Article

Academic Emotions in Students' Self-Regulated Learning and Achievement: A Program of Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Authors:
  • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich (LMU); Australian Catholic University (ACU)
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Abstract

Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions. Based on the studies in this article, taxonomies of different academic emotions and a self-report instrument measuring students' enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom (Academic Emotions Questionnaire [AEQ]) were developed. Using the AEQ, assumptions of a cognitive-motivational model of the achievement effects of emotions, and of a control/value theory of their antecedents (Pekrun, 1992b, 2000), were tested in 7 cross-sectional, 3 longitudinal, and 1 diary study using samples of university and school students. Results showed that academic emotions are significantly related to students' motivation, learning strategies, cognitive resources, self-regulation, and academic achievement, as well as to personality and classroom antecedents. The findings indicate that affective research in educational psychology should acknowledge emotional diversity in academic settings by addressing the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and university.

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... As a component of cognitive appraisal, control appraisal and value appraisal are thought to operate as a mediator between the learning environment (e.g., autonomy support) and the achievement emotion (e.g., enjoyment) (Pekrun, 2006;Sorić et al., 2013;Goetz et al., 2014). Further, control attributions are in turn considered to be related to internal and external attributions (Pekrun et al., 2002;Pekrun, 2006;Pekrun and Perry, 2014). Thus, autonomy support is thought to further predict subsequent enjoyment emotions by mediating cognitive evaluations of attribution and value (Pekrun, 2006). ...
... Control beliefs arise from individuals' subjective estimates of the extent to which they influence and predict outcomes and events throughout the lifespan (Chipperfield et al., 2016). It includes students' perceived control over behaviors and outcomes and is associated with personal assessment of competence, expected outcomes and success/failure attributions (Pekrun et al., 2002;Pekrun, 2006;Pekrun and Perry, 2014;Pekrun, 2019a). High control beliefs increase students' ability to perform and expectations of success (Pekrun et al., 2002;Pekrun, 2006), which is also associated with achievement, effort, intrinsic motivation and self-monitoring behavior in university students (Perry et al., 2001). ...
... It includes students' perceived control over behaviors and outcomes and is associated with personal assessment of competence, expected outcomes and success/failure attributions (Pekrun et al., 2002;Pekrun, 2006;Pekrun and Perry, 2014;Pekrun, 2019a). High control beliefs increase students' ability to perform and expectations of success (Pekrun et al., 2002;Pekrun, 2006), which is also associated with achievement, effort, intrinsic motivation and self-monitoring behavior in university students (Perry et al., 2001). Attribution of outcomes is a retrospective evaluation of the causes of success and failure (Pekrun, 2006). ...
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Article
Music enjoyment is considered to predict music-related academic performance and career choice. Although relevant research in non-music fields has demonstrated the association between teachers’ autonomy support and students’ academic enjoyment, it remains unknown whether this association is valid in the music discipline. In addition, in the post-COVID-19 era, online education has become a common way of teaching and learning for music undergraduates. In the form of online learning, the mechanisms mediating teachers’ music autonomy support and students’ music academic enjoyment are also unknown. This study draws on Pekrun’s theory of achievement emotions and control values to explore the mediating role of attributions and values in the association between autonomous support and academic achievement. In this study, 270 undergraduates majoring in music eventually completed the online surveys. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that autonomy support positively predicted music enjoyment and that attributions (i.e., internal attribution and external attribution) and values (i.e., intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value) mediated the association between autonomy support and music enjoyment. The findings also provide insights into possible avenue for promoting music enjoyment emotion during online teaching in the post-COVID-19 era. Implications and limitations are discussed in the study.
... Rahimi also examines the role of emotions in academic procrastination and reports the correlation between procrastination and negative emotions (such as anger, anxiety, shame, frustration, and fatigue) directly and inversely with positive emotions (pleasure, hope, and pride) (11). In fact, some believe that because emotions are a lasting and timeconsuming phenomenon (that is, in the past, present and future), they can be an effective factor in the educational process and delay (12). Thus, consistent with theoretical foundations and research findings, one can expect negative (inactivating) emotions to be a facilitator, while positive emotions (especially activators) are a blow to academic procrastination (13). ...
... This questionnaire was designed by Pekran et al. (12) and measured positive and negative emotions. This scale has 75 items and has three sections: Classroom emotions, learning, and exam. ...
... There are two dimensions of positive emotions (with three subscales of pleasure, hope, and pride) and negative emotions (with five subscales of anger, anxiety, shame, frustration, and fatigue) with a five-point Likert scale (from never = 1 to always = 5), and each substance has a value of between one and five. Pekrun et al. (12) reported that Cronbach's alpha of this questionnaire was 0.75 to 0.95 for subscales. Kadivar et al. reported Cronbach's alpha coefficients of this questionnaire between 0.74 and 0.86 (39). ...
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Background: Academic procrastination refers to the deliberate postponement of academic assignments despite being aware of the negative consequences. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on academic emotions and academic optimism among procrastination students. Methods: The present study was a semi-intervention type. The statistical population of the study consists of all procrastinating students of Payame Noor University, Bostan Abad Branch, who were studying in the academic year 2020. The study sample included 30 undergraduate students who were selected by convenience sampling and randomly divided into two groups (15 persons in the intervention group and 15 persons in the control group). Also, the intervention group was treated for eight sessions of one hour based on Kabat Zinn treatment protocol. To collect data, Tuckman Procrastination Questionnaire, Pekrun Academic Emotions (2002), and Academic Optimism Questionnaire were used. To analyze the data, covariance was used, which was analyzed with SPSS-23. Results: The results showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy increased positive emotions such as pleasure (P < 0.01), hope (P < 0.01) pride (P < 0.01), and decreased negative emotions, i.e., anger (P < 0.01), anxiety (P < 0.01), shame (P < 0.01), disappointment (P < 0.01), and fatigue (P < 0.01) in the intervention group. Also, the results of the variable of academic optimism showed that cognitive therapy based on mindfulness was associated with an increase in the components of trust (P < 0.01) and academic emphasis (P < 0.01), while on the component of the sense of identity (P > 0.01) had no significant effect. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the present study, it was found that mindfulness training can be used as an effective intervention to moderate positive academic emotions and increase students' academic optimism.
... First coined by Pekrun and his colleagues [1], achievement emotions are defined as the various emotions generated in the academic process or by achievement results, including pleasure, expectation, pride, relaxation, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom. Later, the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) was developed, containing 24 scales that separately measure enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom during class, while studying, and when taking tests and exams [2]. ...
... Many studies showed that achievement emotions and academic performance influence each other. Indeed, the more individuals experience positive achievement emotions in the learning process, the better their academic performance [1]. Positive achievement emotions can not only directly help students carry out cognitive activities more smoothly [3] but also indirectly influence their academic achievement through a series of mediating variables, such as learning motivation, achievement goal, academic participation, academic efficacy, and regulation strategy [1,[3][4][5][6][7]. ...
... Indeed, the more individuals experience positive achievement emotions in the learning process, the better their academic performance [1]. Positive achievement emotions can not only directly help students carry out cognitive activities more smoothly [3] but also indirectly influence their academic achievement through a series of mediating variables, such as learning motivation, achievement goal, academic participation, academic efficacy, and regulation strategy [1,[3][4][5][6][7]. Moreover, achievement emotions can influence school/class climate [8] and teacher-student relationships [3]. ...
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Article
Achievement emotions, defined as the emotions generated in the academic process or by achievement results, are critical for an individual’s mental health, personality development, and academic productivity. Referring to the well-known big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept, which describes the well-known phenomenon that students in selective schools/classes tend to have lower academic self-concepts than those who are comparably competent but attend regular schools/classes, Pekrun and colleagues focused on German students and proposed a similar happy-fish-little-pond effect on achievement emotions in 2019. In our paper, we examined whether this effect exists in extreme cases. To maximize the positive reflected-glory effect of being in a selective school and minimize the negative social comparison contrast effects that result from being ranked low in the school, we conducted an investigation in the Chinese collectivist cultural setting and compared the achievement emotions of students from a highly selective senior middle school with those of students from a regular school where the top-ranking students fell short of the bottom-ranking students in the selective school in terms of academic performance. Through an analysis of variance and a moderated serial mediation model, our study revealed that the bottom-ranking students in the selective school had less positive achievement emotions, lower academic self-concepts, and more negative achievement emotions than the top-ranking students in the regular school, providing strong evidence that students rely more on social comparison than on objective self-evaluation standards to evaluate themselves. The implications of the results for educational policies are discussed.
... Simulation-based learning environments (SBLEs) have increasingly been used in medical education (Helle & Säljö, 2012), and the simulation scenarios are intended to generate emotional experiences in learners (Bryson & Levine, 2008;DeMaria et al., 2010). A few studies have concentrated on learning and emotions in simulation-based medical education (Andreatta et al., 2010;Bryson & Levine, 2008;Duffy et al., 2015;Duffy et al., 2016;McConnell & Eva, 2012), but they have focused primarily on the relationship between stress and performance (Andreatta et al., 2010;Fraser et al., 2012;Schlairet et al., 2015), although many other emotions are also related to learning (Duffy et al., 2015;Duffy et al., 2016;Lonka & Ketonen, 2012;Pekrun et al., 2002;Peterson et al., 2015;Postareff et al., 2017). ...
... Emotions refer to the affective contents, states and experiences of our lived experiences (Fredrickson, 2001;McConnell & Eva, 2012;Schnall, 2010) and thus play a crucial role in learning in higher education (Damasio, 2001;Immordino-Yang & Faeth, 2010;Pekrun et al., 2002;Postareff et al., 2017;Schutz & DeCuir, 2002;Schutz et al., 2010). However, emotions are multifaceted, involving not only different psychological states, such as subjective feelings and cognitive evaluations, but also expressive and physiological changes in our faces and bodies (Duffy et al., 2016;Fredrickson, 2001;Immordino-Yang, 2011;Mauss & Robinson, 2009). ...
... Emotions occurring during simulation-based education can also be viewed as academic emotions. Academic emotions were first described by Pekrun et al. (2002; see also Lonka & Ketonen, 2012), who described them simply as emotions that occur in academic settings. According to Pekrun et al. (2002), academic emotions, including emotions surrounding learners' self-regulation, achievement and personality antecedents and the instructional and social environment, relate significantly to learning. ...
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Article
Medical education can be emotionally charged for many reasons, while simulation-based activities in particular are designed to generate emotional reactions. However, few studies have concentrated on the relationship between learning and emotions in this field, despite widespread interest in the topic in other areas. The aim of this research was to study the emotional experiences of participants before and after simulation-based teaching and learning activities. Data were collected from 238 participants using pre- and post-questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics, a paired samples t test, factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, a linear regression analysis and k-means cluster analysis. Participants were clustered into engaged, neutral and anxious learners based on their emotional profiles. The results showed that simulation-based learning invoked mainly positive emotions, whereas negative emotions decreased to a slight degree during an educational course. This study also revealed variables that may explain emotional variations. The article provides practical implications of the findings for simulation-based medical education and higher education in general. Implications for practice or policy: Positive emotions in simulation-based education can be promoted by challenging participants and providing activities at the appropriate level of difficulty. Learners may benefit from individual guidance and support, reducing their anxiety and building their sense of medical competence. Being cognisant of emotional subgroups among participants can help tailor instruction for individual learners. Simulation-based education can be targeted to educate learners to cope with difficult emotions and how to seek help.
... But in a highly uncertain environment, individuals cannot properly assess their own abilities, resulting in negative emotions (Festinger, 1954). Although online learning can help learners overcome the time -space barrier (Hong et al., 2021a), the quarantine situation may increase learners' learning uncertainty and amplify negative emotions, such as frustration, depression, and boredom (Do & Schallert, 2004;Pekrun et al., 2002), which brings a sense of learning inefficiency (D'Hondt et al., 2016). Similarly, the state of pandemic isolation reduces the effective evaluation criteria, so learners with social comparison tendencies may have a strong sense of ineffectiveness in online learning effects (e.g., learning status, learning progress, and academic performance) (Beale & Hall, 2007;Bokayev et al., 2021;Harjule et al., 2021). ...
... Achievement emotions are defined as emotions tied directly to achievement activities or achievement outcomes. The enjoyment arising from learning, boredom experienced in classroom teaching, or frustration and anger when dealing with difficult tasks are activity-related achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2002). Anxiety, as activity-related achievement emotion, affects students' cognitive process and behavioral decision-making (Pekrun et al., 2011). ...
... The factors about antecedents mainly include personal factors, task and environmental factors, appraisal factors. At the same time, achievement emotion affects individual achievement and behavioral performance, such as cognitive strategies, self-management strategies and so on (Pekrun & Elizabeth, 2010;Pekrun et al., 2002). The theory emphasizes the influence of academic emotions on learning motivation and academic performance. ...
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Article
In response to the wide-ranging concern of online academic futility, the current study aimed to explore the independent variables and mediating variable from a novel perspective of parents during COVID-19. Based on the social comparison theory and the control-value theory of achievement emotions, social comparison and tutoring anxiety were incorporated into an integrated model as predictors and mediator, respectively. A total of 300 parents completed an online survey. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that upward social comparison and downward social comparison were both positively related to tutoring anxiety, which in turn positively predicted perceived online academic futility. Notably, tutoring anxiety played a significant mediating role in the association between different social comparison and perceived online academic futility. These results highlight the consistent predictive effect of upward social comparison and downward social comparison on perceived online academic futility, shedding light on the roles of tutoring anxiety in explaining the relationship from parental perspectives.
... The advancement in technology has introduced gamebased learning, implementing game designs for educational purposes instead of entertainment purposes [1]. Gentile, Groves, & Gentile [29] developed a metatheoretical model which incorporated general models of learning into a whole. The center of the model represents the learning experience which posits is the game design features. ...
... This design encourages learners to express emotionally, be motivated, enjoy learning and increase performance through feedbacks. It has been proven that emotion affects students learning directly and indirectly as it mediates their higher order thinking skills, memory, motivation, self-regulation, social interaction and creativity [29]. These facts align with the aim of TBLT and GBLL approaches which makes it the most suitable game feature to be incorporated in TBLT games. ...
Article
Based on reviews of various types of research, it is possible to generalize that combining TBLT and GBLL would promote language pragmatics. Pragmatics is critical in developing learners' ability to communicate effectively in the target language. As a result, it is possible to conclude that the combination of TBLT and GBLL would be beneficial and meaningful for second language learners learning their target language. Furthermore, task-based games in language learning have the potential to motivate and engage learners in meaningful learning while promoting autonomy and reducing anxiety, particularly among second language learners. It was also discovered that digital game-based learning is more effective than non-digital game-based learning because non-digital game-based learning cannot cover all critical elements of TBLT during implementation. Therefore, this essay will explore the possibility of implying game design to TBLT classrooms to achieve students' language pragmatics. Finally, some potential shortcomings and future developments will also be mentioned.
... In addition, Hogue and colleagues (2013) found college students performing a novel skill in an ego-involving climate experienced enhanced cortisol (i.e., stress) hormone reactivity and greater self-reported shame, anxiety, stress, and self-consciousness relative to those learning the same task in a caring and task-involving climate (i.e., where a reduction in salivary cortisol signaled a low stress response occurred). Although Fontana et al. (2017) and Hogue et al. (2013) conducted their work in the physical domain, their results (both psychological and physiological) align with the work of Pekrun et al. (2002) and Meyer and Turner (2002), who have associated maladaptive emotions like shame with impaired student academic achievement and exam performance, learning goals, and motivation to learn. Based on the research described, the purpose of this study was twofold. ...
... These results are concerning, as Tangney and colleagues (1996) assessed the influences of different maladaptive emotions (i.e., shame, guilt, embarrassment) on undergraduate students' overall functioning in life and found that life experiences that elicited shame were the most destructive and disruptive in their lives. In a like manner, Pekrun et al. (2002) and Meyer and Turner (2002) found that shame and similar negative emotions undermine college and secondary students' learning and overall experiences in the classroom. Although there were slight variations in the race and gender models, the maladaptive effects of fostering an ego-involving climate were demonstrated in both models. ...
Article
Biology laboratory instructors play a key role in creating an optimal environment where college students try hard and enjoy their classroom experiences. This study used achievement goal perspective theory to examine the influence of instructor behaviors on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students' perceptions of the motivational climate (caring, task, ego) and their adaptive (i.e., effort, enjoyment, performance self-esteem, and social self-esteem) and maladaptive (i.e., shame) experiences in the biology laboratory setting. Students (N = 563; women, 65%; men, 35%) enrolled in biology laboratory courses voluntarily completed a survey during the final week of the semester. Results of two structural equation modeling analyses across gender and racial identities made two important contributions to the STEM higher education literature: 1) when instructors engaged in effective teaching behaviors, students were more likely to perceive a caring/task-involving climate and, in turn, report adaptive motivational responses (i.e., increased effort, enjoyment, self-esteem; decreased shame); and 2) neither gender nor race moderated the measurement of the latent parameters. This research has important pedagogical implications, as teaching assistants could be trained to engage in these effective behaviors to optimize students' STEM learning experiences.
... Alineados con el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible de Naciones Unidas número 3 "Salud y Bienestar", y en concreto con su objetivo 3.4 que hace referencia a la promoción de la salud mental, encontramos diversas referencias previas sobre la importancia de las emociones en el éxito del aprendizaje y en el rendimiento académico (Kusurkar et al., 2011;Pekrun et al., 2002). Según la OMS, no podemos definir salud sin salud mental, y el estado de salud influye directamente en la enseñanza-aprendizaje. ...
... Pero para implementar una nueva metadología de una manera eficaz, parece necesario conocer el punto de partida en cuanto a la salud emocional de nuestro alumnado. Aunque la existencia de morbilidad psicológica dentro del estudiantado de grado es un hecho conocido y es también sabido que influye en el rendimiento y el aprendizaje, los trabajos existentes suelen centrarse en la ansiedad como componente principal del malestar emocional (Li et al., 2021;Pekrun et al., 2002). Hay también evidencias de que el alumnado perteneciente al área de Ciencias de la Salud presenta mayor riesgo de sufrir estrés y malestar, enfatizando que la salud mental no debe ser considerada como un ámbito a tener en cuenta solamente una vez comienza el ejercicio professional, sino que se puede abordar ya desde el proceso educativo (Kohoulat, 2017;Kusurkar, 2011;Tada, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
El estado de ánimo del estudiantado repercute en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje al incidir sobre la motivación, la memoria y la capacidad para desarrollar recursos cognitivos, por tanto, la salud mental debe ser considerado un factor a tener en cuenta en el proceso educativo. El objetivo principal de este estudio es evaluar el estado anímico de nuestro estudiantado, así como conocer la diversidad del alumnado y su madurez emocional. Los resultados derivados podrían ser el punto de partida para diseñar metodologías docentes que encajen mejor en cada momento de su formación en función de su estado de ánimo. Para lograr este fin, hemos recurrido al análisis del Perfil de los Estados de Ánimo (Profile of Mood States, POMS) en alumnado de grados de Ciencias de la Salud, perteneciente a tres universidades españolas. Hemos analizado los resultados por grados y por género, encontrando que los grados de Medicina y Farmacia presentaban un peor estado de ánimo comparado con los de Enfermería y Fisioterapia. La evolución fue similar en hombres y mujeres.
... Having been uprooted, for immigrant adolescents, the experience of positive emotions is indeed a protective factor shaping their mental health. Research has revealed that academic emotions affect students' physical and mental health (19). In addition, studies measuring emotional intelligence have found that academic emotions may affect students' mental health (20). ...
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Introduction Immigrant adolescents must adapt their physical and mental attitudes to attain healthy development due to dramatic changes in their living and learning environments after relocation. From the perspective of positive psychology, this study explored the specific influence of school adaptation on mental health among immigrant adolescents, mainly focusing on the mediating effects of positive academic emotions and conduct problems. Methods We selected primary and secondary school students from five relocated resettlement schools in Qianxinan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, which has the largest population of relocated people in Guizhou Province, China. Using cluster sampling, 550 relocated students in Grades 5–12 from the five schools were recruited to complete a battery of questionnaires, including the Immigrant Adolescents' School Adaptation Scale, the General Health Scale, and the Positive Academic Emotions Questionnaire, and the Adolescents' Behavioral Tendency Questionnaire. In addition, this study used the bias-corrected bootstrap method to explore the chain-mediating effect of positive academic emotions and conduct problems between school adaptation and mental health. Results The results showed that immigrant adolescents had significant gender differences only in conduct problems. However, significant learning stage differences existed in school adaptation, mental health, positive academic emotions, and conduct problems. School adaptation, positive academic emotions, and mental health were significantly positively correlated. In contrast, conduct problems were significantly negatively correlated with mental health. School adaptation influenced mental health through the mediation effects of positive academic emotions and conduct problems. These effects contained three paths: the separate mediation effects of positive academic emotions and conduct problems and the chain mediation effect of positive academic emotions and conduct problems.
... Along with the proficiency measures, we also employed a questionnaire to measure affective experiences related to the practice exercises. The instrument we selected is based on the well-known Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (Pekrun et al., 2002) which is now gaining attention in SLA research (e.g., Shao et al., 2019). In our adapted version of the questionnaire (see Figure 6), participants reported how frequently they felt an emotion (Diener et al., 2009) in response to the following prompt: ...
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Research into Automatic Exercise Generation (AEG) contributes new tools aimed at reducing the barrier to creating practice material, but few have been deployed in actual instruction with real learners. The present study extends previous work by employing AEG technology in instruction with L2 learners to evaluate its pedagogical effectiveness. Thirty-two second language learners of French were assigned to either a treatment condition, who practised with generated exercises, or a control condition that did no extra work. Both groups completed pre-, post-, and delayed post-tests. Participants in the treatment condition also completed questionnaires that elicited data on their in-practice emotions and the situations in which they arose. Our preliminary results suggest that AEG-based instruction can be pedagogically effective and support positive learning experiences, help to identify aspects of the instruction that could be improved, and suggest that a peer review mechanism could have an important role in future CALL platforms that use generated exercises.
... Emotions and motivation are two faces of a coin. They activate or deactivate each other and will direct the behaviours of learners (Turner et al., 2003;Pekrun et al., 2002). A double perspective of the cause-and-effect relationship (Scarantino and de Sousa, 2018; Chiew and Braver, 2011) is discovered between the emotion and motivation constructs from the three learning theories. ...
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The education model in the 21st century shall be learner-centered. Learners are expected to be independent to engage in self-directed learning with the integration of technological tools in developing necessary 21st century skills. However, the foundation of this education model shall not be neglected as positive emotion and motivation are the determinants of achieving the desired outcomes. The researcher applied a comparative review method to contrast the three learning theories, namely (1) humanistic theory (2) social constructivism theory, and (3) self-determination theory which are significant in the self-directed learning context. The inference of these theories on personal and social development, emotional stability, as well as the motivation of learners in the 21st century was also examined in this paper. The outcomes of this review paper benefit educators in the curriculum and pedagogy design, as well as aid researchers in understanding phenomena and formulating appropriate research frameworks for future studies. For understanding emotional stability and motivation among the 21st century learners, the researcher concluded that the humanistic aspect of learning shall not be compromised. Furthermore, the cause-and-effect of the emotion and motivation constructs deserves a more detailed empirical investigation.
... The Emotional Achievement Questionnaire (AEQ) is a multi-dimensional self-reporting tool designed to assess a college student's achievement sentiment and examine the emotions that students experience in the context of academic achievement [68], which can be used to assess and measure classroom-related, learning-related, and exam-related emotions, including enjoyment, hope, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, despair, and boredom. According to the cognitive, emotional, mental, physiological dimensions and academic activity time, the corresponding questions were extracted from the three scales of classroom anxiety, learning anxiety and test anxiety, respectively, for a total of 9 questions. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has an adverse effect on the physical health of societies and individuals. One important concern is the effect of social isolation on the mental health of undergraduates, such as academic anxiety, smartphone addiction and other social psychological problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations among undergraduates’ social isolation in this special context, social media use for obtaining information about the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., communicative and non-communicative), academic anxiety, and smartphone addiction. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June in 2022 and a total of 388 undergraduates were included. The results showed significant positive associations between social isolation and smartphone addiction and academic anxiety. Furthermore, academic anxiety played a mediating role in the effect of social isolation on smartphone addiction, which was moderated by non-communicative social media use. Some theoretical and practical implications as well as research limitations are discussed.
... In particolare, i numerosi aspetti del linguaggio non verbalecome la prosodia, il contatto visivo, le espressioni del viso, la gestualità, la postura e la prossemica (Bonaiuto & Maricchiolo, 2009)costituiscono fattori fondamentali per la riuscita del processo di insegnamento-apprendimento. Le emozioni trasmesse più o meno intenzionalmente dal docente contribuiscono alla strutturazione del concetto di sé da parte dello studente e possono essere determinanti per il suo successo o insuccesso scolastico 7 (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968;Pekrun et al., 2002;Bambaeeroo & Shokrpour, 2017). Inoltre, la relazione che il docente instaura con uno specifico gruppo classe può minare l'autostima o la fiducia che egli ripone nella propria attività professionale (Hagenauer, Hascher & Volet, 2015). ...
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Due to the increasing SARS-CoV-2 infections, teaching activities in Italian schools were suspended on 5 March 2020. Since then, ministerial decrees promoted a teaching-learning process, totally or partially computer-mediated, leading to significant changes in the relational and content dimension of the learning event. The mutual expectations between students and teachers (didactic contract) have changed, and the ideological and cultural messages that come with disciplinary teaching (hidden curriculum) have been enriched with new meanings, bringing different beliefs regarding technological innovations in education to the students. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in a Northern Italy high school aimed at observing these phenomena to understand the context surrounding distance and hybrid learning events
... Hope is one of the constructs that has been emphasized in positive education [4,5], but hope has been defined and studied in different ways in positive education. For example, hope has been studied as a positive prospective and activating emotion that activates students' attention, motivation, and self-regulatory processes related to learning [6,7]. Hope has also been defined as character strength that involves optimism and future-mindedness, and this is associated with students' life satisfaction and motivation [8,9]. ...
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Article
The positive education movement has called attention to the importance of student well-being and the role of positive constructs, such as hope, in the educational process. The external locus-of-hope dimensions, or positive cognitions about the role of external actors in the pursuit of important goals, positively predict student well-being, learning approaches, and achievement. However, external locus-of-hope dimensions were found to be associated with maladaptive coping styles among Asian students. In this study, we revisit this relationship between external locus-of-hope dimensions and coping among students, by focusing on collectivist coping strategies that are assumed to be more relevant to Asian students. A total of 780 university students from three Asian cities (Hong Kong, n = 295; Macau, n = 225; Manila, n = 260) were asked to complete a questionnaire on collectivist coping styles, internal and external locus-of-hope dimensions. Separate multiple regression analyses indicated that the coping style of acceptance/reframing/striving was mainly predicted by internal locus-of-hope in the three groups, but the coping styles of family support and religious coping were consistently predicted by external locus-of-hope dimensions in all three groups of students. The two other coping styles of avoidance/detachment and personal emotional outlets were also predicted by specific external locus-of-hope dimensions, but only in particular groups. The results are discussed in terms of how external locus-of-hope dimensions might evoke both adaptive and maladaptive coping among Asian students, which may be associated with primary and secondary control dimensions of the collectivist coping styles.
... Academic emotions refer to the various emotions of achievement that students experience in the school environment, particularly those associated with success or failure (Pekrun et al., 2002). Academic emotions can be divided into two dimensions: positive and negative (Pekrun et al., 2011). ...
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Introduction Teacher support is an important external factor that influences students academic self-efficacy, however, the mechanisms of the two factors are not yet fully explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether achievement goals and academic emotions could play a chain mediating role between perceived teacher support and academic self-efficacy. Methods The study sample was made up of 1,074 Chinese junior high school students, and three structural equation models were constructed using data collected from on questionnaires. Results The findings suggest that achievement goals and academic emotions can mediate the relationship between perceived teacher support and academic selfefficacy. Further analysis revealed that achievement goals and academic emotions may play a chain mediating role between perceived teacher support and academic selfefficacy. Discussion These findings provide reference points for further refinement of the mechanism of the role of perceived teacher support on academic self-efficacy. They also serve to remind the teacher on the front line to focus on how to provide adequate teacher support to students in the context of online education, especially with regard to students academic emotions.
... To develop the affective items of the questionnaire, we first turned to the CVT that employs the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) to assess students' academic emotions. 42,43 The AEQ was applied in multiple studies by different educational researchers; 44,45 however, after considering its application in this study, it was found to be unsuitable for several reasons: ...
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The setting of this study is a remote laboratory with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM is an advanced instrument used by scientists to characterize structures in the nanoscale. The remote SEM activity was structured to address different practices of laboratory inquiry. Secondary chemistry students were requested to prepare at home suitable samples for the SEM device, send the samples to a research institute, and operate the SEM device remotely to study their samples. The scientists and the science teacher supported the students, for example, by providing information on how the SEM works and how it is used in contemporary scientific research. A qualitative analysis of data collected during the activity and students' open-ended feedback in a postquestionnaire identified different inquiry practices according to acceptable science education standards. The "hands-on" practices (e.g., preparing SEM samples and collecting data) engaged the students more in the SEM activity than did the "minds-on" inquiry practices (e.g., analyzing and interpreting data). Students' emotions were also evaluated for the remote SEM setting and the school setting using a semantic differential emotions questionnaire (SDEQ). The paper describes the development of the SDEQ and its validation process. Addressing the emotional aspects and applying the SDEQ revealed that the remote SEM learning environment induces positive emotions for students; these emotions cannot be predicted by students' emotions in a school science setting. This shows the potential of the "emotions-on" aspect to shed new light on inquiry practices and support the inclusion of different students in developing laboratory skills.
... Second, it is well established that positive affect facilitates the learning processes. Because a positive emotion requires less cognitive resources than a negative one (Coffey, 2020;Pekrun et al., 2002), favorable attitudes toward writing may free up cognitive resources for the task. Moreover, positive emotions have been associated with more adaptative forms of cognitive engagement (Isen, 1999), which may benefit writing production. ...
Article
Research shows that writing motivation decreases throughout schooling and predicts writing performance. However, this evidence comes primarily from cross-sectional studies. Here, we adopted a longitudinal approach to (a) examine the development of attitudes toward writing, writing self-efficacy domains, and motives to write from Grade 6 to 7, and (b) test their longitudinal and concurrent contribution to the quality of opinion essay in Grade 7, after controlling for quality in Grade 6. For that, 112 Portuguese students completed motivation-related questionnaires and composed two opinion essays in Grade 6 and 1 year later, in Grade 7. Findings showed that, while attitudes and all motives to write declined, self-efficacy did not. Additionally, opinion essay quality in Grade 7 was associated with essay quality in Grade 6 as well as with self-efficacy for self-regulation and intrinsic motives in Grade 7. In other words, current motivational beliefs seem more important to students' writing quality than their past beliefs. This conclusion means that, in order to fostering students' writing performance, middle-grade teachers should nurture their positive beliefs about writing by placing a higher value on writing motivation in the classroom.
... Games, online learning, group learning, and participatory ecological learning were mentioned the least (n = 1 for each teaching method). The reason might be that teachers are sometimes not familiar with student-centred teaching [101,102]. The ability of the teacher to plan and execute effective lessons is essential for high-quality learning. ...
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Teaching and learning methods play an important role in promoting sustainability in tourism education. However, previous studies mainly focus on sustainability in tourism. This qualitative survey provides an overview of how sustainable development and tourism education are taught and learned in higher education institutions. It aims to support the selection of teaching and learning approaches and methods for educating sustainability-driven tourism at universities. The materials were selected based on keywords in tourism education. The study describes 32 articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2000 to 2022. The content of the articles was analyzed in detail using qualitative content analysis. Collaborative and interdisciplinary learning and case study teaching, alongside problem-based learning and experiential learning (outdoor learning), were utilized in 10 and 6 articles, respectively. Developing collaborative and interdisciplinary learning skills, developing systems thinking skills, developing experiential learning skills, and developing techniques for increasing environmental awareness were the key points of teaching and learning methods to promote sustainability in tourism education. Behavioral Change Wheel (BCW) in tourism should be implemented in school education to reach sustainable development goals and to support sustainable development.
... Hence, the psychological approach has been seen as reducing emotion to universal intra-personal feelings, disconnected from social and cultural contexts, and as decontextualizing the interpretation of emotion (e.g. Parkinson, 1995;Schutz & DeCuir, 2002). For its part, the sociological approach has been seen as tending to reduce emotion to words and meanings (Leavitt, 1996). ...
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The concept of agency has recently emerged as a fruitful construct in understanding organizational practices and development. However, agency has tended so far to be seen as a rational and goal-oriented phenomenon, with little attention paid to the role of emotions within it. There is thus a need for theoretical discussion on both agency and emotions in organizations, and also on how the two phenomena are related. This paper aims to introduce an elaborated conceptualization of emotional agency at work, based on recent theories on professional agency and emotions in organizational contexts. We suggest that emotional agency can be understood as the competence to perceive, understand, and take into account one’s own emotions and those of others, and further to influence emotions within organizational practices, actions, and interactions. Our paper provides an integrative definition of emotional agency at work (EAW), usable in future research. It also elaborates how emotional agency may function within organizations and their development practices.
... More importantly, self-assessment supports learners' well-being (Jahara et al., 2022). To implement self-assessment, learners should practice metacognitive skills (Wei, 2020), critical thinking (Zhang, 2022), reflective thinking (Davoudi & Heydarnejad, 2020), selfefficacy beliefs (Namaziandost & Çakmak, 2020), and academic emotion (Khajavy, 2021;Khajavy et al., 2020;Pekrun et al., 2002). In a recent attempt, Nemati et al. (2021) set forth a study to evaluate the role of self-assessment, peer assessment, and teacher assessment on writing strategy development among EFL learners. ...
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Learners’ personality traits and self-assessment have an essential role in their academic achievement and the well-being of society. Although L2 grit and the core of self-assessment (CSA) have attracted considerable attention in educational research, few studies have focused on the impact of L2 grit on boosting CSA and managing foreign language anxiety (FLA). Drawing upon this existing research gap, the present study set forth to test a structural model of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university learners’ L2 grit, CSA, and FLA. The language-domain-specific grit scale (LDSGS), the core of self-assessments questionnaire (CSAQ), and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) were administered to 418 Iranian EFL university learners. The findings of structural equation modeling (SEM) reflected the contributions of L2 grit and CSA to overcoming language learners’ experienced anxiety. Furthermore, the significant influence of EFL learners’ CSA on FLA was concluded. The implications of the findings are to raise learners’ awareness of their personality traits and self-assessment that can foster effective language instruction and assessment.
... Achievement emotions are the emotions directly related to learning activities and outcomes (Pekrun, 2006). According to the theorization of Pekrun (Pekrun, 2006;Pekrun et al., 2002Pekrun et al., , 2007, positive and negative achievement emotions should promote (or reduce if negative) the use of creative learning strategies, higher self-efficacy, mastery learning goals, and higher scholastic engagement, among FERACO Et Al. 2 K E Y W O R D S academic achievement, academic self-efficacy, adaptability, emotions, life satisfaction, self-regulated learning others. Achievement emotions, in such a conceptualization, should then directly and/or indirectly favour students' academic achievement (Huang, 2011;Mega et al., 2014;Pekrun et al., 2011;Putwain et al., 2020), as also highlighted by a recent meta-analysis (Camacho-Morles et al., 2021). ...
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Background: Adaptability regulates individuals' cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to new, unexpected and uncertain situations, but to date no study has analysed whether adaptability contemporarily favours cognitive, behavioural and emotional aspects of learning. Aims: This study aims to address this gap by examining (i) the direct relations between adaptability and achievement emotions, self-regulated learning strategies and academic self-efficacy and (ii) the direct and indirect relations between adaptability and academic achievement and life satisfaction through and over the other study-related factors. Sample: A total of 1083 students (415 males, M age = 13.37, SD age = 1.97, age range = 10-18) in grades 6-12 participated to the study. Method: Questionnaires were used to measure students' adaptability, positive and negative achievement emotions, self-regulated learning strategies, academic self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Schools provided grades obtained by each student at the end of the academic year. Results: A path analysis based on 1083 students (10-18 years old) confirmed that adaptability directly relates to the three study-related factors considered and to life satisfaction and indirectly relates to academic achievement and life satisfaction-through the mediation of the other variables. Conclusions: The results, discussed in accordance with the self-regulated learning theory, enlarge the nomological framework of adaptability and highlight its importance for emotional, behavioural and cognitive aspects of self-regulated learning.
... Together, ones' appraisals of control and value are theorized to give rise to achievement emotions such as enjoyment, anger, frustration, and boredom (Goetz et al., 2010;Pekrun et al., 2002). For example, a student who feels capable of success in a lab activity but does not value the task is likely to feel bored. ...
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Control-value theory suggests that students’ control and value appraisals mediate the relation between contextual supports and student emotions in formal learning settings; however, this theory has not been tested in informal learning contexts. Understanding mechanisms for instructional support in informal learning contexts can inform the design of effective instruction both in and out of school. This study tested control-value theory by examining whether youths’ momentary appraisals of control and value for activities mediate the relation between program quality indicators and state emotions in summer STEM programs focused on science, technology, engineering, and math for middle- and high-school youth. Participants were 203 youth attending nine summer STEM programs in the United States. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 16. Data were collected via the experience sampling method and video recordings. Trained coders reviewed video footage and coded for program quality. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that most program quality variables explored were not predictive of youths’ appraisals of control and value; however, state emotions did vary based on program quality. Youth reported lower boredom when active participation and higher order thinking were rated as high by trained observers. Youth also reported high excitement when activities involved high levels of higher order thinking. High appraisals of control were associated with high levels of happiness and excitement and low levels of frustration, whereas high appraisals of value predicted high levels of frustration. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... 5 It has been confirmed that metacognitive learning strategies have a main role in academic success, as shown by the theories and researches. [5][6][7][8][9][10] The purpose of the study was to determine students' metacognitive awareness level in different academic groups in physiology course and develop a guideline on that basis to provide an academic support. ...
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Background: Metacognition influences the academic performance of medical students. The objective of our study was to determine the metacognitive awareness level of medical students in different academic groups in physiology course and develop a guideline on that basis to provide academic support.Methods: A 52-items metacognitive awareness inventory (MAI) devised by Schraw and Dennison was used to assess the metacognition level of low (<70%), average (70-84%), and high performing (>85%) students in a physiology course at Trinity Medical Sciences University (TMSU).Results: Sixty-four students participated in the study. A significant positive correlation (rs=0.462) was found between the total MAI score and the final score in the physiology course. High performing students reported significantly higher score on declarative knowledge (p=0.001); procedural knowledge (p=0.048); implementation of strategies (p=0.003); correction (p=0.000) and evaluation of effectiveness (p=0.000) subscale than their low performing counterparts. Compared to average performing students, high performers were found significantly superior in terms of declarative knowledge (p=0.006), better planning (p=0.047), monitoring (p=0.008) and evaluation of effectiveness (0.004) of the learning process.Conclusions: Metacognitive awareness level has a significant impact on the academic performance of medical students in the physiology course. Low performers need to improve both declarative and procedural knowledge while average performers should augment their declarative knowledge. In terms of regulation of cognition, low performers should develop better implementation, correction, and evaluation skills while average performers should make better planning other than improving their monitoring and evaluating skills.
... In a previous study, Fredricks et al. (2004) stated that SRL significantly influenced the field of education. For example, SRL efficiently improves learning achievement (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990;Pekrun et al., 2002;Perry et al., 2007). Also, Kadioglu-Akbulut and Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci (2020) investigated the effectiveness of self-regulation instructions developed based on guided inquiry and reported increased student achievement. ...
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Since the COVID-19 outbreak, there has been a significant increase in the use of online technology at all levels of education. This study was intended to investigate how online self-regulated learning (SRL) effectively promotes students’ self-regulation in chemistry. The respondents in this study were 36 eleventh-grade students (15 males and 21 females) at a public high school in Indonesia in the 2020/2021 school year. In this quasi-experimental study, Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ) and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The results showed that students showed slightly higher self-regulation than the neutral point after the intervention. There was no significant difference between male and female students concerning self-regulation scores. The results of this study indicate that there is good interaction between students and between students and teachers during the learning process. This learning environment creates an interesting and fun atmosphere for students during the learning process. In the online SRL setting, students can design learning activities, set learning objectives and learn strategies that will be utilized. In addition, information obtained from various sources can help students construct their conceptual understanding. Thus, chemistry learning that involves students taking greater roles and responsibilities in the learning process can provide great opportunities for active participation. In short, students’ self-regulation improves with the teacher’s support as a facilitator in the online SRL setting.
... In addition, positive emotions are related to children's cognitive development and academic attainment. Research findings TRAINING PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION (Pekrun et al., 2002) suggest that students who express positive emotions at school have increased motivation and effort in the learning process, exhibit improved cognitive functioning such as meta-cognitive strategies, critical thinking, creativity and concept elaboration and have better academic performance. ...
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Silva, B., Craveiro, C., Pinheiro, A. & Medeiros, P. (Org.). (2022). Training Perspectives and Experiences in Early Childhood Education. ESEPF.
... This organization pertains to the idea that emotions are context-dependent, that is, the experience of an emotion depends on whether students attend mathematics classes (class context), learn mathematics by themselves (learning context), or take tests in mathematics (test context). For instance, students might enjoy learning mathematics by themselves (i.e., high levels of learning-related enjoyment) more than attending mathematics classes and taking tests (i.e., low levels of class-and test-related enjoyment; Pekrun et al., 2002). Providing tentative support for this assumption about the internal structure of the AEQ-M, achievement emotions have been empirically shown to be organized within these contexts in research using the domain-general AEQ (Pekrun et al., 2011). ...
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Understanding the structure, antecedents, and outcomes of students’ emotions has become a topic of major interest in research on mathematics education. Much of this work is based on the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire—Mathematics (AEQ-M), a self-report instrument assessing students’ mathematics-related emotions. The AEQ-M measures seven emotions (enjoyment, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, boredom) across class, learning, and test contexts (internal structure). Based on control-value theory, it is assumed that these emotions are evoked by control and value appraisals, and that they influence students’ motivation, learning strategies, and performance (external relations). Despite the popularity and frequent use of the AEQ-M, the research leading to its development has never been published, creating uncertainty about the validity of the proposed internal structure and external relations. We close this gap in Study 1 ( N = 781 students, Grades 5–10, mean age 14.1 years, 53.5% female) by demonstrating that emotions are organized across contexts and linked to their proposed antecedents and outcomes. Study 2 ( N = 699 students, Grade 7 and 9, mean age 14.0 years, 56.9% female) addresses another deficit in research on the AEQ-M, the lack of evidence regarding the assumption that emotions represent sets of interrelated affective, cognitive, motivational, and physiological/expressive components. We close this gap by evaluating extended AEQ-M scales, systematically assessing these components for five core mathematics emotions (enjoyment, anger, anxiety, hopelessness, boredom). Our work provides solid grounds for future research using the AEQ-M to assess emotions and their components in the domain of mathematics.
Article
One-to-one online tutoring provided by human tutors can improve students’ learning outcomes. However, monitoring the quality of such tutoring is a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a learning analytics approach to monitoring online one-to-one tutoring quality. The approach analyzes teacher behaviours and classifies tutoring sessions into those that are effective and those that are not effective. More specifically, we use sequential behaviour pattern mining to analyze tutoring sessions using the CM-SPAM algorithm and classify tutoring sessions into effective and less effective using the J-48 and JRIP decision tree classifiers. To show the feasibility of the approach, we analyzed data from 2,250 minutes of online one-to-one primary math tutoring sessions with 44 tutors from eight schools. The results showed that the approach can classify tutors’ effectiveness with high accuracy (F measures of 0.89 and 0.98 were achieved). The results also showed that effective tutors present significantly more frequent hint provision and proactive planning behaviours than their less-effective colleagues in these online one-to-one sessions. Furthermore, effective tutors sequence their monitoring actions with appropriate pauses and initiations of students’ self-correction behaviours. We conclude that the proposed approach is feasible for monitoring the quality of online one-to-one primary math tutoring sessions.
Chapter
This chapter provides a general theoretical overview of those affective ID variables and of the affective aspects of those primarily not affective variables that will be examined in the empirical studies later in the book: emotions, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs. Besides, it contains a section on flow, since the flow experience will also be investigated in connection with the writing tasks. As can be seen from the discussion of the various ID constructs and the flow state, affective determinants are present in all of them, even if the variable itself is not categorized as primarily affective (e.g. self-efficacy beliefs), which shows that these oft-neglected affective aspects are omnipresent, making the study of affective aspects of language learning a worthwhile and urgent undertaking.
Article
Math anxiety as a mental and even physiological condition that occurs when confronted with math problems may be associated with a negative attitude towards math and difficulties in performing math activities. It manifests itself as an emotional response to a perceived threat in the form of mathematical stimuli, resulting in a state comparable to that experienced in the other forms of anxiety disorders. Over the last years, math anxiety as an issue in education attracts increased attention from both educators and researchers, emphasizing the importance of emotions in the learning process. This review article presents a literature study that aims to provide an overview of the research of the field, ranging from the initial studies of the concept of math anxiety to the latest research exploring the mechanisms of manifestation of math anxiety in the example of studies of brain activity under mathematical stimuli. Moreover, the review describes the most studied family, school, and social factors that have been claimed to play an important role in the origin of math anxiety, also the tools used to measure the level of math anxiety in different age groups. Finally, it examines the main proposed explanations of the relations between math anxiety and students’ math achievement.
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Background Academic procrastination has become more prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic due to teaching/learning changes. This phenomenon induces academic burnout, which is already serious among medical students. However, the academic emotion, which is the factor most vulnerable to changes in the academic environment, is still unknown. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the mediating role of general academic emotions in procrastination and burnout among Chinese medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 995 medical students from China Medical University. We applied the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), the Aitken Procrastination Inventory (API) and the General Academic Emotion Questionnaire for College Students (GAEQ) to evaluate the variables of interest. We examined the mediation effects of GAEs by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results Correlation analyses showed a significant positive correlation between procrastination and burnout. Procrastination and burnout positively and negatively correlated with negative academic emotions, respectively. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that procrastination had positive associations with negative academic emotions, while it had negative associations with positive academic emotions. The contributions (as mediators) of GAEs to burnout and procrastination were 21.16% (NAEs), 29.75% (PAEs), 54.25% (NDEs) and 23.69% (PDEs). Conclusions The results indicate that academic emotions had mediating effects on procrastination and burnout. Medical students' worries about the uncertainty of the learning environment may have exacerbated academic burnout. Targeted improvements in the teaching environment to communicate encouragement and reduce anxiety and helplessness among medical undergraduates for implementing medical education while preventing and controlling the infection.
Article
Employing a mixed methods approach, this study investigated the mediating effect of negative emotion intensity on the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in an L2 learning context. Questionnaires were administered among 391 EFL learners to measure their trait EI, English learning-related negative emotion intensity, and the selection of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. The mediation analysis revealed that negative emotion intensity mediated the relationship between trait EI and cognitive reappraisal. However, the mediating effect of negative emotion intensity was not significant on the relationship between trait EI and expressive suppression. Semi-structured interviews revealed factors that explained the trait EI – negative emotion intensity – cognitive reappraisal nexus, including available cognitive resources and learning engagement. Pedagogical implications were provided to enhance the learners' selection of cognitive reappraisal and decrease their tendency to use expressive suppression.
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Η εμπλοκή των γονέων στη σχολική εργασία των παιδιών στο σπίτι λαμβάνει ποικιλία μορφών με διακριτά ποιοτικά χαρακτηριστικά. Το παρόν άρθρο πραγματεύεται το ρόλο της ποιότητας της γονεϊκής εμπλοκής, τους παράγοντες πρόγνωσης υιοθέτησης συγκεκριμένων μορφών εμπλοκής και τα μαθησιακά αποτελέσματά τους για τα παιδιά. Σύμφωνα με τη σχετική βιβλιογραφία, οι πεποιθήσεις κινήτρων των γονέων, οι πεποιθήσεις τους για την αποτελεσματικότητα των ίδιων και των παιδιών τους και τα συναισθήματά τους προβλέπουν την υιοθέτηση εναλλακτικών μορφών γονεϊκής εμπλοκής με διαφορετικές συνέπειες στις θυμικές διεργασίες μάθησης και στη σχολική επίδοση των παιδιών. Ειδικότερα, η προαγωγή της αυτονομίας και η παροχή διακριτικής στήριξης στις προκλήσεις της σχολικής εργασίας, έναντι της χρήσης ελεγκτικών πρακτικών εμπλοκής, συμβάλλουν στην ανάπτυξη κινήτρων για μάθηση, υψηλών πεποιθήσεων ακαδημαϊκής ικανότητας/επάρκειας, θετικών συναισθημάτων, λειτουργικών μαθησιακών συμπεριφορών και σε θετικά ακαδημαϊκά επιτεύγματα των παιδιών. Η ανάδειξη μέσα από τη συγκεκριμένη βιβλιογραφική επισκόπηση των σύνθετων σχέσεων μεταξύ του πλήθους των μεταβλητών γονέων και παιδιών στο πεδίο της κατ’ οίκον σχολικής εργασίας καταλήγει στη διατύπωση προτάσεων μελλοντικής έρευνας και πρακτικής εφαρμογής με σκοπό την προαγωγή της μάθησης και της σχολικής επίτευξης των παιδιών.
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Research shows that teaching can be emotionally demanding and can result in stress and anxiety prompting reduced motivation and attrition. These experiences may be exacerbated in Physical Education (PE) teaching as this position holds a marginal status in most school settings. Teacher emotions are suggested for investigation to understand teacher experiences as they are integral in understanding teaching beliefs, practices, well-being and student-teacher relationships. In addition, emotions are used to express teaching experiences which serves as a starting point for dissecting what caused a teachers’ emotions and what was the resulting action. The purpose of this study was to explore how PE teachers interpret their emotions while teaching and what internal and external factors may impact their perceived ability to control and cope with their positive and negative emotional situations. A cross-sectional qualitative design was used to gain in-depth understanding of current secondary in-service PE teachers (N=10; 5=Female, 5=Male; 50% Middle School; 50% High School). Semi-structed interviews and scenario-based questioning were used to explore tenants of emotions, guided by the Appraisal Theory, which included participants describing cause and effect of each emotion. Inductive and deductive qualitative analysis resulted in two themes: positive and negative emotion experiences with subthemes. Subthemes described with positive emotions included student learning and relationships, program development and maintenance, and colleague relationships. Negative emotions included marginalization of the subject, student behavior, and shame driven reactions. In conclusion, appraisals are highly aligned with teacher emotions and interconnection exists between teaching ability, psychosocial beliefs/experiences, and the emotions teachers feel. Teaching behaviors and well-being are likely dictated by this relationship.
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The present study examined the content and construct validity, and internal consistency of the Academic Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (AERQ) in the Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context. The original scale was translated and back-translated between English and Persian. The content validity ratio (CVR), and content validity index (CVI) were then measured by a panel of 14 expert judges. The internal consistency coefficients of the scale were estimated by piloting it with 60 Iranian EFL learners. The results of the Cronbach's alpha showed a satisfactory level of reliability. The AERQ was then administered to 346 English language learners (Mage = 19.34, SDage = 4.951). To explore the factorial structure of the 37 items of the questionnaire, an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted. In addition, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was run to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the AERQ's measurement model. The results obtained from the modified measurement model showed an adequate fit of the data. In the modified version, two items (i.e., one item from suppression, and one from redirection of attention) were omitted due to low standardized loadings (< .50). The model fit indices also provided a reasonable model fit for the structural model. The internal consistency coefficients for the constructs were higher than the minimum value (α = .70). Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
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Students in higher education experience a range of academic emotions, from enjoyment or boredom in learning, to fear of failure or optimism about high stakes assessments. While there is general consensus regarding the importance of academic emotions, reflected in the increased emphasis on social and emotional learning, and advocacy for the inclusion of learning experiences that foster relevant competences – there remains the need to further understand the role of academic emotions in higher education. This paper explores the role of emotion in a university-based global citizenship education (GCE) intervention. Focus groups were conducted with 36 pre-service teachers across six teacher education programmes that explored participants’ understandings and experiences of GCE. Findings suggest marginally more naturally-occurring mentions of negative emotions and affect states compared to positive, with more of these relating to students’ responses to epistemic awareness of humanitarian issues, than to pedagogy. Some implications for practice are considered.
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Boredom poses a fascinating riddle: Although it is a ubiquitous experience, lay people and researchers often struggle with expressing what boredom actually is, and how it should be differentiated from related or opposite psychological phenomena. In this chapter, we address this riddle in two parts. First, we define boredom and its function. We propose that boredom is a state of inadequate function utilization that occurs when reward prediction error has been minimized. Boredom's suggested evolutionary function is to drive exploration. Boredom is therefore understood to have a critical role for the effective regulation of behavior. Second, we differentiate boredom from a host of emotions and states it has frequently been likened to (or even been equated with), such as depression, amotivation, apathy or boredom being the polar opposite of flow.
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Introduction: The purpoe of this study was to study of the effectiveness of training program based on cognitive behavior approach on academic emotions for students with academic self-defeating behaviors in Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Methods: The research method was semi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population consisted of the students of Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan in the academic year of 2016-2017, the sample consisted of 40 students with self-defeating behaviors selected by cluster sampling and randomly assigned to experimental (20 individuals) and control groups (20 individuals) of the sample individuals, two experimental groups leave the program after three sessions. The instruments used in this study were Cunningham Self-defeating Inventory (SDBC), Pekrun Academic Emotions (AEQ), and A training program based on Cognitive Behavior approach. To analyze the data due to the non-observance of the homogeneity assumption of variance of covariance, multivariate analysis of variance analysis was used on the differential pretest-posttest scores. Results: Findings showed that training program based on cognitive-behavior approach has been effective in increasing the positive emotion and reducing negative in self-defeating students (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the cognitive-behavioral program by teaching skills such as knowing thoughts and negative emotions, and controlling and recognitive them, as well as skills such as problem solving and time management, can reduce negative emotions and increase positive academic emotions in students with Self-defeating behaviors.
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This study was conducted with the aim of testing the causal relation among task value, cognitive engagement, achievement emotions, academic self-regulation, and mathematics achievement. For this, 560 students (267 boys and 293 girls) were chosen from the high school 3rd graders who studied mathematics in high schools of Tehran by multistage clustering sampling and answered the task value subscale questionnaire (Pintrich and DeGroot, 1991), Cognitive Involvement Scale (revised (2F-R-LPQ)) (KamberBigs and Liong, 2004), Pre-exam Development Scale (AEQ) (Pekran, Quitz, Teets and Perry,2005) and achievement Self- regulation Scale (Pintrich and DeGroot, 1990). The results of structural equation analysis with use of experimental data showed that academic achievement is influenced directly and indirectly by predictor variables such as task value, cognitive engagement, academic achievement emotions and academic self- regulation. The results of this study show that all the indices except for AGFI were reported highly satisfying and the model fits the data well and this points to the linear relation between latent variables and structures. Consequently, the general hypothesis of the study which is “the preconceived pattern of causal relation between task value and academic achievement with the mediation of cognitive engagement, academic achievement emotions and academic self-regulation fits the data patterns” was confirmed.
Article
Implicit theories about the malleability of various personal attributes have been linked to successful self-regulation in several domains (e.g., abilities and emotions). The current study extends these findings to achievement motivation in the context of self-regulated learning. Two surveys (N = 376 and N = 365) revealed an overall tendency of university students to believe that both intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of their motivation are malleable. Stronger incremental theories about motivation were associated with increased motivation regulation strategy use and effort expenditure via stronger self-efficacy for motivation regulation beyond implicit theories about other domains. This indicates the value of a domain-specific consideration of the impact of implicit theories and individual dispositions on the motivation regulation process. Both implicit theories about motivation and self-efficacy beliefs for motivation regulation may therefore represent target variables in trainings of motivation regulation.
Chapter
With the rapid development of the Internet, online learning has become one of the main ways of acquiring knowledge. In order to make teachers understand students’ emotional states and adjust teaching programs on time, a new video-based model called the Wild Facial Spatiotemporal Network (WFSTN) is proposed in this paper for emotion recognition in online learning environments. The model consists of two modules: a pretrained DenseNet121 for extracting facial spatial features, and a Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) network with self-attention for generating attentional hidden states. In addition, a dataset of student emotions in online learning environments (DSEOLE) is produced using a self-developed online educational aid system. The method is evaluated on the Acted Facial Expressions in the Wild (AFEW) and DSEOLE datasets, achieving 72.76% and 73.67% accuracy in three-class classification, respectively. The results show that the proposed method outperforms many existing works on emotion recognition for online education.KeywordsOnline learningEmotion recognitionFacial spatiotemporal informationBi-LSTMSelf-attention
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In this study, it is aimed to conduct a validity and reliability study by adapting the general subscale of teacher emotion scales developed by Frenzel et al. (2016) according to the process of teaching with technology.159 teachers working in preschool , primary and secondary education institutions participated in the study. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, one item was removed from the factors of enjoyment, anger and anxiety, and it was concluded that the three-factor and nine-item structure was confirmed. In addition, sufficient results regarding convergent and discriminant validity were obtained. Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as 0.861 for enjoyment factor, 0.808 for anger and 0.791 for anxiety. As a result, sufficient findings were obtained regarding the validity and reliability of the measurement tool. The survey adapted in this study can be used by researchers studying on technology integration.
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The vast majority of previous research about emotions in scientific education primarily focuses on students, teaching quality, or classroom environment. Therefore, less attention is paid to the motives and affective experiences of teachers. This study has the purpose to analyze the relationship between emotions, such as enjoyment, anger, and anxiety and variables associated with science teaching in Chilean in-service teachers. The studied variables are: motivation for teaching career (intrinsic career value, value of working with students, and previous teaching and learning experience); professional attitudes towards science teaching (relevance and difficulty of science teaching); teacher self-efficacy (self-efficacy in teaching strategies, self-efficacy in classroom management and self-efficacy in the students' engagement), and satisfaction with career choice. Following a quantitative approach with a correlational design, an analysis is carried out based on information collected through a self- report questionnaire from 430 Chilean teachers from three educational levels: preschool, primary, and secondary education. The data was analyzed by linear regressions. Among the conclusions, it is emphasized that the variables intrinsic career value and value of working with students (both associated with the reasons for choosing teaching as a career) are important predictors of enjoyment and protectors of negative emotions, such as anger and anxiety. The findings confirm the expectancy-value theory (EVT) (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000), as expectancies and values about motivation for the teaching career and expectancies of teacher's self-efficacy predict teacher’s emotions. These also confirm the reciprocal model of causes and effects proposed by Frenzel et al. (See Frenzel, 2014; Frenzel et al., 2009, Pekrun, Muis, Frenzel & Goetz, 2017), as teachers' emotions are related to self-efficacy, which - 20 - Influencia de las emociones en la enseñanza de las ciencias en profesorado en ejercicio manifests in three dimensions: self-efficacy in instructional strategies, self-efficacy in classroom management, and self-efficacy in students' engagement. These findings also partially confirmed previous research, as teachers who are motivated by the teaching career show more enjoyment, and less anger and anxiety. Moreover, teachers who felt that science teaching was relevant showed more enjoyment, and less anger and anxiety. Therefore, there is a positive correlation with enjoyment and a negative correlation with anger and anxiety with the perception of self-efficacy. It partially confirms a positive correlation with enjoyment and a negative correlation with anger and anxiety with satisfaction with the choice of teaching as a career. One of the main practical implications of the research is that it should improve the emotions of in-service teachers. In this sense, actions must be taken to protect teachers from negative emotions and encourage positive emotions, such as promote intrinsic value of teaching career, value of working with students, and teacher's self-efficacy. Hence, emphasize the different effects of some variables, such as intrinsic value of teaching career and value of working with students, which have a multiple effect by increasing teachers’ enjoyment and reducing their anger and anxiety. These actions must already start in the initial training and subsequently continue during in-service training of teachers. Consequently, teacher trainers and education institutions must promote teachers’ self-efficacy in science teaching. In any case, our knowledge about the factors that influence on teachers’ emotions as antecedents is still limited; therefore, more research is needed in this field.
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In this paper we review recent research on the topic of feedback and introduce our revised Student-Feedback Interaction model that describes how feedback, offered in a variety of instructional situations, may relate to how learners respond and interact with it. We describe the context of feedback, its source, characteristics of the message and learner, and focus on student processing, along with the outcomes of performance and learning. We propose that three main questions describe student processing of feedback: Do I understand the feedback? How do I feel about the feedback? What am I going to do with the feedback? By answering these three questions, a learner generates self- or inner feedback, and this step is critical in any productive response to external feedback. We also discuss ways in which this model can be useful for scholars and educators.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı Frenzel vd. (2016) tarafından geliştirilmiş olan öğretmen duyguları anketinin, öğretmenlerin teknoloji ile öğretim yapmaya ilişkin duygularının ölçülmesi için uyarlanarak geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasının yapılmasıdır. Çalışmaya okul öncesi, ilk ve orta öğretim kurumlarında görev yapan 159 öğretmen katılmıştır. Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda keyif, öfke ve kaygı faktölerinden birer madde çıkartılarak üç faktörlü ve dokuz maddeli yapının doğrulandığına ilişkin bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca, yakınsama ve ıraksama geçerliğine ilişkin yeterli sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Cronbach’s alfa iç tutarlılık katsayısı keyif faktörü için 0.861, öfke için 0.808 ve kaygı için 0.791 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Uyarlanmış olan bu anket teknoloji entegrasyonu konusunda çalışan araştırmacılar tarafından kullanılabilir.
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Bu çalışma sınıf dışı bir öğrenme ortamı olan müzede, ilkokul 4.sınıf programındaki "Milli Kültürümüz" konusunun etkinliklerle işlenmesinin öğrencilerin öğrenme üzerindeki yansımaları ve duyusal yansımalarını incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışma, 2018-2019 eğitim öğretim yılında Şanlıurfa'da bir ilkokulun 4.sınıfında 50 öğrenci ile yapılmıştır. Veriler, nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden temel nitel araştırma yöntemiyle toplanmıştır. Hazırlanmış olan açık uçlu görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Süreç başında, ortasında ve sonunda uygulanarak veriler toplanmıştır. Araştırmada uygulama süreci Şanlıurfa'daki kent müzesinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Katılımcı grubun seçiminde tipik örnekleme yöntemine başvurulmuştur. Araştırma sırasında Yaratıcı drama tekniğinden yararlanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde betimsel analiz yapılmıştır. Yapılan bu çalışma neticesinde öğrencilerin okul dışı öğrenme ortamında programdaki konuyu daha iyi kavradığı, öğrenirken daha mutlu olduğu, Milli Eğitimin programında kazanımın kazandırılması için belirlenen saatten daha az sürede kent müzesinde işlenebileceği görülmüştür. Elde edilen bu bulgular neticesinde sosyal bilgiler dersinin diğer konularının da okul dışı öğrenme ortamlarından yararlanarak işlenebileceği ve bu sayede öğrencilerin derse olan ilgi tutum ve güdülenmelerinin artacağı kanısına varılmıştır.
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Although teacher enjoyment has been positively related to teacher well-being and performance, little is known about the combination of perspectives and experiences that contribute to it. This study uses Q methodology to identify, characterise and compare divergent viewpoints of tertiary-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers regarding enjoyment within their professional context. A Q sort of 44 statements reflecting enjoyment in foreign language teachers was administered to 40 participants. By-person factor analysis was conducted to identify common patterns across the Q sorts. Three viewpoints emerged, namely classroom engagement , career value and social interaction . The narratives show that the unique composites of experiences within these viewpoints characterise enjoyment for each group of EFL teachers. To boost or recover their enjoyment, EFL teachers are advised to clearly communicate their expectations for student behaviour, use positive reinforcement when teaching, seek opportunities for professional growth, establish career goals and embrace opportunities for collaboration.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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This research examined the effects of happiness, anger, and sadness on participants' memory for different types of information in a narrative. Happiness and negative emotions were evoked in undergraduates (N= 263) by randomly assigning grades of "A" or "D" on a surprise quiz. Immediately afterwards, subjects participated in what they believed to be an unrelated study during which they heard and recalled a narrative and described their emotional state. Participants in the positive emotion condition recalled more of the narrative as a whole than did participants in the negative emotion condition. Analyses based on self-reported emotions indicated that happiness had a general facilitative effect on recall, whereas anger and sadness were associated with enhanced recall of information concerning goals and outcomes respectively. These findings indicate that specific emotions differ in their effects on memory and that negative emotions may facilitate selective encoding of functional information.
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This paper reports on a new self-report, Likert-scaled instrument that was designed to assess motivation and use of learning strategies by college students. The motivation scales tap into three broad areas: (1) value (intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation, task value), (2) expectancy (control beliefs about learning, self-efficacy); and (3) affect (test anxiety). The learning strategies section is comprised of nine scales which can be distinguished as cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management strategies. The cognitive strategies scales include (a) rehearsal, (b) elaboration, (c) organization, and (d) critical thinking. Metacognitive strategies are assessed by one large scale that includes planning, monitoring, and regulating strategies. Resource management strategies include (a) managing time and study environment; (b) effort management, (c) peer learning, and (d) help-seeking. Scale reliabilities are robust, and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated good factor structure. In addition, the instrument shows reasonable predictive validity to the actual course performance of students.
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The effects of experimentally induced emotions on task-related processing resources were investigated in two studies designed as dual-task-like paradigms. In Experiment 1, 24 participants viewed a series of affective pictures inducing positive, negative, and neutral emotional states. In Experiment 2, 24 participants imagined emotionally laden life events. Simultaneously to the emotion-inducing procedure, and during a neutral single-task condition, the participants performed auditory oddball discrimination tasks. In this paradigm, the amplitude of the oddball-evoked P3 component of the event-related brain potential reflects the allocation of processing resources to task-related processes. In both studies, the P3 amplitude was smaller in the negative as well as in the positive emotional condition, compared to the two neutral conditions. The results support the assumption that negative emotions get a higher processing priority and can drain on task-related processing resources. In addition, they extend the hypothesis to the effects of positive emotions.
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In order to move toward a more accurate, complete, and integrative theory of the causes of emotions, empirical evidence relevant to a recently proposed appraisal theory was examined, and hypotheses from several alternative appraisal theories were compared and tested. Given questions that focused on the cognitive causes of emotions rather than their phenomenological contents, 182 subjects rated the appraisal determinants of emotion experiences that they recalled. Results suggest that appraisals of unexpectedness (not unexpected/unexpected), situational state (motive-inconsistent/motiveconsistent), motivational state (aversive/appetitive), probability (uncertain/ certain), control potential (low/high), problem source (non-characterological/characterological factors), and agency (circumstances/other person/self), differentiate a large number of widely-discussed emotions. These results are used to formulate a revised, empirically grounded, and more comprehensive model that specifies which appraisals cause 17 different emotions.
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Lifelong, self-regulated learning has been a topic of considerable interest in educational psychology. However, one area of self-regulation that has received less attention is the process of regulating emotions. The goal of this article is to explicate a model of self-regulation that incorporates recent theory and research on emotions and emotional regulation. From the perspective presented, emotions and our regulation of them are directly involved in self-regulation and, therefore, need to play a more important role in current research and theory on the nature of goal-directed, lifelong, self-regulated learning. A general model of self-regulation is described, followed by a discussion of current views about the nature of emotional regulation during test taking. This is followed by a discussion of research during the phases of test taking. Finally, conclusions and areas for future research are discussed.
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Attributional retraining is a therapeutic method for reinstating psychological control that may be useful for improving students' achievement in the college classroom. After attributional retraining or no training, internal- and external-locus students observed a videotaped lecture presented by either a low- or a high-expressive instructor in a simulated college classroom. One week later they wrote a test on the lecture and on a homework assignment. Attributional retraining improved external, but not internal, students' performance on both the lecture and homework tests. Expressive instruction also enhanced lecture- and homework-related achievement in external students but not in internal students. These results suggest that cognitive factors influencing students' perceived control (e.g., internal/external locus) must be taken into consideration when remedial interventions for academic achievement are developed. The results are interpreted within a social cognition framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We used structural modeling procedures to assess the influence of past math grades, math ability perceptions, performance expectancies, and value perceptions on the level of math anxiety reported in a sample of 7th- through 9th-grade students ( N = 250). A second set of analyses examined the relative influence of these performance, self-perception, and affect variables on students' subsequent grades and course enrollment intentions in mathematics. The findings indicated that math anxiety was most directly related to students' math ability perceptions, performance expectancies, and value perceptions. Students' performance expectancies predicted subsequent math grades, whereas their value perceptions predicted course enrollment intentions. Math anxiety did not have significant direct effects on either grades or intentions. The findings also suggested that the pattern of relations are similar for boys and girls. The results are discussed in relation to expectancy-value and self-efficacy theories of academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated expectancy–value predictors for experiencing shame from test feedback and the possible consequences of these shame reactions. Those who experienced shame included a broader range of students than previously thought, including some high achievers who had high self-perceptions of competence. Main expectancy–value predictors of shame were lower self-efficacy ratings and higher intrinsic as well as extrinsic goal orientations. Also, although having important future goals for which the course had instrumental value was not predictive of inducing shame, such goals appeared to exert influence on whether a person would be resilient from a shame reaction with increased motivation, motivated behavior, and higher academic exam scores. If students believe they have the capabilities and are committed to a clear future goal for which the course grade or course information is relevant, then a shame reaction may be a warning signal that current actions are not in line with future goal attainment. For these students, a personal evaluation of goal commitment may result in increased motivated behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recent developments in control theory suggest that causal attributions are instrumental to the regulation of control and to achievement behavior. This process is relevant to college classroom settings in which academic failure repeatedly threatens students with loss of control. Three causal attributions were examined in relation to perceived performance and the quality of instruction. Following failure feedback attributed to ability, effort, or test difficulty, university students ( N = 223) observed a half-hour videotaped lecture presented by either a low or a high expressive instructor. The three causal attributions affected postlecture control and achievement, depending on the quality of instruction and on students' interpretation (distortion, nondistortion) of the failure feedback prior to the lecture. When instruction was poor, the effort attribution generated the best achievement in those students who distorted failure as success. In contrast, ability produced the best achievement, and effort, the most control, in nondistortion students. When instruction was good, the causal attributions produced less variability in achievement and control, although ability continued to facilitate achievement in nondistortion students. One of the benefits of good teaching appears to be that it compensates to some extent for the deleterious effects of some causal attributions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A naturalistic study tested a model depicting how perceived control functions to regulate and interpret children's cognitive performances. Data, collected daily in the classroom over 4 mo, were organized around children's cognitive performances (graded assignments). For each homework and test, children provided information about effort, performance, attributions (effort, ability, concentration/help, task difficulty, and unknown causes), and expected control. The data formed a sequence of beliefs–performance–beliefs "loops" for each child. Although data at the interindividual level were consistent with the model, intraindividual data revised each link; furthermore, exploratory multivariate time-series analyses suggested that different models may best fit single Ss. Intraindividual implications included adding mediators to the model and designing interventions to fit individual children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A contradiction to the typical pattern of academic success occurs when bright, enthusiastic high school students fail after entering university. Two measures, perceived academic control and action control (i.e., preoccupation with failure) were administered to 524 college students at the beginning of a 2-semester course. Achievement-related cognitions, emotions, motivation, and final grades were measured at the end of the course. High-academic-control students exerted more effort, reported less boredom and anxiety, were more motivated, used self-monitoring strategies more often, felt more in control of their course assignments and of life in general, believed they performed better, and obtained higher final grades. Failure-preoccupied students received higher final grades, which corroborated their self-reported performance. Of note, high-control, high-failure-preoccupied students outperformed the other 3 groups by 1 to 2 letter grades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Chapter
recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors investigated the self-reported relationships among 5th- and 6th-grade students' achievement goals in mathematics, their negative affect about making mistakes, and their self-regulatory beliefs and behaviors. Cluster analysis revealed 4 motivational-affective patterns. Two groups were characterized by positive motivational-affective patterns and 2 suggested more problematic patterns related to different goal patterns, negative affect, and less positive self-regulatory behaviors and beliefs. Path analyses showed that negative affect after failure mediated performance goals and self-regulatory beliefs and behaviors. The authors propose a theory of achievement goals and affect that explains why students differ in their ability to tolerate error during learning. They also discuss practical and theoretical implications of the role of negative affect in achievement motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cet article esquisse les grandes lignes d'une modélisation de l'influence des émotions sur la formation et la réussite des étudiants. De tels effets ont été abordés empiriquement pour ce qui est de l'anxiété due au testing et de l'état d'esprit positif ou négatif. On peut soutenir que bien d'autres émotions agissent sur la performance. L'élaboration d'hypothèses sur ce genre d'influences présuppose qu'elles doivent être médiatisées a) par des mécanismes cognitifs de stockage, de traitement et de restitution de l'information; par l'impact de l'émotion sur l'attention et b) par les motivations intrinsèques et extrinsèques liées au travail universitaire. On fait l'hypothèse que les effets globaux des émotions dépendent de l'intéraction de différents mécanismes. Les effets nets des émotions positives sont supposés être positifs dans la plupart des cas tandis que les effets bruts des émotions négatives peuvent être ambivalents. Les principales retombées sur la recherche en psychologie appliquée sont décrites. This paper outlines assumptions of a model on how emotions influence students' learning and achievement. Such effects have been studied empirically for test anxiety, and for positive vs. negative mood. It may be assumed, however, that many other emotions exert effects on performance as well. Assumptions on such influences imply that they may be mediated: (1) by cognitive mechanisms of storage and retrieval of information, of processing information, and of emotion's attentional demands; and (2) by motivational mechanisms of intrinsic and extrinsic academic task motivation. The overall effects of emotions are hypothesised to depend on the interplay of different mechanisms. The net effects of positive emotions are assumed to be positive in most cases, whereas overall effects of negative emotions may be ambivalent. General implications for applied psychological research are described.
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Academic performance in higher education ultimately involves a complex interplay of student attributes and the educational environment. Although instruction is regarded as the major environmental factor affecting scholastic success, other factors can become more important when teaching does not produce the desired results. Attributional retraining is one alternative that shows considerable promise for enhancing students'' motivation and achievement striving by changing how students think about their successes and failures. This paper reviews attributional retraining studies published since 1985 having a higher education focus. Their conceptual and methodological strengths and weaknesses are discussed in relation to Weiner''s attribution theory. Within this context, attributional retraining is presented as a potentially viable and important intervention for improving college students'' academic development, especially those students deemed to be at risk. In particular, attributional retraining is considered as an adjunct to, and possible aspect of, effective teaching.
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Although researchers have begun to examine how perceptions of academic performance affect college students' achievement striving, little is known about these linkages in different instruction settings. Students' explanatory schemas, for example, may act as buffers against the deleterious effects of poor-quality instruction. As well, effective instruction may serve to compensate for other schemas that predispose students to failure. Three causal schema groups were created by informing students that their performance on a prelecture test was due to either ability, effort, or test difficulty. Students then observed a videotaped lecture presented by a low- or a high-expressive instructor, after which they wrote a test and completed a questionnaire. When instruction was ineffective, the effort and ability schemas produced better performance in low-perceived-success students, whereas no differences occurred between schema groups in high-perceived-success students. When instruction was effective, the three schemas led to similar achievement patterns in both low- and high-perceived-success students. These results were discussed in terms of buffer and compensation effects.
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Proposes a theory of motivation and emotion in which causal ascriptions play a key role. Evidence is presented indicating that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions, and it is suggested that the perceived causes of success and failure share the 3 common properties of locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal structures. The perceived stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success; all 3 dimensions of causality affect a variety of common emotional experiences, including anger, gratitude, guilt, hopelessness, pity, pride, and shame. Expectancy and affect, in turn, are presumed to guide motivated behavior. The theory therefore relates the structure of thinking to the dynamics of feeling and action. Analysis of a created motivational episode involving achievement strivings is offered, and numerous empirical observations are examined from this theoretical position. The strength of the empirical evidence and the capability of this theory to address prevalent human emotions are stressed, and examples of research on parole decisions, smoking cessation, and helping behavior are presented to illustrate the generalizability of the theory beyond the achievement-related theoretical focus. (3½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the contribution of perceived control and autonomy to children's self-reported behavior and emotion in the classroom (N = 246 children ages 8-10 years). Multiple regression analyses revealed unique effects of autonomy over and above the strong effects of perceived control. In addition, both sets of perceptions (and their interaction) were found to distinguish children who were active but emotionally disaffected from those who were active and emotionally positive. Specific predictions were also tested regarding the effects of (a) control attributions to 5 causes and (b) 4 reasons for task involvement that differed in degree of autonomy on children's active (vs. passive) behavior and 4 kinds of emotions: boredom, distress, anger, and positive emotions. Implications of the findings for theories of children's motivation are discussed, as well as for diagnostic strategies to identify children at risk for motivational problems
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The authors tested whether happy moods increase, and sad moods decrease, reliance on general knowledge structures. Participants in happy, neutral, or sad moods listened to a "going-out-for-dinner" story. Happy participants made more intrusion errors in recognition than did sad participants, with neutral mood participants falling in between (Experiments 1 and 2). Happy participants outperformed sad ones when they performed a secondary task while listening to the story (Experiment 2), but only when the amount of script-inconsistent information was small (Experiment 3). This pattern of findings indicates higher reliance on general knowledge structures under happy rather than sad moods. It is incompatible with the assumption that happy moods decrease either cognitive capacity or processing motivation in general, which would predict impaired secondary-task performance.
Article
With the exception of research on test anxiety, we lack knowledge about students' academic emotions. Results of four studies on students' emotional experiences, their development and their relations to learning, achievement, student personality, and teacher and parent behavior are reported. (1) Findings of Study I demonstrate that students experience many different positive and negative emotions in situations of classes, learning, and exams (exploratory interview study, N=56 students, grades 11 through 13). (2) In Study II (N=1.867 students, grades 5 to 13) and Studies III and IV (N=250/151 university students), learning-related emotions (e.g., enjoyment of learning, boredom) correlated closely with interest, academic effort, task-irrelevant thinking, and achievement. Correlations for test anxiety and other test emotions were weaker. (3) Results of Study II implied that average values for some emotions (e.g., test-related joy) tended to decline from grade 5 to 13, whereas others stayed at about the same magnitude (e.g., test anxiety). (4) In Study II, students' test emotions correlated closely with self-concepts and subjective values of academic achievement, and with teacher enthusiasm, classroom competition, and teachers' and parents' achievement-related pressure, reinforcement and punishment. Implications for the enhancement of students' emotions are discussed.
Article
Attributional retraining is a therapeutic method for reinstating psychological control that may be useful for improving students' achievement in the college classroom. After attributional retraining or no training, internal- and external-locus students observed a videotaped lecture presented by either a low- or a high-expressive instructor in a simulated college classroom. One week later they wrote a test on the lecture and on a homework assignment. Attributional retraining improved external, but not internal, students' performance on both the lecture and homework tests. Expressive instruction also enhanced lecture- and homework-related achievement in external students but not in internal students. These results suggest that cognitive factors influencing students' perceived control (e.g., internal/external locus) must be taken into consideration when remedial interventions for academic achievement are developed. The results are interpreted within a social cognition framework.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
In this mete-analysis I examined 26 studies on the relationship between anxiety toward mathematics and achievement in mathematics among elementary and secondary students. The common population correlation for the relationship is significant (-.27). A series of general linear models indicated that the relationship is consistent across gender groups, grade-level groups, ethnic groups, instruments measuring anxiety, and years of publication. The relationship, however, differs significantly among instruments measuring achievement as well as among types of publication. Researchers using standardized achievement tests tend to report a relationship of significantly smaller magnitude than researchers using mathematics teachers' grades and researcher-made achieve ment tests. Published studies tend to indicate a significantly smaller magnitude of the relationship than unpublished studies. There are no significant interaction effects among key variables such as gender, grade, and ethnicity.