Article

Self-Compassion: An Alternative Conceptualization of a Healthy Attitude Toward Oneself

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Abstract

This article defines and examines the construct of self-compassion. Self-compassion entails three main components: (a) self-kindness—being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical, (b) common humanity—perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as separating and isolating, and (c) mindfulness—holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Self-compassion is an emotionally positive self-attitude that should protect against the negative consequences of self-judgment, isolation, and rumination (such as depression). Because of its non-evaluative and interconnected nature, it should also counter the tendencies towards narcissism, self-centeredness, and downward social comparison that have been associated with attempts to maintain self-esteem. The relation of self-compassion to other psychological constructs is examined, its links to psychological functioning are explored, and potential group differences in self-compassion are discussed.

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... Strauss et al. (2016) define compassion as a cognitive, affective, and behavioural process consisting of five elements: (1) recognition of suffering; (2) understanding the universality of suffering in human experience; (3) feeling empathy for the suffering person and compassion for his/her suffering (emotional resonance); (4) tolerating the discomfort elicited in response to the suffering person (e.g., restlessness, anger, fear) as well as the ability to remain open to and accept the suffering person; and (5) motivation to act to alleviate another person's suffering. Selfcompassion is compassion directed at oneself in situations of personal failure, or difficult situations, and reacting with understanding and kindness toward oneself (Neff, 2003). ...
... The protective role of self-compassion helps reduce chronic stress and its effect on emotional responses (Neff and Vonk, 2009). Neff (2003) considers self-compassion to be a beneficial emotional regulation strategy. That is, negative emotions, psychological distress, and painful feelings are accepted through kindness, understanding, and a non-judgmental attitude. ...
... Empirical findings suggest that cultivating the protective role of self-compassion can reduce chronic stress and its impact on emotional responses (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984;Neff and Vonk, 2009) and transform negative emotional states (Carver and Connor-Smith, 2010). We found a similar effect, as the use of self-compassion is a beneficial emotional regulation strategy (Neff, 2003) that signifies emotional maturity (Maslow, 1997) and could be learned by leveraging low-cost, accessible online intervention delivered through a mobile app. Similarly to the findings of Kemeny et al. (2012) we found that by cultivating emotional balance we were able to foster self-compassion capabilities (Kemeny et al., 2012;Sansó et al., 2017). ...
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Being self-compassionate is considered a beneficial emotion regulation strategy. Therefore, the acquisition of emotional skills can raise self-compassion levels and consequently reduce self-criticism. Hence, the goal of the current study was to develop a mobile app based on the empirically proven group version of Emotion-Focused Training for Emotional Coaching (EFT-EC) and test its effectiveness in reducing self-criticism and raising self-compassion and self-protection. The sample consisted of 85 participants, of whom 22.4% were men and 77.6% were women. The mean age was 32.53 (SD = 14.51), ranging from 18 to 74 years. The participants filled out the following scales immediately before and after using the fourteen-day mobile app: The Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS), The Sussex-Oxford Compassion for the Self Scale (SOCS-S), and The Short-form Version of The Scale for interpersonal behaviour (s-SIB). Use of the 14-day EFT-EC mobile app significantly improved self-compassion and self-reassurance and significantly reduced self-criticism compared to pre- and post-measurements. The results are promising as self-criticism is a transdiagnostic phenomenon observed in various kinds of psychopathology and reducing it may prevent the emergence of psychopathologies. Moreover, the mobile app intervention can easily be accessed by a wide range of users, without requiring the services of a mental health professional, and thereby reduces the potential risk of shame or stigmatization.
... Self-compassion has been an important focus in many research areas since the publication of Kristin Neff's seminal measurement and theoretical papers on self-compassion (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , 2003b. As evidence of Neff's impact, there are now over 50 reviews on self-compassion across many areas. ...
... Self-compassion is described as the recognition of one's own suffering and a desire to alleviate that suffering, and it is proposed to consist of three components, including mindfulness, self-kindness, and common humanity (Neff, 2003b). Mindfulness represents taking an open and non-judgemental stance to one's own experience, so that difficult emotions are neither avoided or overexaggerated. ...
... One of the recommended areas of growth identified in the previous Röthlin et al. (2019) scoping review was the need for increased theory development for self-compassion in sport research. Although there is a general widespread acceptance of Neff's (2003aNeff's ( , 2003b) three-component model of self-compassion (i.e. mindfulness, self-kindness, and common humanity), our review further supports the ongoing need for an increased focus on theory development, in part to help distill where self-compassion might be best and most appropriately, positioned within future sport self-compassion research. ...
Article
Sport is a domain that is rife with loss, failures, and disappointment. Self-compassion – the recognition of one’s own suffering and a desire to alleviate it – offers protection against maladaptive psychological experiences in sport. The purpose of this scoping review was to update and expand the results of the review by Röthlin and colleagues ([2019]. Go soft or go home? A scoping review of empirical studies on the role of self-compassion in the competitive sport setting. Current Issues in Sport Science, 4, Article 013. https://doi.org/10.15203/CISS_2019.013), and to identify new themes to help guide future research. Sixty-nine publications were identified using a variety of search strategies. Quantitative research (62.3%) and cross-sectional designs (83.3%) were most common, and most research was conducted by researchers residing in Westernized countries (81.2%). The majority of study participants (n = 10,025) were collegiate athletes (42.1%), and female/women sport participants were sampled slightly more frequently (52.4%). Researchers often investigated sex- or gender-based and competition level differences in self-compassion scores. Other common areas of research focus included well-being, mindfulness, striving for excellence, overcoming setbacks, negative thoughts and emotions, and self-criticism. New research areas that were identified included a need for theory, additional efforts towards conceptualization and measurement, acknowledgement of participant selection bias, integrating intersectionality, the relationship between self-compassion and performance, the distinctiveness between self-compassion and mindfulness, and future directions for interventions.
... The EXSEM-SC version was changed based on Sonstroem and Morgan Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM)developed in 1989, which at the start indicated the impact of bodily activity or exercise participation on character self-concept [26]. Despite the lack of evidence demonstrating the umbrella construct of self-compassion above self-esteem, Neff's argument on the mental hazards induced by self-esteem (i.e., self-enhancement bias, narcissism, and social comparison) and Deci and Ryan's conjecturing self-compassion as a type of "True self-esteem" [10,[27][28][29] encourage the examination of self. As a result, the construction and adaptation of the EXSEM-SC model in showing the association between physical exercise and self-compassion in the current study is regarded robust and illustrative. ...
... 12.2.2. The Stages of Processing within Self-Compassion through Self-Reflection The process cycle of the self-compassion facets has been discussed by Neff [27], showing that individuals with self-compassion could first mindfully acknowledge and become aware of their own sufferings, then alleviate them with kindness, while gentle comfort and soothing helps individual to accept their failings by relating themselves to others and the outside world. However, in Neff's [27] article, she only briefly mentioned the process of self-reflection together with self-kindness and self-judgement, but did not consider selfreflection as a separate stage within self-compassion. ...
... The Stages of Processing within Self-Compassion through Self-Reflection The process cycle of the self-compassion facets has been discussed by Neff [27], showing that individuals with self-compassion could first mindfully acknowledge and become aware of their own sufferings, then alleviate them with kindness, while gentle comfort and soothing helps individual to accept their failings by relating themselves to others and the outside world. However, in Neff's [27] article, she only briefly mentioned the process of self-reflection together with self-kindness and self-judgement, but did not consider selfreflection as a separate stage within self-compassion. Moreover, a study of Chinese adults indicated that self-kindness and mindfulness could moderate the relationship between self-criticism and depression [81]. ...
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During the great life-altering challenges brought by Coronavirus 2019, school closures and lack of access to exercise and social interactions may have increased students’ negative emotions. The current research acts as a follow-up study to the development of the EXSEM-SC, using the Repeated Measures Panel Analysis Framework (RMPAF) to examine the stability of the model in revealing the relationship between physical activity, self-compassion, and mental well-being among Hong Kong adolescents. It is also aimed at examining the changes in physical activity, self-compassion, and mental well-being among Hong Kong adolescents between, before, and after the peak of COVID-19 using the EXSEM-SC Model. The RMPAF has involved 572 (60% Female, Mage = 13.63, SD =1.31) Hong Kong secondary school students. Furthermore, using the abductive qualitative approach, a total of 25 (Mage = 14.84, SD = 1.40) students were involved in the in-depth interviews to further investigate the relationships within the EXSEM-SC. The quantitative results showed that the relationship between physical activity and self-compassion could be demonstrated by the EXSEM-SC, with a satisfactory goodness-of-fit index in the SEMs, as well as satisfying model construct consistency. Moreover, it showed no significant differences in the level of physical activity, self-compassion, and mental well-being during and after the peak of COVID-19. The qualitative results demonstrated two new categories within the EXSEM-SC variables, which are personality traits and injuries experiences. With the stability of the EXSEM-SC model among adolescents, it is expected that the physical activity intervention, which is based on the EXSEM-SC model, could also aim at easing Hong Kong adolescent’s mental health issues. In addition, in terms of generating a long-term impact among students, the physical activity and self-compassionate intervention should be promoted among schools. However, the quantitative properties of the two new categories in the qualitative outcomes should be involved in future investigation.
... It is often seen as a process that combines two components: (1) attention to both internal and external experiences in the present moment and (2) non-judgmental acceptance of emotions and thoughts (Sáiz-Manzanares and Montero-García, 2015;Conversano et al., 2020;Levit-Binnun et al., 2021). Practicing mindfulness (particularly as part of the MBSR program and the MSC) seems to be a good way of developing self-compassion among HCPs, as the changes in the ability to be self-compassionate are predicted by mindfulnessrelated changes (Miller et al., 1988;Neff, 2003). Notably, mindfulness develops prerequisite qualities for self-compassion and empathy (e.g., non-judgmental attitude, present-moment awareness; Neff, 2003;Beddoe and Murphy, 2004;Block-Lerner et al., 2007;Beckman et al., 2012;Verweij et al., 2018a;Malpass et al., 2019). ...
... Practicing mindfulness (particularly as part of the MBSR program and the MSC) seems to be a good way of developing self-compassion among HCPs, as the changes in the ability to be self-compassionate are predicted by mindfulnessrelated changes (Miller et al., 1988;Neff, 2003). Notably, mindfulness develops prerequisite qualities for self-compassion and empathy (e.g., non-judgmental attitude, present-moment awareness; Neff, 2003;Beddoe and Murphy, 2004;Block-Lerner et al., 2007;Beckman et al., 2012;Verweij et al., 2018a;Malpass et al., 2019). Irving et al. (2014) showed that HCPs considered the practice of mindfulness to have opened their minds, allowing them to be more compassionate toward themselves and others (particularly toward their patients). ...
... We know that encouraging HCPs to develop a patient-centered care relationship has beneficial effects for both the patients and their HCPs (e.g., decrease in symptoms of depression, depersonalization, and emotional burnout, and increase in emotion regulation skills, higher levels of self-care, and enhanced communication skills at work; Isnard, 2019). The literature suggests that HCPs' compassion and self-compassion can be increased with the practice of mindfulness, more particularly through caregiving-focused mindfulness training programs (Neff, 2003;Birnie et al., 2010;Bentley et al., 2018). Those programs are particularly relevant for HCPs, who have a greater risk for professional burnout due to the high level of involvement required. ...
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Background Compassion is a key component of quality care. Encouraging Health Care Professionals (HCPs) to develop a patient-centered care relationship through mindfulness and compassion training may be beneficial for both patients and HCPs.Method We assessed the impact of a compassion-centered mindfulness program [i.e., the Mindfulness Based (MB) CARE program] on healthcare practice conducting 10 phone interviews with HCPs who experienced the program.ResultsThe training had an overall positive impact on the HCPs ability to feel compassion toward their patients and themselves, helped them develop kindness toward themselves and their patients, and enhanced their attention to their patient’s needs and theirs. Participants were better able to accept the difficult work experiences or those their patients experienced, with more perceived equanimity and less reactivity.Conclusion Professional mindfulness and compassion training programs could be operational levers for institutions aiming at fostering more compassionate HCPs–patients relationships.
... The use of self-compassion during difficult events has been identified as a protective factor against mental health difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, and stress (Akin & Akin, 2015;Barnard & Curry, 2011). Self-compassion is defined as the ability to accept inner experiences and be kind to oneself when confronted with difficulties (Neff, 2003). Higher levels of self-compassion have been found to forecast emotional and cognitive reactions to adverse events in daily life and can safeguard against negative self-feelings (Leary et al., 2007). ...
... This suggests that selfcompassion can aid in reducing mental health difficulties amongst women during pregnancy (Townshend & Caltabiano, 2019). Self-compassion is a naturally occurring process, which individuals can develop and cultivate consciously or unconsciously, in addition to a targeted therapy intervention (Barnard & Curry, 2011;Neff, 2003). ...
... Self-compassion was measured using the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003). The SCS measures the capacity to show kindness and understanding towards oneself during times of perceived failure. ...
Article
Mental health challenges are common during the perinatal period, particularly following pregnancy loss. This longitudinal study investigates the role of self-compassion in the mental health of perinatal women having previously experienced (n = 45) or not having experienced (n = 123) pregnancy loss. Archival data was utilised to compare levels of perinatal depression, psychological distress, and self-compassion for women receiving psychological therapy at session one and session six. Results indicated that both participant groups reported similar levels on all variables at baseline. There were significant increases in self-compassion and decreases in perinatal depression and psychological distress after six sessions of therapy for both groups. A regression showed changes in self-compassion following six sessions of therapy was predictive of psychological distress, particularly for women who reported pregnancy loss. Self-compassion may represent a viable intervention for psychological distress in a perinatal population particularly following pregnancy loss.
... Sense of common sharing involves recognizing that all people can fail, make mistakes, and feel somehow inadequate, that these experiences are not unique to one's own self. Thus, by creating a sense of connection with others, it enables the understanding that setbacks are part of the common human experience rather than a sense of isolation (Neff, 2003a;. Mindfulness is a state of balanced awareness in which thoughts and feelings are observed as they are, without avoiding or changing thoughts and feelings, without exaggeration or judgment (Neff, et al., 2005). ...
... Mindfulness is a state of balanced awareness in which thoughts and feelings are observed as they are, without avoiding or changing thoughts and feelings, without exaggeration or judgment (Neff, et al., 2005). Thus, the person is protected from over-identification and sees and accepts the mental and emotional phenomena that occur without disconnecting from their experiences (Neff, 2003a). ...
... It is thought that the differentiation of self is important in people's self-compassion. It can be expected that it will be easier for individuals with a high level of self-differentiation to be self-compassionate and tolerant rather than harshly criticizing themselves when experiencing pain or failure (Neff, 2003a). At the same time, considering that self-compassion facilitates adjustment and psychological functionality (Neff et al., 2007) by reducing self-criticism, self-doubt, isolation, and excessive identification (Neff et al., 2005), it can be thought that it has a positive relationship with differentiation of self because individuals with a high level of differentiation of self can maintain their sense of self even in stressful situations. ...
Article
In this study, the mediating role of self-compassion and cognitive flexibility in the relationship between differentiation of self and subjective well-being was investigated. A total of 587 university students participated in the study. Participants completed the Differentiation of Self Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, Positive and Negative Emotion Scale, and Life Satisfaction Scale. The role of self-compassion and cognitive flexibility in explaining the relationship between differentiation of self and subjective well-being was examined using path analysis. Research findings showed that self-compassion and cognitive flexibility play a full mediating role in the relationship between differentiation of self and subjective well-being. The findings were discussed in the light of the literature and recommendations were presented.
... Namun hal ini menurut Neff & McGehee (2010) dapat diatasi dengan cara mengembangkan selfcompassion atau rasa welas asih pada dirinya sendiri. Self compassion merupakan suatu perasaan dan pemahaman terhadap sisi baik yang ada pada diri seseorang, kebaikan dirinya, di samping itu juga memahami dan menerima keterbatasan diri sebagai manusia, tidak mengkritik diri secara berlebihan terhadap kekurangan diri, serta tidak mudah menyalahkan diri atau menghakimi diri saat mengalami kegagalan karena penderitaan, kegagalan atau ketidakmampuan diri merupakan hal yang umum dialami manusia (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion dapat mendorong kesiapan seseorang menghadapi tantangan baru, serta memiliki keinginan untuk memperbaiki kesalahan dan mengubah perilaku yang kurang produktif menjadi lebih produktif (Neff, 2012). ...
... Pembahasan Secara umum dari segi konten maupun keterbacaan, modul self compassion yang dihasilkan dari penelitian ini dapat dikatakan baik dan dapat digunakan untuk mengenalkan dan meningkatkan self compassion pada remaja di Panti Asuhan. Terpenuhinya validitas secara isi tersebut tidak terlepas dari ketepatan landasan teori yang digunakan sebagai acuan dalam pengembangan isi modul, yakni aspek-aspek Self Compassion dari Neff (2003). Menurut Neff (2003), self compassion memiliki tiga komponen utama, yakni: self kindness, common humanity, mindfulnes. ...
... Terpenuhinya validitas secara isi tersebut tidak terlepas dari ketepatan landasan teori yang digunakan sebagai acuan dalam pengembangan isi modul, yakni aspek-aspek Self Compassion dari Neff (2003). Menurut Neff (2003), self compassion memiliki tiga komponen utama, yakni: self kindness, common humanity, mindfulnes. Komponen pertama yaitu self kindness yang merupakan kemampuan individu untuk dapat memberikan kebaikan pada diri sendiri ketika mengalami penderitaan dan memberikan pemahaman pada diri sendiri atas aspek yang ada dalam diri, hal ini merupakan kebalikan dari self judgment yang mengacu pada sikap kasar terhadap diri sendiri ketika mengalami penderitaan. ...
Article
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Remaja Panti Asuhan pada umumnya merupakan anak-anak yang tidak memiliki keluarga yang lengkap, baik secara fisik maupun psikologis. Untuk itu perlu dikembangkan welas asih pada dirinya sendiri agar nantinya memiliki welas asih pula pada sesama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyusun dan menguji validitas modul Self Compassion bagi Remaja Panti Asuhan. Penyusunan dilakukan dengan pendekatan research and development, mulai dari analisis kebutuhan, pengembangan modul, dan validasi modul. Sementara untuk tahap implementasi dan evaluasi akan dilakukan pada riset selanjutnya. Validitas modul dari segi isi dilakukan oleh tiga orang pakar dan uji keterbacaan oleh pengguna yakni Remaja Panti Asuhan sebanyak 20 orang. Analisis data dengan kuantitatif deskriptif. Hasil pengujian modul menunjukkan nilai rata-rata dari penilaian pakar sebesar 80,7 dengan demikian modul dapat dikategorikan baik dan dapat digunakan setelah dilakukan revisi minor. Demikian pula dari penilaian keterbacaan pengguna diperoleh nilai rata-rata sebesar 81,7 sehingga dapat dikategorikan baik dan modul mudah dipahami. Modul Self Compassion yang disusun dalam penelitian ini terbukti valid dan dapat digunakan oleh remaja Panti Asuhan secara mandiri. Tahap penelitian selanjutnya yang akan dilakukan adalah menguji efektivitas penerapan modul melalui penelitian kuasi eksperimen.
... Another key concept closely connected to mindfulness is self-compassion (Neff & Dahm, 2015). Self-compassion is a way of relating to oneself that involves feeling kindness towards oneself, being non-judgmental of and taking a balanced perspective on one's experiences, and recognizing that one's experiences are a part of common human experiences (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , 2003b. Meta-analytic evidence suggested a significant association between self-compassion and affective well-being (moderate-and high-arousal positive affect) with a medium-to-large effect size (r = .39) ...
... Mindfulness allows individuals to observe moment-by-moment experiences from a detached perspective (Bernstein et al., 2019), which may help them recognize that the experiences are temporary and not defining, thus leading to increased nonattachment. Individuals with high self-compassion are more inclined to approach themselves with kindness, view experiences from a balanced perspective, and recognize that suffering and difficulties are a normal part of human experiences (Neff, 2003a). These may make individuals less likely to identify with or get caught up in their experiences, thus helping in cultivating nonattachment. ...
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Peace of mind is an important affective well-being valued in Chinese culture. Mindfulness and self-compassion had the potential to promote peace of mind. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects were not well understood. The current cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether nonattachment explained the benefits of mindfulness and self-compassion on peace of mind. A sample of 364 Chinese adults was recruited from WeChat, a popular social media platform in China. Participants filled out an online survey including measures of dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, nonattachment, and peace of mind. Correlation analyses showed that all of these variables were significantly and positively associated with each other. More importantly, nonattachment significantly mediated the associations between dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion with peace of mind. These findings suggest that nonattachment may be a potential mechanism by which mindfulness and self-compassion promote peace of mind among Chinese adults. If the mediating effects are further confirmed in future longitudinal and experimental studies, mindfulness and self-compassion interventions can emphasize nonattachment to optimize their effects on peace of mind.
... The majority of the psychological interventions were focused on cognitive-behavioral/existential, interpersonal, psychosocial, supportive, emotionally expressive, and educational approaches (Blanco et al., 2014;Savioni et al., 2022). Additionally, recent studies highlighted the relevance of psychological interventions based on mindfulness and self-compassion intervention thanks to the promotion of kindness and lack of self-judgment, which are relevant to promote wellbeing in women with a history of breast cancer (Neff, 2003;Chang et al., 2021;Mifsud et al., 2021). Specifically, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention allows women to have kindness and care toward the body specifically (Matchim et al., 2011). ...
... Self-compassion is defined as the kindness toward the self and it is characterized by lack of self-judgment, acknowledging past trauma, and consideration of suffering as part of the human condition (Lazarus, 1991;Neff, 2003;Jazaieri et al., 2014). Kirby (2017) embodied this definition through their Compassion Cultivation Training. ...
... Inspired and guided by Eastern Buddhist wisdom, Neff (2003a) proposed a new and healthy view of the self as "self-compassion". Self-compassion refers to a form of friendly, open, forgiving, and non-avoidant coping of the self when individuals experience negative emotions. ...
... Self-compassion refers to a form of friendly, open, forgiving, and non-avoidant coping of the self when individuals experience negative emotions. According to Neff's (2003aNeff's ( , 2003b theory, instead of harshly blaming and criticizing, individuals with high self-compassion face their problems and deficiencies with awareness and concern. This means that self-compassion can better help individuals cope with negative life events and mitigate negative effects. ...
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Background: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a widespread public health issue in adolescents. Exploring the risk and protective variables of NSSI is critical for prevention and intervention. Based on the experiential avoidance model (Chapman et al., 2006) and Nock's (2009) integrated model of NSSI, the current study tested a moderated mediation model to examine the impact of two risk factors, childhood abuse and depression, and one protective factor, self-compassion, on NSSI. Methods: Self-report measures were conducted among 758 Chinese adolescents (329 females and 429 males, mean age = 14.16 years, SD = 1.92) in Hong Kong, China regarding childhood abuse, depression, self-compassion, and NSSI. Results: Childhood abuse was found to be positively linked to NSSI, and this connection was mediated by depression. Self-compassion weakened the strength between childhood abuse and NSSI, along with that between childhood abuse and depression. Conclusions: These results assist in understanding how NSSI develops and facilitate future studies to investigate how the risk and protective variables for NSSI interact. The clinical application of these findings was also discussed.
... One promising avenue for supporting emotion regulation outcomes is via self-compassion interventions (Bakker et al., 2019;Inwood & Ferrari, 2018). Self-compassion is a caring and supportive way of relating to oneself that has its roots in Eastern philosophical thought, particularly Buddhism (Neff, 2003a). It is conceptualised by Neff as consisting of three key components: self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness. ...
... Insofar as self-compassion represents a balance between increased compassionate and decreased uncompassionate self-responding (Neff, 2003a), understanding the pattern of relationship between ADHD traits and the components of self-compassion is important to inform theoretical understanding and intervention development. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between ADHD traits and self-compassion in university students by investigating the relationship of the individual components of self-compassion to ADHD traits, as well as the associations with the positive and negative factors of the SCS. ...
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Objectives Tertiary education is particularly demanding for students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who often struggle with emotion regulation and are at greater risk of internalising disorders compared to their peers. Self-compassion is a skill associated with positive mental health and adaptive emotion regulation that might support students in managing the emotional challenges of studying with ADHD. We examined the relationship between ADHD traits and self-compassion in university students, as well as the mediating role of self-compassion and emotion regulation difficulties in mental health outcomes.MethodA sample of 232 university students aged 18 to 47 (M = 19.92, SD = 3.75) years completed an online survey measuring ADHD traits, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, distress, and well-being.ResultsCorrelational analyses showed that higher ADHD traits were associated with higher self-criticism, isolation, and overidentification (i.e. uncompassionate self-responding; USR), but not with self-compassionate responding (i.e. self-kindness, common humanity, or mindfulness). Mediation analyses showed that USR partially mediated the relationship ADHD traits have with distress and fully mediated the relationship with well-being. Serial mediation analyses indicated that this occurred via emotion regulation.Conclusions The results help explain why university students with ADHD traits experience greater mental health difficulties than their peers and support the addition of self-compassion training in interventions that aim to support them.PreregistrationThis study is not preregistered.
... Mindfulness is commonly described as an awareness that arises through paying attention to the present moment in a non-judgemental and accepting way (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Mindfulness is also recognised as a fundamental element of self-compassion, involving individuals taking a balanced approach in acknowledging and understanding one's emotions without trying to suppress or deny them (Neff, 2003). Mindful self-compassion entails being mindfully aware of personal suffering to be able to extend compassion towards oneself, with the mindful self-compassion programme demonstrating effectiveness at enhancing selfcompassion, mindfulness, and wellbeing (Neff & Germer, 2013). ...
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Objectives Mindfulness practices are increasingly being recognised as beneficial in supporting health, wellbeing, and psychological functioning. There is currently limited evidence of how mindfulness is used within a population of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In order to effectively inform the development of future psychological mindfulness-based interventions for this population, it is imperative to first understand how individuals with CF are currently engaging with mindfulness.Method Internet-mediated research (IMR) was used to explore attitudes, beliefs, and experiences regarding the use of mindfulness practices across a CF population. IMR allowed for a natural, unobtrusive method of data collection that involved the collection of publicly available posts from two global online CF forums.ResultsA variety of formal and informal mindfulness practices were positively experienced by the CF community, with beneficial impacts upon emotional and psychological wellbeing, and physical health. The data highlighted a clear interest in proactive mindfulness practice, whilst also exploring some of the associated challenges with certain practices.Conclusions Proactive psychological support that considers the use of mindfulness and self-care practices may form a particularly valuable tool in supporting the quality of life for present and future generations of people with CF. Increased awareness and education regarding the use of different formal and informal mindfulness practices in CF care would be beneficial in enabling people to make more informed choices.
... Hasil analisis aitem setelah menghilangkan aitem yang gugur menunjukkan koefisien Cronbach's Alpha (α=0.897). Aitem-aitem dalam skala perilaku prososial ini memiliki indeks beda aitem Kemudian skala self-compassion disusun berdasarkan aspek menurut Neff (2003) dengan 22 aitem yang valid setelah dilakukan uji coba. Skala tersebut terdiri dari 9 aitem favorabel dan 13 aitem unfavorabel. ...
Article
p>Manusia sebagai makhluk sosial yang saling membutuhkan satu sama lain tidak akan bisa terlepas dari orang-orang di sekitarnya. Interaksi yang terjalin dalam lingkungan sosial tersebut akan menghasilkan tindakan tolong-menolong atau yang juga disebut perilaku prososial. Terdapat beberapa faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi perilaku prososial, dua diantaranya yakni syukur dan self-compassion . Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara syukur dan self-compassion dengan perilaku prososial pada mahasiswa di Universitas Sebelas Maret. Subjek penelitian ini adalah mahasiwa Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta yang berjumlah 380 orang yang diambil menggunakan proportional random sampling . Adapun alat ukur yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah skala syukur (α = 0.897), skala self-compassion (α = 0.902), dan skala perilaku prososial (α = 0.885). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara syukur dan self-compassion dengan perilaku prososial. Hal ini dilihat dari nilai F hitungnya adalah sebesar 59.862 (F tabel = 1.17, F<sub>hitung</sub>> F<sub>tabel</sub>) dan (p=0.00 < 0.05). Nilai koefisien korelasi dari penelitian ini adalah 0.491 yang artinya kekuatan hubungan antara syukur dan self-compassion dengan perilaku prososial cukup kuat. Sementara itu, nilai R s quare nya adalah 0.241 yang menunjukkan bahwa besarnya konstribusi syukur dan self-compassion dengan perilaku prososial adalah 24,1%. Berdasarkan uji pearson, terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara syukur dan perilaku prososial (p = 0.000 , p < 0.05). Sedangkan self-compassion tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan perilaku prososial dilihat dari nilai (p= 0.264, p > 0.05). Adapun kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara syukur dan self-compassion dengan perilaku prososial, terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara syukur dengan perilaku prososial, dan tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara self-compassion dengan perilaku prososial.</p
... Following the diagram proposed by Neff (2003bNeff ( , 2012, Neff & Davidson (2016). and Mc-Gehee, Germer, & Neff (2017), more frequent feelings of self-awareness and self-compassion occur when three factors are present: 1. Mindfulness, understood as the ability to realize and take a stance against challenging situations, 2. Giving one-self the benefit of the doubt in contrast to adopting a more critical stance and 3. a feeling of living a shared humanity experience appears in opposition to feelings of isolation. ...
Preprint
During the last twenty years, there has been an increasing interest from the scientific community to study the effects that meditative practices could have in human well-being. However, the academic community has not reached a consensus regarding what are the exact myriad of practices that should be considered meditative, and which should not be considered as such. As a means of provisionally solving this problem, it has been suggested that those practices that fall under an ancestral tradition, in specific Zen meditation, have enough references to be considered meditative. There's plenty of information available regarding the benefits meditative practices could be having, however, there has not been enough research that focuses on the impact that meditation has on people's relationship with themselves or significant others. The present study focused on these questions in order to guide future research into the effectiveness of meditative practice on self and relationship development. To do so, a qualitative approach was chosen, particularly guided by the use of Grounded Theory. This was applied by using an in-depth interview methodology to ten participants which have practiced Zen meditation by a period of eight or more years of systematic-weekly-practice. The resulting investigation allowed us to know that meditators report changes in their relationships: 1. In relation to other people, they perceived the emergence of a new positive intentionality directed to those people and that the quality of their relationships with friends and family had improved, however, a consensus was not reached regarding the influence of the practice in the relationships with their couples. 2. In relation to their self, they noticed an increase in the silencing effect of their inner monologues, a positive attitude, a tendency to engage in meaningful activities and feelings of connectedness with themselves. This study is a preliminary attempt to explore how Zen meditative practice influences the relational domain.
... However, one need not subscribe to this religion or philosophy to embrace this kind of attitude towards oneself. As Kristin Neff notes, similar ideas can be found in western psychology too, like Judith Jordan's self-empathy, or Carl Rogers' unconditional acceptance (Neff 2003). ...
Article
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Philosophers traditionally distinguish between excuses and exemptions. We can excuse someone and still see them as a participant in normal human relationships, but when we exempt someone, we see them as something to be managed and handled: we take an objective attitude to them. Madness is typically assumed to ground exemptions, not excuses. So far, the standard philosophical picture. Seeing other people as objects to be managed and handled rather than as persons with whom one can have relationships is, however, ethically problematic. If I am mad myself, consistently seeing myself this way becomes downright unsustainable. A better option, I will argue, is to fully appreciate my own difficulties and learn to show myself compassion and understanding. I, then, can excuse myself on those grounds. Furthermore, a compassionate self-excusing attitude leaves room for both nuance and improvement in a way that total exemption does not. Finally, I will argue that many mad actions ought to be considered justifiable and justified rather than in need of exemption or excuse.
... By definition [18], self-compassion involves the disposition of being touched by and open to one's own suffering, not avoiding or disconnecting from it, generating the desire to alleviate one's suffering and to heal oneself with kindness or acknowledging suffering as part of the normal, shared human experience. Besides, self-compassion is a healthy way of approaching one's suffering, such as failures, perceived inadequacy, or other life difficulties. ...
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Unlike other personality traits or dispositions, self-compassion can be nurtured and is likely a driving source for physical activity. Emerging research has started to examine self-compassion in physical activity contexts; however, most existing studies were underpowered and overlooked the psycho-behavioural factors underlying the link between self-compassion and physical activity. In a sample of 569 UK adults (mean age = 41.92 years, SD = 13.70; 47.8% female), we examined the hypothesis that self-compassion’s positive influence on physical activity operates through reduced psychological distress and subsequently increased barrier self-efficacy. Results supported the prediction, with the positive influences of self-compassion being more prominent in more vigorous physical activity. The findings suggest that self-compassion is a good source of emotional resources (i.e., attenuated psychological distress) and confidence to overcome challenges and obstacles (i.e., increased barrier self-efficacy) in the context of physical activity. Future interventions and programs could consider incorporating self-compassion for physical activity adoption and maintenance.
... Se debe enseñar a estos alumnos a relacionarse consigo mismos de una forma más amable, para que no continúen evitando las situaciones percibidas como una amenaza. Neff (2003) se refiere a la autocompasión como la capacidad de no juzgar las propias emociones y pensamientos y de comprender que las experiencias negativas son comunes entre los seres humanos. En este sentido, el entrenamiento en autocompasión puede ayudar a los adolescentes con CRE Ansioso a desarrollar una actitud positiva hacia los eventos generadores de ansiedad y los fracasos académicos. ...
Article
Resumen Los adolescentes que muestran una tendencia a rechazar la escuela podrían estar experimentando también una baja motivación hacia el aprendizaje. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo identificar perfiles de adolescentes con comportamiento de rechazo escolar (CRE) y examinar si estos posibles grupos difieren en autoatribuciones académicas. Participan 1183 estudiantes españoles (53.7% chicas) de 14 a 17 años (M = 15.58, DT = 1.08). Responden a las versiones españolas de la School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) y la Sydney Attribution Scale (SAS). Se hallan cuatro perfiles de CRE mediante la técnica de Latent Profile Analysis: no-CRE, CRE moderadamente alto, CRE ansioso y CRE alto. Se identifican diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los cuatro grupos en todas las autoatribuciones académicas examinadas. Los perfiles CRE ansioso y alto muestran una mayor tendencia a atribuir sus fracasos académicos a la capacidad, mientras que tienden a atribuir menos sus éxitos a causas internas. Se sugieren estrategias de intervención para atender estos perfiles de CRE de riesgo.
... Self-compassion has been described as being kind to oneself in the face of difficulties and failures, being able to accept one's shortcomings and deficiencies, being able to assess oneself objectively, and being kind and caring when one is sad and depressed (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , 2009. ...
Article
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College students’ mental health has been seriously impacted during the global COVID-19 lockdown. There is evidence that dispositional mindfulness is beneficial to mental health. However, few studies have looked at the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and mental health from the standpoint of self-compassion. Furthermore, it is unclear under what circumstances dispositional mindfulness is linked to mental health during COVID-19 lockdown. To fill this gap, the current study investigated self-compassion as a possible mediating factor and gender as a possible moderating effect between dispositional mindfulness and mental health. The sample included 1,018 Chinese university students during the COVID-19 lockdown (M age = 20.12; SD age = 1.17) who had completed self-report questionnaires on dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and mental health. According to the findings of mediation analysis, self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and mental health. The moderating analysis also revealed significant moderating effects of dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and mental health. Male college students’ mental health was significantly better protected, and the buffering effects of dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion on their mental health were significantly stronger than those of female college students. These findings advance our understanding of the process and mechanism between dispositional mindfulness and mental health, broadened and deepened the understanding of the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and mental health, as well as the mediating role of self-compassion and the moderating role of gender, and offer practical guidance for improving college students’ mental health during the COVID-19 lockdown.
... Adolescent junior high school students have strong egocentric characteristics. Often, they feel as if they are being observed by some imaginary audiences (Neff, 2003). Another study found that individuals with low self-esteem and low self-assessment are more afraid of negative evaluations (Borecka-Biernat, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction This study aimed to explore the relationship between feelings of inferiority and social anxiety in Chinese junior high school students. In addition, it examined the potential mediating effect of fear of negative evaluation in this relationship. Methods A survey was administered to a sample of 734 Chinese junior high school students. The Feelings of Inadequacy Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and Social Avoidance Distress Scale were used. Results First, there were significant positive correlations between all subscales for the inferiority feelings, social anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. Furthermore, fear of negative evaluation mediated the predictive effects of four inferiority subscales (i.e., self-esteem, academic ability, appearance, and physical ability) for social anxiety. However, the total score for the sense of inferiority and social confidence subscale lacked this mediating effect. Conclusion The inferiority feelings of self-esteem, academic ability, appearance, and physical ability may directly and indirectly predict social anxiety through fear of negative evaluation.
... Over the last decade, the role of self-compassion and self-protection (also known as assertive anger) as antidotes to self-criticism has been increasingly acknowledged as fundamental for mental health [1][2][3][4][5]. Both self-compassion and self-protection play a key role in the emotional change processes [6][7][8] in emotion-focused therapy (EFT). ...
Article
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Clients’ facial expressions allow psychotherapists to gather more information about clients’ emotional processing. This study aims to examine and investigate the facial Action Units (AUs) of self-compassion, self-criticism, and self-protection within real Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) sessions. For this purpose, we used the facial analysis software iMotions. Twelve video sessions were selected for the analysis based on specific criteria. For self-compassion, the following AUs were significant: AUs 4 (brow furrow), 15 (lip corner depressor), and the AU12_smile (lip corner puller). For self-criticism, iMotions identified the AUs 2 (outer brow raise), AU1 (inner brow raise), AU7 (lid tighten), AU12_smirk (unilateral lip corner puller), and AU43 (eye closure). Self-protection was combined using the occurrence of AUs 1 and 4 and AU12_smirk. Moreover, the findings support the significance of discerning self-compassion and self-protection as two different concepts.
... Since access to gender-affirming care is only a part of the freedom to live with one's chosen gender identity, family and peer support can substantially contribute to the overall mental health of young TGD persons, and specifically, children and adolescents, thus helping them to socially transition and affirm their experienced gender both within one's home and in public spaces [60]. For instance, self-compassion-which is comprised of a system of three interrelated elements (i.e., mindfulness, self-kindness, and common humanity) [123]-seems associated with lower levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth [124]. On this basis, self-compassion has been deemed to be a significant resource to face minority stressors and stigma for transgender individuals [54]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although capable of mobilizing significant resilience factors to face stigma and discrimination, transgender and gender diverse (TGD) children and adolescents tend to suffer from more adverse mental health outcomes compared to their cisgender counterparts. The minority stressors that this population faces are mainly due to the gender-based pressure to conform to their assigned gender. This systematic review was aimed at assessing the potential mental health issues that affect the TGD population. The literature search was conducted in three databases; namely, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, based on the PRISMA guidelines. The 33 articles included in the systematic review pointed out how TGD children and adolescents experience high levels of anxiety and depression, as well as other emotional and behavioral problems, such as eating disorders and substance use. Resilience factors have been also pointed out, which aid this population in facing these negative mental health outcomes. The literature review highlighted that, on the one hand, TGD individuals appear to exhibit high levels of resilience; nonetheless, health disparities exist for TGD individuals compared with the general population, which are mainly attributable to the societal gender pressure to conform to their assigned gender. Considerations for research and clinical practice are provided.
... • mindful self-compassion [48], which includes the concept of self-compassion as developed by Kristin Neff [49]; • mindfulness-based relapse prevention [50] to treat substance abuse and also prevent relapse and craving [51]; • mindfulness-based pain management to improve the management of chronic pain [52]; mindfulness-based program for infertility to improve their dealing with frustration and the medical treatment [53]; • mindfulness-based cancer recovery [54]; and • the mindfulness-based art therapy, both to improve mental health and life quality in cancer sufferers; • mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting for maternal well-being during and after the pregnancy; • mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy for different disorders (such as mood or anxiety disorders); and • mindfulness-based mental fitness training, designed to decrease stress improving trauma resilience in military personnel [55]. ...
Article
Kindness is key to flourishing school communities. A social-cognitive approach to virtue emphasizes the importance of having an elaborate set of accessible mental representations (i.e., schemas) for expressing kindness. We employed a multi-informant, mixed method, longitudinal design across 6 months that focused on 4th and 5th graders’ (N = 320) kindness schemas using the open-ended question, ‘What are some ways you can show kindness to others?’ Results indicated that children’s schemas entailed wide-ranging content, expressing virtues of generosity, compassion, inclusion, civility, and harm avoidance. The breadth of children’s schema repertoires was positively associated with peer (but not teacher) ratings of their kindness, and virtues that attend to others’ vulnerability (compassion, inclusion) were the most indicative of children’s kindness from peers’ perspectives. Further, the breadth of kindness repertoires was associated with aspects of classroom ecology (e.g., peer acceptance), suggesting that positive classroom relationships may serve as sites for the cultivation of kindness schemas.
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of acceptance and commitment-based psychoeducation program on prospective psychological counselors’ some personal (psychological flexibility and self-compassion) and professional (empathy and effective counselor characteristics) qualifications. The research was designed as a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental study with follow-up measurements. The study group consisted of 32 prospective psychological counselors drawn from department of guidance and psychological counseling. They were assigned to the experimental and control groups (16 by 16). While the experimental group was given an acceptance and commitment-based psychoeducation program consisting of 10 sessions, no intervention was performed for the participants in the control group. Pretest, posttest, first follow-up (3 months), and second follow-up (9 months) measurements of the experimental and control groups were taken. A two-way analysis of variance in repeated measurements test was used via the IBM SPSS software package. The results revealed that the program was not only significantly effective in increasing the psychological flexibility and self-compassion levels of prospective psychological counselors but also resulted in a permanent effect. It was found that the intervention program did not lead to a significant change in the empathy levels and effective counselor characteristics of the prospective psychological counselors.
Article
Bu araştırmada engelli çocuğa sahip annelerde öz-şefkat, sosyal destek, psikolojik dayanıklılık ve öznel iyi oluş değişkenleri arasındaki olası ilişkiler irdelenmiş, tüm diğer değişkenlerin öznel iyi oluş seviyesini ne derece yordadığı sorgulanmıştır. Ardından yol analizi aracılığıyla bir model denemesi yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi zihinsel engelli çocuğa sahip ve araştırmaya gönüllü katılmayı kabul eden 70 anneden oluşmuştur. Veri toplama araçları olarak Demografik Bilgi Formu, Öz-Şefkat Ölçeği- Kısa Form, Yetişkinler İçin Psikolojik Dayanıklılık Ölçeği, Çok Boyutlu Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği ve Öznel İyi Oluş Ölçeği kullanılmış, veriler yüzyüze görüşmeler vasıtasıyla toplanmıştır. Yapılan analizler sonucunda tüm değişkenler arasında yüksek seviyede anlamlı korelasyon katsayılarına ulaşılmıştır. Engelli çocuğa sahip annelerin öz-şefkat, psikolojik dayanıklılık ve sosyal destek toplam puanlarının birlikte oluşturduğu regresyon modelinin, öznel iyi oluş toplam puanının varyansının %79’unu açıkladığı saptanmıştır. Son olarak, yüksek uyum indeksleri gösteren yol analizi modelinde, öz-şefkat ve sosyal destek düzeyinin psikolojik dayanıklılık toplam puanı üzerinden öznel iyi oluşu yordadığı gözlenmiştir.
Article
During the last twenty years, there has been an increasing interest from the scientific community to study the effects that meditative practices could have in human well-being. However, the academic community has not reached a consensus regarding what are the exact myriad of practices that should be considered meditative, and which should not be considered as such. As a means of provisionally solving this problem, it has been suggested that those practices that fall under an ancestral tradition, in specific Zen meditation, have enough references to be considered meditative. There's plenty of information available regarding the benefits meditative practices could be having, however, there has not been enough research that focuses on the impact that meditation has on people's relationship with themselves or significant others. The present study focused on these questions in order to guide future research into the effectiveness of meditative practice on self and relationship development. To do so, a qualitative approach was chosen, particularly guided by the use of Grounded Theory. This was applied by using an in-depth interview methodology to ten participants which have practiced Zen meditation by a period of eight or more years of systematic-weekly-practice. The resulting investigation allowed us to know that meditators report changes in their relationships: 1. In relation to other people, they perceived the emergence of a new positive intentionality directed to those people and that the quality of their relationships with friends and family had improved, however, a consensus was not reached regarding the influence of the practice in the relationships with their couples. 2. In relation to their self, they noticed an increase in the silencing effect of their inner monologues, a positive attitude, a tendency to engage in meaningful activities and feelings of connectedness with themselves. This study is a preliminary attempt to explore how Zen meditative practice influences the relational domain.
Article
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Objectives: To investigate outcomes and predictors of a Tibetan Buddhist meditation process called Feeding Your Demons® (FYD) vs. a waitlist (WL) control group of meditation practitioners with moderate depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Methods: 61 meditators (70% female; mean age = 44.05, SD = 11.20; 43.5% White, 39% Asian, 9.3% Hispanic, 8.3% other) were randomly assigned to 1-month of FYD practice or WL groups. Participants completed self-report assessments at baseline and post-FYD/WL. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis found that, compared to WL, FYD yielded significantly greater decreases in stress symptoms and increases in self-compassion. Moderator analyses showed baseline lesser history of psychiatric problems (but not number of years of meditation practice) predicted greater reduction in depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Regression analyses found that the number of FYD sessions completed predicted post-FYD increases in self-compassion and satisfaction with life, as well as decreases in stress, depression, and intolerance for uncertainty. Conclusions: FYD practice may enhance multiple facets of psychological health in adults in a dose dependent manner. An RCT with an active comparison training is necessary to determine the specificity of FYD related effects and to identify mechanisms of change.
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OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between body image, self compassion and psychological distress in patients with mastectomy and to determine body image and self compassion as a predictor of psychological distress. STUDY DESIGN Co relational research design. The sample size for this study were 74 women, recruited from three government and one private hospitals of Lahore who have undergone mastectomy. Demographic questionnaire, translated version of Body Image Scale, Self compassion Scale and Kessler Distress Scale were administered as measuring instruments.
Article
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to examine whether self-compassion may be a protective coping resource against depression and anxiety symptoms for young adults experiencing discrimination and to explore the protective influence of self-compassion among sexual minority young adults (SMYAs) relative to heterosexual peers. Methods: Undergraduate college students (N = 251; 189 heterosexual and 62 sexual minority individuals) completed online self-report questionnaires related to discrimination experiences, depression, anxiety, and self-compassion. Two moderated moderation analyses were conducted to (1) identify whether self-compassion buffered the relationship between discrimination and depression and between discrimination and anxiety and (2) whether this buffering effect varied by sexual identity (i.e., heterosexual vs. sexual minority). Results: Self-compassion significantly moderated the relationship between discrimination and depression for the full sample. Further examination revealed that self-compassion significantly moderated the relationship between discrimination and depression among SMYAs, but not among heterosexual young adults. SMYAs with higher self-compassion reported fewer depression symptoms than SMYAs with lower self-compassion, even when reporting more frequent experiences of discrimination. Self-compassion did not moderate the relationship between discrimination and anxiety for the full sample, nor did this relationship vary by sexual identity. Conclusions: Self-compassion may be a particularly important coping resource to protect against depression symptoms among SMYAs experiencing discrimination. These findings provide an impetus for SMYA-tailored intervention and prevention efforts that incorporate cultivating self-compassion as a protective coping resource to buffer deleterious effects of discrimination.
Article
Background: Self-compassion has been defined as the ability to be with one's feelings of suffering in a warm and caring way. Research has shown a negative association between self-compassion and mental illness, and that low self-compassion can make psychotherapeutic effects less likely. The ability to measure a patient's self-compassion in a fast and reliable way is therefore important in investigating effects of psychotherapies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Self-Compassion Scale - Short Form (SCS-SF) in both non-clinical (NC) and clinical samples. Methods: Cross-sectional data were gathered in a NC community sample (n = 1089), an eating disorder (ED) sample (n = 253), and a borderline personality disorder (BPD) sample (n = 151). All participants were asked to complete a number of questionnaires, including the SCS-SF, and 121 participants in the NC sample repeated the assessment after two weeks for test-retest analysis. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses supported the first-order model suggested in previous research. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .78-.87) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation = .84) were demonstrated for the entire scale. Results also showed good convergent validity, demonstrating moderate negative associations between self-compassion and mental illnesses, as expected, and acceptable divergent validity, demonstrating weak positive associations between self-compassion and quality of life and mindfulness. Discussion: The correlations between the SCS-SF and the instruments used for validation were weaker in the clinical samples than the NC sample. This may be due to difficulties measuring these constructs or that the associations differ somewhat between different populations, which could warrant further research. The results added some support to the assumption that self-compassion may overlap with mindfulness, yet still represents a distinct construct. Conclusions: Analyses of the SCS-SF provided evidence of adequate to good psychometric properties, supporting use of the scale's total sum score and a first-order factor structure. This is in accordance with previous evaluations of the SCS-SF, suggesting that it is a reliable and time-efficient instrument for measuring a general level of self-compassion. This may be important when evaluating psychotherapy and investigating self-compassion and its influence on psychiatric illness.
Book
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In ‘The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Mindfulness’, the Buddha mentioned “There is this one way for the purification of beings, for overcoming sorrow and lamentation, for extinguishing of stress and suffering, for attaining to higher knowledge, and for the realisation of liberation” (Digha Nikaya 22). This ‘one way’ is the application of mindfulness meditation on body, feelings, mind, and phenomena. Such wisdom words of an enlightened teacher uttered more than 2,500 years ago are timeless truths which modern science has just begun to uncover. For four decades since Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School to introduce the structured practice of mindfulness, the interest in mindfulness and other forms of meditation has grown exponentially. Meditation is no longer merely a spiritual quest practised at secluded religious centres but a mainstream mind-body therapy for health and wellbeing. Meditation classes are everywhere: hospitals, mental health clinics, nursing homes, the military, correctional centres, sports centres, universities, schools, and even in nurseries. Research has played a pivotal role to usher in this newfound interest in meditation. There is growing evidence supporting the health benefits of meditation in reducing stress, managing pain, enhancing cognition, improving resilience, cultivating positive emotions, and much more. However, cumulative knowledge on the study of meditation from various research disciplines including neuroscience, psychophysiology, cognitive science, mental health and public health represent only the tip of the iceberg. There is still much to discover from these ancient mind and body practices. This book is a compilation of recent research in the field of meditation. It provides a snapshot of exciting findings and developments such as the launch of a large-scale UK study to operationalise mindfulness in the mental health system, the possibility that Zen meditation can slow down cardiopulmonary ageing, a theoretical framework for describing meditation interventions in health research, the potential for meditation to address health inequality, the use of mindful self-compassion to enhance the wellbeing of adult learners, and the case study of a clinical psychologist and meditation teacher sharing her first-hand experience of living with spondylolisthesis in relative peace through applying mindfulness strategies. The included articles further contribute to our understanding of the role of meditation in health, defined by the World Health Organization as “not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing”. It is an honour to be academic editors for this Special Issue and a great pleasure to review many insightful manuscripts first-hand. We wish to thank the publisher for this excellent opportunity to serve the research community. We are also grateful for the hard work and support provided by the editorial office to make this project a success. To all the authors, thank you for your contributions. To the readers, thank you for your interest. A plethora of quality works from the latest meditation research await in the following pages. May you gain many useful insights!
Article
This article focuses on the perceptual position (or ‘empty chair’) technique adapted to fit the aims of compassion-focused coaching. I will briefly review the key principles of the compassion-focused approach and discuss why and how this technique can be used in coaching practice . Keywords: Compassion-focused coaching; self-compassion; perceptual positions; critical self-talk; coaching psychology .
Article
The process of applying and getting accepted onto a research program is fraught with rejection and disappointment. This article provides information about application rejection, as well as tips and first-hand reflections on how to deal with the aftermath of disappointment in the application process, and move forward in a meaningful way.
Article
In this study, the mediating role of self-compassion and cognitive flexibility in the relationship between differentiation of self and subjective well-being was investigated. A total of 587 university students participated in the study. Participants completed the Differentiation of Self Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, Positive and Negative Emotion Scale, and Life Satisfaction Scale. The role of self-compassion and cognitive flexibility in explaining the relationship between differentiation of self and subjective well-being was examined using path analysis. Research findings showed that self-compassion and cognitive flexibility play a full mediating role in the relationship between differentiation of self and subjective well-being. The findings were discussed in the light of the literature and recommendations were presented.
Article
There is a research gap concerning the expression of compassion and self-compassion for individuals from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds. This article describes the lived experience and meaning of these concepts for Muslim Asian women living in the UK.
Article
This paper is in part a reflection on the personal illness which led the author to discover mindfulness and compassion training that supported and helped the author in her rehabilitation after having suffered a cardiac arrest. It explores the origins of mindfulness training and how a more explicit teaching of compassion skills has been found to be highly beneficial in the health and wellbeing, not just for oneself but also the others who undertake the training.
Article
There is a paucity of research regarding the relationship between self-image and intuitive eating in adulthood, particularly regarding the effect of childhood parenting. This report consists of two studies, one original and one replication. Study one investigated the effects of body image on intuitive eating using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Appearance Scale, and Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Body image was found to be a significant predictor of intuitive eating and gender differences revealed that males eat more intuitively than females. Study two is a follow-up of these initial findings, and focuses on the body image subscales that significantly correlated with intuitive eating and investigated only the experiences of males. The Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Self-Compassion Scale were added to gain a more in-depth understanding of variables that can influence the tendency of male intuitive eating. Intuitive eating and authoritative parenting during childhood were found to correlate with self-compassion as opposed to body image. Moreover, males reported eating for physical satiety or hungriness as opposed to emotional needs. These findings suggest an association between these variables and provide room for further research to be conducted.
Article
Background: Patients with eating disorders and childhood trauma have clinical presentations that make them less suitable for standard eating disorder treatment. This might be due to high levels of shame and self-criticism. Self-compassion can be a mechanism of change, especially for patients with eating disorders and childhood trauma. Method: A total of 130 patients with or without childhood trauma were admitted to 13 weeks of inpatient treatment and randomized to either compassion-focused therapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Self-compassion and eating disorder symptoms were measured every week. The data were analyzed for within-person effects using multilevel modeling. Results: We did not find a within-person effect of self-compassion on eating disorder symptoms. Rather, the analysis indicated that eating disorder symptoms predict self-compassion in the overall sample. However, we found a stronger within-person relationship between self-compassion and eating disorder symptoms in patients with trauma receiving compassion-focused therapy compared to the remaining patients in the study. Conclusion: Overall, eating disorder symptoms predicted subsequent self-compassion at a within-person level. Patients with trauma in compassion-focused therapy demonstrated a stronger relationship between self-compassion and eating disorder symptoms. More studies with a cross-lagged design are needed to further illuminate self-compassion as a mechanism of change for these patients.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02649114.
Article
Background Adolescents with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are at risk of emotional health problems and low self-esteem. However, little is known about their self-compassion (SC) and satisfaction with life (SWL). The present study compared self-compassion and satisfaction with life reported by Danish adolescents with DLD compared to typically developing (TD) peers, and whether severity of language difficulty is associated with SC and SWL. Methods Results were obtained from 10 Danish adolescents with DLD compared with 14 age-matched TD adolescents and 132 TD peers, aged 15 years. Results For SC and SWL results showed that adolescents with DLD reported more positive feelings compared to the TD adolescents. Interestingly for SC, the negative, but not the positive, domain differentiated the two groups, as adolescents with DLD reported less symptoms on self-judgment, isolation and overidentification. SC and SWL was strongly correlated with language abilities for the DLD group, but not for the TD group. Conclusions Results from our pilot study showed that Danish adolescents with DLD reported being less harsh on themselves. Language abilities were associated with self-compassion for the DLD, but not for the TD group. Whether these group differences are due to environmental factors such as the specific Danish school setting of the DLD group or internal factors are discussed and requires further research.
Article
The present program of research involved developing and evaluating three fully structured measures of facilitative and adverse social experiences during adulthood described by the developmental theory of embodiment (DTE) as shaping the quality of the experiences of living in the body. The Physical Freedom Scale - adulthood (PFSa) addresses physical experiences, the Mental Freedom Scale - adulthood (MFSa) assesses exposure to social environments that either facilitate or constrict freedom from constraining social discourses, and the Social Power and Relational Connections Scale - adulthood (SPRCSa) covers experiences of accessing, or being barred from, social power and empowering relational connections. The pilot study ( N = 92) involved item revision and deletion. Study 1 (N = 412) involved factor analyses of the three scales, leading to the emergence of six, three, and four factors in the PFSa, MFSa, and SPRCSa, respectively. The study also provided initial support for the internal consistency of the scales and subscales, as well as their convergent validity. Study 2 (N = 373) confirmed the factor structure of the scales from study 2. Study 3 (N = 64) demonstrated that the scales and their factors were stable over a 3-week period. The scales can be used to study integrated sociocultural models of embodiment.
Article
Bu araştırmanın amacı pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinin; duygusal zeka, öz anlayış ve yaşama anlam yükleme ile ilişkisini incelemektir. Araştırma çeşitli kamu ortaöğretim kurumlarında çalışan öğretmenler ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında toplam 6 branşta 210 öğretmene ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmada 24-55 yaşları arasında 156 kadın ve 54 erkek yer almıştır. Araştırmanın verileri “Pozitif Öğretmen Ölçeği, Öz-Anlayış Ölçeği, Duygusal Zeka Ölçeği ve Yaşama Anlam Yükleme Ölçeği” aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Ayrıca örneklem grubunun demografik özelliklerini belirlemek için araştırmacılar tarafından “Kişisel Bilgi Formu” oluşturulmuştur. Araştırmanın verileri, betimsel istatistikler, korelasyon analizi ve regresyon yöntemi kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinin; duygusal zekâ, öz-anlayış ve mevcut anlam ile pozitif yönde ve anlamlı bir şekilde ilişkili olduğu bulunmuştur. Pozitif öğretmen özellikleri ile aranan anlam arasında önemli ve anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamıştır. Pozitif öğretmen özelliklerini güçlendirmek adına yaşama anlam yükleme, öz-anlayış ve duygusal zeka konularında uygulamalı çalışmalar yapılabilir.
Article
Purpose The aim of this paper is to explore mindfulness and self-compassion teachings and practices embedded in a leadership course and their outcome on stress regulation of doctoral-level students. Design/methodology/approach Eight valid and reliable pre-and post-assessment inventories were administered prior to the first week of class and following the completion of the doctoral-level class. The test scores were measured for improvement and for differences between various demographic groups. Findings The results suggest significant improvement on almost every mindfulness subscale with approximately 5–22% of the variance in subscale scores attributed to participation. Doctoral students over 40 indicated more score improvement than students under 40, and doctoral students of color indicated more significant score increases than White students. Research limitations/implications The research involves doctoral-level students which limits generalizability to other levels of education. Based on the findings, scaling analysis should be conducted on other types of students for generalization purposes. Practical implications Institutions looking to incorporate wellness practices into curriculum can embed these types of practices into their course design. Social implications Faculty can become more intentional in how they engage students in mindful compassion skills within their academic programs. Originality/value The paper adds a quantitative study into the literature surrounding efficacy of wellness practices in structured curriculum. Institutions looking to provide more resources to students to improve their wellness may find the model useful on their campuses, particularly for students over 40 and students of color.
Article
This mixed-methods pilot study explored the psychological and emotional experiences of chaplains and the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of workshops designed to support chaplain well-being. After the workshops, scores on a measure of self-compassion increased, while secondary traumatic stress and burnout scores decreased. Qualitative data reflected the range of experiences of chaplaincy as well as the benefits of the workshops. This pilot study supports further exploration of organizational interventions to promote chaplain well-being.
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Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, kamu hastanesinde görev yapan personelin psikolojik sermaye düzeylerinin tükenmişlikleri üzerindeki etkisinde öz-şefkat düzeylerinin dolaylı bir etkiye (aracı rol) sahip olup olmadığını belirlemektir. İlgili amaç doğrultusunda araştırmanın evrenini Tokat ili ve ilçelerinde görev yapan 4446 kamu hastanesi personeli oluşturmuştur. Araştırma kapsamında elektronik ortamda (surveey.com aracılığıyla) hazırlanan anket formu örnekleme ulaştırılmıştır. 206 katılımcıdan elde edilen veri ile araştırmanın amacı kapsamında oluşturulan modeli test etmek için aracılık analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu analiz, SPSS programına eklenen Process Macro uygulaması üzerinden yapılmıştır. Analiz sonuçları, psikolojik sermaye ve öz-şefkatin tükenmişlik üzerinde negatif yönde bir etkisi olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca psikolojik sermayenin öz-şefkat üzerinde pozitif yönde etkisi tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın özgün sonucu ise, psikolojik sermayenin tükenmişlik üzerindeki etkisinde öz-şefkatin yüksek değerde bir dolaylı etkiye sahip olduğudur. Mevcut bulgular yazın ışığında tartışılmış, gelecek araştırmalar ve uygulayıcılar için öneriler geliştirilmiştir.
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Abstract Discusses interpersonal forgiveness, examining the questions: 1) What is interpersonal forgiveness; 2) Can we devise a model to help people forgive; and 3) What are the psychological outcomes for those who forgive. The authors express some concerns about the direction the field of forgiveness studies seems to be taking regarding each question.
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A meta-analysis examined the relation between self-esteem and ingroup bias. The project focused on effects of ingroup bias strategy and measurement of self-esteem. Results indicated that high-self-esteem individuals exhibited more ingroup bias than did low-self-esteem individuals. Bias strategy and self-esteem measurement moderated this relation. When using “direct” ingroup bias strategies, high-self-esteem individuals showed more bias than did low-self-esteem individuals. When using “indirect” strategies, groups exhibited comparable amounts of bias. Results were comparable for collective and personal self-esteem measures. Examination of specific collective measures indicated that self-esteem defined by the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) did not predict differences in ingroup bias, whereas group identification measures did predict differences in ingroup bias. Results are interpreted as indicating that both high and low-self-esteem individuals exhibit ingroup bias; however, expression of ingroup bias by individuals with low self-esteem is constrained by situational factors. Furthermore, individual-level factors such as personal self-esteem may be useful in predicting collective enhancement.
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For over a century, psychologists have described adolescence as a time of heightened psychological risk for girls. This article explores a relational impasse or crisis of connection that we have observed in girls' lives at adolescence by tracing through time the thoughts and feelings of two 12-year-old girls who were interviewed as part of a 5-year longitudinal study of girls' psychological development. Using a voice-centered relational method, we join the experiences of struggle and resistance at this developmental juncture with the problems that have been seen as central to the psychology of women.
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Being No One The Self-Model Theory of Subjectivity. by Thomas Metzinger. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003. 713 pp. $55, £35.95. ISBN 0-262-13417-9. In this thorough discussion of the problem of the self, Metzinger draws on contemporary neuroscience to develop a new philosophical approach to consciousness.
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This chapter is followed by an educator's commentary written by P. M. Harbour and J. Stewart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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introduce and elaborate upon a critical distinction between what [the authors] call "contingent" and "true" self-esteem / contingent self-esteem involves feelings of self-worth that are dependent on matching standards of excellence or expectations (i.e., ego involvement) / it is thought to be associated with various narcissistic and defensive processes that reveal less than optimal psychological well-being / true self-esteem is more solidly based and stable, and it reflects positive mental health / discuss how this distinction fits into [the authors'] well-known theory of self-determination / describe in detail various self-regulatory processes that are thought to promote either contingent or true self-esteem / discuss how these various self-regulatory processes are related to mental health, and . . . describe the social conditions that are thought to promote self-determination and the development of true self-esteem (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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focus . . . on the implications that self-evaluation maintenance (SEM) processes have for close relationships and global self-esteem / [describe] the original SEM model, which emphasizes 2 antagonistic processes that are crucial to the maintenance of positive self-evaluations: reflection and comparison / describe the extended SEM model, which holds that partners in close relationships will react to each other's outcomes as well as directly to their own / describe a number of studies that provide support for the extended SEM model, and [discuss some] implications that the model has for the way in which self-esteem is potentially affected within the context of close relationships / [discuss] whether some people take more extreme measures to protect their self-evaluations than do others / [speculate] about the self in an evolutionary perspective (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Four studies demonstrate the psychometric adequacy and validity of scales designed to assess coping through emotional approach. In separate undergraduate samples, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of dispositional (Study 1) and situational (Study 3) coping item sets yielded 2 distinct emotional approach coping factors: emotional processing (i.e., active attempts to acknowledge and understand emotions) and emotional expression. The 2 scales yielded high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity. A study (Study 2) of young adults and their parents established the scales' interjudge reliabilities. Longitudinal (Study 3) and experimental (Study 4) research supported the predictive validity of the emotional approach coping scales with regard to adjustment to stressful encounters. Findings highlight the utility of functionalist theories of emotion as applied to coping theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Syndromal classification is a well-developed diagnostic system but has failed to deliver on its promise of the identification of functional pathological processes. Functional analysis is tightly connected to treatment but has failed to develop testable, replicable classification systems. Functional diagnostic dimensions are suggested as a way to develop the functional classification approach, and experiential avoidance is described as 1 such dimension. A wide range of research is reviewed showing that many forms of psychopathology can be conceptualized as unhealthy efforts to escape and avoid emotions, thoughts, memories, and other private experiences. It is argued that experiential avoidance, as a functional diagnostic dimension, has the potential to integrate the efforts and findings of researchers from a wide variety of theoretical paradigms, research interests, and clinical domains and to lead to testable new approaches to the analysis and treatment of behavioral disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
Book
The Self and Self-Knowledge collects papers by some of the major theorists working in the field. They all share the methodological perspective that philosophical analysis is needed before scientific research can be fruitfully brought to bear on these issues. The book focuses on two main problems: how to account for I-thoughts and the view of the self that entails, as well as how to explain a subject's ability to know the kind of psychological states they enjoy, which characteristically issues in psychological self-ascriptions. The first section of the volume-'The Self and its Individuation'-contains essays that, by appealing to altogether different considerations-ranging from normative to phenomenological ones-offer an assessment of the animalist conception of the self. Part Two-'Consciousness, Action-Awareness and Their Role in Self-Knowledge'-contains an examination as well as a defence of the new epistemic paradigm, largely associated with recent work by Christopher Peacocke, according to which knowledge of our own mental states and actions should be based on an awareness of them and of our tryings of bringing them about. Part Three-'Self-knowledge. Robust or Fragile?'-contains an assessment, from different perspectives, ranging from neo-expressivism, to various kinds of constitutivism, of the view that self-knowledge is much more robust than any other form of knowledge. List of contributors: Dorit Bar-On, Akeel Bilgrami, John Campbell, Annalisa Coliva, Jane Heal, Conor McHugh, Martine Nida-Rümelin, Lucy O'Brien, Christopher Peacocke, Carol Rovane, Paul Snowdon.
Chapter
Over and over, investigators have found self-esteem to be central in a broad network of constructs associated with motivation, performance, and well-being. Esteeming oneself—thinking well of oneself—has often been found to relate to more effective behavior and better adjustment than has low self-regard.
Chapter
This chapter explores the nature of confession and inhibition. Conversely, not confiding significant experiences is associated with increased disease rates, ruminations, and other difficulties. This pattern of findings has helped in developing a useful theory of active inhibition that shares many of the assumptions of learning theory, psychodynamic models, and more recent cognitive perspectives. The chapter examines the nature of confession per se. The chapter focuses on the physiological and psychological effects of confronting or actively avoiding past traumatic experiences. Based on a number of laboratory and field studies, it is clear that requiring people to write or talk about traumas is associated with both immediate and long-term health benefits. The chapter presents a formal theory of active inhibition. The links among the theory and Freud, animal learning, and cognitive perspectives are discussed in the chapter. The chapter describes the reexamination of catharsis, the development and breakdown of the self, and the role of psychosomatics in social psychology.
Article
Two studies supported hypotheses that (a) published scales tapping coping through processing and expressing emotion are confounded with psychopathology; (b) previously demonstrated relations between emotional approach coping (EAC) and maladjustment are partially spurious; and (c) EAC, when tapped by items uncontaminated by distress, is beneficial under specific conditions. In Study 1, 194 psychologists rated a majority of published items, but no author-constructed EAC item, as indicative of pathology. Study 2 assessed relations of confounded and unconfounded EAC scales to 171 young adults' adjustment during stressful events. Confounded items evidenced weaker discriminant validity with distress measures than did unconfounded items, and they were weaker predictors of later maladjustment when initial adjustment was controlled than when it was not. Unconfounded EAC predicted improved adjustment for women and poorer adjustment for men over time.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
This text discusses how Eastern spirituality can enhance Western psychology. As patients and therapists find themselves reaching for new solutions to their problems, the traditional disctinctions between matters of the mind and matters of the spirit are increasingly being questioned. This book is written by a traditionally trained psychotherapist who has immersed himself in the Buddhist tradition. Drawing on his own experiences as patient, meditator and therapist, the author argues that the contemplative traditions of the East help patients go beyond merely recognizing their problems to healing them, and that such an approach is not at odds with the psychodynamic method. The book begins by focusing on the Buddhist perspective. Dispelling misconceptions common even among those already practising meditative techniques, this section presents the Buddha's psychological teachings in the language of Western psychodynamics. It then goes on to explain the meditative practices of bare attention, concentration, mindfulness, and analytical inquiry, and shows how they speak to issues at the forefront of psychological concern. Finally, the book uses Freud's treatise of psychotherapy - "Remembering, repeating and working-through" - as a template to show how the Buddha's teaching can complement, inform and energize the practice of psychotherapy.
Article
This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
Article
This introduction to the two-part special issue reviews recent evidence that suggests that positive mood may play a beneficial, multifaceted, and flexible role in self-regulatory processes that cannot be explained by most current theories. First, under some conditions positive mood seems to facilitate careful processing of goal-relevant information, even negative information. Second, the relation of positive mood to cognition and behavior seems to be strongly moderated by goal-relevant features of the task context. Three frameworks (mood as input, processing advantages conferred by positive mood, and mood as resource) that may account for these facilitating effects of positive mood on self-regulation are discussed.
Article
George Herbert Mead described "the whole nature of intelligence as social to its very core." In this respect, he was a forerunner of social constructionism, which, when applied to psychotherapy, focuses the therapeutic process on the client's meaning-making process in the context of relationships. Furthermore, Mead perceived the primary aspect of human intelligence to be the capacity of the individual to "put himselfin the place of' another. The implications ofthis for both individual and family psychotherapy and, in particular, its relevance to the practices of empathy and dialogue are explored. A case of couple therapy is used to illustrate the specific applications of the theoretical concepts discussed. It is generally recognized that the specifically social expressions of intelligence... depend upon the given individual's ability to take the roles of, or "put himself in the place of," the other individuals implicated with him in given social situations; and upon his consequent sensitivity to their attitudes toward himself and toward one another. These specifically social expressions of intelligence, of course, acquire unique significance in terms of our view that the whole nature of intelligence is social to its very core, that this putting of one's self in the places of others, this taking by one's self of their roles or attitudes, is not merely one of the various aspects or expressions of intelligence or of intelligent behavior, but is the very essence of its character. (Mead, 1934, p. 141)
Article
Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence. © 1993.
Book
1 * Philosophers on Sympathy.- 2 * Sympathy in a Biological Context: Charles Darwin and William McDougall.- 3 * The Nature of Sympathy.- 4 * The Definition of Sympathy.- 5 * The Provenance of Sympathy.- 6 * Laboratory Analogues of Sympathy.- 7 * The Role of Faces and Places in the Arousal of Sympathy.- 8 * The Roles of Imagery and Mimicry in Sympathy.- 9 * A Summary of the Theory of Sympathy.- 10 * The Function of Sympathy.- References.- Author Index.
Article
Reviews the book, The art of the psychotherapist by James F. T. Bugental (see record 1987-97347-000). Those who are fortunate enough to read this book are in for a treat. James Bugental shares with us a sensitivity, an artistry, and a professionalism that encompasses 40 years of his life as a psychotherapist. This book is well written, clear in style and presentation. It is a book that may be viewed by those of us who have practiced for many years as a way of reviewing and rethinking what we have been doing and the manner in which we have been functioning. For the young therapist it gives much food for thought. For the supervisor it offers an opportunity to formulate ways of thinking and approaching students in a novel and creative manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
I have tried to tell you what has seemed to occur in the lives of people with whom I have had the privilege of being in a relationship as they struggled toward becoming themselves. I have endeavored to describe, as accurately as I can, the meanings which seem to be involved in this process of becoming a person. I am sure that I do not see it clearly or completely, since I keep changing in my comprehension and understanding of it. I hope you will accept it as a current and tentative picture, not as something final. One reason for stressing the tentative nature of what I have said is that I wish to make it clear that I amnot saying: “This is what you should become; here is the goal for you.” Rather, I am saying that these are some of the meanings I see in the experiences that my clients and I have shared. Perhaps this picture of the experience of others may illuminate or give more meaning to some of your own experience. I have pointed out that the individual appears to have a strong desire to become himself; that given a favorable psychological climate he drops the defensive masks with which he has faced life, and begins to discover and to experience the stranger who lives behind these masks—the hidden parts of himself. I have pictured some of the attributes of the person who emerges—the tendency, to be more open to all elements of his organic experience; the growth of trust in one's organism as an instrument of sensitive living; the acceptance of the fearsome responsibility of being a unique person; and finally the sense of living in one's life as a participant in a fluid, ongoing process, continually discovering new aspects of one's self in the flow of experience. These are some of the things which seem to me to be involved in becoming a person.
Article
The research described in this chapter is concerned with tall poppies that are viewed impersonally from a distance rather than with tall poppies that are seen as rivals in situations where there is a struggle for achievement or power. The research is conducted to identify some of the variables that affect the attitudes toward tall poppies and the reaction to their fall. It investigated not only attitudes toward specific tall poppies who are high achievers but also attitudes toward tall poppies in general. This chapter describes some of the main sources for the theoretical ideas that guided the research program. The research program on tall poppies has involved both experimental and correlational studies. The chapter describes studies that used vignettes or scenarios in which the initial status of the stimulus person is experimentally manipulated and where this status declined as a result of performance or other factors. In addition, later studies investigated deservingness in more detail and cross-cultural differences. A second group of studies examined attitudes toward tall poppies in general and the correlates of these attitudes. These studies examined generalized attitudes toward high achievers, using a specially constructed scale called “the Tall Poppy Scale.” A third group of studies in research program has examined attitudes toward tall poppies that are highly visible public figures.
Article
This research tested the hypothesis that when individuals first answer a question about relative evaluation, i.e. the degree in which they feel they are better or worse off than comparison others and next a question about general evaluation, i.e. the general judgment of one's situation or one's characteristics, the correlations between both variables will be higher than when the order of the questions is reversed. In the first case individuals will use social comparison information as a reference point for making a judgment of their situation, whereas general evaluations not preceded by relative evaluations may be based on a variety of factors. The content of the questions concerned optimism with respect to one's own prospects concerning intimate relationships, i.e. the perceived chances of having a happy intimate relationship in the future, and the perceived chance of not becoming involved in a divorce. The results of two studies—a questionnaire study among students (n=274), and a computer administered survey among single adults (n=275)—confirmed the predictions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This analysis explores the philosophical issue of the individual-society relationship through a focus on Abraham Maslow's humanistic psychology and its significant influence on adult education in the United States. Analyzing the points of contention between the key assumptions of Maslow and recent critics, particularly Marxist and postmodernist scholars, the study concludes with perspectives that do not abandon humanistic possibilities while pinpointing its problems.
Article
This volume examines selected topics in relational theory such as sexuality, shame, anger, depression, and applications to therapy, and explores some of the richness and complexity that arise from the diverse life experiences of women. While all women suffer in a patriarchal society where experience is not represented in the dominant discourse, women in various cultural/ethnic groups suffer additional marginalization based on race, sexual orientation, socioeconomic standing, able-bodiedness, and age. Women who are marginalized also develop strengths that may differ from those of White, privileged heterosexual women. This book presents the Stone Center relational model, which emphasizes the centrality of connection in women's lives. In particular, the authors suggest that women grow through the fostering of relationships. The authors advocate not just a more accurate understanding of women, but also a major paradigm shift in all of Western psychology, from a psychology of the separate self to a psychology of relational being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two independent types of experiences of depression have been identified among normals—dependency and self-criticism. Using the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, this study investigates their utility in differentiating depression in patients. 197 patients (mean age 34 yrs) and 262 normal controls (mean age 26.7 yrs) also completed the MMPI, Beck Depression Inventory, and Self Rating Depression Scale. There were consistent differences among patients as a function of whether their experiences of depression focused primarily on issues of dependency and/or self-criticism or an absence of these issues. The subjective experiences around which an individual's depression focuses seem to provide a valid basis for differentiating among types of depression. Judges using case records were able to differentiate patients who were high on dependency or self-criticism, on both, or on neither of these dimensions. The distinction between these 2 different foci of depression may provide valuable differentiations for clinical research, and have important implications for the therapeutic process with different types of depressed patients. (55 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book provides a foundation to the principles of psychology. It draws upon the natural sciences, avoiding metaphysics, for the basis of its information. According to James, this book, assuming that thoughts and feelings exist and are vehicles of knowledge, thereupon contends that psychology, when it has ascertained the empirical correlation of the various sorts of thought or feeling with definite conditions of the brain, can go no farther as a natural science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examines the classroom learning environment in relation to achievement goal theory of motivation. Classroom structures are described in terms of how they make different types of achievement goals salient and as a consequence elicit qualitatively different patterns of motivation. Task, evaluation and recognition, and authority dimensions of classrooms are presented as examples of structures that can influence children's orientation toward different achievement goals. Central to the thesis of this article is a perspective that argues for an identification of classroom structures that can contribute to a mastery orientation, a systematic analysis of these structures, and a determination of how these structures relate to each other. The ways in which interventions must address the independency among these structures are discussed in terms of how they influence student motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This volume presents the most recent developments in this field of study [social comparison]. As described in the chapters that follow, the theory has gone through several iterations, taken on new problems and research paradigms, and reached out to other social-psychological areas of study. Some of this research addresses questions that are logical extensions of [Leon] Festinger's theory; some considers questions that derive from entirely different ways of construing the comparison process from Festinger's original approach. Although all questions are not settled, the work presented here shows how far the original social comparison theory has evolved and suggests where we are likely to find the next insights. The book is organized into five major sections. The first part consists of five chapters describing general models of the comparison process. . . . Part II considers the extension of social comparison processes to important problems in social cognition. . . . Part III provides new insights on how comparison applies to social psychological phenomena. . . . Part IV involves recent developments in which social comparison theory has been tested in applied settings. . . . Finally, Part V provides a commentary in which the contributions are critically reviewed, some general questions raised, and suggestions for future study are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This book has been conceived and executed as a cross-sectional systematic analysis mainly of two concepts: introjection and identification. These two concepts are frequently used in relation to each other in an uncoordinated, often implicit variety of ways, and also in relation to the concepts of internalization and incorporation, again in an uncoordinated, often implicit variety of ways. The reader will find extensive discussion of certain aspects of metapsychology of internalization, introjection, identification, and incorporation, and little or no discussions of other aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Achievement behavior in schools can be understood best in terms of students' attempts to maintain a positive self-image. For many students, expending effort is scary because a combination of effort and failure implies low ability. Students have a variety of techniques for avoiding failure, ranging from cheating to setting goals that are so easily achieved that no risk is involved. Although teachers usually reward achievement and punish lack of effort, for many students risking the sense of defeat that comes from trying hard and not succeeding is too daunting. In "Making the grade," Martin Covington extracts powerful educational implications from self-worth theory and other contemporary views that will be useful for educators, parents, and all people concerned with the educational dilemmas we face. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)