cognition and the world (reality)-or whatever other dualism one wants to invoke: knowing means inferring, inferring means rule-governed interpreting, interpreting is a constructive, synthetic act, and a construction that proves adequate (viable) in the "world of experience", in life, in the praxis of living, is, to the constructivist mind, knowledge. It is the practice of living which provides the orienting standards for constructivist thinking and its judgments of viability. The question of truth is replaced by the question of viability, and viability depends on the (right) kind of experiential fit.
... Die Beschreibung der Aspekte der Binnenstrukturierung von Kontroversen, ihrer Spielarten und ihrer historischen Entwicklung im Längsschnitt sind die zentrale Aufgabe, die im Rahmen einer historischen Pragmatik der Wissenschaftskommunikation bearbeitet werden muss. Auf diese Aufgabe lassen sich folgende Leitfragen und (Beckmann & König 1995;Keller 1990). Einer Idee von Thomas Luckmann (1986) folgend, kann man das Repertoire der auf diese Weise abgedeckten kommunikativen Funktionen und der darauf bezogenen Formen der Kommunikation als einen kommunikativen "Haushalt" betrachten. ...
... weitverbreitet und nicht-therapierbar (vgl. Keller 1990). Interessanter ist, was an emotiven und affektiven Beweggründen hinter der vordergründigen Sprach-und Kulturverfallsangst zum Vorschein kommt. ...
Article
Soll sich die germanistische Linguistik um geschlechtergerechten Sprachgebrauch kümmern? Soll sie sich einmischen in die Diskussion darum, welche sprachlichen Formen für die Bezeichnung bestimmter Personengruppen geeignet sind und welche eher gemieden werden sollten, da sie den Sachverhalt inadäquat darstellen oder diskriminierend wirken? Soll die germanistische Linguistik gar Vorschläge machen, Empfehlungen aussprechen, sachlich fundierten Rat geben? Und schließlich: Soll sie den aktuell stattfindenden Sprachgebrauchswandel im Bereich der Personenbezeichnungen im Deutschen als Forschungsthema zur Kenntnis nehmen und bearbeiten? Der Beitrag ist ein Plädoyer dafür, den Diskurs über geschlechtergerechte Sprache und seine vielfältigen Rückkopplungen in Sprachgebrauch und Sprachstruktur wahrzunehmen als das, was er ist: ein Indiz für ein aktuelles, weitreichendes Sprachwandelphänomen, verbunden mit sich wandelnden Einstellungen zu tradierten Gebrauchsmustern, mit Veränderungen des Normbewusstseins, mit intensivierter gesellschaftlicher Reflexion über Sprache und Denken und mit Aushandlungsprozessen über die Darstellungsansprüche unterschiedlicher gesellschaftlicher Gruppen. Kurz: Das Thema geschhlechtergerechte Sprache ist ein Feld, in dem sich zahlreiche hochrelevante Forschungsfragen für die germanistische Linguistik auftun. Zur Illustration der angesprochenen Punkte wird ein Blick auf den Streit um den Status des sogenannten generischen Maskulinums im Kontext geschlechtergerechten Sprachgebrauchs geworfen.
... In substitution processes, this can be relatively straightforward. For example, one expression picks up some form of social prestige (Labov 1972;Labov 2001;Keller 1990;Croft 2000) or it is in some other respect better adapted to its function (Haspelmath 1999;De Smet 2008;Petré 2014) and is therefore consistently selected at the expense of another. Under such circumstances, substitution is indeed the natural outcome. 1 A classic example is the renewal of intensifiers: speakers continually recruit new expressions in the same functional domain because the expressiveness of older forms has been compromised by overuse (e. g., Hoeksema 2005;Foolen 2012). ...
Article
The relation between functionally similar forms is often described in terms of competition. This leads to the expectation that over time only one form can survive (substitution) or each form must find its unique niche in functional space (differentiation). However, competition cannot easily explain what causes functional overlap or how form-function mappings will be reorganized. It is argued here that the changes which competing forms undergo are steered by various analogical forces. As a result of analogy, competing forms often show attraction, becoming functionally more (instead of less) alike. Attraction can maintain and increase functional overlap in language. At the same time, competing forms are analogically anchored to a broader constructional network. Cases of differentiation typically follow from the relations in that network. Evidence is drawn from the literature and from three corpus-based case studies, addressing attraction and differentiation in English aspectual constructions, English secondary predicate constructions, and in a pair of Dutch degree modifiers. Evidence is provided of a phenomenon competition-based accounts could not predict (attraction), and a solution is offered for one they could not very well explain (differentiation). More generally it is shown that the development of competing forms must be understood against their broader grammatical context.
... Ä.), indem mindestens ein negativ konnotiertes Sem neu hinzugekommen ist, wodurch die soziale, moralische oder auch stilistische Abwertung dieser Bezeichnung und ihrer Bedeutung stattgefunden hat(cf. Nübling 2011;Keller 1990Keller , 1995). Kategorisierung ist jedoch nicht nur vertikal dynamisch, sondern auch horizontal, da auf syntagmatischer Ebene die Bewertung verstärkt oder abgeschwächt werden kann. ...
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The focus of this paper is on pejoratives, i. e. on lexical units of the negative evaluative type. Departing from the assumption that the study of negative evaluation offers an insight into hu-man nature, we shall here analyse the process of negative evaluation (the process of pejoriza-tion), as well as the result of that process (pejoratives themselves). The analysis is conducted on currently available research – both traditional and cognitive linguistic – as well as on the corpus that has been obtained from both scholarly articles as well as dictionaries. The basis of the corpus is represented by pejoratives used to address people, found in German dictionaries. In order to test the (universal) status and the limits of the conceptual status of the pejoratives themselves, we have analysed the corpus also at the cross linguistic level, comparing and contrasting the German examples with equivalent English examples.
... La crítica de Coseriu se refiere al Cours y no al verdadero Saussure, pero el Cours, con sus afirmaciones tan categóricas (mejor probablemente que la visión más diferenciada del propio Saussure), le sirvió a Coseriu como un referente óptimo para desarrollar su propia teoría. 4 Keller (1990) tuvo mucho éxito en el mundo germanófono, y más adelante, por la traducción de su manual, en el mundo anglófono. La idea principal consiste en la distinción entre fenómenos de la naturaleza, artefactos y «fenómenos del tercer tipo» en los que el producto, contrario al caso del artefacto, no corresponde a la intención del productor (como los senderos en el campus de la Universidad de Düsseldorf, los atascos, la caída de la bolsa o el cambio lingüístico). ...
... journalistic) prac- tices that emerge, become recycled, stay or die. The emer- gence of communicative needs and their transformations might also be explained with reference to invisible hand processes in language and semiotic change (Keller, 2003) or with recourse to a principle of constant reversal (Cook, 2001: 223ff.) inscribed into popular media, which first establishes and then deliberately breaks with the stylistic norms and aesthetic conventions of genres in the interest of audience attention and involvement. ...
Article
The present study tracks historical changes in the genre profiles, image types, and text-image relations of the MIT Technology Review over 113 years. Within the framework of sociolinguistic mediatization research, observable changes are linked to factors or trends that influence media development generally, such as graphic salience, communicative directness or reversal of aesthetic preferences. Rather than produce ultimate results about genre and multimodal change in popular science writing, the contribution seeks to outline a method for analysis which combines genre and illustration profiles, image types, multimodal rhetorical clusters and conjunctive text-image relations. The application of the proposed method yields clear results: Genre profiles broaden and typical popular science genres emerge; multimodal rhetorical clusters diversify and visualization generally intensifies; the internal structure of individual clusters shifts. Based on an exemplary exploration of the method, the present contribution suggests ways of refining text linguistic and multimodal research of the historical type. Direct correlations between observed textual and multimodal change and changes in media logic prove hard to draw, but large-scale studies are likely to reliably plot directions of media development and to pinpoint relevant influencing factors.
... A few short examples should suffice. Petré, using Keller's (1990) Three further papers are even more explicit in their psycholinguistic approach to the language of earlier periods. Pentrel explores sentence production, specifically the placement of adverbial clauses in Samuel Pepys's Diaries of the 17 th century. ...
Article
Historical linguistics is a field that, perhaps more than other branches of linguistics, can be said to exhibit a certain conservatism. To be clear, this term is not meant in any traditional political sense. Rather it is meant to capture the notion that, as a discipline, diachronic studies seem to accept and build on previous theories and empirical findings to a greater extent than do most synchronic subdisciplines. This may be because data are comparatively rare and hard to come by. One result of this scarcity is that, once analyzed, there are fewer opportunities for reanalysis predicated on new data. There are, of course, occasions when more or less radical proposals are brought forward subsequently, which result in debates of the kind which are much more common in synchronic syntax, say, or phonology. The reconstruction of the Indo-European consonant system (Beekes 1995: 132–4 provides a summary), for example, continues to be debated almost two hundred years after it was first proposed.
... Möglich ist auch eine Entstehung innerhalb spezifischer Peer-Groups, wobei die Namen konkreter Personen durch einen "Invisible-Hand-Prozess" (Vgl. Keller 2003) ihren Gebrauchsradius erweitern und Allgemeingut werden. So findet sich etwa Claudia für "dumme Person", Günter für "Mundgeruch", (Voll-)Horst für "Idiot", Jockel für "Blödmann", Jonny für "Depp" (offensichtlicher Zusammenhang mit dem amerikanischen Schauspieler Johnny Depp), Mike für "dicker Mensch", Svenja für "Schwein", Uschi für "Kumpel" etc. Weitere onymische Elemente wie Familiennamen, besonders aber auch Firmen-oder Produktnamen sind in folgenden Konversionen enthalten: hartzen ("chillen, abhängen, Hartz IV empfangen und rumhängen", nach dem früheren VW-Personalvorstand und Namenspatron umstrittener Arbeitsmarktreformgesetze), lidln ("jemanden ausspionieren", nach der Discountkette Lidl, die durch systematische Überwachung ihrer Mitarbeiter in die Schlagzeilen geraten war), meiern ("jemanden mobben"), rolexen ("angeben, protzen" nach dem Luxusuhrenhersteller Rolex), smacksen ("frühstücken", nach einem Produkt der Firma Kellogg's). ...
Article
Worüber reden wir, wenn wir über Kunst reden? Eine Frage, die sich die wenigsten stellen, wenn sie über Kunst reden. Und stattdessen drauflos reden. Im alltäglichen Kontext wie vielfach auch in dem der Kunstwelt. Ohne jede systematische Begriffsdifferenzierung. Ohne Erklärung, wie sich die Bedeutung des Wortes Kunst und der Begriff „Kunst“ konstituieren, etablieren, wandeln. Mithilfe von Rudi Kellers Sprachwandelkonzept und H.P. Grice’ handlungstheoretischem Modell versucht sich Stefan Oehm an einem Lösungsansatz.
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The article describes the relation between lexemes and grammatical formatives ("synsemantica") as a dynamic relationship mainly produced by grammaticalization. It also highlights the role of synsemantica in linguistic typology.
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Appropriateness is a term used in various fields and scientific disciplines to describe the proportionality of means in relation to a desired goal and - if we follow the metaphor of proportionality - the appropriate cut. While the concept of appropriateness as aptum or decorum has been an established regulative for linguistic action since ancient rhetoric, within German linguistics the concept has only in the last 10 years increasingly come into focus. The present anthology brings together 11 contributions that are dedicated to the following topics: 1) Theoretical reflections on appropriateness (contributions by Th. Niehr; L. Bülow/U. Krieg-Holz) 2) Appropriateness as a formal stylistic criterion (contributions by B.Bock; S. Brommer) 3) Negotiating appropriateness in interactions (contributions by K. König; K. Marx; G. Albert/N. Hahn) 4) Appropriateness and conversational competence (contributions by K.S. Roth; St. Hauser/M. Luginbühl; C. Schwarze; A. Osterroth).
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Contemporary German shows a rigid lexical segregation between humans and animals (e. g. stillen / säugen ›suckle/breastfeed‹, corpse / carcass ›Leiche/Kadaver‹). This was not the case historically but only evolved in Early New High German and the beginning of the New High German period. This article lays out the emergence of the lexical boundary between humans and animals using the three lexical pairs essen / fressen ›eat [human]/eat [animal]‹, trinken / saufen ›drink [human]/drink [animal]‹ and schwanger / trächtig ›pregnant [human]/pregnant [animal]‹ on the basis of extensive corpus and dictionary studies, and pursues the question why the segregation between human and animals emerged at all and why this happened in the 18 th century.
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Nominal compounding in German usually combines different nouns. Compounds consisting of identical nouns are often considered impossible (e.g. Erben 1981). However, recent research has shown that compounds with identical constituents (ICCs) exist in German (e.g. Finkbeiner 2014; Freywald 2015; Kentner 2017). Apart from being formed ‘accidentally’ as ordinary determinative compounds (Kindeskind ‘grandchild’), they are also used systematically as a special case of total reduplication, namely contrastive reduplication. As in English, German ICCs can indicate that the "prototypical meaning of the [reduplicated] lexical item is intended" (Ghomeshi et al. 2004: 312), e.g. ich bin ein richtiges Mädchenmädchen und liebe Kitsch ‘I am a real girl girl and love kitsch’. This phenomenon violates the aforementioned dissimilarity constraint as well as the assumption that German is an extraordinary reduplication avoider (Stolz et al. 2011). In this respect, ICCs are extravagant constructions. They deviate from word formation norms and, in doing so, can be an effective way to highlight specific semantic features of nouns. In order to attract attention, speakers choose a synthetic (morphological) construction over the more common periphrastic one, because the former is more extravagant and expressive than the latter.They "choose a new way of saying old things" (Haspelmath 1999: 1057). So far, research on German ICCs mostly based on small sets of examples. Hence, the lack of reliable data results in contradictory descriptions of the formal features and the nature of the phenomenon. It is still unclear, for instance, which properties of ICCs are responsible for the prototype interpretation. On the one hand, it is said that the context determines the usage and interpretation of ICCs (Hohenhaus 2004: 314); on the other hand, formal properties like the (presumptive) lack of linking elements are said to be decisive (Finkbeiner 2014: 187). The current investigation aims to address these problems by examining large-scale corpus data.The chosen corpora DECOW16 (Schäfer & Bildhauer 2012) and deTenTen13 (Jakubíček et al. 2013) provide thousands of instances of German ICCs which help to further explore their formal properties, semantic restrictions, discourse function and domain. Preliminary results support the view that there are concrete formal and semantic features of the nouns which, alongside pragmatic enrichment, influence the use of German ICCs. Moreover, the data reveal the strategies that speakers use to keep the new word understandable and at the same time strange enough to make people notice it. Therefore, the study sheds some light on the balancing act between the need for and the limits of deviation. Finally, it turns out that ICCs became a powerful tool used by speakers of different social backgrounds. This way, a former taboo construction initiates the formation of an entirely new word formation pattern.
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This paper investigates the nature of creativity in language and linguistics. Following Sampson (2016), it distinguishes between F-creativity (which roughly equals linguistic productivity) and E-creativity (which leads to new and unexpected innovations). These two notions of creativity are discussed on the basis of examples from three different domains: snow cloning, mismatch/coercion, and aberration. It is shown that pure E-creativity may only be found in the case of aberration. Both snow cloning and mismatch/coercion are examples for F-creativity, but to varying degrees. As a consequence, it is suggested that in practice, F- and E-creativity actually form a cline, rather than a dichotomy.
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Im vorliegenden Beitrag sollen eingangs die spezifischen Bedingungen erörtert werden, unter denen sich in Russland Namen als Träger patriotischer Traditionen etablieren konnten. Dies ist zuerst die besondere Entwicklung Russlands auf dem Weg von der Plan- zur Marktwirtschaft, die mit Verzögerung gegenüber den westlichen Industriestaaten überhaupt erst die institutionellen Voraussetzungen für die Herausbildung einer unter marktwirtschaftlichen Bedingungen funktionierenden Onymie geschaffen hat. Zum anderen sind es bereits in der Sowjetzeit geprägte Traditionen patriotischer Namen, die mit dem Zusammenbruch aller bestehenden Systeme von Normen und Werten, mit dem Wegfall der sowjetischen Staatlichkeit und dem Verlust des Status Russlands als einer der beiden Weltmächte nicht mehr so funktionieren konnten wie zuvor.
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Internet Memes sind hochgradig relevant für die digitale Kommunikation, es stellt sich aber die Frage, wie sie pragmatisch verwendet werden. Neben ihrer Rolle als Text sind Memes fähig, als multimodaleSprechakte im Sinne Austins bzw. Searles genutzt zu werden. Die kommunikative Funktion von Internet Memes kann dabei auf Kellers Grundsatz sozialen Erfolgs zurückgeführt werden, den Sprachbenutzer generell anstreben.
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This paper investigates linguistic creativity from a constructional perspective. Following a distinction between F-creativity (fixed creativity, like productivity) and E-creativity (extending creativity, creativity beyond rules), it discusses several possible origins for innovations in a given language: errors and mistakes, language contact, and the intentional manipulation of linguistic material in the form of snowcloning, coercion, and aberrancy. This paper shows that only one special form of aberrancy might be classified as ‘pure’ E-creativity. Rather than enforcing the dichotomy between E- and F-creativity, all the other sources of linguistic innovations seem to form a cline between these two poles.
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Speakers may use language creatively because they want to be extravagant, or because they need to communicate content for which no conventional coding solution exists. In addition, however, there is a third motivation for creativity that is both more fundamental and less conspicuous. Speakers are creative because their mental access to linguistic resources is limited and variable – a factor referred to here as ‘availability.’ In this paper, corpus data from the spoken British National Corpus and from the Hansard Corpus are used to show that speakers of English use the morphological pattern of - ly -adverb formation (as in correctly , locally , poorly etc.) more creatively when they have recently heard or used another - ly -adverb. This manifests itself in higher type frequencies – hence, more varied forms – for - ly -adverbs. The effect can be ascribed to priming, and indicates that the creative use of a linguistic resource depends on factors that facilitate mental access to it.
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In dit artikel onderzoek ik twee theoretische concepten met betrekking tot de aard van grammaticale structuren. Ten eerste bespreek ik het begrip panchronie als een niet-reductief alternatief voor de structurele dichotomie van diachronie versus synchronie. Ten tweede introduceer ik een emergentistische benadering van taal die de idee van taal als een statisch, stabiel systeem verwerpt. Daarna laat ik zien hoe een panchronische taalvisie de emergentistische benadering ten goede komt. Hierbij zal ik het belang van structurele posterioriteit benadrukken die in traditionele grammaticamodellen vaak wordt verwaarloosd en in emergentistische alleen geïmpliceerd. De opkomende aard van de taal, zoals ik ga aanvoeren, kan alleen worden beschreven als ook rekening wordt gehouden met structurele voorspellingen van de sprekers. Afgezien van het combineren van de structurele anterioriteit, d.w.z. diachronie, en structurele contemporaneïteit, d.w.z. synchronie, moet ook rekening worden gehouden met de structurele posterioriteit. In dat geval bouwt elke spreker in elke uitspraak voort op vroegere taalkundige ervaring en vormt daardoor, in zekere mate, toekomstige uitspraken.
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