Gingras AC, Kennedy SG, O'Leary MA et al.4E-BP1, a repressor of mRNA translation, is phosphorylated and inactivated by the Akt(PKB) signaling pathway. Genes Dev 12:502-513

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Genes & Development (Impact Factor: 10.8). 02/1998; 12(4):502-513. DOI: 10.1101/gad.12.4.502


Growth factors and hormones activate protein translation by phosphorylation and inactivation of the translational repressors, the eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs), through a wortmannin- and rapamycin-sensitive signaling pathway. The mechanism by which signals emanating from extracellular signals lead to phosphorylation of 4E-BPs is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the activity of the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB is required in a signaling cascade that leads to phosphorylation and inactivation of 4E-BP1. PI 3-kinase elicits the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 in a wortmannin- and rapamycin-sensitive manner, whereas activated Akt-mediated phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 is wortmannin resistant but rapamycin sensitive. A dominant negative mutant of Akt blocks insulin-mediated phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, indicating that Akt is required for the in vivo phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. Importantly, an activated Akt induces phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 on the same sites that are phosphorylated upon serum stimulation. Similar to what has been observed with serum and growth factors, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 by Akt inhibits the interaction between 4E-BP1 and eIF-4E. Furthermore, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 by Akt requires the activity of FRAP/mTOR. FRAP/mTOR may lie downstream of Akt in this signaling cascade. These results demonstrate that the PI 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway, in concert with FRAP/mTOR, induces the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1.

    • "(EIF4EBP1), thus initiating protein translation (Pause et al. 1994; Gingras et al. 1998), and activates ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa (RPS6KB) (Brown et al. 1995) and ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) which plays a role in the translation of mRNA encoding ribosomal protein (Kawasome et al. 1998). Therefore, the MTOR/EIF4E and MTOR/RPS6KB pathways regulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and growth (Lang et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the effect of maternal undernutrition in the periconceptional (PCUN: ~80 days before to 6 days after conception) and preimplantation (PIUN: 0-6 days after conception) periods on the mRNA and protein abundance of key factors regulating myogenesis and protein synthesis, and on the relationship between the abundance of these factors and specific microRNA expression in the quadriceps muscle of singleton and twin fetal sheep at 135-138 days of gestation. PCUN and PIUN resulted in a decrease in the protein abundance of MYF5, a factor which determines the myogenic lineage, in singletons and twins. Interestingly, there was a concomitant increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression, a decrease in the protein abundance of the myogenic inhibitor, myostatin (MSTN), and an increase in the mRNA and protein abundance of the MSTN inhibitor, follistatin (FST), in the PCUN and PIUN groups in both singletons and twins. These promyogenic changes may compensate for the decrease in MYF5 protein abundance evoked by early embryonic undernutrition. PCUN and PIUN also increased the protein abundance of phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor binding protein 1 (EIF4EBP1; T70 and S65) in fetal muscle in singletons and twins. There was a significant inverse relationship between the expression of miR-30a-5p, miR-30d-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR106b-5p, and miR-376b and the protein abundance of mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), FST, or MYF5 in singletons or twins. In particular, the expression of miR-30a-5p was increased and MYF5 protein abundance was decreased, in PCUN and PIUN twins supporting the conclusion that the impact of PCUN and PIUN is predominantly on the embryo. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
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    • "It also increased cap-dependent protein translation in the lungs through an increase in the phosphorylated form of 4E-BP1 (Fig. 2A) (Jin et al., 2007). 4E-BP1 represses mRNA translation, and is inactivated through phosphorylation by the Akt signaling pathway (Gingras et al., 1998). Moreover, a high dietary Pi intake increases proliferation, angiogenesis and cell cycle progression . "
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic phosphate (Pi) plays crucial roles in several biological processes and signaling pathways. Pi uptake is regulated by sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) transporters (NPTs). Moreover, Pi is used as a food additive in food items such as sausages, crackers, dairy products, and beverages. However, the high serum concentration of phosphate (> 5.5 mg/dL) can cause adverse renal effects, cardiovascular effects including vascular or valvular calcification, and stimulate bone resorption. In addition, Pi can also alter vital cellular signaling, related to cell growth and cap-dependent protein translation. Moreover, intake of dietary Pi, whether high (1.0%) or low (0.1%), affects organs in developing mice, and is related to tumorigenesis in mice. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of Pi is the daily dietary intake required to maintain levels above the lower limit of the range of normal serum Pi concentration (2.7 mg/dL) for most individuals (97-98%). Thus, adequate intake of Pi (RDA; 700 mg/day) and maintenance of normal Pi concentration (2.7-4.5 mg/dL) are important for health and prevention of diseases caused by inadequate Pi intake.
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    • "AKT induces protein synthesis and cell proliferation by causing abrogation of TSC1/2, which leads to activation of the mTORC1 complex [101] [102]. Both PI3K and AKT participate in activation of mTOR [103] [104], and the full activation of AKT requires phosphorylation of another of its kinase domains via mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) [105]. These two distinct complexes of mTOR, mTORC1 and mTORC2, are believed to have differing functions, but their regulation overlaps in important ways. "
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the least common form of skin cancer, but it is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Traditional therapeutics and immunomodulatory agents have not shown much efficacy against metastatic melanoma. Agents that target the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) signaling pathway-the BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib-have increased survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Further, the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib has been shown to be superior to single agent therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, resistance to these agents develops rapidly. Studies of additional agents and combinations targeting the MAPK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PI3K), c-kit, and other signaling pathways are currently underway. Furthermore, studies of phytochemicals have yielded promising results against proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis by targeting signaling pathways with established roles in melanomagenesis. The relatively low toxicities of phytochemicals make their adjuvant use an attractive treatment option. The need for improved efficacy of current melanoma treatments calls for further investigation of each of these strategies. In this review, we will discuss synthetic small molecule inhibitors, combined therapies and current progress in the development of phytochemical therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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