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Strategic Change Leadership

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Abstract

Against a backdrop of increasing globalisation, deregulation, and the rapid pace of technological innovation, the primary task of management today is the leadership of organisational change. Seeks to examine the role of leadership in managing the challenge of deliberate large-scale change and whether it is possible to pinpoint factors that are critical to leading change effectively. Also investigates the view that effective change leadership involves instrumental and charismatic roles, integrating operational know-how with strong interpersonal skills. Uses a qualitative, case study approach, involving three multinational companies operating in Australia. Cross-case analysis indicates that effective change leaders recognise the importance of blending the charismatic and instrumental dimensions of change leadership. The ability to conciliate and balance the two roles depends primarily on whether a leader possesses certain qualities and attributes required for effective change leadership. Strong interpersonal skills permeate these key change leadership qualities and attributes and provide the nexus between the charismatic and instrumental roles.

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... This is surprising in that many voices certainly shall state that the exercising of power is for sure able to facilitate many a change process. According to Graetz (2000), a change leader must take on both a charismatic and in addition, an instrumental leadership role. The fact that this creates a sort of complicated stretch is made clear by table 2. Thus, the change leader first of all needs strategic focus to inspire his people. ...
... The model by Graetz (2000) sees the change leader also taking over the tasks of the change manager. Depending on the organisation, it may be natural for a different solution not to exist. ...
... Of particular importance is the analysis of the individual abilities, properties and competences of change leaders and change managers. Graetz (2000) posits that the same leader may play both the role of a change leader as well as that of a change manager, and that they should do so. With certainty, this shall rather be the case in smaller companies, however it is certainly not the ideal case. ...
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utstanding leadership personalities always have a great impact on corporate brand and corporate success. This relation can partly be illustrated very clearly for stock-listed companies: When Josef Ackermann, then CEO of Deutsche Bank, suffered a weakness attack, the bank's stock prices recorded a massive decline. Within few hours, its market capitalization on January 15, 2009 decreased by half a billion Euros. A second instance is the withdrawal of Steve Jobs, who like no other stood for a company's enthralling reincarnation. Apple's market price hit its lowest level in two years. The above examples show that leaders are able to considerably influence a company's reputation and success through their behavior. There is even empirical evidence for the fact that in the external perception a CEO's image correlates with the image of the company brand. Also, a CEO's image and prominence has an influence on media coverage. This was revealed by a survey of 137 communication managers of Germany's 500 most profitable companies (Grubendorfer 2012, pp. 5 & 6). The same holds for the internal perception. Ehren (2005) states that the manner in which employees perceive the corporate brand depends on whether and how leaders act in a brand-compliant way. Hence, brands are largely shaped by a company's leaders. This view is still relatively new. Thomas Gad made use of the term 'Leadership Branding' for the first time in 2003. He concluded an essay by stating that branding is closely linked to entrepreneurship and, therefore, to leadership. Branding, Gad holds, is a convenient way of reproducing oneself - both as an entrepreneur and as a leader. For this reason, he considers it an efficient and simple way of leading (Gad 2005, pp. 183-198). By shaping a brand, leaders provide their employees with orientation. With everyone within an organization being able to identify with the respective brand, it is ensured that work is performed in line with this idea. The first step of the present paper is to give a more detailed definition of leadership branding. The second step is to explain how leadership branding is implemented successfully. The final step is to show on the basis of well-known leadership personalities and their companies how leadership can be successfully implemented in business practice.
... Particularly, organizations have become more complex than ever which means leading an organizational change also becomes problematic in terms of considering many different factors at the same time. Recent studies argue that the role of leadership has changed and the traditional role of leadership has become obsolete along with novel outcomes of globalization such as "deregulation, the rapid pace of technological innovation, a growing knowledge workforce, and shifting social and demographic trends" (Graetz, 2000). In addition, organizations work with a new type of generation. ...
... Numerous studies have attempted to link certain types of leadership and successful organizational change (Graetz, 2000;Herold et al., 2008;Seo et al., 2012). Mainly, these studies address transformational leadership as a tool for effective organizational transformations because it treats followership as a part of reciprocal interactions rather than leader-centric approaches (Bien et al., 2014). ...
... By doing so, Mayer managed to reduce initial resistances triggered by previous work practices and help employees to embrace new meanings. The results of this study indicate that transformational leadership has a significant impact on the willingness of workers by "challenging the status quo" (Graetz, 2000). The findings of the current study are consistent with those of Bernerth (2004); Herold et al. (2008) and Seo et al. (2012) who suggest transformational leadership behaviors were both positively and negatively associated with positive and negative affect, respectively, among their employees, which in turn related to greater commitment to change in addition to more supportive, more creative, and less resistant employee behaviors during organizational change. ...
Article
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In recent years, the intensification of research that treats organizational change as the new normality has led to a renewed interest in organizational change and has entailed redefining the role of leadership and other stakeholders in terms of the success of the process. Since the need for change has become an unpredictable fact as a result of a constantly evolving environment, it tends to be more unplanned and often subject to a certain level of resistance. Unlike previous organizational change practices, the attention has shifted towards more an inclusive perspective to create shared meanings instead of centralized approaches. The purpose of this paper is to, first, explore the role of transformational leadership in mediating emerged organizational change in Yahoo! and then, second, investigate the role of constructive communication in diminishing resistance to change that comes from different interest groups based on power/interest that they possess. A single case study approach has been applied in order to examine the dynamic nature of organizational change in Yahoo! between 2012 and the beginning of 2016. The data for this study is collected by analyzing the range of quality researches that were done before and derived from a variety of newspaper and journal articles and online collections.
... Previous studies support this concept. For example, Graetz (2000) used a qualitative case study and his result shows that a leader must have the vision, authorized, and strengthen his or her followers. The distinctiveness that Graetz (2000) explained is the dimensions of the transformational leader as well as paternalistic leader behavior. ...
... For example, Graetz (2000) used a qualitative case study and his result shows that a leader must have the vision, authorized, and strengthen his or her followers. The distinctiveness that Graetz (2000) explained is the dimensions of the transformational leader as well as paternalistic leader behavior. It is showed that the transformational leader's behavior was linked with lower-level worker's cynicism as regards organizational change. ...
Article
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Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of paternalistic leadership on organizational readiness for change: mediation of employee engagement and moderation of Islamic work ethics (IWE). Methodology: The sample size for this research is 203. The data were collected from faculty of private and public sector educational institutes that were in process of change. SPSS has been utilized for data analysis. Findings: Using Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) as a theoretical lens, the results indicate paternalistic leadership significantly positively impacts organizational readiness for change; employee engagement acts as a mediating agent between paternalistic leadership and organizational readiness for change; IWE moderates between the relationship of paternalistic leadership and employee engagement. Significance: The mediation of employee engagement and moderation of IWE between paternalistic leadership and organizational readiness for change is still under research so this makes our research a unique contribution. Limitations: This research shall add to the Islamic ethical principles of employees alongside output which will advantage the organization as well as employees. Implications: This research has managerial implications for change agents, organizational development (OD) consultants; policymakers of educational institutions, and professionals regarding change strategies, benefits, and the Islamic business environment.
... Leaders with a strong delivery style display powerful nonverbal cues by having lively facial expressions, speaking with a captivating voice tone; making direct eye contact; and having a confident communication style to reinforce the content of their messages (Bass, 1985;House et al., 1988;Howell & Frost, 1989). Responses to a message can be influenced by the rate, pitch, volume, pauses, fluency of delivery, and the appropriate level of enthusiasm and vigor (Bullis & Horn, 1995;Graetz, 2000). Moreover, studies show that speakers with a strong delivery style are perceived to have greater credibility than those presenting the same content with weak delivery (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999;Burgoon et al., 1990). ...
... This experimental study investigates specific aspects of change communication by focusing on the content of a change message and how it is conveyed by the leader. In previous studies, both the content and message delivery style have been identified as important factors in the effectiveness of the message (Graetz, 2000). However, the relative importance of content versus delivery has remained inconclusive in previous studies. ...
Article
One primary mechanism through which leaders influence others in the context of organizational change is their rhetoric. While planning change communication, it is important for a change agent to craft the appropriate message content to foster employees’ commitment to change. Furthermore, the literal meaning of a message can be strengthened by the way it is delivered. This study investigates the content of a change message and how it is articulated by the leader using a vignette-based experimental study. Based on a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, 200 participants are assigned to one of the eight hypothetical change scenarios that vary by change message content, message delivery, and change context. The results show the impact of rational versus emotional content and message content versus delivery on commitment differ based on secure or insecure contexts. This study provides cues for practitioners to design change messages to obtain commitment to change.
... Previous studies support this concept. For example, Graetz (2000) used a qualitative case study and his result shows that a leader must have the vision, authorized, and strengthen his or her followers. The distinctiveness that Graetz (2000) explained is the dimensions of the transformational leader as well as paternalistic leader behavior. ...
... For example, Graetz (2000) used a qualitative case study and his result shows that a leader must have the vision, authorized, and strengthen his or her followers. The distinctiveness that Graetz (2000) explained is the dimensions of the transformational leader as well as paternalistic leader behavior. It is showed that the transformational leader's behavior was linked with lower-level worker's cynicism as regards organizational change. ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the impact of paternalistic leadership on organizational readiness for change: mediation of employee engagement and moderation of Islamic Work Ethics (IWE). The sample size for this research is 203. The data were collected from the faculty of private and public sector educational institutes that were in process of change. SPSS has been utilized for data analysis. Using Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) as a theoretical lens, the results indicate paternalistic leadership significantly positively impacts organizational readiness for change; employee engagement acts as a mediating agent between paternalistic leadership and organizational readiness for change; IWE moderates between the relationship of paternalistic leadership and employee engagement. The mediation of employee engagement and moderation of IWE between paternalistic leadership and organizational readiness for change is still under research so this makes our research a unique contribution. This research has managerial implications for change agents, organizational development (OD) consultants; policymakers of educational institutions, and professionals regarding change strategies, benefits, and the Islamic business environment.
... Identifying the type of change helps in recognizing the exact change required and the procedure for implementing the change. It helps the organization in organizing the project team and assigning the relevant roles according to the skills (Graetz, 2000). This helps in decision making and preparing the organization for the new change. ...
... Without clear communication, managers and the project team will not be sure of the changes to be applied and the tasks they are supposed to perform. During Change Management in information system development and implementation communication from top managers to lower manager has to be effective (Graetz, 2000;Kotter, 1995), efficient and concurrent or repetitive to ensure that the message reaches every one working on the project and access to data is consistent (Davenport, 2004). ...
Technical Report
For the fact, it is very much important to put change into consideration while implementing any Information Technology project. This paper addresses one of the major aspects, 'Change management' in information system development and implementation. Basically, Change Management (CM) brings about "a new state of an information system different from the old system." CM requires proper planning and an effective team of stakeholders and it can improve the efficiency of an information system development. The document will clearly explain information system development and implementation projects, introduce change management and clarify the dynamics that can bring about success in projects while handling change management. The paper will also expound on the factors affecting change management mainly resistance to change and organizational culture. The document will then conclude with the role of stakeholders in change management.
... The effect of social and emotional intelligence in leadership is typically well established in the literature. Such an understanding has inevitably triggered research on assessing, identifying, understanding and measuring the competencies coupled with a growing recognition that leaders are integrated to the emotionally enhanced nature of organizations (Antonakis et al., 2009;Graetz, 2000). Poonamallee et al. (2018) take up a Dharma oriented life program, an innovative approach to improve the emotional intelligence by focusing on the maladaptive traits of personality and triggering neuroplasticity by the effective use of a smartphone application and corresponding mentoring. ...
Article
Purpose The collaboration of the field of neuroscience and leadership has invoked a general curiosity in the area of leadership studies. The discipline is giving copious amounts of inputs for the smooth functioning of the organization. Such collaborated studies attempt to establish improvements in the leadership research with the aid of thinking, feeling and knowing dimensions. Though generic understanding is available, the studies done on the neuro-leadership collaborations are far and few. The purpose of this paper mainly is to attempt to decipher the level of understanding the scientific world has on the inter-disciplinary interactions between neuroscience and leadership studies. Design/methodology/approach A biblio-morphological analysis is carried out. This integrated methodology is being introduced for the first time in the area of a literature review. The topic of interest is a novel one and being spread across many disciplines warrants such a comprehensive approach. The bibliometric analysis is carried out with the help of VOSviewer software. Findings The different parameters analyzed in this analysis are: mapping based on text data, index keyword, main authors who are the pioneers in the area, countries which are the leaders in the field of neuroscience and leadership studies. Such an analysis broadly outlines the present status of the research on the topic. Morphological analysis is executed by dissecting the topic into various dimensions and sub-options. These dimensions are then cross-matched in a matrix, known as the cross-consistency matrix. This matrix reflects the 174 research gaps that exist in this particular area. Originality/value The biggest contribution of this paper would be to underline the present status of the literature on neuroscience and leadership research and to develop a reference for future opportunities. This study attempts to make this document a vade mecum for both the industry and the academia in the area of neuroscience and leadership research.
... Organizational values and beliefs should align with the development and outcomes of a successful project (Burke 2014;McLaughlin 2017). Moreover, key personnel at different levels on the owner side should show their commitment throughout the project by consistently communicating the project's objectives and required deliverables (Graetz 2000). The history of the leadership team working together is significant. ...
Article
One critical antecedent to project success is team alignment. Industry professionals should focus on practices that can improve project team selection, team building, and identifying challenges to the team and project, hence improving alignment. This paper provides a summary of key findings of a national study of transportation projects, identifying current practices of industry professionals for the selection and alignment of project teams for transportation projects. Current team selection practices, the most beneficial team alignment practices, and the greatest challenges to team alignment are identified in the study. These practices are also analyzed and reported by project delivery method, and the results presented in this paper add to the body of knowledge by identifying current alignment practices, successful practices, and challenges specific to each delivery method. Among the findings are that overall project teams are selected primarily based on project experience and ability to meet schedule, regardless of the project delivery method chosen. Successful teams with good alignment were found to be characterized by having established expectations, team trust, honesty within the team, shared values, and good communication. No notable differences were found among delivery methods, demonstrating that the principles of team alignment are not dependent on the project delivery method. Challenges that cause adversarial relationships in the team include issues of constructability, schedule availability, and project complexity. The study also identified transportation-specific alignment challenges such as public involvement. The greatest challenges specific to each delivery method include team coordination for construction manager at risk (CMAR) projects, constructability procedures for design-bid-build projects, and environmental impacts for design-build projects.
... At the fifth engagement level, the individual experiences what Argyris terms 'resentment' (of the change). Research presents resentment as an impeding dimension of engagement in proposed change (Martin, 2005;Graetz, 2000). Further behavioral considerations of resentment include, at individual level -not being open, and antagonism at group level (Argyris, 1999). ...
Conference Paper
The effectiveness and degree to which an individual meets the social and cultural standards of personal engagement in Digital Transformation is an undervalued area of inquiry for information systems research. Research indicates that advancement in individual engagement is mainly based in consideration of the opportunities presented by the processes of the organization’s change readiness, rather than the specific engagement needs of the individual prior to Digital Transformation. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework for responsible management of individual engagement development. The framework advances six elements important in the co-creation of the individual’s change future, enabling higher propensity to believe in their (and others) ability to positively affect transformation outcomes, with valuable consequences. The framework is illustrated by reviewing the findings from a global digital transformation case study. Future research may further expand upon these levels of engagement in order to further facilitate Digital Transformation planners to mitigate risk. The individual engagement level framework enhances corporate absorptive capacity, through cross-mapping individual pragmatic meaning of the required digital transformation success.
... Due to the importance of organizational change, its management is becoming a highly desired managerial skill (Senior, 2002). Graetz (2000) goes as far as to suggest that "[a]gainst a backdrop of increasing globalization, deregulation, the rapid pace of technological innovation, a growing knowledge workforce, and shifting social and demographic trends, few would dispute that the primary task for policy implementers today is the leadership of organizational change" (p. 550). ...
... Over the years, leadership has become increasingly important in organizations. A number of factors require managers to work hard to achieve organizational change, including global competition, improved workforce knowledge and rapid technological development (Graetz, 2000;Yasir et al., 2016). This focuses on building relationships between individuals, leading to remarkable change by asserting values and identifying a shared vision for the organization's members (Martin, 2015;Obeidat et al., 2016a,b). ...
... Nevertheless, it is not enough to only communicate; rather, a leader should introduce appropriate actions to support the talk. Graetz (2000) suggested empowering, energizing and providing tangible support as well as structure; otherwise, the communication of the leader will be dismissed as "just talk" among employees. ...
Conference Paper
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Article, written for the knowledge Database of the Open University Business School. This study explores the influence of leadership as the main topic for organisational success: it covers the leadership influence in organisational change, in line with two of the three essential conditions (Market orientation is not covered here) for organisational success as stated by Porter (1991).
... As discussed at the outset of this paper, shifts in terms of state funding and destination governance prompt organisational change on a DMO level. The role of leadership in leading change at an organisational level has been considered as important both in the tourism literature (Hristov & Ramkissoon, 2016;Hristov et al., 2018) and the mainstream organisational management and leadership literature (Graetz, 2000;Hallinger & Kantamara, 2000;Mullins, 2013). Harris et al. (2007) discuss the importance of conducting further enquiry into the interplay between DL and organisational transformation: ...
Preprint
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Amidst key emergent challenges for Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) and destinations triggered by changes in the funding and governance landscape for tourism on a global scale, Distributed Leadership (DL) has emerged as a promising concept to provide a collaborative framework for channelling resources and leadership to cope with such changes. Current evidence from academic literature discussing the importance of embedding shared forms of leadership is scarce, few studies discuss the application of DL in the context of DMOs. The key purpose of this conceptual study is to provide a critical overview of key DL contributions in the mainstream and DMO academic literature. The study seeks to examine the relevance of DL in the context of DMOs with the purpose to stimulate future empirical investigations in the application of DL in DMO organisations.
... Changes to the internal and external environment of the organization require change management to survive and succeed in a highly competitive competition environment and in developing a sustainable organizational environment. With deregulation related to globalization, rapid advances in technology-based innovation, increased knowledge-based workforce, and a shift in social and demographic trends, the main task of management at present is leadership in managing organizational change [8]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The various challenges facing schools from society in general and the demands from policy and education stakeholders require schools to adapt a management with a focus on changes in key components of the school. All components of education in schools need to be managed efficiently and effectively so schools can continue to adapt to change. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quadrant model of change management at Vocational High School (VHS) in West Java. Using the survey and quantitative approach, the research was conducted at 61 VHS in 27 regencies/cities in West Java, with representative sample of 183 teachers. The data were analyzed by descriptive, SEM-PLS, and quadrant analyses. It is found that the readiness for change is already high, that means the schools, principals, and teachers are ready for change. The support from external and from principal in managing the change is also high. Nevertheless, the aspects of preservation, diversity and homogeneity, and capacity of fund, facilities, and time, are relatively low. The quadrant model of all variables plots the positions of each dimension in each quadrant related to the focus of the action or strategy being performed: sustained, adjusted, repaired, and improved.
... Burnes'e [8] göre değişim, hem operasyonel hem de stratejik düzeyde, örgütsel yaşamın her zaman var olan bir özelliğidir. Bu nedenle, gelecekte olmak istediği yeri tanımlamak ve oraya ulaştıracak değişimi başarmak için gerekli yetkinliklere sahip olmak açısından işletmelerde değişim yönetimi önemlidir [9]. ...
Conference Paper
In the transition period from the knowledge era to the era of the intelligent society in the chaotic ecosystem of our world, investing in the human capital is an important tool of the new world order for the effective management of the organizations. Organizations that can transform risks into opportunities while creating this new structure are those who are learning organizations. The learning organization is an organization capable of creating information, acquiring information, transferring information and that is successfully changing its behavior to reflect new knowledge and understanding. Learning organization theory focuses on how organizations learn, what are the practices that emphasize effective and successful adaptation to environmental conditions and which processes will facilitate organizational learning. In order to become a learning organization, change management should be done to in order to balance the macro-level organizational objectives and the interests of employees at the micro level. As innovation without change is not possible, a management approach having open communication, borderless sharing and participation establishing a shared vision for innovation is also essential. In this research, the importance of change and innovation management of organizations has been discussed in relation with the learning organization approach for the sake of the organization and the society that it is functioning in. Finally, it is stated that learning organization theory to survive empirical studies needed to be conducted in today’s organizations. Dünyamızın kaotik ortamında bilgi çağından akıllı toplum çağına geçtiğimiz süreçte, işletmelerde insana yatırım yeni dünya düzeninin önemli bir aracıdır. Bu yapıyı oluştururken riskleri fırsata dönüştürebilen işletmeler öğrenen örgüt yapısına sahip olanlardır. Öğrenen örgüt, bilgi yaratma, bilgi edinme, bilgi transfer etme ve davranışlarını yeni bilgi ve anlayışları yansıtacak şekilde değiştirebilmede yetenekli olan organizasyondur. Öğrenen örgüt teorisi, örgütlerin nasıl öğrenmesi gerektiği, etkin ve çevre koşullarına adaptasyon konusunda başarılı örgütleri öne çıkaran uygulamaların neler olduğu ve hangi süreçlerin örgütsel öğrenmeyi kolaylaştıracağı üzerine odaklanmaktadır. Öğrenen örgüt olabilmek için değişim yönetiminde makro düzey örgütsel hedefler ile mikro düzeyde çalışanların çıkarlarını dengeleyen değişim stratejilerine ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Değişim olmadan inovasyon olamayacağı gibi, inovasyon için de ortak vizyon yaratabilen bir yönetim anlayışı, açık iletişim, sınırsız paylaşım ve işbirliği uyumu önemlidir. Bu araştırmada, işletme ve içinde hayat bulduğu ekosistemin etkinliği, verimliliği ve sürdürülebilirliği için öğrenen örgüt olarak adlandırılan yaklaşım ile işletmelerde değişim ve inovasyon yönetimi yapmanın önemi ortaya koyulmuş ve bu alanda araştırmacıların ampirik çalışma yapmalarına ihtiyaç duyulduğu yönünde öneride bulunulmuştur.
... Over the years, leadership has become increasingly important in organizations. A number of factors require managers to work hard to achieve organizational change, including global competition, improved workforce knowledge and rapid technological development (Graetz, 2000;Yasir et al., 2016). This focuses on building relationships between individuals, leading to remarkable change by asserting values and identifying a shared vision for the organization's members (Martin, 2015;Obeidat et al., 2016a,b). ...
... Burnes (2009) argues that change is a pervasive element of organizational life at an operational as well as a strategic level, a reality in which organizations must contain the ability to clearly state their vision of the future, identify the changes necessary to achieve that vision, and successfully manage them (Todnem By, 2005b). Recent years have brought an accelerated pace of technological innovation, growth in knowledge workforce, shifts in social and demographical trends, deregulation, and increasing globalization, all putting increasing pressure on managers and organizations to stay vigilant (Antoni, 2004;Appelbaum et al., 2018;Graetz, 2000;J. Hayes, 2018;Jick & Peiperl, 2003;Senior & Swailes, 2016;Swaim, 2014;Womack et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
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Digital transformation is crucial for companies if they want to stay competitive. The use of mobile devices and proliferation of the internet has continued to grow over the past 20 years, radically changing customer and employee expectations and behaviors in all sectors. Disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, blockchain, augmented reality and virtual reality, and the internet of things are quickly changing the way people lead their lives. This study aims to assess and explain how certain variables, specifically, organizational commitment and employee's perceived quality of communication and dissemination of information, affect organizational readiness for planned change prior to and during the implementation of e-commerce at a local legacy retailer. Twenty-six employees at a local legacy retailer in Iceland completed an online survey containing 43 statements. The results indicate that there seems to be little relationship between employees' organizational commitment and their readiness for change, thereby rejecting hypothesis 1. Perception of quality of communication and dissemination of information was found to have a significant positive moderation effect on the relationship between organizational commitment and employees' readiness for change, thus accepting hypothesis 4. Moreover, according to the findings, there is a strong positive relationship between perceived quality of communication and dissemination of information and employees' readiness for change and their organizational commitment, hence supporting hypothesis 2 and hypothesis 3, respectively. The findings highlight the crucial role communication and dissemination of information play prior to and during planned change initiatives, such as the implementation of a new e-commerce application, as well as its effect on employees' organizational commitment.
... Thus, thinking strategically requires analytical and conceptual knowledge and synthesizing skills. On the same line researchers describe strategic thinking to be a creative, innovative, synthetic and divergent (Heracleous 1998;Graetz 2000). As strategic thinking is closely related to strategic action which enables to see emerging new opportunities and to conceptualizes new market. ...
Article
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the enablers of strategic thinking and establish a relationship along with them by applying modified total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) and matrices impacts croises multiplication appliquer classement (MICMAC) analysis. This paper also analyzes the enablers’ dependence and driving power. This study has identified nine significant strategic thinking enablers and developed an integrated model using modified TISM and the MICMAC approach, which is useful to classify and identify the critical strategic thinking enablers and shows the indirect and direct consequences of all strategic thinking enablers on the implementation of strategic thinking. The weightage for modified TISM and MICMAC analysis are obtained by the opinion of some experts of industry and academics. This research has practical, substantial consequences, for both academicians and practitioners. The senior manager could take the strategic decision for implementing strategic thinking enablers obtained by modified TISM, and MICMAC analysis, and practitioners need to emphasize on these enablers in organizational practices. This study is the first kind of research to identify nine strategic thinking enablers and apply modified TISM and MICMAC to classify and identify the critical strategic thinking enablers which influence strategic thinking implementation in the organization. This paper would help the organization to evaluate and challenges the current management system and promote new enablers for better implementation of strategy thinking.
... Geleneksel yöneticiler, yönetim fonksiyonunun teknik ve operasyonel yönlerine odaklanırlarken, değişimci liderler ise işin araçsal ve karizmatik noktalara odaklanmaktadır (Graetz, 2000). ...
Chapter
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... Leadership is the most important of the key factors that must be taken into consideration for the success of a change process. This type of leadership, which is also known as change leadership in the literature, has become the subject of a very large number of studies (Graetz, 2000;Higgs & Rowland, 2001, Karp, 2006. Gill (2003) states that leadership which provides the success of change should have five main factors. ...
Chapter
Organizations have taken various steps and transformed to adapt to digital technologies that change and evolve over the years. There is a need for leaders specialized in “digital technology and digital transformation” within the organization in order to be able to manage this transformation with appropriate decisions and strategies. There is a change in the titles given to leaders, their job descriptions, and qualifications during the process of digital transformation. The tasks of these leaders are to cooperate with other departments in the organization in a harmonious and supportive way to develop and implement innovations in the organization, to systematize the workflow processes, to quickly adapt technological innovations to the organization, and to contribute directly to its values. This chapter discusses supportive leader behaviors and types for change and transformation, supportive leaders for digital transformation, and the changing roles of leaders in digital transformation and digital leadership.
... Leadership role pertains to the observable way of performing leadership. According to Graetz (2010) and Mattis (2011), one of the roles of leadership involves providing strategic direction. Leadership and specifically strategic leadership has been identified as one of the key drivers of effective strategy implementation. ...
... Similarly, Heracleous (1998) describes strategic thinking to be synthetic, creative, and divergent. Graetz (2000), after studying the phenomenon, suggested that the role of strategic thinking is seeking innovation. According to him, strategic thinking helps in imagining new and very different futures which leads a company to redefine its core strategies and its industry. ...
Article
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It is said, the change is the only constant. We have got accustomed to the change but not the rate of change that has gone exponential. With this accelerating change, the twenty-first century has brought many complex problems as well as an array of opportunities. These include, to mention a few, development of new innovative products and processes, strong R & D, global market expansion, changing workforce skill requirement with the advent of IOT and machine learning, e-working, changing customer profile and preferences. Along with the practice in the field, the academicians in management disciplines, too, have done considerable theoretical and empirical work to address the emerging issues. Though there is some work in strategic management area, there is dearth of literature on strategic thinking. This paper, which basically is a review paper, attempts to understand who is a strategic thinker, what makes him a good strategic thinker and derives therefrom - what is strategic thinking.
... The business environment is continuously changing (Kotter, 1995). Organizations need to retain a shared vision to apprehend the environment developments (Graetz, 2000). Leaders that put forward a clear vision hoards employees' commitment and improve satisfaction (Khan and Lew, 2018;Parish et al., 2008). ...
Article
Previous research has acknowledged that the interplay between organizational learning and the role of leadership is vital. In this research, we combine organizational learning and leadership research within a dynamic capability (DC) framework to understand the nature of, and interaction between them. Drawing on a single case study, this paper develops a conceptual framework of how learning mechanisms in organizational learning and different leadership styles influence the DCs. We find that the roles of leadership foster the development of organizational learning, environmental structures and underlying processes. To cultivate DC, designing different learning processes and systematic learning mechanisms to capture each aspect of DC, at individual and collective level, is essential. We also find that the transformational visionary leadership stimulates organizations to systematically address learning mechanisms and construct organizational learning environment.
... This is not to deny that managerial control cannot also effect organisational change more directly, where such control aligns with internal and external normative structures, or that change is less likely to occur where collective reflexivity is characterised by a contestation. Literature on the role of leadership in change management highlights that sharing the same vision and the same orientation towards achieving a common goal with employees, and their empowerment to manage themselves, are key elements for implementing organisational change successfully (Graetz, 2000;Gill, 2002). Meanwhile, Hayes (2018, p. 172) argued that 'visioning can be an inclusive process'-only, however, if the legitimate needs and rights of all stakeholders are respected. ...
Article
Research on the impact of professional doctorates on students and their organisations has reported contested outcomes. We undertook a study to develop a causal explanation of how organisational change may, or may not, result from participation in a Doctor of Education programme (EdD). Drawing on critical realist perspectives, the research found that all the doctoral students shared professional concerns with their work colleagues. In some cases, however, this sharing fostered social relations that supported both collective meta‐reflexivity and a performative collective reflexivity, and that resulted in organisational change. Variation in the students’ impact on their organisations was further connected to their organisational roles, and to the extent to which their agency aligned with organisational agendas or other external regulatory and normative systems. Strictly limited, or no, organisational change was, however, evident where collective reflexivity was seen to be restricted or to involve contestation. The article concludes that there is significant value to gain by conceiving learning on a professional doctorate not simply in terms of personal growth, but also in terms of mastering a discourse that crosses both research and professional practice and developing the capacity to draw others into that discourse in an organisationally relevant and yet critical fashion.
... In retrospect, there is strong evidence to suggest that there is something compelling and important about DL, not least that it can be a positive channel for change releasing human potential (Graetz, 2000). Simultaneously it can bring out the best in people and in the organisation. ...
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Over the past decade, best practice in the school leadership domain globally has coalesced around the concept of distributed leadership (DL). DL has received official endorsement in significant recent policy documents in Ireland. However, teachers are often unaware of what they can do to engage in DL. Taking a practitioner's perspective, the study aimed to address this gap. Qualitative data were collected from three focus-group interviews involving 16 teachers from a post-primary school in Ireland. A strengths-based appreciative inquiry (AI) framework was used to collect the data and a thematic analysis was applied to analyse it. The findings revealed four key factors that can help teachers engage in DL more effectively: understanding the concept of DL; developing teams; promoting voice; and evaluating infrastructure. The implications for practice are discussed along with the recommendations for the future.
... However, prior studies show that the form of distributed leadership tends to be bound by aims and values set by superior levels within the organization (e.g. Graetz, 2000;Woods 2004). While the form of leadership is more interactive and open to social context, it still seems to be mainly centred in a manager's actions (Crevani et al., 2010;Raelin, 2012b;Lindell, 2014). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine deliberation in the context of organizational change and introduce an organizational jury as a change facilitator. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on an empirical study of four organizational juries that were organized by a non-profit organization in Finland. The main data of the study consist of a survey that the juries’ participants filled in. The data are triangulated with observations of jury meetings and relevant documents including pre-jury information package, jury presentations and juries’ proposals. In the analysis, the paper adopts deliberative democracy criteria to assess the inclusiveness, authenticity and consequentiality of the deliberative process. Findings The research findings suggest that the juries increased the inclusiveness of decision making and the quality of deliberation about the changes among the employees. The results indicate that juries facilitated the change process by providing a means for information sharing and building a shared understanding among the stakeholders. The main weakness of the juries was their low consequentiality. Originality/value Deliberative jury method provides a participative way to build and preserve socially shared meanings in an organizational change context. However, the studies on the use of deliberative forums in the organizational context are still scarce. Thus, the study provides an important addition to the existing research literature.
Thesis
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The research presented in this thesis is a study of a site closure. The author was in the position of site director at the time of the announcement of the closure and was also responsible for its implementation. The broad research aim was to explore the experiences of employees and managers during the closure process. The primary objectives were to develop a richer understanding of the perceptions and responses of the people involved and the impact of leadership style, as well as to aid the achievement of an effective and socially responsible closure. Closure was conceptualised as an extreme form of organizational change and the study was informed by a review of the literature in the broad field of the management of change and the specific field of plant closure. Compared with other contexts of organizational change, it was apparent that closure is under-researched, so much so that it has been termed the ‘forgotten topic‘ (Woodford et al. 2009). One reason for this gap is the sensitivity of most closure contexts, operating at the personal, corporate and community levels. Given the research aim of understanding subjective experiences, a relativist ontological assumption and interpretivist epistemological perspective were adopted. This informed the choice of a qualitative research design, which took the form of a single case study with an explorative purpose. Data collection encompassed semi-structured interviews, supported by observation and documentation review. A sample of 20 employees was selected and recruited, approximating to 25% of the workforce, and the interviews were conducted throughout the closure process. The organizational context was revealed to be an important factor in what was widely regarded as an effective closure. There was a high degree of organisational trust at the outset, due in part to community-based employment and relatively long staff tenures. This was enhanced during the closure by feelings of shared fate and mutual responsibility, as most of the management were also being laid off, facilitated by a situationally contingent leadership style that was sensitive to diverse personal needs and aspirations. The research resulted in several significant contributions to knowledge. New insights were developed into the ‘productivity paradox‘: the widely observed tendency for productivity increases to occur in closing plants (Wigblad et al. 2007). Through tapping into emotional responses, it was found that a shared sense of injustice was a powerful bonding mechanism throughout the workforce, including with members of the management team. Little attention is given to leadership style within the extant literature on plant closure, with no specific acknowledgement yet given to it in the developing subfield of socially responsible closure. The study demonstrated that it was indeed a powerful enabler of an effective and socially responsible closure in this organizational context. Emotion is an important issue in all organizational change but perhaps this is most true of plant closure. It was found that emotional responses experienced by employees correlate well with the Kübler-Ross (1973) and Bridges (2001) models of human transitions in times of extremely stressful change. In particular, the employee shock, frustration, bargaining and acceptance phases can be used effectively to help in understanding employee responses and enabling appropriate support. An important element of this support was the acknowledgement of diversity of personal situation and aspirations among employees. Diversity is rarely acknowledged within the change literature but in this case it was shown to be an important factor, recognition of which enabled the management team to develop differentiated forms of support, contributing significantly to an effective and socially responsible closure.
Article
The degree of organizational change has increased significantly in recent years. These changes pose new challenges for employee representation at the workplace. However, the role played by workplace employee representation in processes of organizational change and the way this impacts the legitimacy attributed by employees to their representatives as well as actions undertaken by representatives to preserve such legitimacy still remain unclear. In order to address this research deficit, 25 interviews with works council and employee committee delegates faced by organizational change were conducted and evaluated using a content analysis method. The data shows that the perception of legitimacy varies depending on the phase and scope of change. In particular, the interviewed works councilors suggest the preservation of legitimacy plays a minor role during periods of change. Nevertheless, the present study highlights that changes in legitimacy are possible via actions undertaken by workplace employee representatives.
Book
Cambridge Core - Organisation Studies - Leading Contemporary Organizations - by Amy L. Fraher
Article
Purpose Recently, researchers have highlighted the limited attention that has been devoted to managerial capabilities as micro-foundational elements of absorptive capacity. Strategic thinking is one such managerial capability that guides managers during the development of organizational capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the influence of managerial strategic thinking on the development of absorptive capacity. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using a sample of 324 senior-level and mid-level managers from the software industry. PLS-SEM was used to test the hypothesized relationships. Findings Study results indicate that managerial strategic thinking is positively related to absorptive capacity, as well as to each of its four components – acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation. Originality/value The current study adopts a micro-foundations perspective and delves into the development and orchestration of organizational capabilities. This study is the first to empirically investigate the relationship between managerial strategic thinking and absorptive capacity. Prior literature on absorptive capacity has focused on its influence on phenomena that are downstream to absorptive capacity, e.g. innovation, new product development and firm performance. The research offers new insights into the relationship between absorptive capacity and managerial strategic thinking, a hitherto unexplored upstream phenomenon. Scholars have theorized that managerial strategic thinking plays a pivotal role in managerial decisions, making it a critical factor in developing the absorptive capacity of an organization. The authors believe that the empirical evidence of the theorized relationship offers valuable insights that will aid scholarly research on organizational capabilities.
Chapter
Transformational e-government projects and large-scale Enterprise Information System (EIS) implementation projects have one thing in common: they both overrun their time and budget due to unclear vision and unrealistic expectations. The aim of this chapter is to report on a success story of implementing e-government in the Higher Education Admission Centre (HEAC) that is beneficial in providing an insight to both categories of projects. The case is unlike many other case studies that look at project failures; it is concerned with exploring and discussing the key critical factors that facilitate the success of the projects of both categories (Brady & Maylor, 2010). The research is a qualitative approach, and the investigation uses a single case study, with data collected by means of semi-structured interviews and organisational documents from the Ministry of Higher Education in Oman. The research findings suggest that there are three paradigms with a set of factors that impact the success of projects, namely organisational paradigm, technology paradigm, and end-user paradigm.
Conference Paper
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Managing organisational change is becoming increasingly important in an ever-changing world. A novel "lightweight" enterprise modelling technique called Fractal Enterprise Model (FEM) can be helpful in this effort. This technique is formally established, but the range of application areas for it is not yet fully explored. This paper aims to fill the gap, at least partially. This goal is being achieved by using FEM in an industrial project in which a water utility company wants to digitalise its business operations and external communication. The paper follows the Action Design Research paradigm, which combines theory generation with solving organisational problems. The project was structured along a generic Business Analysis process and contained elements from a number of fields, such as requirements engineering, information systems engineering, enterprise architecture management, and business process management. The paper describes 11 different generic problems that were solved with the help of FEM, the project-specific constraints and how FEM was applied in the process. As the same person carried out both the research and the practical work, the usefulness of FEM is examined via reflecting on the experience and generalising the knowledge. FEM supported the business analysis activities by enabling quick and systematic information gathering and comprehensible communication with various internal stakeholders. These insights can be used as a guideline for future practitioners planning to use FEM and for conducting further research regarding the applicability of FEM.
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This chapter discusses solutions for building relational ‘organizational intelligence’ and the use of the latter in effecting change. The era of Industry 4.0 (aka Smart World) involves specific priorities concerning what changes are needed and how they should be effected. Organizations used to be viewed as compilations of tasks, products, employees, profit centers and processes. Today, they are increasingly seen as intelligent systems designed to manage knowledge in a relational setting. Multiple techniques and solutions have been proposed for attaining Industry 4.0 priorities, often causing confusion rather than helping to deliver results. This chapter develops a framework for a systematic analysis of organizational intelligence and its application. Due to the multifaceted nature of the issue, the study includes a method for monitoring factors that stimulates organizational intelligence, factors such as new, disruptive technologies. The framework helps improve change processes leading to implementing relational strategies. Keywords: Organizational Intelligence, Industry 4.0, Technology, Relational Strategies, Organizational Change
Article
Continuing failures of financial capitalism across borders have led corporation to develop a more balanced economic growth model of transformational entrepreneurship that emphasises both short-term economic and longer-term social impacts. The model encourages entrepreneurial activities that bring major changes in the related markets and industries, as well as changes in society and culture. At the corporate level, transformational entrepreneurship prepares employees for any potential changes induced by a dynamic environment; it also improves the psychological capital of individual employees, and effective transformational entrepreneurship can eventually accelerate performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate (1) the direct and indirect effects of transformational entrepreneurship on readiness for change, psychological capital and employee performance, and (2) how the effects to readiness for change and psychological capital influence employee performance. The study data were collected using questionnaires completed by employees in 257 branches of a state-owned bank with locations throughout Indonesia. The data were analysed using the structural equation model. The results show that transformational entrepreneurship significantly and positively influences readiness for change, psychological capital, and employee performance and that readiness for change and psychological capital significantly and positively influences employee performance. Additionally, the effect of transformational entrepreneurship on employee performance is more significant if it is related to psychological capital than to readiness for change or to aspects of employee performance unrelated to transformational entrepreneurship. These findings enrich our understanding of transformational entrepreneurship and its value related to the direct and indirect effects on variables such as readiness for change, psychological capital and employee performance.
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Strategic thinking is significant for organisations to ensure sustainability in the competitive world. The understanding of its elements is yet limited. The theorisation of strategic thinking till date is insufficient for organisational complexities and limits the manner in which it can be harnessed for professional demands. This paper adopts a systematic method to review 125 papers on strategic thinking from 1978 to 2016. The themes identified across the available literature then served the basis for two individual models (elements and process of strategic thinking) proposed in paper. Based on discussion, several avenues for future research are suggested.
Article
Change management (CM) has been a persistent subject among organizations. The basic arguments originate from how and why organizations manage changes. However, CM is paramount for the success and survival of an organization in both highly competitive local and evolving global markets. The general perception of change usefulness or the aims of CM varies among stakeholders, namely employees, top management, as well as customers and governments. Against this backdrop, the current study explores the issue and identifies the motivators, enablers, and barriers of CM in the energy sector by focusing on different stakeholder categories: customers, employees, top management, and government. In addition, CM-related critical facilitating and barricading factors are explored with a structured method from all stakeholders’ perspective. A total of 75 face-to-face interviews were carried out in four different big energy organizations where information was extracted and coded in commonality analysis. The findings concluded that all stakeholders hold a common perception that community welfare/lifestyle, environmental aspects, and country brand/image are the top motives, along with effective/transparent communication, willingness, and flexibility serving as enablers. Additionally, global stability, fear, and change complications are among the main challenges facing CM. With special consideration to each stakeholder, a wide-range commonality analysis demonstrates all stakeholders’ perceptions of what drives, inhibits, and facilitates CM initiatives. It would be more beneficial for energy companies to balance all anticipations of stakeholders to perform successful and sustainable CM. This study is among the first in the region in the energy sector to adopt a broad stakeholder perspective for motivators, enablers, and barriers of CM towards green energy.
Research
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This narrative study explored the experiences of five state employees who were either managers or supervisors. The subjects shared their experiences with the process and effectiveness of their employee performance rating system (EPRS) to remediate skills gaps in one of the agencies under the Secretariat of the Massachusetts’ Executive Office of Health and Human Services (EOHHS). Nine study conclusions emerged from the study. First, EPRS helps to remediate skills gaps and identify areas that need special attention. Second, regional executive leaders have supported EPRS implementation to a large extent. Third, EPRS provides a justification to reward high-performing staff though the current various job descriptions upon which the reviews are based need to be updated to meet present needs. Fourth, the EPRS process is effective when management displays a culture of clear and respectful communication, clear and consistent review of targets, and when there is regular positive feedback. Fifth, EPRS puts managers and supervisors in charge of the process, and their direct involvement is relevant given their working relationship with their staff, though this part of their role may not be valued by some of their staff. Sixth, the agency’s EPRS process faces some challenges such as rigidity, bureaucracy, cumbersomeness, lack of co-operation from staff, lack of clarity of the process, and influence from some program directors. Seventh, the lack of effectiveness of the EPRS process affects business operations and growth and leads to demotivation and low productivity. Eighth, some of the staff seem to be displeased with the entire EPRS process and do not believe it provides accurate information as the agency’s EPRS process hasn’t been updated for a very long time. Finally, the EPRS has shaped the thinking and attitudes of managers and supervisors to help monitor staff’s performance and harness their abilities so they can perform better to achieve agency vision and mission.
Article
Employee participation in IT projects is considered to be a critical IT adoption factor in the public sector. However, research into the impact of participation on government employee adoption of IT is very limited. Therefore, this study investigates the role of participation in government employee adoption of IT. A qualitative research study was carried out and project managers were interviewed. Additionally, employees who participated in the introduction of the e-file in Germany were also interviewed. The findings reveal that information and communication, training and support, and active participation in project groups, the formal participation of the staff council and the exchange of experiences between governmental agencies all have a potential positive impact on government employee adoption of IT. However, managers have key positions in this context. Furthermore, barriers to participation, such as the lack of resources as well as a lack of willingness and qualifications, are also discussed.
Chapter
In this chapter, we pay attention to the Seventh Enabler: Embarking. Identification of potential risks associated with implementing the change is an important element of this enabler. We offer exercises to systematically identify forces against the change and those people or things that are conducive to the implementation of the change. In this chapter, the resistance to change receives attention, as well as formulating a detailed communication strategy. Several tools offer the opportunity to systematically plan the when, what, how of executing the change process, for specific team members. When team members deliver actions, aligned to strategy on specific agreed upon dates, real progress towards implementation is evident.
Chapter
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The tertiary education landscape in Australia has changed over the past decade, in line with developments in other occupational settings and environments across the western world.
Article
This paper examines how Performance Measurement Systems (PMSs) are implemented in local governments where the initial context is defined by equivalent external pressures and professional expertise, in order to address the question of “why” PMS implementation patterns differ from one setting to another. The study explored the reasons behind these different patterns in a context where local governments responsible for providing a local service implemented a PMS with the direct support of professional experts, and thereby it contributes to the extant literature in the field of PMS implementation. In order to achieve this purpose, the investigation analyzed three local governments (municipalities) that were required to implement a PMS because of external legislation requirements rather than by choice and is based upon a participatory case study approach involving interviews, observations and secondary data sources. Research was conducted through the theoretical lens of Old Institutional Economics to identify three PMS implementation patterns, here called formal compliance, shared vision and technical oligarchy. The role played by three factors, power, communication and an inclination to learn, is discussed in the results, as these three factors in particular may help to explain the heterogeneity in the implementation patterns observed.
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Literature has tended to describe digital transformation (the implementation and use of new digital technologies to enable major business improvements) as a strategic and rational process with clear roles, the most important one being a Chief digital officer or Chief digital information officer, who is often an individual appointed as a temporary position to undertake the digital transformation. This study has testified to a less rational, more emergent process, where the digital transformation happens without a Chief digital officer and instead is managed conjoint in the top management team. Based on this study, it is argued that digital transformation can be understood as distributed leadership, which enables a more holistic approach to mobilizing and sustaining digital transformation.
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This article documents the life-cycle of the National Green Tribunal of India (NGT). The NGT is officially described as a “specialised body equipped with necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues”—a forum offering greater plurality for environmental justice. Its international and national recognition promotes it as an exemplar for developing nations. The change management theory underpinning the paper is drawn from the work of Kurt Lewin and Edgar Schein, thereby allowing the analysis of competing internal and external forces affecting the NGT. There is a transmigration of theory and its application from one discipline to another social science: business psychology and management to law. The article identifies and addresses the crisis, and analyses the reasons and actions of the principal actors or forces interested in supporting the NGT and, on the other hand, those who are concerned, challenged, and affected by its growth, activities, and popularity.
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Transforming major organizations with thousands of employees is a complex and ardous task especially when the aim of change is to alter the behavioural patterns of all the employees. This article explores the lessons learnt by top management teams from multinational companies operating in Europe, the US and the Far East when they introduced Total Quality Management as their major change initiative. It shows that they are engaged in four ares: 1. Legitimacy; 2. Formulating objectives; 3. Managing reviews; 4. Changing systems. Their personal involvement was found to be of critical importance and meant that they personally had to alter their agendas. If top management wants to change their company's behaviour, they first need to change their own behaviour.
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In an economy founded on innovation and change, one of the premier challenges of management is to design more flexible organizations. For many executives, a single metaphor has come to embody this managerial challenge and to capture the kind of organization they want to create: the "corporation without boundaries." According to Larry Hirschhorn and Thomas Gilmore of the Wharton Center for Applied Research, managers are right to break down the boundaries that make organizations rigid and unresponsive. But they are wrong if they think that doing so eliminates the need for boundaries altogether. Once the traditional boundaries of hierarchy, function, and geography disappear, a new set of boundaries becomes important. These new boundaries are more psychological than organizational. They aren't drawn on a company's organizational chart but in the minds of its managers and employees. And instead of being reflected in a company's structure, they must be "enacted" over and over again in a manager's relationships with bosses, subordinates, and peers. In this article, Hirschhorn and Gilmore provide a guide to the boundaries that matter in the "boundaryless" company. They explain how these new boundaries are essential for both managers and employees in coping with the demands of flexible work. They describe the typical mistakes that managers make in their boundary relationships. And they show how executives can become effective boundary managers by paying attention to a source of data they have often overlooked in the past: their own gut feelings about work and the people with whom they do it.
Article
Leadership is the ability to get men to do what they don't like to do and like it. Harry Truman Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven. John Milton We are all worms, but I think that I am a glow worm. Winston Churchill When we plunge into the organizational literature on leadership we quickly become lost in a labyrinth: there are endless definitions, countless articles and never-ending polemics. As far as leadership studies go, it seems that more and more has been studied about less and less, to end up ironically with a group of researchers studying everything about nothing. It prompted one wit to say recently that reading the current world literature on leadership is rather like going through the Parisian telephone directory while trying to read it in Chinese! The proliferation of literature on effective leadership is amply reflected by the increase in the number of articles in its bible, Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership.¹ While the old handbook, published in 1974, listed only three thousand studies, that number increased to five thousand within seven years, a pace of publication that has accelerated ever since. It is unfortunate, however, that the popularity of leadership research has not been equaled by its relevance. One of the problems has been that too many theories about organizations seem to have had their gestation in the ivory towers of academic. The titles of the theories, new and old, reveal the nature of their contents, plodding and detached, often far removed from the reality of day-to-day life. These kinds of papers continue to appear; fortunately, however, some changes can be noted. An increasing number of scholars have become interested in going beyond the confinement of social science laboratory experiments to observe real leaders in action.
Article
As organizations operate in an uncertain world, errors are unavoidable. This article analyses two types of organizational error based upon a distinction between clear and fuzzy structures. Clear structures are based upon precise rules which enable a clear definition of decision types and the procedures for making those decisions. Fuzzy structures are based upon flexible rules by which decision making becomes a muddling through process. Errors of tightness occur when structures are too tight for their technical and strategic contexts; this means that decision making tends to be too constrained by procedures, hierarchical rules and other paraphernalia of bureaucracy. Errors of looseness occur when structures are too fuzzy for their contexts; this means that decisions could be more efficiently made by a more systematic use of procedures and rules. This article reports results from a study of the implementation of new technology in a group of twenty polymer processing companies in the UK. Overall, the companies, as reported by the chief executives, saw themselves as somewhat too crisp in their decision making. When the relationship between organizational errors and effectiveness was examined, no clear cut pattern emerged for either of the two measures of effectiveness employed. The measures of effectiveness are comparative performance and awareness of other firms in the field. However, if the contextual factors of strategic mix and technological objectives were considered, a pattern did emerge. When the companies were divided into three groups according to the mix of strategies and technological objectives used, both tightness and the measures of effectiveness varied systematically. Strategy was assessed by means of a modified form of Miles and Snows (1978) typology which defines a prospector strategy as a strategy involving continuous innovation. In contrast a defender strategy emphasises price competition and operating efficiency. The most effective companies were those which had a mix of prospecting and defending strategies and which recorded most errors of tightness. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved
Article
The need to understand and manage change is salient, particularly for mature firms where the long-established norms of stability and security must be replaced with new values such as speed, simplicity, unparalleled customer service, and a self-confident, empowered workforce. The purpose of this article is to explore how mature firms can be re-energized. To do this, this article describes the unique challenges of creating change in mature firms, detail principles that can be used to guide change, and identify the leadership and work activities required to accomplish change.
Article
The competitive environment is giving rise to a paradigmatic transformation in how corporations organize and manage people. These transformations typically start with new outlying organizational units and progress slowly as innovations in management diffuse to older, more resistant organizations. Changes in these older units require the involvement of all stakeholders in designing an organization that will demand new behavior of them. Attitudes and new skills are developed through experience with new approaches to management, not education. Effective and rapid corporate transformation requires top management to develop a corporate context that will support diffusion. Champions who will lead change must be carefully placed to move change along, and they can benefit from the support of consultants skilled in both process and structural interventions.
Article
Businesses hoping to survive over the long term will have to remake themselves into better competitors at least once along the way. These efforts have gone under many banners: total quality management, reengineering, rightsizing, restructuring, cultural change, and turnarounds, to name a few. In almost every case, the goal has been to cope with a new, more challenging market by changing the way business is conducted. A few of these endeavors have been very successful. A few have been utter failures. Most fall somewhere in between, with a distinct tilt toward the lower end of the scale. John P. Kotter is renowned for his work on leading organizational change. In 1995, when this article was first published, he had just completed a ten-year study of more than 100 companies that attempted such a transformation. Here he shares the results of his observations, outlining the eight largest errors that can doom these efforts and explaining the general lessons that encourage success. Unsuccessful transitions almost always founder during at least one of the following phases: generating a sense of urgency, establishing a powerful guiding coalition, developing a vision, communicating the vision clearly and often, removing obstacles, planning for and creating short-term wins, avoiding premature declarations of victory, and embedding changes in the corporate culture Realizing that change usually takes a long time, says Kotter, can improve the chances of success.
Article
Many enterprises, public and private alike, are in the midst of fundamental organizational changes. These cover a spectrum of initiatives—ranging from downsizing and delayering to the creation of team-based networks, partnerships, and alliances—and involve a fundamental reassessment of employment security, critical competencies, and career trajectories. Collectively, these trends highlight some of the limitations of our traditional approaches for managing continuous, rather than periodic, ransformations. High-technology firms in Silicon Valley are experimenting with flexible organizational building blocks, designed to address novel tasks, "kaleidoscopic" change, and continuous innovation. This article describes the building blocks of flexible organizational designs.
Article
Empowerment has become a favoured way of seeking to utilize the talents of employees. The article takes a sceptical view of the practical application of empowerment, since its basic techniques have been available, but underused, for decades. Given this, is the average Western firm in a position to take advantage of the benefits which can flow from empowering employees? A management would have to be prepared to re-shape the power structures and processes of the organization and build up a hierarchy of empowerment practices if significant gains were to be made. Contrary to many assumptions, empowerment in no way diminishes managerial responsibility for leadership, judgement and decisive action.
Article
This article conducts a thorough review of the extensive literature on executive leadership. It provides a definition for the concept of superior executive leadership and then presents a model explaining the key roles and attributes required to perform effectively in top management ranks. The article then discusses the implications of this model for senior executives and describes how it can be used to assess the quality of executive performance.
Article
One of the major problems facing senior executives is that of effecting significant strategic change in their organizations. This paper develops a number of explanatory frameworks which address the links between the development of strategy in organizations, dimensions of corporate culture and managerial action. In considering such linkages, and by illustrating them with examples from work undertaken in companies, the paper also seeks to advance our understanding of the problems and means of managing strategic change.
Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.
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Creating the learning organisation
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Useem, M. and Kochan, T.A. (1992),``Creating the learning organisation'', in Kochan, T.A. and Useem, M. (Eds), Transforming Organisations, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 391-406.