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Organizational Culture and Its Relationship in Measuring Outcomes among Business Executives

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Organizational Culture and Its Relationship in Measuring Outcomes among Business Executives

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Investigates the nature of role stressors and its impact on job tension in predicting outcome constructs. The research examines the relationship that exists between the three organizational cultures and the role stressors within a business environment. The best fit model is statistically created and tested by applying a structural equation model. The results indicate that a constructive culture will significantly reduce role stressors, thereby: decreasing job tension and increasing job satisfaction, job performance, and job commitment. The corporate culture’s taproot is the organization’s beliefs and philosophy in how it conducts business. Beliefs and practices that become embedded in a company’s culture can originate from a number of sources. The beliefs, vision, objectives, and business approaches and practices supporting a company’s strategy may be compatible with its culture or possibly not. When they are, the culture becomes a valuable ally in strategy implementation and execution. When this is not accomplished, a company finds it difficult to implement the strategy successfully.

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... Among the most stressful demands of the working environment, there is the transfer of paternal organizational culture to a foreign cultural environment [128]. Basically, in a period of change employees are exposed to demands and pressure that which are not aligned with their skills and knowledge and result in stress on the working place [119]. ...
... Analysis of both parent and subsidiary organizational cultures can be performed on the basis of typologies and dimensions, which serve their purpose of identifying desired organizational values. Effectiveness of parent organizational culture transfer to a foreign cultural environment depends on adaptation of organizational culture of subsidiary organization to the external environment [128]. Initially, parent organization should analyze existent parent organizational culture. ...
... We know studies about connection between national and organizational culture [22][23][24]27,28,32], as well as transfer of organizational culture concerning to models of organizational entry [27,28]. Many studies were performed about impacts of organizational culture on particular considered constructs, such as internal communication [81,83,94,96,97,205], stress [118,119,124,126,[128][129][130] and work satisfaction [128][129][130][131][132][133][134][135][138][139][140][153][154][155][156]. However, we cannot find studies about social responsibility and with this sustainable and holistic transfer of parent organizational culture to a foreign subsidiary organization concerning impact of organizational culture on internal communication, stress and work satisfaction. ...
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The organizational culture is a significant construct in a time of change during the organizational transition, and it plays an important role in achieving goals of social responsibilities, which is an important part of sustainability. The literature shows the gap of socially responsible transfer of organizational culture with the impact on employee’s well-being. The cultural changes of the organization during the transition are particularly in connection with the impact on internal communication where organizational culture presents a part of values, norms, and ethics, which influences successfully implemented changes and in such a way has an influence on the stress and work satisfaction. The main purpose of the presented study is the development of the model of socially responsible transfer of organizational culture to the foreign subsidiaries on a basis of adjusted internal communication, which reduces stress and increases work satisfaction. Impacts of organizational culture on internal communication, stress, and work satisfaction are clearly presented, as well as inter-related impacts of the constructs concerning national culture, leadership, and organizational knowledge. Thus, the new holistic model of socially responsible transfer of the parent organization culture to foreign subsidiaries clearly defines steps of organizational culture, internal communication, stress management, and work satisfaction. Managerial implications are discussed.
... A P value of less than 0.05 (or 5%) indicates statistical association between the selected variables in a study. As such, it can be concluded that organizational culture plays a critical role in organizational changes, be it acceptance or rejection which is in keeping with other studies Ahmed [17], Lorenzo [18], Silvester and Anderson [19], Pool [20], Yousef [21]. And Wise [22] postulated that economic and budgetary restraints are among the endogenous determinants of organizational change, indicating that advanced statistical methodology is employed in ascertain ingredients of institutional changes. ...
... P < 0.0001). This indicates that the organizational culture plays a critical role in organizational changes, be it ac ceptance or rejection which is in keeping with other studies Ahmed [17], Lorenzo [18], Silvester and Anderson [19], Pool [20], Yousef [21]). And Wise [22] postulated that economic and budgetary restraints are among the endogenous determinants of organizational change, indicating that advanced statistical methodology is employed in ascertain ingredients of institutional changes. ...
... And the behavioural component is the expression of the individual regarding attitude. Although the organization culture could be an inhibitor or stimulant to changes, it is also critical to the innovation and sustenance of the entity Poole [20]. This can happen within the context of the individual's and the organization's goals working in tandem, which could see a strong social bond. ...
... The resistance to change are sometimes enveloped in the "dealignment" between the organizational objectives and those of the employee, the outlook of the employee and his/her perception of the foci of the institution and the role(s) he plays in that position, and resistance to change owing to personality traits. In addition to the individualized culture of the people in the organization, there is a different organizational culture that is formed in institutions that play a key role to the change process (Pool, 2000;Ahmed, 1998;Silvester & Anderson, 1999;Rashid et al., 2003). Yukl outlines that in understanding the change process one should examine some of the theories such as Lewin's force-filed model. ...
... P < 0.0001). This indicates that the organizational culture plays a critical role in organizational changes, be it acceptance or rejection which is in keeping with other studies (Ahmed, 1998;Lorenzo, 1998;Silvester & Anderson, 1999;Pool, 2000;Yousef, 2000). And, Wise (2002) postulated that economic and budgetary restraints are among the endogenous determinants of organizational change, indicating that advanced statistical methodology is employed to ascertain ingredients of institutional changes. ...
... To the extent that culture is a determinant factor in enhancing and achieving organizational objectives (Ramdhani, et al., 2017), it is tied to all the functions of the business, but particularly human resources. The culture can guide how organizations face environmental changes and use internal resources, including the workforce, to implement responses to those changes (Pool, 2000). A strong culture improves employee motivation and engagement, establishing a stronger identification, more positive feelings, and thus greater contributions toward the company's success as well as the individual's job fulfillment. ...
... Job satisfaction is of particular interest to employers as it reflects the extent to which people find gratification or fulfillment in their work. Extensive research in job satisfaction indicates personal factors such as how an individual's needs and aspirations determine attitude, along with group and organizational factors such as work conditions, relationships, work policies and compensation (Pool, 2000). ...
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Study looks at developing a person-organization fit model based on the unique characteristics of the new generational cohort, Generation Z, now entering the workforce. Theory suggests competitive advantage may come to a firm based on its unique human capital, the human resources it employs and develops. Further, organizations will be more successful in attracting the valuable employees they seek if they can provide a workplace appealing to them in terms of organizational values, culture, and other aspects that may also include more familiar enticements such as pay and benefits. From the literature, Generation Z appears to be both more demanding and more flexible about workplace preferences. They are willing to work in different environments, including remotely, and on different schedules. They are open to international work. At the same time, they have specific communication preferences and expect their employers to have strong, transparent values, particularly in areas such as environmental sustainability. As they become more prevalent in the workforce, what do we know about how they will "fit" with the organizations employing them? Particularly given the guidance of the person-organization fit model. From a substantial sample of students at technological secondary schools in the Wielkopolska Region, survey results provided evidence of the workplace preferences for this cohort. In addition, results were further analyzed for differences in gender and intended profession. There are clear differences in the preferences as well as in the correlations between variables. For this region, Generation Z has variable individual needs and wants, some of which can be easily identified (gender, profession) but some of which may be less clear. In designing appealing workplaces, organizations need to consider the nature and communication of what they have to offer as well as how they can be flexible in adapting these offerings to unique individuals.
... It also refers to the set of norms, attitudes, values, and behaviour patterns that form the core identity of a business or an operating unit within a business (Denison, 1984). In other words, organizational culture allows an organization to address the ever-changing problems of adaptation to the external environment and the internal integration of organizational resources, personnel, and policies to support external adaptation (Steven, 2000). suggests that culture can be analyzed at different levels. ...
... Organizational culture strongly varies with the family status of the respondents. Organizational culture allows an organization to address the ever-changing problems of adaptation to the external environment and the internal integration of organizational resources, personnel, and policies to support external adaptation (Steven, 2000). Organizational culture refers to the set of norms, attitudes, values, and behaviour patterns that form the core identity of a business (Denison, 1984). ...
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This paper deals with influence of socioeconomic variables on the organizational culture in IT industry. The study mainly concentrates on the dimensions Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Proaction, Autonomy, Collaboration and Experimentation in respect to the demographic variables. The primary purpose of the present study was to identify the organizational culture in IT industry. The data for the research work was collected through the method of questionnaire schedule. To prove the research hypothesis the various tests such as chi-square, t-Test and ANOVA are being used. Thus the result exhibits that socioeconomic variables influence the organizational culture in IT companies.
... It also refers to the set of norms, attitudes, values, and behaviour patterns that form the core identity of a business or an operating unit within a business (Denison, 1984). In other words, organizational culture allows an organization to address the ever-changing problems of adaptation to the external environment and the internal integration of organizational resources, personnel, and policies to support external adaptation (Steven, 2000). suggests that culture can be analyzed at different levels. ...
... Organizational culture strongly varies with the family status of the respondents. Organizational culture allows an organization to address the ever-changing problems of adaptation to the external environment and the internal integration of organizational resources, personnel, and policies to support external adaptation (Steven, 2000). Organizational culture refers to the set of norms, attitudes, values, and behaviour patterns that form the core identity of a business (Denison, 1984). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the influence of organizational variables on the organizational culture in IT industry. The study mainly concentrates on the dimensions Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Proaction, Autonomy, Collaboration and Experimentation in respect to the demographic variables. This paper attempted to measure the organizational culture in IT Industry. The data for the research work was collected through the method of questionnaire schedule. To prove the research hypothesis the various tests such as Simple Percentage, Chi-Square and ANOVA are being used. Thus the result exhibits that socioeconomic variables influence the organizational culture in IT companies.
... Corporate culture as an important aspect of not only in organizational behavior but also as a tool in understanding how organizations function (Kristof, 1996). Corporate culture enables organizations to tackle both the problems of adjusting to external environment and the internal integration of organization resources, human resource and policies to support the external adaptation (Pool, 2000;Schein, 1992). The corporate culture is one of the factors that strategically to develop an organization. ...
... In many literature of organization behavior, corporate culture has been defined in many ways by various authors and researchers. Corporate culture can be viewed as to as a set of values, attitudes, behavior patterns, rituals, beliefs, norms, expectations, socialization, and assumptions of employees as the key identity in the organization and that help in determining their employees' manners (Schein, 1992;Pool, 2000;Boon and Arumugam, 2006;Hellriegel and Slocum, 2011;Robbin and Judge, 2013). Corporate culture is a management philosophy and a way of managing an organization in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance (Boon and Arumugam, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on analyzing to some previous research, this study is developed by using constructs to explain how the dimension of corporate culture impacts employees commitment. This study uses examination model based on the literature reviews of previous research and then the hypotheses were be expended as a methodology. The result of the study shows that the employee commitment to organization can be improved through corporate culture that consists of teamwork, communication, training development and reward-recognition. To maintain efficiency, effectivity and organization productivity could be conducted by optimizing employee commitment to organization by creating and implementing corporate culture consistently. The concept of employee commitment to organization is described with causal relation toward corporate culture which is decomposed into the dimension of teamwork, communication, training development and reward-recognition.
... Similar to the original model proposed by Ostroff and colleagues (2003), , 2000;Fox & Fieldman, 1988;Fried & Ferris, 1987;Hackman & Oldham, 1976, 1980Patrick & Bhat, 2014;Renn & Vandenberg, 1995 the work environment to determine how well it satisfies the value of growth helps inform employees' growth-need strength. ...
... For example, Tucker et al. found a trickle-down effect in that top leadership can perpetuate a safety culture that spreads to entrylevel positions. Similarly, constructive cultures can reduce role conflict and ambiguity, which in turn reduce job tension and increase job performance (Pool, 2000). These examples illustrate how organizations use their cultures to bolster their employees' behavior. ...
Research
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This work links a theory of organizational culture and climate with job characteristics to explain how organizational culture and climate help inform job design and worker motivation.
... To the extent that culture is a determinant factor in enhancing and achieving organizational objectives (Ramdhani, et al., 2017), it is tied to all the functions of the business, but particularly human resources. The culture can guide how organizations face environmental changes and use internal resources, including the workforce, to implement responses to those changes (Pool, 2000). A strong culture improves employee motivation and engagement, establishing a stronger identification, more positive feelings, and thus greater contributions toward the company's success as well as the individual's job fulfillment. ...
... Job satisfaction is of particular interest to employers as it reflects the extent to which people find gratification or fulfillment in their work. Extensive research in job satisfaction indicates personal factors such as how an individual's needs and aspirations determine attitude, along with group and organizational factors such as work conditions, relationships, work policies and compensation (Pool, 2000). ...
Research
Full-text available
“Company culture eats strategy for breakfast,” according to Peter Drucker (cited in Kesterson, 2015, p. 56). Therefore, this issue of the Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation (JEMI) entitled “Company culture matters” presents studies that extend the current body of knowledge regarding company culture pattern recognition, promotion, implementation, and execution. The main inspiration for all of the studies included in this issue was the assumption that most of a company’s challenges in present times are rooted in company culture.
... Empirical research conducted by Desphande and Farley (1999) and Denison (1984) found entrepreneurial and competitive culture performs better than consensual and bureaucratic cultures. Further more, Pool's (2000) explains that an organisation with such culture embraces creativity which promotes quality over quantity of work. This type of culture matches well with Desphande and Farley's (1999) entrepreneurial culture and, thus, proves that it is highly suggested for organisations to cultivate an entrepreneurial type of culture. ...
... As an integral part of innovation, corporate culture is also seen as an important element in the process of organisational change (Pool, 2000;Silvester and Anderson, 1999). In fact, Linstone and Mitroff, (1994) highlighted three factors necessary for the implementation change which involves technological, organisational and personal perspectives. ...
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Although, a considerable amount of studies have been published on the concept and definitions of corporate culture. Relatively less research has contributed towards the relationship between corporate culture, ICT diffusion innovation, leadership and performance research. Anchored on this idea, this study tends to examine the under-explored relationships among the aforementioned construct by critically reviewing existing literature. The objectives of this study are twofold: first, it aims to investigate the conceptual definition of the corporate culture construct. Second, it endeavours to determine how culture affects ICT diffusion innovation, leadership and organizational performance. As a matter of fact, we study within a framework which inferred that corporate culture has relations with a variety of organizational activities. Although more study needs to be done in this under researched area, this study has bring to light that corporate culture influences organizational performance.
... Corporate culture as an important aspect of not only in organizational behavior but also as a tool in understanding how organizations function (Kristof, 1996). Corporate culture enables organizations to tackle both the problems of adjusting to external environment and the internal integration of organization resources, human resource and policies to support the external adaptation (Pool, 2000;Schein, 1992). The corporate culture is one of the factors that strategically to develop an organization. ...
... In many literature of organization behavior, corporate culture has been defined in many ways by various authors and researchers. Corporate culture can be viewed as to as a set of values, attitudes, behavior patterns, rituals, beliefs, norms, expectations, socialization, and assumptions of employees as the key identity in the organization and that help in determining their employees' manners (Schein, 1992;Pool, 2000;Boon and Arumugam, 2006;Hellriegel and Slocum, 2011;Robbin and Judge, 2013). Corporate culture is a management philosophy and a way of managing an organization in improving the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance (Boon and Arumugam, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on analyzing to some previous research, this study is developed by using constructs to explain how the dimension of corporate culture impacts employees commitment. This study uses examination model based on the literature reviews of previous research and then the hypotheses were be expended as a methodology. The result of the study shows that the employee commitment to organization can be improved through corporate culture that consists of teamwork, communication, training development and reward-recognition. To maintain efficiency, effectivity and organization productivity could be conducted by optimizing employee commitment to organization by creating and implementing corporate culture consistently. The concept of employee commitment to organization is described with causal relation toward corporate culture which is decomposed into the dimension of teamwork, communication, training development and reward-recognition.
... Additionally, job tension can be defined as "perceived negative results of role perceptions" (Lusch et al., 1990). Because job tension is originated from only work aspects, it is a different structure from the general stress of employees (Pool, 2000). ...
... Lastly, it is understood from the results that contrary to the findings in the literature (Pool, 2000), job tension has a positive relationship with task performance. This may have occurred because of the characteristics of the participants. ...
Article
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Background: In contemporary work models, employees use the Internet and electronic devices more than ever. This phenomenon has also changed the way of monitoring employees and generated a new form called ‘electronic surveillance’. Objectives: The central purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects of electronic surveillance on job tension, task performance, and employees’ organizational trust. Methods/Approach: Survey research was applied as a quantitative method to collect data. Surveys were generated as Likert-type scales, and they were distributed by hand because the use of the in-person survey technique was employed throughout the study. The research sample was created using the purposive sampling technique, and it included 228 participants from fifteen different branches of one of the biggest private banks in Turkey. Results: Electronic surveillance in the workplace has turned out to have positive effects on job tension and task performance, whereas it harms organizational trust. Conclusions: When the degree of electronic surveillance increases, the job tension level of employees tends to increase as well. Additionally, task performance increases when electronic surveillance increases. But this is not the case with organizational trust since electronic surveillance affects it negatively.
... Organizational culture is universally regarded to be one of the most influential factors affecting organizational change (Pool 2000;Kloot and Martin 2007;Morgan and Ogbonna 2008), and in overhauling public administration and service delivery (Morgan and Ogbonna 2008). However, considering the tension between the need for changes to outdated public sector bureaucracies, and the desire to maintain the status quo (Parry and Proctor-Thomson 2003), change in the culture of the public sector is a serious obstacle to realising a more customer-oriented and entrepreneurial public sector (Walker et al. 2011). ...
... This study was prompted by the substantial body of research that emphasises the importance of organisational culture in public sector reform (Pool 2000); a review of the literature on culture that reveals to understand an organisation the culture must also be understood (O'Donnell and Boyle 2008;Cameron and Quinn 2011;Testa and Sipe 2013); the manifold organizational culture studies conducted in Western cultures (Ernst 2001;Kirkman et al. 2006;Babcock-Roberson and Strickland 2013); and the dearth of organisational culture studies conducted in other cultures (Denison, Haaland and Goelzer in Yilmaz and Ergun 2008) such as Fiji. ...
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This study investigates a comparative analysis of civil servants’ perceptions of organisational culture in two public sector undertakings undergoing public sector reform in Fiji, and a public administration industry reference group. Data collected from Fijian civil servants and analysed superficially indicate similarity in cultures and suggested intervention strategies to create the preferred organisational cultures. In addition, the findings show the criticality of deciphering and understanding public sector organisational culture at both the superficial and deeper levels, in order to guide intervention strategies and support sustained organisational change.
... According to Manetje and Martins (2009) changes in business world are constant and that are the major implication of how organizations are able to function and these affects organizational commitment and culture. Similarly, Pool (2000) argues that culture in an organization has a significant role to play in relation to organizational change. Weeks (2010) maintains that strategies of organizations are likely to fail if the firms face challenges in realigning continuous changes to management responses while at the same time reengineering efforts will lack clarity and fail. ...
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Organizational change is seen as any observation that is empirical in nature within a firm of any variations in form of quality, shape and state over time as a result of deliberate introduction of new acting, operating as well as the thinking. The general objective of this study was to establish the influence of strategic change management on NGO`s performance in Mandera County. The purpose of this study was to establish how organization structure influences on NGO`s performance in Mandera County, to examine the effect of leadership on NGO`s performance in Mandera County, finding the impact of organizational structure on NGO`s performance in Mandera County and to determine the effect of environment on NGO`s performance in Mandera County. The study design was a descriptive survey. The study targeted by the study was 215 people from two category groups’ thus county government employees and NGOs in Mandera County. The sample size for this study was 129 chosen randomly from the two groups which are 60% of the target population. Primary data was used exclusively in this research. Data collected in this study was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Before analysis, qualitative data was put together in terms of similar themes and presentation was done using graphs, charts and frequency distribution tables. In order to arrive at inferences content, analysis was used in a systematic and objective way to bring together message sought. On the other hand data collected quantitatively was analyzed by the use of correlations, descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis with the support of STATA software package used in social research. The output was presented on figures and tables. The study found a strong correlation coefficient between NGOs performance and organizational culture. There exists a significant positive relationship between leadership and NGOs performance in Mandera County. There was a positive correlation coefficient between NGOs performance in Mandera County and organization structure. There was a positive correlation between employee participation and NGOs performance in Mandera County. The study concludes that all dimensions of organization culture namely teamwork; communication, reward and recognition as well as training and development are important determinants of performance. Organizational culture is an important internal environmental aspect that can lead an organization either to succeed or fail. The study concludes organizational structures address the organization of work activities, including both personnel and production systems. That the absence of quality leadership in an organizational setting negatively affect performance and this leads to stagnation in organizational operations leading to missed organizational objectives. Employee participation not only get the involvement of employees but enhances the feeling that they matter in their opinion while at the same time provide valuable information required by the managers to make better and informed decisions in regards to implementing change. The study recommends further studies on effect of strategic change management on performance of public organization as well as profit making organizations so as to be able to compare the results.
... Furthermore, Yiing and Bin Ahmad (2008) cited in their article that the organizational culture plays an important role in generating commitment and enhancing performance (Dubey et al. 2016;Lok & Crawford, 2001;Deal & Kennedy, 1982;Peters & Waterman, 1982) and he posed some studies that show a strong positive relationship between the supportive and innovative cultures and the job satisfaction and commitment while the bureaucratic culture had a negative relationship with the job satisfaction and commitment (Silverthorne, 2004;Abdul Rashid, Sambasivan & Johari, 2003;Brewer & Clippard, 2002;Lok & Crawford, 2001;London, Larsen & Thisted, 1999;Krausz et al., 1995;Brewer & Weber,1994;Brewer, 1993;Trice & Beyer,1993;Kratrina, 1990;Wallach, 1983). Pool (2000) argued how some work environments cause stress for its employees. Executives may form high levels of stress in carrying out requirements. ...
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Purpose This paper seeks to highlight the importance of organizational culture on the leader's style and the effect of the chosen leadership style on the team's performance. It surveys a strata of leaders from the Middle East in the current turbulent environment Design/methodology/approach A research paper based on a quantitative data collection in the service sector from a large number of stratified sampled firms and respondents. Findings The cross sectional data from forty service companies reveal some interesting results highlighting the interrelationships between these three variables. The findings suggest that managers need to build on this concept finding in providing further training and development of employees’ skills in addition to an organizational culture of acceptance, adaptation and diversity. Research limitations/implications Electing to use a specific set of criteria in sampling might have resulted in eliminating a meaningful different direction in the results. Moreover, the size of the survey tool limited the number of variables to test with the study Practical implications A number of implications are worthy of mention. First, devising reward programs that are fairly attractive to both genders independently of each other should be a managerial priority, along with the creation and development of strong organizational cultures. Originality/value The study examines a suggested model in a new environment that is known to be deeply rooted in old-fashioned paternalistic managerial behavior, and where change, if occurring, is extremely slow to introduce.
... Job satisfaction is the positive feel of an employee about his job. Role stressors are significantly reduced by Constructive Culture, which reduces job tension and improves job satisfaction ( Steven, 2000). Significant correlations are found amongst organization culture, employee job satisfaction and job stress(Mansor,Tayib, 2010). ...
... Their reaction could range from commitment to resistance, withdrawal or other unproductive behaviour (Bijlsma-Frankema, 2001). Culture serves as a foundation for an organisation's management system (Pool, 2000); hence, a good idea from management might not work if it does not fit the culture (Schneider, 2000). Lee and Sadri (2001, p. 858) quoted Goffee & Jones ( 1996) who stated that for the culture to be effective, it should be consistent with the business environment in which the organisation operates. ...
Article
This study investigates the influence of the elements of academic culture on quality management system ISO 9001 maintenance within Malaysian universities. There is a dearth of empirical studies on maintaining ISO 9001, particularly in the higher education context. From the literature review, academic culture was classified according to four elements – academic freedom, individualism, professionalism and collegiality. Two case studies were conducted within Malaysian universities that had been ISO 9001-certified for 5 years. At the time of this research, these two were the only universities that had certification for their entire organisation. (Most organisations gain certification for specific departments). The findings showed that academic freedom, individualism and collegiality had worked against ISO 9001 maintenance, while professionalism had influenced ISO 9001 maintenance both positively and negatively. The opposites of individualism (teamwork) and collegiality (managerialism) had supported ISO 9001 maintenance in one of the cases.
... Muzainah et al (2010) found that determining a culture which is appropriate for all organizations is an impossible task because characteristics of organization, its external environment and situational constraints dictate different values, beliefs and behaviors within tax administrations of Malaysia and other developing countries. Pool (1999) studied the organizational role stressors and its impact on job performance in predicting outcome and results indicate that a constructive culture will significantly reduce impact of role stress and thereby decreasing job stress, increasing job satisfaction and job commitment. ...
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Organizational culture has been characterized as the "glue that holds organizations together". Culture can support linkages between technology adoption and organizational growth; it can be a critical success factor in organization growth strategy and play a crucial role in determining the success or failure of organization. The term 'job satisfaction' is quite frequently used for individual attitudes towards the specific aspects of total work situation. The purpose of the study was to examine the level of Job Satisfaction and Organization Culture in organized retail sector. To examine the relationship between Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction and to offer suitable suggestions to stake holders for improving the Job Satisfaction and make better Organizational Culture in retail sector. The present study was conducted on 436 employees of organized retail sectors randomly drawn using questionnaire method. The results obtained indicates that the employees were experiencing moderate level of OCTAPACE culture and also moderate level of job satisfaction and dominant culture components includes Openness and Risk taking, Confrontation, Pro-action, Collaboration and Experimentation. It was further explored and found that there is significant positive correlation exists between organizational culture and job satisfaction.
... Factors such as self-esteem (Wanberg & Banas, 2000), need for achievement (Miller, Johnson, & Grau,1994), risk tolerance (Judge, Thoresen, Pucik, & Welbourne, 1999), defence mechanisms (Bovey & Hede, 2001), locus of control (Chen & Wang, 2007) and reluctance to lose control (Oreg, 2003) were found to influence individuals' attitudes towards change. Social influence (Gibbons, 2004), trust in management (Gómez & Rosen, 2001), uncertainty (Hallgrimsson, 2008), information (Wanberg & Banas, 2000) and organisational culture (Abdul Rashid, Sambasivan, & Abdul Rahman, 2004;Alas & Vadi, 2003;Avidov-Ungar & Eshet-Alkalai, 2011;Cunningham et al., 2002;Oreg, Vakola, & Armenakis, 2007;Pool, 2000) were contextual factors that influence individuals' attitudes towards change. ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between principal change leadership emotional intelligence (PCLEI) and teacher attitudes towards change (TATC) in Malaysian High-Performing Secondary School (HPSS), Mediocre-Performing Secondary School (MPSS) and Low-Performing Secondary School (LPSS). A total of 1,195 teachers completed the survey. The findings revealed that (a) there was a positive correlation between PCLEI and TATC across HPSS, MPSS and LPSS; (b) the relationship between PCLEI and TATC were strong in HPSS and MPSS and moderate in LPSS; and (c) there were marked differences in the ability of school principals exercising their PCLEI on TATC across HPSS, MPSS and LPSS. The interplay of school principals, teachers and school culture contributed to the above phenomenon. Attention should be given to the emotional dimension of educational leadership as rational models of leadership simply do not reflect the contemporary educational landscape, and is inadequate to help school principals handle complicated problems in today’s school environment of high-level stress due to multiple and changing demands. School leadership skills have to include emotional management as leadership is about emotional engagement and involvement. Change can only be realised and sustained if school principals emotionally and intellectually engaged themselves in the leadership terrain.
... In change management literature, the vast majority of empirical studies about predicting attitude toward change have been focused on two themes i.e. contextual variables and individual factors. Contextual variables such as trust in management (Gomez & Rosen, 2001;Simons, 1999), social influence (Gibbons, 2004), information (Miller, Johnson, & Grau, 1994;Wanberg & Banas, 2000), uncertainty (Hallgrimsson, 2008), and organizational culture (Avidov-Ungar & Eshet-Alkakay, 2011;Cunningham, Woodward, Shannon, Maclntosh, Lendrum, Rosenbloom & Brown, 2002;Lorenzo, 1998;Md Zabid Abdul Rashid, Murali Sambasivan, Azmawani Abdul Rahman, 2004;Oreg, Vakola & Armenakis, 2007, August;Pool, 2000;Ruth & Maaja, 2003), were found reliably related in influencing organizational members' reactions to change. ...
... Peran konflik dan peran ambigius sebagai pembentuk stres mempunyai pengaruh terhadap penurunan komitmen organisasi yang artinya terdapat hubungan yang negatif dan signifikan antara stres kerja dengan komitmen organisasi (Pool, 2000). Cha et al. (2011) mengungkapkan stres kerja memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dan negatif dengan komitmen organisasi. ...
Article
Organizational commitment is the involvement of individuals, feelings of belonging and loyalty to the company or feel to be part of the organization to achieve organizational goals. In order for employees to have high organizational commitment, an organization needs to pay attention to the factors that influence organizational commitment such as personal factors, organizational factors and Non-organizational factors. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of job stress and job satisfaction on the commitment of employee organizations in the PBF. PT. Banyumas Denpasar. This research was conducted in PBF. PT. Banyumas Denpasar. Number of samples taken 35 employees, by census method. Data collection is done through observation, interview and questionnaire. The analysis technique used is multiple linear regression. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that work stress has a negative and significant effect on employees' organizational commitment. This shows that the higher the work stress experienced by employees, it will further decrease organizational commitment. As well as job satisfaction have a positive and significant impact on employees' organizational commitment. This shows that the higher the job satisfaction will be the higher the employee's work commitment.
... On the other hand, in a study conducted in different branches of a hospital group as a service enterprise that the background of employees and sectored work experience affect the organizational culture more than the experience acquired in work place [7] [8]. The same study also indicates that there are significant differences between the cultural perception and age groups in particular, gender and ethnic background, there is not much difference between the duration of work experience in the organization and organizational culture perception and there is no relationship between the department of employees and organizational culture perception [9]- [15]. Who conducted a research on organizational culture as a determinant of job satisfaction emphasizes that age and gender are determining factor in perception of organizational culture values. ...
... Interestingly, Faizan & Haque (2016) conversely argued that Pakistan has resemblance with China in many ways but not in cultural aspects. Likewise, culture with progressive influences will predominantly decline the role stressors, so that it diminishes the rigidity in the direction of job and heightens job satisfaction, performance in the direction of job and commitment Pool (2000) and Allen (2003). ...
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The influence of organizational culture on the level of job satisfaction depends on the ability to cope up with the stress and working environment. This investigation tackle the purpose of Denison's prototypical for searching the organizational culture and Spector JGS assessment to inspect workforce job gratification in the course of 5 points Likert Scale. The investigation studied 220 hotel employees from middle range 3 star hotels in Pakistan. For interpretation, researchers chiefly used MS Excel for classifying, coding, and fractionizing raw facts into processed meaningful themes. Current investigation demonstrates that employee's job satisfaction chiefly dependent on organizational culture. The study undertakes in the direction of achieving organizational goals by initiating fortify strategies towards building the strength to obtain the objective. Moreover if organizations built a strong environment of learning as a part of their culture than it boosts the commitment level of employees. Further, it also helps employees to unfolding their career achievements. On the other hand, it is observed that females are occupied with higher level of job satisfaction while males have lower. Although, high level of job satisfaction exists but its more evident by this research that premiums, bonuses, and other types of incentives aid employees to lead from low level of job satisfaction to reach on their higher apex level of job satisfaction.
... Interestingly, Faizan & Haque (2016) conversely argued that Pakistan has resemblance with China in many ways but not in cultural aspects. Likewise, culture with progressive influences will predominantly decline the role stressors, so that it diminishes the rigidity in the direction of job and heightens job satisfaction, performance in the direction of job and commitment Pool (2000) and Allen (2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of organizational culture on the level of job satisfaction depends on the ability to cope up with the stress and working environment. This investigation tackle the purpose of Denison’s prototypical for searching the organizational culture and Spector JGS assessment to inspect workforce job gratification in the course of 5 points Likert Scale. The investigation studied 220 hotel employees from middle range 3 star hotels in Pakistan. For interpretation, researchers chiefly used MS Excel for classifying, coding, and fractionizing raw facts into processed meaningful themes. Current investigation demonstrates that employee’s job satisfaction chiefly dependent on organizational culture. The study undertakes in the direction of achieving organizational goals by initiating fortify strategies towards building the strength to obtain the objective. Moreover if organizations built a strong environment of learning as a part of their culture than it boosts the commitment level of employees. Further, it also helps employees to unfolding their career achievements. On the other hand, it is observed that females are occupied with higher level of job satisfaction while males have lower. Although, high level of job satisfaction exists but its more evident by this research that premiums, bonuses, and other types of incentives aid employees to lead from low level of job satisfaction to reach on their higher apex level of job satisfaction.
... Customer orientation refers to an employee's approach to place high importance on customers in an on-the-job context (Donavan et al., 2004). Job tension reflects the impact of stressors in the workplace (Pool, 2000;Xin et al., 2015), with which the employee is likely to experience resource loss and then conserve the resources by withholding concern for other parties' needs, such as customers. Our argument is also in accordance with the model of proactive motivation, which contends that individuals' engagement in PCSP is driven by a fundamental cognitive-motivational process: a "reason to" motivation . ...
... Values and value orientations are patterns of thoughts and actions (Kluckhohn & Stroedtbeck, 1961, p. 4) which are important aspects of organisations and of group membership. Values influence both the organisational processes (Agle & Caldwell, 1999;Gandal, Roccas, Sagiv, & Wrzesniewski, 2005;Smith, Peterson, & Schwartz, 2002), and the organisational culture which plays a major role in managing organisations constructively (Hofstede, 1998;Pool, 2000). The consensus on values is subject to change over time and group members are basically able to adopt the values of others (Burton, 1990, p. 213). ...
Article
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This study focuses on the construction of identity concepts and values, in the process of developing managerial identities within a selected publically owned utility in South Africa. The methodology used is a multi-method case study approach which is con ducted in the phenomenological, qualitative research paradigm. The findings show that managers define themselves in terms of "intra-personal" and "social identities" which are based on strong individual and socio-cultural value foundations. Data high light that managerial identities are connected to the organisational identity. Seventeen years after the end of apartheid, managerial identities are no longer reduced and lim ited to fixed racial, cultural or professional identities founded on historic perspectives, but are rather viewed as a dynamic cross-cultural construct of interpersonal interac tions. This article provides the reader with new insights into managerial identity con structions in a multicultural public utility setting in post-apartheid South Africa.
... Stres kerja (X) hubungan yang negatif dengan komitmen organisasional. Perannya konflik serta peran ambigius bagai pembuat stress memiliki hubungan pada turunnya komitmmen organisasi yang berarti adanya hubungan yang negatif serta signifikan diantara stress kerja dengan komitmen organisasional (Pool, 2000). ...
Article
Turnover intention is one form of behavior withdrawal in the world of work, but it is also a right for every individual to determine his choice company. Turnover is a serious problem in the field of Human Resource Management related to high turnover of labor. This study aims to determine the role of organizational commitment in mediating the influence of work stress on turnover intention. This research was conducted at PT Bali Rochmat Jaya, the sample was determined using census method and got a sample of 40 employees. Data collection using questionnaires. The analysis technique used is factor analysis and path analysis to test the effect of work stress and organizational commitment to turnover intention. The results of the first work stress have a negative effect on organizational commitment. Both of them show work stress positively influence to turnover intention. The third shows organizational commitment negatively affecting turnover intention, and finally the hypothesis of organizational commitment mediates significantly the relationship between work stress on turnover intention.
... Furthermore, it has a lot of impact on the achievement of the organization's objectives and the successful implementation of its vision. When the organization has a goal to thrive and to meet the needs of its members, certain symbols are used and norms and values are created to reflect the attitudes of the members of the organization on how to work in order to achieve these goals (Steven 2000). ...
... En este estudio, nos centraremos en uno de los cuestionarios más relevantes en este ámbito, el Denison Organizational Culture Survey (Denison y Neale, 1994, 2000 -de ahora en adelante DOCS-. El DOCS se ha utilizado en un número muy amplio de investigaciones y en más de 700 organizaciones (Denison et al., 2003;Gillespie et al., 2008;Jaskyte, 2004; Oggbona y Harris, 2000; Zheng et al., 2010). ...
Article
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El (DOCS, Cuestionario de Cultura Organizacional de Denison) es uno de los instrumentos más utilizados en el análisis de la cultura organizacional. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la validez convergente de la versión en español del DOCS. Para ello hemos empleado otro instrumento de gran relevancia y utilización en el campo de la psicología de las organizaciones, el Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI, Inventario de Cultura Organizacional) de Cooke y Lafferty. Hemos evaluado la validez convergente de estos cuestionarios por medio de correlaciones de Pearson, utilizando una muestra de 344 miembros de una universidad española pertenecientes a diferentes equipos de investigación. Los resultados apuntan que el cuestionario de Denison se ajusta de manera muy pobre a una de las dimensiones del segundo instrumento, la Cultura agresiva-defensiva. En cambio, las altas correlaciones entre las dimensiones del DOCS con la dimensión de Cultura constructiva del OCI señalan que es muy probable que el equivalente conceptual y psicométrico entre ambos cuestionarios se encuentre en esta dimensión principalmente, lo que nos conduce a considerar que el DOCS es un instrumento especializado en la evaluación de organizaciones con una cultura constructiva.
... Örgütün kuruluşu, yönetimi ve değişiminin ana belirleyicisidir. Örgüt kültürü dikkate alınmadan misyon, vizyon ve strateji belirlenemez; örgüt dizaynı yapılamaz (Pool, 2000). Olası örgütsel değişiklik hallerinde değişimin altyapısını oluşturacak ortak referansı örgüt kültürü sağlar (Ke ve Wei, 2008). ...
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Örgüt kültürü örgütlerin içsel, dışsal davranışlarının kaynağıdır. Örgütler arasındaki performans farklılıkları etkileyen gözlemlenmesi zor bir güçtür. Yöneticilerin %92'si, yönetsel davranışların en fazla belirleyen faktör olan (Kotter ve Heskett, 1992) örgüt kültürünü geliştirmenin firmanın değerini arttıracağını düşünmektedir (Graham, Harvey, Popadak ve Rajgopal, 2017). Liderler; işletmenin vizyonu, kültürü, faaliyet süreçlerinin liderlik ve örgüt kültürü örgüt düzeyinde birbirlerinin tamamlayıcısı olmaları yönüyle önemlidir. Lider, örgütün ve kültürünün tasarlanması yönetilmesi ve kontrolünün temel belirleyicisidir. Örgütlerin kurulması, geliştirilmesi, gerektiğinde değiştirilmesi veya tasfiyesi süreçlerine karar veren ve uygulayan kişiler olarak örgüt yaşamındaki en önemli unsurdur. Schein (2010) liderlik ile örgüt kültürünün iç içeliğini gözlemlemiştir. Liderlik ve örgüt kültürü, birbirlerinin tamamlayıcılarıdır ve karşılıklı olarak birbirlerini etkilerler. Bu çalışmada örgüt kültürü ve liderliğin kesiştiği alana odaklanılmaktadır. Örgüt kültürü ve liderlik kavramları incelenmiş, liderliğin kültür oluşumundaki rolünün belirlenmesini ve kültürün liderlik üzerindeki etkisini incelemiştir.
... Moncrief et.al., (1997) argued that there was significant and negative effect of job stress and organizational commitment that greatly influenced the sustainability of the organization. The roles of conflict and the ambiguous roles as the Gender Difference on The Modeling of Turnover Intention Behavior stressors influence on the decrease on organizational commitment, which means there is negative and significant relationship between job stress and organizational commitment (Pool, 2000). Cha et.al., (2011) stated that job stress has significant and negative relationship on organizational commitment. ...
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Turnover effects on companies that tend to lead to losses as well as the results of inconclusive studies on variables that explain turnoverintention. However, studies that compare turnover intention between male and female employees on the model developed were still very limited. These empirical and theoretical findings direct this study to conduct comparative studies on male and female employees. The study was conducted on male and female employees in various industries. Interviews using questionnaires are data collection techniques used in this study. The acquisition of the data is used to test the model, the influence among variables and comparative studies using AMOS as the statistical approach. The results of the study show that turnover intention in women is higher than that of men. The high turnover intention in women is caused by the decrease in organizational commitment due to the increase in job stress.
... Many studies focus on the influence of organizational culture and national culture on organization performance and practices in general (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990;House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004;Silva, Roque, & Caetano, 2015;Pool, 2000;Balmer & Wilson, 2001). This also concerns HR effectiveness in particular (Aycan et al., 2000;Denison & Mishra, 1995;Jaeger & Kanungo, 1990;Mendonca & Kanungo, 1994;Stone & Deadrick, 2015). ...
... A company led by managers who are not aware of the importance of such relationships does not have a long-term future (Beerel, 1998): it's kind of like going in a vicious circle. OC-based management systems develop strategies and processes that determine business success and can have more severe consequences than individual leadership by key managers (Pool, 2000), when insufficient attention is paid to culture, the strategy effectiveness decreases, which, in turn, leads to a new round of cultural degradation and a decrease in the level of professionalism of a leader. ...
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The purpose of the article was 1) to assess the relationship between the organizational culture (OC) type and business strategy (BS); 2) to prove that OC influences the survival strategy success/implementation; 3) to contribute to the expansion of organizational theory by analyzing the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) strategy palette as the basis for developing an effective company survival strategy during the crisis. To achieve the purpose, correlation analysis between OC types (authors' typology) and BS (Boston Consulting Group and Miles & Snow Models) was used (561 employees of different industries participated in the survey; the data collected laid the foundation for the research). As a result, it was proved that 1) certain types of organizational culture correspond to certain types of strategies; 2) during the period when the company overcomes the recession, OC affects strategic innovation decisions; 3) building a sustainable business ecosystem enhances the positive impact. The main limitations of the study are 1) some elements of subjectivity assessment, 2) constant changes in OC and BS, 3) the probability of different subcultures coexistence. Implications for a Central European audience: The results confirmed that there is a need for managers to 1) take into account the organizational culture characteristics/features to implement chosen strategies successfully; 2) be ready to adapt the OC before the BS is approved; 3) adopt the idea that building an innovation ecosystem can be crucial to confront the crisis with confidence.
... Örgütün kuruluşu, yönetimi ve değişiminin ana belirleyicisidir. Örgüt kültürü dikkate alınmadan misyon, vizyon ve strateji belirlenemez; örgüt dizaynı yapılamaz (Pool, 2000). Olası örgütsel değişiklik hallerinde değişimin altyapısını oluşturacak ortak referansı örgüt kültürü sağlar (Ke ve Wei, 2008). ...
Chapter
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ÖZET Örgüt kültürü örgütlerin içsel, dışsal davranışlarının kaynağıdır. Örgütler arasındaki performans farklılıkları etkileyen gözlemlenmesi zor bir güçtür. Yöneticilerin %92'si, yönetsel davranışların en fazla belirleyen faktör olan (Kotter ve Heskett, 1992) örgüt kültürünü geliştirmenin firmanın değerini arttıracağını düşünmektedir (Graham, Harvey, Popadak ve Rajgopal, 2017). Liderler; işletmenin vizyonu, kültürü, faaliyet süreçlerinin liderlik ve örgüt kültürü örgüt düzeyinde birbirlerinin tamamlayıcısı olmaları yönüyle önemlidir. Lider, örgütün ve kültürünün tasarlanması yönetilmesi ve kontrolünün temel belirleyicisidir. Örgütlerin kurulması, geliştirilmesi, gerektiğinde değiştirilmesi veya tasfiyesi süreçlerine karar veren ve uygulayan kişiler olarak örgüt yaşamındaki en önemli unsurdur. Schein (2010) liderlik ile örgüt kültürünün iç içeliğini gözlemlemiştir. Liderlik ve örgüt kültürü, birbirlerinin tamamlayıcılarıdır ve karşılıklı olarak birbirlerini etkilerler. Bu çalışmada örgüt kültürü ve liderliğin kesiştiği alana odaklanılmaktadır. Örgüt kültürü ve liderlik kavramları incelenmiş, liderliğin kültür oluşumundaki rolünün belirlenmesini ve kültürün liderlik üzerindeki etkisini incelemiştir. ÖRGÜT KÜLTÜRÜ KAVRAMI Latince "cultura sözcüğü "cult" kök anlam olarak toprağı ekip biçmek işlemek fiilinden türemiştir. İngilizcedeki "agriculture" kelimesi ile hala üretim-tarımsal üretim-kökleri ile ilişkilidir. Ziya Gökalp Arapça tarla sürme, tarım anlamına gelen hars kelimesini kullanmış; Türk dil kurumu kadim Uygurca 'da ekilen şey, tahıl anlamındaki "ekin" kelimesini uygun bulmuş
... There are many studies focus on the impact of organizational and national cultures on organization performance (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990;Pool, 2000;Wilson, 2001;House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004;Silva, Roque, & Caetano, 2015). In particular HR effectiveness (Aycan et al., 2000;Denison & Mishra, 1995;Jaeger & Kanungo, 1990;Mendoza & Gempes, 2018;Mendonca & Kanungo, 1994;Stone & Deadrick, 2015). ...
... This idea drives the nature of the organization to always be adaptable and creative in accordance with the environmental changes. According to Pool (2000), organizational culture plays an important role in helping organizations address several issues like those of external adaptation and integration. To achieve high adaptability culture in an organization, Pornpitakpan (2002) suggested that employees must understand the variances in cultural norms, behaviors, and practices. ...
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Employee performance is considered as a measure of human capital quality in an organization. It could either impact the organization negatively or positively. When employees start performing poorly, it worries the management as it affects the entire operation. Meanwhile, several studies in western countries have examined the relationship between organizational culture and employee performance, mentioning that the key to good performance is a strong culture. In a way, having a good organizational culture is like having a strong immune system. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between organizational culture and employee performance. Quantitative data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 140 employees were identified from the Pejabat Tanah dan Jajahan Kota Bahru, Kelantan Darul Naim (PTJKB). Later, a stratified random sampling technique was applied, and 103 respondents were determined. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to these respondents from eight departments. The findings indicated that a higher level of organizational culture is associated with a high level of employee performance. It was concluded that, based on the beta value, both Involvement Culture and Adaptability Culture had significant influences on employee performance. This study suggested that PTJKB should consider implementing many initiatives to ensure that new employees have a good understanding of their cultures to maintain a supportive work environment that will subsequently improve and promote positive work results.
... Cheung v.d (2010) göre kurum kültürü davranışlara rehberlik eden ve onları şekillendiren bir araç olarak hizmet etmektedir. Pool (2000) ise bir organizasyonun dışsal çevrede yaşanan değişimlere cevap verme konusunda yaşadığı sorunlarını çözme noktasında, örgüt kültürünün örgütsel kaynakların kullanımı ve içsel entegrasyonun sağlanması için kritik bir rol üstlendiğini savunmaktadır. ...
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Purpose Based on the conservation of resources theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop and test the relationship between workplace ostracism and psychological distress of male employees. And depending on the leader member exchange (LMX) theory, it assumes that the relationship between workplace ostracism and psychological distress of male employees is moderated by the LMX. Design/methodology/approach For this, this study used a survey method and multiple regression analyses with multi-source data from 226 male Korean employees and their supervisors. Findings The results suggest the following. First, workplace ostracism was positively associated with job tension, emotional exhaustion and depressed moods at work for male employees. Second, there was a stronger positive relationship between workplace ostracism and job tension, or emotional exhaustion for male employees with low, as opposed to those with high, levels of LMX. Originality/value This study is the first one to examine the moderating effect of LMX on the relationship between workplace ostracism and psychological distress of male employees.
Thesis
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The culture of organization has been central in business management research over the last few decades (Chow, 2001). Organizational culture can have an impact and potential impact on organization and individual, such as the commitment of faith, and loyalty to an organization which include turnover and satisfaction. There are numerous studies that had been conducted to examine the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction of employees in many countries. However, there is a very small number of literature that contribute to the study of culture in the context of higher-education institution, particularly on how organizational culture affected job satisfaction. This study presents an attempt to investigate the level of organizational culture on job satisfaction among academicians at Al-Azhar University-Gaza in Palestine. In addition, this study also examined the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction. As for organizational culture, there are five dimensions which are: Supportiveness, Emphasis on rewards, Innovation, Performance Oriented and Stability & Communication. A total of 203 academicians participated in the study. Data were collected through questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 20 items organizational culture and 25 items on job satisfaction. On the whole, the results of the study suggest that there exist a significant relationship between the five dimensions of organizational culture and job satisfaction. III ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Purpose This study aims to explore how employees respond to tensions in groups and whether experiencing tensions could spur on their creativity (including radical and incremental creativity). Through integrating the literature on tension and regulatory focus theory, this study develops a model depicting the process from experiencing tensions to creativity via regulatory foci. This study further investigates the moderating effect of employees’ hierarchical level on these processes. Design/methodology/approach A two-wave survey was conducted with a sample of 375 employees in China. MPLUS was used to examine the moderated mediation model. Findings The results show that experiencing tensions can simultaneously activate employees’ prevention focus and promotion focus, both of which in turn influence radical and incremental creativity. Specifically, prevention focus mediates the negative relationship between experiencing tensions and the two aforementioned types of creativity, and promotion focus mediates the positive relationship between experiencing tensions and radical creativity. Employees’ hierarchical level significantly buffers the link between experiencing tensions and prevention focus. Practical implications Organizations should optimize their work design to simplify the role demand of employees in the early stages of their careers. Top-tier employees should be encouraged and empowered to think and act with a paradoxical approach, which can drive them to generate more creative outcomes. Besides, when aiming to discover radical ideas, managers should emphatically cultivate employees’ promotion focus. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature on tension through revealing and testing the dual paths resulted by employees’ experiencing tensions. It also advances current research by contrasting the effects of experiencing tensions on different types of creativity.
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Bu çalışmanın genel amacı; örgütsel boyuttaki bilgi yönetimi çalışmalarının, örgütsel kültür üzerinde etkisinin olup olmadığını belirlemeye yöneliktir. Çalışmanın alt amaçları ise;  Katılımcıların örgütsel bilgi yönetimi algıları ve alt bileşenlerinin düzeylerini,  Katılımcıların örgütsel kültür ve alt bileşenlerinin düzeylerini,  Örgütsel bilgi yönetimi çalışmalarının örgütsel kültürle ve söz konusu iki kavramın alt boyutları arasında ilişki olup olmadığını ortaya koymaktır. Bu araştırmada örgütsel bilgi yönetimi çalışmaları ve alt bileşenlerinin, örgütsel kültür ve boyutları üzerinde etkisinin olup olmadığını belirlemeye yönelik olduğundan etkileşimsel bir model şeklinde desenlenmiştir. Örgütsel bilgi yönetiminin alt bileşenleri olan bilgi edinme, bilgi üretimi, bilgi paylaşımı, bilgi depolama-dokümantasyon ve bilginin kullanımı değişkenleri ile örgütsel kültür alt bileşenleri olan yenilikçi, yarışmacı, bürokratik ve topluluk kültürü değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkiler ayrı ayrı ele alınmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Kahramanmaraş İlinde sağlık sektöründe faaliyet gösteren ve özel hastane bünyesinde çalışan 238 personel oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri elde etmek adına, Ogbonna ve Haris (2000) tarafından geliştirilen ve Deshpande ve arkadaşları(1993) tarafından yeniden boyutlandırılan 16 maddelik "örgüt kültürü ölçeği" ile Churchill (1979) tarafından oluşturulup, Lee, Lee ve Kang (2005) tarafından geliştirilen 17 maddelik "bilgi yönetimi" ölçekleri kullanılmıştır. Söz konusu ölçeklerle toplanan verilerin istatistiki çözümleri için veri analizi programı olan SPSS 21.0 kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre bilgi yönetimi ve örgüt kültürü arasında düşük düzeyde istatistiki yönden anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Bu sonuçla birlikte bilgi yönetimi çalışmalarında ortaya çıkacak olumlu çalışmaların, örgüt kültürü üzerinde etkili olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Örgütsel bilgi yönetiminin örgüt kültürü üzerinde etkisinin incelendiği bu çalışmada, örgütsel bilgi yönetimindeki çabaların artış seyrine göre, örgüt kültürü olgusunun da aynı yönde artış göstermesi beklenen bir durum olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu yüzden örgütlerde bilgi yönetim faaliyetlerin örgüt kültürü olgusuna olumlu katkılar sağlayabileceğini söylemek mümkündür.
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The prevailing formal and implied conceptions of "organizational effectiveness" are examined and found deficient. When effectiveness is defined with reference to goal attainment, there are both methodological and conceptual problems, for the goals are those of persons (observers or members)--not of the organization itself--and there is in principle no possibility for stable consensus about the nature of the goals. When defined with reference to societal function, the values and standards for assessing "organizational effectiveness" are similarly external to the organization itself. An improved conceptual framework, derived from the system model of organizations, is proposed; the framework emphasizes both the distinctiveness of the organization as an identifiable social structure and the interdependence of the organization with its environment. The interdependence takes the form of transactions in which scarce and valued resources are exchanged under competitive conditions. The organization's success over a period of time in this competition for resources--i.e., its bargaining position in a given environment--is regarded as an expression of its overall effectiveness. Since the resources are of various kinds, and the competitive relationships are multiple, and since there is interchangeability among classes of resources, the assessment of organizational effectiveness must be in terms not of any single criterion but of an open-ended multidimensional set of criteria. The implications of this conception for theory, for empirical investigation, and for organization management are discussed.
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Previous research and meta-analyses suggest that the influence of organizational variables on boundary role stress processes is weak and marginal. Using the emerging work in organizational practices and configurations, the authors reexamine this relationship by addressing three critical gaps: (1) conceptualizing organizational environment as a multidimensonal practices construct, (2) operationatizing the organizational environment as configurations or combinations of practices dimensions, and (3) testing for direct and moderating hypotheses. The results reveal that organizational practices matter significantly in boundary role stress processes. The findings show that procedural environments are dysfunctional because they engender higher levels of role stressors, reduce performance, and negatively affect the psychological well-being of boundary spanners. In contrast, the achievement and affective-oriented environments involve distinct trade-offs, because none is clearly superior. The authors discuss the theoretical implications for further research and provide recommendations for managerial practice.
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Using data from samples of four different employee populations, we tested Bedeian and Armenakis' (1981) model of the relationships between role strains, tension, job satisfaction, and propensity to leave. Results from the path-analyses yielded mixed support for the model, both within and between samples. Furthermore, we explored the effects of employee personal characteristics on the variables included in the model and identified several additional sources of influence. The findings are discussed in terms of the applicability of the Bedeian and Armenakis model to various employee populations, the need to further develop and to refine the causal model, and the targeting of organizational interventions aimed at managing role strain and turnover-related processes in organizations.
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Although the popular literature on time management claims that engaging in time management behaviors results in increased job performance and satisfaction and fewer job tensions, a theoretical framework and empirical examination are lacking. To address this deficiency, a process model of time management was proposed and tested. 353 employees in a variety of jobs completed several scales; supervisors provided performance ratings. Examination of the path coefficients in the model suggested that engaging in some time management behaviors may have beneficial effects on tensions and job satisfaction but not on job performance. Contrary to popular claims, time management training was not found to be effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Suggests that the correlational literature concerning the relationships of role conflict and ambiguity to numerous hypothesized antecedents and consequences is still somewhat unclear after a decade of research. In the present study, meta-analysis procedures developed by F. L. Schmidt and J. E. Hunter (see record 1978-11448-001) and J. E. Hunter et al (1982) were applied to the results of 43 previous studies in an effort to draw valid conclusions about the magnitude and direction of these relationships in the population. For some correlates, apparently inconsistent research results could be ascribed largely to statistical artifacts. For other correlates, it seems that moderator research may be needed to explain conflicting results across samples. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article investigates the relationships of culture strength and two substantive cultural values with corporate performance. Culture strength is measured by the consistency of responses to survey items across people and the two cultural values are measured by items on the survey that relate to either adaptability or stability. The data, from management surveys of 11 US insurance companies in 1981, were correlated with asset and premium growth rates from 1982 to 1987. Results indicate that both a strong culture regardless of content and a substantive value placed on adaptability are associated with better performance for two to three subsequent years on both criterion measures. The results support the findings of Denison (1990) that strength of culture is predictive of short-term performance. The present results, however, suggest a more complex contingency model than that proposed by Denison.
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Previous research and meta-analyses suggest that the influence of organizational variables on boundary role stress processes is weak and marginal. Using the emerging work in organizational practices and configurations, the authors reexamine this relationship by addressing three critical gaps: (1) conceptualizing organizational environment as a multidimensional practices construct, (2) operationalizing the organizational environment as configurations or combinations of practices dimensions, and (3) testing for direct and moderating hypotheses. The results reveal that organizational practices matter significantly in boundary role stress processes. The findings show that procedural environments are dysfunctional because they engender higher levels of role stressors, reduce performance, and negatively affect the psychological well-being of boundary spanners. In contrast, the achievement and affective-oriented environments involve distinct trade-offs, because none is clearly superior. The authors discuss the theoretical implications for further research and provide recommendations for managerial practice.
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In an attempt to understand the reason for prior conflicting results, this study explicitly considered organizational level differences in the relationships between role variables and cognitive constructs. Additionally, previous research was extended beyond the use of attitudinal constructs by examination of actual performance measures. 148 salespersons from 49 sales districts in a large industrial chemical company comprised the sample. Results indicate that organizational level may not be a major factor in explaining prior conflicting studies. Moreover, no significant relationships were observed between role constructs and actual performance. Additional analyses suggest that greater conceptual and empirical independence among role and attitudinal constructs is warranted. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Role stress and its effects on marketing organizations represents one of the most researched areas in marketing. In spite of this tremendous volume of research, the boundary spanning roles of marketing organizations continue to be plagued by the deleterious effects of role stress. The theory developed in this article expands current theoretical frameworks used to investigate role stress impacts in the marketing literature. The theory is integrative and expansive with relation to the body of knowledge and may serve as a framework for future research. Specific propositions from the model are developed and suggestions for their empirical testing are discussed.
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Our discussion of past efforts to develop and implement hazard mitigation and preparedness policies leads to fundamental questions about the appropriate modes of shared governance and the need for a federal agency like FEMA. Addressing these questions at the broadest level requires a basic reconsideration of the mandates for federal involvement in the disaster policy arena. A narrower focus to these questions requires a rethinking of the question of how mandates become translated into programs and operations.
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Recent findings suggest that organizational culture and learning impact organizational performances. We report the results of an organizational change program focused upon strengthening further productivity in a public sector organization. The findings suggest that systematic and structured programs that include specific organizational goals, performance measures, performance feedback mechanisms, and incentives yield enhancements of targeted organizational performances. We present guidelines to promote organizational change and suggest that perceived collective efficacy plays an important role in changing organizational culture.
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Contrary to currently popular notions of organizational culture, we claim that the existence of local organizational cultures that are distinct from more generally shared background cultures occurs relatively infrequently at the level of the whole organization. We also argue that, with respect to organizational performance, particular properties of local organizational culture are more important than others and that local organizational culture will be more critical to performance in one range of organizations than in others. We conclude by applying our point of view to the problem of changing organizational cultures and argue that they are more adaptive than is currently thought.
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Many major theories of organizational stress (OS) reflect basic principles of cybernetics, most notably the negative feedback loop. However, these principles are rarely examined in empirical OS research, which focuses predominantly on simple bivariate relationships embedded in OS theories. This problem may reflect an implicit rejection of cybernetic principles on conceptual grounds, the absence of specific propositions regarding these principles, methodological difficulties, or some combination of these factors. In any case, the result is a gap between theoretical and empirical OS research, which severely hinders the accumulation of knowledge in this area. This article is intended to narrow this gap by presenting an integrative cybernetic theory of stress, coping, and well-being in organizations, deriving propositions from this theory, and discussing methodological issues in testing this theory.
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The authors investigate the relationships between four personal difference variables and job outcomes of retail store managers. They also investigate the influence of job tension on managerial performance and of the manager's performance on the financial performance of the retail store. Empirical results indicate that achievement orientation and inner- and other-direction of retail store managers have important direct as well as moderating influences on key job processes and outcomes. Empirical results demonstrate the critical influence of managerial effectiveness on retail store performance.
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This article reports the results of a study of the concepts of organizational culture, employee commitment, job satisfaction, and work-group cohesion. The responding executives characterized their organizations as predominantly bureaucratic; fewer elements of innovative and supportive cultural dimensions were identified. Generally, commitment, satisfaction, and cohesion were closely associated with the supportive and innovative cultural dimensions and were not associated with the bureaucratic dimension.
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A model of role conflict coping behavior is presented based upon three levels in the role process. Type I coping, structural role redefinition, involves altering external, structurally imposed expectations relative to a person's position. Type II coping is personal role redefinition, changing one's expectations and perception of one's own behavior in a given position. Type III coping, reactive role behavior, entails attempting to find ways to meet all role expectations, assuming that demands are unchangeable and must be met. Through a pilot sample and a subsequent survey of college educated women, sixteen specific behavioral strategies are identified and classified under these three general types. The relationship between coping behavior and satisfaction is explored both in bivariate and moderator analyses. The results indicate that the simple act of coping (as opposed to noncoping) may be more strongly related to satisfaction in women than the particular type of coping strategy employed.
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Causal relationships involving role stressors, physical symptomatology, and turnover intentions were examined within three alternative specifications. These specifications stemmed from Beehr and Newman's (1978) and Schuler's (1982) models of role stress and Locke's (1976) theory of job satisfaction. The results, derived from LISREL VI analyses, indicate that a revised Schuler model is the most plausible specification. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for understanding role stress and employee withdrawal.
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The relationships among facets of role conflict and role-specific performance were investigated over three organizational levels of one occupation. The responses of a sample of 102 full-time faculty members were analyzed via the use of correlational and multiple regression techniques. The results support treating role conflict as a multifaceted construct, examining role conflict with respect to role-specific performance measures, and considering the moderating effect of organizational level on role conflict-performance relationships in future research. Implications of the results are discussed in regard to the population sampled.
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Network models of market competition are used to advance from two significant research efforts; Lawrence & Lorsch's (1967) demonstration that the optimum form of organ ization varies between markets, and Kotter & Heskett's (1992) study of corporate culture and performance We compare firms in terms of their economic performance, the extent to which they have a strong corporate culture, and the network structure of their market. The value of a strong corporate culture varies between markets, nothing in one market, an asset in more competitive markets From the variation between markets, we build a culture-performance contingency function that uses the network structure of a firm's market to predict the extent to which a strong corporate culture can be expected to enhance the firm's pertormance With the contingency function, and market census data, we infer that the correlation between culture and performance is strong in the American economy. especially in manufacturing We also use the function to identify reasonable samples of organizations in which the correlation will be weak The contingency function is an interesting substantive phenomenon in its own right and a valuable analytical tool for generalizini results on sample firms to population conditions
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The direct and indirect costs of occupational stress can be measured in both humanistic and financial terms. Therefore, financially healthy organizations are likely to be those which are successful in maintaining and retaining a workforce characterized by good physical, psychological, and mental health. In drawing upon recent empirical studies, this paper examines a wide range of issues including: factors intrinsic to the job, corporate culture, managerial style, style of work organization and physical layout, home/work interface, etc., which impact on employee health and well-being, and so determine the financial health and profitability of the organization. It also addresses the efficacy of various intervention strategies in reducing employee stress, and their implications for organizational practices and human resource policies.
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Commitment to the organization is an important behavioral dimension which can be utilized to evaluate employees' strength of attachment. Keeping employees highly committed is important, especially in not-forprofit firms whose salary scales may not be as competitive as industrial firms. Management is concerned with identifying those variables that are related to organizational commitment in order that they may design organizational strategies to maximize commitment levels. Results in a healthcare institution indicate that role conflict and role ambiguity are detrimental to commitment, while a participative climate, power, teamwork, reading professional journals, satisfaction with work and promotion opportunities, age, GS level, tenure, and length of professional employment are positively related to organizational commitment.
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As customer satisfaction is gaining the highest priority among the interest of corporate America's constituent groups and the economy becomes service-oriented, more jobs than ever before require customer contacts. Investigates the relationship between employee satisfaction, job tension, role clarity, role conflict and empathetic concern among customer service personnel. Finds that the traditional variables, i.e. role conflict, role clarity, and job tension, do influence job satisfaction as hypothesized. Additionally, identifies empathy, a previously overlooked dimension of employee-job interactions, as a significant determinant of job tension. Discusses the managerial implications resulting from these relationships.
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The literature indicates that dysfunctional individual and organizational consequences result from the existence of role conflict and role ambiguity in complex organizations. Yet, systematic measurement and empirical testing of these role constructs is lacking. This study describes the development and testing of questionnaire measures of role conflict and ambiguity. Analyses of responses of managers show these two constructs to be factorially identifiable and independent. Derived measures of role conflict and ambiguity tend to correlate in two samples in expected directions with measures of organizational and managerial practices and leader behavior, and with member satisfaction, anxiety, and propensity to leave the organization.
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An attitude scale to give an index of job satisfaction was constructed by a combination of Thurstone and Likert scaling methods. A corrected odd-even reliability coefficient of .87 was computed from scores obtained from a sample of 231 female office employees. Validity was investigated by comparing job satisfaction scores of two groups: (1) 40 students who had personnel jobs, and (2) 51 persons who did not. The mean for the personnel group was 76.9, and for the Non-Personnel group was 65.4. Correlation with the Hoppock Job Satisfaction Blank was r = .92. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Found that problem-solving coping strategies moderated organizational stress–life strain and personal life stress–life strain relationships to a far greater extent than did emotion-focused coping strategies. 276 White teachers from 5 suburban, urban, and rural school districts completed composite questionnaires with measures of stressful life events, organizational stress, coping skills, and life strains. Results complement the findings of S. Folkman and R. S. Lazarus (see record 1981-23416-001) who reported a significant increase in the use of problem-solving techniques when Ss confronted work-related stressful episodes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined burnout and role stress among 400 therapeutic recreation specialists (TRSs) in the US. Research problems addressed (1) existence and extent of burnout, specifically emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment; (2) existence and extent of role stress, specifically role conflict and role ambiguity; (3) relationship between burnout and role stress; and (4) contributing demographic factors to burnout in TRSs. Questionnaire packets, including a Maslach Burnout Inventory, a Role Stress Scale, and a Respondent Profile Survey, were completed. The surveys were analyzed by descriptive and interpretive analysis such as canonical correlation and regression. Results indicate that TRSs experienced moderate burnout, and a positive relationship was determined between the burnout and role stress. The data also suggest that younger practitioners with higher client contact are more susceptible to burnout than are older practitioners with fewer hours of client contact. Implications for therapeutic recreation professionals are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the psychometric properties of 3 measures of role ambiguity (J. R. Rizzo et al, 1970; T. F. Lyons 1971; T. A. Beehr, 1976). Data relevant to both the psychometric equivalence and the validity of the 3 measures were gathered from 101 workers in the production department of a large midwestern organization. Results show that no single ambiguity measure was superior to the other measures. In addition, the 14 items comprising the 3 ambiguity measures were combined into a composite scale. Although this longer composite scale was psychometrically stronger than the shorter ambiguity measures, results raise doubts about the validity of all of the role ambiguity measures. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The book offers a full range of practical guidelines, charts, and self-assessment exercises designed to help business leaders overcome blocks to high performance and develop the skills needed to prosper in today's business environment. These tools will help managers understand and balance the polarities that are part of every organization; develop a more comprehensive, flexible logic for coping with unfamiliar problems and demands; learn to see problems from a variety of perspectives; make reliable business decisions that successfully integrate conflicting priorities; and chart a course for self-improvement that will lead to mastery of management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Organizational Culture Inventory (R. A. Cooke and J. C. Lafferty, 1983) measures 12 sets of shared behavioral expectations associated with 3 types of cultures: constructive, passive-defensive, and aggressive-defensive. These cultural norms are hypothesized to influence thinking and behavior, motivation and performance, and satisfaction and stress of organizational members. Tests of 3 types of reliability and 2 types of validity on data provided by approximately 4,890 Ss indicate that the inventory is dependable for assessing normative aspects of culture. Obtained alpha coefficients support internal consistency; tests for interrater agreement show that significant variance in individuals' responses is explained by their organizational membership; and tests for differences across time show temporal consistency. Factor analysis provides general support for construct validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Evaluates a model of mental health in the workplace. Based on P. Warr's (1987) distinction between job-related and context-free mental health, it was hypothesized that indices of job-related affective well-being (work satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization) and subjective competence (personal accomplishments at work) mediate the relationships between job characteristics, role stressors, and mental health. Analysis of responses from 720 hospital employees supported the hypothesis. Moreover, the proposed model fit the data better than both a nonmediational model and a model positing an alternate causal sequence. Results provide support for the mediational role of job-related well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Role stress and its effects on marketing organizations represents one of the most researched areas in marketing. In spite of this tremendous volume of research, the boundary spanning roles of marketing organizations continue to be plagued by the deleterious effects of role stress. The theory developed in this article expands current theoretical frameworks used to investigate role stress impacts in the marketing literature. The theory is integrative and expansive with relation to the body of knowledge and may serve as a framework for future research. Specific propositions from the model are developed and suggestions for their empirical testing are discussed.
Article
This study involved an attempt to assess the comparative influences of perceived role conflict and role ambiguity on psychological investments in work roles (organizational commitment and job involvement) and on work-related psychosomatic illness. In addition, these influences were assessed within a cross-vocational framework in order to determine how obtained relationships may have differed across work roles based on three widely differing vocational groupings. Results indicate that the comparative influences of these two role perceptions differ with respect to the outcomes in question and with respect to differences in the complexity of work roles.
This study investigated the relationships between work unit performance on the one hand, and employee attitudes and situational characteristics on the other hand, among 411 female clerical workers in 37 branches of a bank. The branches are work units characterized by spatial separation and the performance of similar functions. Two independent dimensions of performance were empirically identified and their relationship to attitudes and situational characteristics studied within a multivariate framework by means of multiple discriminant analysis.The results indicate that employee attitudes were significantly related to a measure of branch performance reflecting job duties performed within the branch. Employees in branches rated high in performance had a higher level of attitudes toward aspects of both the branch in which they work and the larger organization of which it is a part, while individuals in low- and medium-performing branches had a lower level of attitudes that was similar. Situational characteristics of the branch were most highly related to the manager's performance of loan functions, a large portion of which may take place outside the branch.
Article
No organization can afford to be—or admit to be—an organization that isn't interested in learning. Yet many continue not to make learning a priority required for long-term success. Perhaps one test of an organization's commitment to learning would be the degree to which its executives and managers recognize the following statement, developed by the Center for Managerial Learning and Business Simulation:
Article
This paper reports the results of a study that developed and tested a causal model of dysfunctional behavior among a large sample of marketing managers. The results indicate that three contextual variables (goal congruence, perceived peer dysfunctional behavior and information asymmetry between superiors and subordinates) predict, in varying degrees, the extent of persson-role conflict and job tension experienced by the manager. In turn, role conflict increases job tension and job tension increases the extent of dysfunctional behavior. However, no effects for the person-role conflict/dysfunctional behavior link were found.
In a mailed-questionnaire study of 156 staff registered nurses, perceived role clarity was related negatively to voluntary turnover, propensity to leave, and job tension, and positively to work satisfaction. The correlations of role clarity with voluntary turnover, propensity to leave, and work satisfaction were nonsignificant for nurses classified as low on a need-for-clarity index; the correlations were significantly higher for nurses with a high need for clarity. The correlations between role clarity and job tension were significant for both subgroups. The concepts of role clarity, the rigidity of role specifications, and the conditions of role specificity, as opposed to the processes of role specification, were discussed with regard to organizational theory and organizational change.