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Unlike many European countries, the US has no national paternity leave policy giving fathers the right to take paid time off work following the birth (or adoption) of a child. Despite this, prior research suggests that many fathers do take some time off work after a child is born. However, little is known about the determinants, circumstances or consequences of paternal leave-taking. In this paper, we use the first wave of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a new nationally representative panel study of over 10,000 children born in 2001, to examine these questions. We make use of ECLS-B questions asked directly of resident fathers pertaining to their participation in a range of child care-taking activities, as well as a rich set of measures about the father, mother and child. We find that the overwhelming majority of fathers take at least some leave at the birth of their child, but that the length of that leave varies a good deal. Our results also indicate that fathers who take longer leave are more involved in child care-taking activities nine months later.
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... Second, there is some empirical evidence (Seward et al., 2006;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel, 2007;Tanaka and Waldfogel, 2007;Haas and Hwang, 2007;Duvander and Jans, 2008;Hosking et al., 2010;Meil, 2013;and Fernández-Cornejo et al., 2016a) showing that fathers who take longer leaves tend to be subsequently more involved in the care of their children. And precisely, through path analysis, in this article some evidence has been obtained in favor of this hypothesis, using a measure for the father´s involvement in childcare (relative to the mother) that included 14 non-playful activities of childcare. ...
... Depending on their set upthe leave length, level of payment and type of entitlement -they may promote, enable, or on the contrary impede the equal sharing of caregiving activities by mothers and fathers (Brighouse & Wright, 2008). Research shows there is a relationship between leave schemes' design, mothers and fathers' use of these leaves, and the gender division of paid and unpaid work (e.g., Duvander & Jans, 2008;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Rehel, 2014). When fathers are entitled to individual, non-transferable and well paid leaves, they are more likely to use them, which in the medium term tends to increase their involvement in childcare and may reduce their hours of wage work, thereby challenging a traditional gender division of work. ...
... On the interactional level, they challenge the gender division of paid and unpaid work. Fathers who have taken leave tend to be more involved in childcare tasks in the medium term than those who have not (e.g., Duvander & Jans, 2008;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Rehel, 2014). They also tend to adopt shorter working hours. ...
... One way of increasing father involvement, especially among nonresident fathers, may be through paternity leave (Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007) as leave provides fathers with time to spend with the child, can promote attachment, may increase father identity, and may show mothers that the fathers are sincere about engaging with their newborn child. The United States does not offer paid paternal leave, yet nearly 90% of U.S. fathers take some time off after the birth of a child (Department of Labor, 2016), suggesting that many nonresident fathers take paternity leave. ...
... Most research on leave-taking has focused on coresident fathers (e.g., Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007). Our study builds on earlier work by exploring the unique experience of nonresident fathers using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), a longitudinal birth cohort study of largely low-income parents and their children. ...
... Fathers who take leave are on average more economically advantaged than those who do not take leave and have higher levels of education (Bygren & Duvander, 2006;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;O'Brien, 2009). Similarly, there are large racial/ethnic disparities in access to paid leave (Bartel, Kim, & Nam, 2019). ...
This article examines whether paternity leave influences father involvement among nonresident fathers, if associations differ by coresidential status, and whether leave is a stronger predictor of nonresident father involvement than other indicators of father identity or interest.
Fathering promotes child development, yet many children are born to unmarried parents and do not live with their fathers. Paternity leave may increase fathering among nonresident fathers, but extant research has largely overlooked these fathers.
Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N∼2,000), a longitudinal birth cohort of largely low‐income families, this study examines the link between paternity leave and parenting using regression analyses.
Leave‐taking was associated with higher reports of engagement for both coresident and nonresident fathers, but for maternal reports of trust, coparenting, and responsibility, the positive associations with leave‐taking were concentrated among nonresident fathers. Nonresident fathers who took leave were more likely to provide in‐kind child support but not monetary support. Although leave, prenatal involvement, and being at the birth were all associated with greater involvement among nonresident fathers, mothers' reports of fathering were more strongly influenced by prenatal involvement and being at the hospital for the birth than leave.
Leave‐taking is associated with maternal reports of trust, coparenting, and responsibility for nonresident fathers but not coresident fathers. Leave and prenatal involvement predict nonresident father involvement.
... the united states stands out among economically advanced countries in its universal lack of WFP. there is no federal mandate for paid parental leave, leaving parents subject to company benevolence and varying state-level benefits (nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007). the Family and Medical leave act (FMla) provides 12 weeks of unpaid job-protected leave for specific family or medical reasons such as the birth of a child or adoption. ...
... Qualitative research has explored the transition to fatherhood (Brady, stevens, Coles, Zadorozny, & Martin, 2017;docet, 2009;henwood & Proctor, 2003) or compared fatherhood by class (Barbeta-Viñas & Cano, 2017;Plantin, 2007;shows & Gerstel, 2009); quantitative analyses have examined policy impacts on fatherhood (Bünning, 2015;nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007). this study bridges research on work and fatherhood to explore how elite, professional fathers navigate work and family demands, and contributes to the research on the variation and complexity of fatherhood (dermott & Miller, 2015;Wall & arnold, 2007;Williams, 2008). ...
... Fathers' lives, similar to mothers', are shaped by structural and cultural factors, accounting for the persistent gendered gap in childcare and housework, even among dual-income couples. While evidence shows that fathers who take parental leave, particularly longer leaves, are more involved in children's lives later (Brady et al., 2017;Bünning, 2015;nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;rehel, 2014), uneven and inadequate family policies, along with an unsupportive work culture for using WFP without penalization, restrict fathers' engagement (Miller, 2011;Williams et al., 2013). Work organizations maintain structures and practices that define good fathering as breadwinning, rendering involved and emotionally committed fathers invisible. ...
The purpose of this chapter is to analyse the interplay between fathers’ perceptions of the workplace and how they enact fatherhood. Data were derived from qualitative in-depth interviews with seven elite, professional fathers employed at multinational manufacturing corporations in Detroit, Michigan. Fathers are highly educated, have a significant income and all but one have wives in the paid labour market. This study shows how the persistence of the ideal worker norm and penalties for using work-family policies (WFP) perpetuate the gendered division of paid and unpaid work. First, fathers who are ideal workers are rewarded; fathers who do not face criticism and obstacles to promotions. Second, management and supervisor’s discretion results in uneven access to WFP, penalizing fathers for asking and preventing most from using them. Third, fathers express desire to be ‘involved’, but their engagement is largely visible fatherhood.
This study extends our theoretical understandings of work, WFP and fatherhood from a distinct departure point – the elite fathers highlighted here have been parenting for at least three years, and live and work in circumstances that seemingly would allow them to disrupt normative expectations of work and family. The United States provides a unique backdrop to examine the navigation of competing work and family demands because reconciliation is largely left to employees and their families. Public and individual company policies are not enough; there must be a corresponding supportive family-friendly culture – supervisor support and penalty-free WFP – to disrupt gendered work and family.
... İki farklı grupta büyüyen sıçanlarda stres ve kaygı seviyelerinde de farklılık rapor edilmektedir  . Bu genin aktivitesindeki değişikliğe ek olarak, anneden bakım almayan, glukokortikoid reseptör geninin sessiz olduğu sıçanlarda bellekten sorumlu hipokampüs bölgesinde genetik programda değişiklik olduğu belirtilmiştir  . İnsanda NR3C1 glukokortikoid reseptör geni ile yapılan çalışmalarda, sıçanlardakine benzer sonuçların insanlar için de geçerli olduğu gösterilmiştir. ...
... Bu durum sonrasında hücre ve organlarda farklılaşmalar meydana gelmektedir. Örneğin, BDNF ve NR3C1 gibi genlerin kronik stres sonucunda sessizleştiği, beyinde hipokampüs bölgesinde küçülmelere neden olduğu gözlenmiştir [32,36] . Bütün bu örnekler genlerimizin psikolojik durumumuzdan ne derece etkilendiğinin önemli göstergeleridir. ...
... Doğumun ardından annelere verilen yasal doğum izninin, babalara da verilmesi, söz konusu ülke politikalarında bebek açısından babanın da önemli olduğunun önemli bir göstergesidir. Avrupa ülkelerinde 1980'li yıllarda getirilen babalık izninin süresi, 2000'li yıllarda iki haftaya çıkartılırken [34,35] , ABD'de babalık izni bulunmamaktadır  . İskandinav ülkelerinde ise doğum izni anne ya da baba tarafından kullanılabilmekte; ancak babaların katılımının desteklemesi amacıyla babalara özel, anneler tarafından kullanılamayan bir kota belirlenmiştir. ...
... Stoga, dok jedna istraživanja pokazuju da su mlađi muškarci skloniji koristiti dopuste (Sundström i Duvander, 2002), druga govore kako je korištenje dopusta izglednije kod starijih očeva, ali i kod očeva čije su partnerice starije od njih (Geisler i Kreyenfeld, 2011). 19 Rezultati su istraživanja dosljedniji vezano uz razine obrazovanja očeva te pokazuju kako dopuste češće koriste obrazovaniji muškarci (Nepomnyaschy i Waldfogel, 2007;Huerta i dr., 2013;Bünning, 2015;Wall i Leitão, 2017), ali i da odluci očeva pridonosi »relativno obrazovanje« -izglednije je da će dopuste koristiti očevi koji žive s partnericama više razine obrazovanja (Sundström i Duvander, 2002;Geisler i Kreyenfeld, 2011). Jednu od važnijih uloga pri donošenju odluke o korištenju dopusta ima i socioekonomski status i izglednije je da će dopust koristiti očevi koji više zarađuju (Huerta i dr., 2013). ...
... Učestalijem očevom korištenju dopusta pridonosi i partnerski status, 21 no istraživanja nisu jednoglasna oko naravi partnerskog statusa. Tako s jedne strane pokazuju kako dopuste češće koriste očevi u braku (Huerta i dr., 2013), a s druge strane očevi koji su u izvanbračnoj zajednici (Geisler i Kreyenfeld, 2011;Nepomnyaschy i Waldfogel, 2007). Istraživanja pokazuju da više očeva koji koriste dopuste nalazimo u obiteljima s jednim djetetom (Geisler i Kreyenfeld, 2011;Bünning, 2015), ali i to da je najveća vjerojatnost korištenja dopusta za prvo dijete (kad se koriste i dopusti u najduljem trajanju), dok se vjerojatnost odlaska oca na dopust smanjuje sa svakim sljedećim djetetom (Sundström i Duvander, 2002;Nepomnyaschy i Waldfogel, 2007;Whitehouse, Diamond i Baird, 2007;Lammi-Taskula, 2017;Wall i Leitão, 2017). ...
... Tako s jedne strane pokazuju kako dopuste češće koriste očevi u braku (Huerta i dr., 2013), a s druge strane očevi koji su u izvanbračnoj zajednici (Geisler i Kreyenfeld, 2011;Nepomnyaschy i Waldfogel, 2007). Istraživanja pokazuju da više očeva koji koriste dopuste nalazimo u obiteljima s jednim djetetom (Geisler i Kreyenfeld, 2011;Bünning, 2015), ali i to da je najveća vjerojatnost korištenja dopusta za prvo dijete (kad se koriste i dopusti u najduljem trajanju), dok se vjerojatnost odlaska oca na dopust smanjuje sa svakim sljedećim djetetom (Sundström i Duvander, 2002;Nepomnyaschy i Waldfogel, 2007;Whitehouse, Diamond i Baird, 2007;Lammi-Taskula, 2017;Wall i Leitão, 2017). 19 Pritom je zanimljivo osvrnuti se i na istraživanja stavova koja pokazuju kako su muškarci u dvadesetima spremniji na korištenje duljih dopusta (šest mjeseci) nego oni u tridesetima (jedan do dva mjeseca; Lainiala, 2014, prema Lammi-Taskula, 2017. ...
Prijedlog europske direktive o ravnoteži poslovnog i privatnog života iz 2017. godine predlaže uvođenje četiri mjeseca neprenosivoga, plaćenog roditeljskog dopusta za svakoga zaposlenog roditelja (tzv. kvota) te deset dana plaćenoga očevog dopusta, opravdavajući to potrebom poboljšanja položaja žena na tržištu rada. Usvajanje direktive tražilo bi od Hrvatske uvođenje deset dana dopusta za očeve te produljivanje postojećih kvota s dva na četiri mjeseca. Hrvatska isprva nije dala bezrezervnu potporu prijedlogu te direktive, a argumenti koji su se iznosili upućivali su na izraženo tradicionalno poimanje uloge očeva u najranijoj dobi djeteta, nedovoljno poznavanje čimbenika korištenja dopusta kod očeva te mogućih učinaka predloženih odredbi. Stoga ovaj rad daje doprinos toj raspravi sagledavajući sheme dopusta u europskim zemljama, ponajprije čimbenika te učinaka očeva korištenja dopusta. Korištenje je dopusta kod očeva ponajprije određeno samom shemom dopusta, pri čemu najbolje rezultate postižu zemlje koje imaju očev dopust i/ili načelo neprenosivosti unutar sheme roditeljskog dopusta (tzv. kvote), ali samo kad te dopuste prate visoke zamjenske stope dohotka. Mogućnost ostvarivanja prava na dopuste određuju i socioekonomska i sociodemografska obilježja, obilježja radnog mjesta te preferencije i stavovi roditelja i njihove okoline. Korištenje dopusta nosi brojne koristi kako za položaj žena na tržištu rada, tako za samu dobrobit djeteta te očeva i partnerica. Izneseni rezultati pokazuju potrebu reforme hrvatske sheme dopusta radi širenja prava očeva, ali i djelovanja na promjenu ideala roditeljstva te normi i praksi na radnom mjestu, kako bi one postale otvorenijima spram očeva koji koriste dopuste te ih na to i poticale.
... Depending on their set upthe leave length, level of payment and type of entitlement -they may promote, enable, or on the contrary impede the equal sharing of caregiving activities by mothers and fathers (Brighouse & Wright, 2008). Research shows there is a relationship between leave schemes' design, mothers and fathers' use of these leaves, and the gender division of paid and unpaid work (e.g., Bünning, 2015;Duvander & Jans, 2008;Haas & Hwang, 2008;Huerta et al., 2013;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Rehel, 2014). When fathers are entitled to individual, non-transferable and well paid leaves, they are more likely to use them, which in the medium term tends to increase their involvement in childcare and may reduce their hours of wage work, thereby challenging a traditional gender division of work. ...
... On the interactional level, they challenge the gender division of paid and unpaid work. Fathers who have taken leave tend to be more involved in childcare tasks in the medium term than those who have not (e.g., Bünning, 2015;Duvander & Jans, 2008;Haas & Hwang, 2008;Huerta et al., 2013;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Rehel, 2014). They also tend to adopt shorter working hours. ...
Switzerland is characterised by a relatively laggard
and gendered leave scheme. This study
asks: What were the developments of parental
and paternity leave policy proposals in the Swiss
Parliament between 1995 and 2014 from a gender
equality perspective? Content analysis and
a standardized scoring methodology are used
to analyse the leave policy proposals submitted
by Members of Parliament. The analysis reveals
that only a few proposals would create incentives
for fathers to use these leaves and would
therefore contribute to promoting gender equality.
The article discusses future challenges for
the development of leave policies in Switzerland
from a gender equality perspective.
... Based on a cross-sectional survey of 31 countries, Meil (2013) found a positive association of fathers' leave take-up in the previous year and their frequent involvement in childcare. Single-country studies from Sweden, Canada, and the US (Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007;Haas and Hwang 2008;Rehel 2014) found that fathers who took longer leave participated more in childcare. Having taken any leave was also positively related to paternal childcare involvement in the US and the UK (Pleck 1993;Tanaka and Waldfogel 2007), whereas associations with weekday and sole childcare proved largely not significant in Australia (Hosking et al. 2010) and Germany (Wrohlich et al. 2012). ...
... Fathers' leave take-up was associated with a significantly more equal division of housework and childcare in the medium term, which is in line with studies from Norway, Sweden and Germany that also considered longer term developments (Haas and Hwang 2008;Kotsadam and Finseraas 2011;Bünning 2015). The analysis extends several studies from the UK, the US and a large-scale comparative European study (Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007;Tanaka and Waldfogel 2007;Meil 2013) which found that leave take-up of fathers correlates with a more equal division of domestic work in the short term. Unfortunately, our sample of fathers who took leave was too small to rigorously examine differences between fathers who took up to 2 months, up to 6 months or even longer leave and to more carefully differentiate between fathers who did or did not take some of the leave alone. ...
This study investigates how the durations of childcare leaves taken by mothers and fathers in Germany relate to the gender division of housework and childcare after labour market return. It examines to what extent changes in economic resources because of leave take-up may account for adaptations in the division of domestic work of dual-earner couples. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1992–2012) on about 800 couples with a first or second birth, we applied OLS regression models with lagged dependent variables. The results suggested that dual-earner couples where mothers took longer leaves experienced a greater shift towards a gender-traditional division of domestic labour after childbirth. Fathers’ leave take-up was associated with a more equal division of family work. Lower relative earnings, e.g. as a result of changes in job-related skills after the leave, did not account for the shift in the gender division of family work.
... Indeed, evidence from both the U.S. and Europe suggests that fathers who take longer periods of paternity leave are more engaged with their children both in infancy and later in childhood (Haas and Hwang 2008;Huerta et al. 2014;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007;Pragg and Knoester 2017;Tanaka and Waldfogel 2007). However, studies have not yet considered contextual factors that may enhance (or diminish) the likelihood that fathers utilize the time provided by paternity leave to become actively involved parents. ...
... Consistent with previous research, results from this study suggest that paternity leave-taking and length of paternity leave are associated with more frequent father involvement (Haas and Hwang 2008;Huerta et al. 2014;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007;. Having time off when a child is born may provide fathers with time to feel comfortable performing parenting tasks as well as to bond with their newborn child (Rehel 2014;Tanaka and Waldfogel 2007). ...
Numerous studies show that taking paternity leave is associated with increased father involvement. However, fewer studies have explored contextual factors that may increase (or diminish) the likelihood that paternity leave-taking provides benefits to families. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examines the associations between paternity leave, fathers’ religious participation, father involvement, and parental conflict, and whether fathers’ religious participation moderates the associations between paternity leave, father involvement, and parental conflict. Results suggest that paternity leave-taking, length of paternity leave, and fathers’ religious participation are associated with increased father involvement but are unrelated to parental conflict. Results also suggest that religious participation may enhance the association between paternity leave and family outcomes; paternity leave-taking and length of paternity leave are only associated with lower levels of parental conflict among families in which fathers attend religious services frequently. Moreover, fathers who take leave and attend religious services frequently are more likely to be involved with their child than fathers who take leave but do not attend religious services.
... Fathers' use of these policies in a variety of cultural contexts is important to study because fathers' leave use can have several positive outcomes. Most researched is childcare sharing; fathers participate more actively in the care of their young children the longer they have taken parental leave in the past (Almqvist & Duvander, 2014;Arnalds, Eydal, & Gislason, 2013;Bünning, 2015;Evertsson, Boye, & Erman, 2018;Haas & Hwang, 2008;Meil, 2013;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Pragg & Knoester, 2017). Fathers' use of parental leave also has positive benefits for children's development (Cools, Fiva, & Kirkeboen, 2015;Huerta et al., 2013;Liu & Skans, 2009), as well as mothers' employment income (Andersen, 2018;Evertsson & Duvander, 2011). ...
Social policies such as paternity leave and parental leave offer fathers the opportunity to be more involved in childcare than earlier generations of fathers. While such policies are increasingly offered by governments around the world, research by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research shows that many European fathers do not take advantage of these benefits, despite fathers’ growing interest in participation in early childcare. This article introduces a special issue devoted to understanding how the workplace can impact European fathers’ interest in and abilities to take leave, a topic that has received relatively little research attention. The articles in the special issue suggest that barriers to European fathers’ leavetaking are deeply embedded in workplace culture and work practices and will be difficult to eradicate without a dramatic challenge to the concept of the male ideal worker, who prioritizes work above family.
... Second, there is some empirical evidence (Seward et al., 2006;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel, 2007;Tanaka and Waldfogel, 2007;Haas and Hwang, 2007;Duvander and Jans, 2008;Hosking et al., 2010;Meil, 2013;and Fernández-Cornejo et al., 2016a) showing that fathers who take longer leaves tend to be subsequently more involved in the care of their children. And precisely, through path analysis, in this article some evidence has been obtained in favor of this hypothesis, using a measure for the father´s involvement in childcare (relative to the mother) that included 14 non-playful activities of childcare. ...
The article analyzes how an egalitarian reform in the parental leave system may reduce the mother hood penalty. We used a sample of heterosexual dual earner couples, with children between 3 8 years old, residing in Madrid and its metropolitan area. We show, first, that the introduction of a 13 day paternity leave increased significantly the average number of days that employed fathers were off work after the birth or adoption of a child. Second, we found some empirical evidence that fathers who took longer leaves tended to be subsequently more involved in the care of their children. And third, we obtained some evidence in favor of the hypotheses that when the father is actively involved in the care of his child the mother tends to experience less work penalty. We also considered the effect of other variables such as having egalitarian gender attitu des, working in a family friendly company, earnings and the working week
... Specifically, paid parental leave has demonstrated positive impacts on parental involvement and positive parenting practices. For example, this dedicated time encourages new parents to learn and become interested in child development, increases involvement in child care-taking responsibilities, offers them the opportunity to become more attentive to the infant's needs, and increases the probability and duration of exclusive breastfeeding (Feldman et al., 2004;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel, 2007;Galtry and Callister, 2005;Roe et al., 1999). These parenting behaviors, in turn, contribute to improved child and family physical, behavioral, and mental health including decreasing the risk of externalizing disorders, depression, substance use, and risky sexual behavior (Oddy et al., 2010;Cookston and Finlay, 2006;Deptula et al., 2010). ...
Paid parental leave policies have the potential to strengthen economic supports, reduce family discord, and provide opportunities to empower women (Basile et al., 2016; Niolon et al., 2017). In this article, we present a theory of change and evidence to suggest how paid parental leave may impact intimate partner violence (IPV). In doing so, we present three mechanisms of change (i.e., reduction in financial stress, increase in egalitarian parenting practices, and promotion of child/parent bonding) through which paid parental leave could reduce rates of IPV. We also describe limitations of the current state of knowledge in this area, as well as opportunities for future research. Ultimately, our goal is to facilitate the identification and implementation of approaches that have the potential to reduce violence at the population level. Paid parental leave embodies the potential of policies to change societal-level factors and serve as an important prevention strategy for IPV.
... Research also suggests that fathers' leave, men's take-up of family responsibilities and child development are all related. Fathers who take leave, in particular those taking two weeks or more immediately after childbirth, are more likely to be involved with their young children (Huerta et al., 2013;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel, 2007). This in turn is likely to have positive effects for gender equality in the home, which is the foundation of gender equality at work. ...
Since the ILO’s founding in 1919, gender equality and non-discrimination have been pillars of its mission to promote social justice through the world of work. As the Organization approaches its second century, it has chosen to focus on women at work as one of its centenary initiatives. Women at Work: Trends 2016 is a key contribution to these efforts and seeks to further the central goals of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.
The report provides a picture of where women stand today in the world of work and how they have progressed over the past 20 years. It examines the global and regional labour market trend and gaps, including in labour force participation rates, employment-to-population rates and unemployment rates, as well as differences in the type and status in employment, hours spent in paid and unpaid work, sectoral segregation and gender gaps in wages and social protection.
It also presents an in-depth analysis of the gender gaps in the quality of work and explores the key policy drivers for gender transformative change. The discussions and related recommendations focus on three main dimensions: sectoral and occupational segregation, the gender wage gap, and gaps in the policy framework for work and family integration.
... Research in both the UK and the US finds that fathers that take longer paternity leave spend more time on childcare 8-12 months after the birth (Tanaka and Waldfogel 2007;Nepomnysachy and Waldfogel 2007). Conversely, Kluve and Tamm (2013) find that two 'daddy months' in Germany has not increased dads' time on childcare. ...
... In particular, paternity leave may help fathers become more involved in parenting tasks, have more opportunities to learn parenting skills, and develop strong coparenting relationships with the mother following a birth (Almqvist & Duvander, 2014;Bünning, 2015;Huerta et al., 2014;Rehel, 2014). Not surprisingly, paternity leave-taking and longer periods of leave are associated with more frequent father involvement (Haas & Hwang, 2008;Huerta et al., 2014;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Pragg & Knoester, 2017). ...
Objective: This study examines the associations between paternity leave and parents' reports of relationship satisfaction and relationship conflict and whether the associations vary by parent gender and mothers' work statuses.
Background: Paternity leave research in the United States has focused on implications for father involvement, but paternity leave may also help to strengthen parental relationships by promoting a more equitable division of domestic labor. Given gender gaps in child care, the association between paternity leave and parental relationship outcomes may also vary by gender and mothers' work statuses.
Method: The sample consists of 4,700 couples (i.e., parent dyads) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Multilevel models are used to assess the associations between paternity leave and both relationship satisfaction and conflict and whether these associations vary by gender and mothers' work statuses.
Results: Paternity leave‐taking is positively associated with parents' reports of relationship satisfaction, but length of paternity leave is only positively associated with mothers' reports of relationship satisfaction. Also, among mothers who worked prior to the child's birth, paternity leave‐taking and length of leave are negatively associated with their reports of relationship conflict. In contrast, among `mothers who did not work in paid labor prebirth, paternity leave is positively associated with mothers' reports of relationship conflict.
Conclusion: Paternity leave may have implications for parental relationships (and especially mothers' perceptions of their relationships with fathers).
... Although we acknowledge biological sex differences in childbirth, the lack of support for men is unjust, particularly in light of the fact that WFC is prevalent for men too. Research suggests that the more time a father spends with a new child has long-term implications for a more equal division of labor (Huerta et al., 2013;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007), better father-infant bonding (Huerta et al., 2013), and increases in mother's well-being (Redshaw & Henderson, 2013) and wages (Johansson, 2010). Our finding that mothers report slightly higher FIW than fathers may be attributable in part to these discrepancies. ...
Implicit in many discussions of work-family issues is the idea that managing the work-family interface is more challenging for women than men. We address whether this intuition is supported by the empirical data via a meta-analysis of gender differences in work-family conflict (WFC) based on more than 350 independent samples (N > 250,000 workers). Challenging lay perceptions, our results demonstrate that men and women generally do not differ on their reports of WFC, though there were some modest moderating effects of dual-earner status, parental status, type of WFC (i.e., time-, strain-, vs. behavior-based), and when limiting samples to men and women who held the same job. To better understand the relationship between gender and WFC, we engaged in theory-testing of mediating mechanisms based on commonly invoked theoretical perspectives. We found evidence in support of the rational view, no support for the sensitization and male segmentation perspectives, and partial support for the asymmetrical domain permeability model. Finally, we build theory by seeking to identify omitted mediators that explain the relationship between gender and work-interference-with-family, given evidence that existing theoretically specified mechanisms are insufficient to explain this relationship. Overall, we find more evidence for similarity rather than difference in the degree of WFC experienced by men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Correlational studies, while obviously subject to endogeneity and selection bias, have raised the possibility that these policies might be effective policy tools. Such studies have shown that fathers who take more leave around the time of the birth of their child remain more involved in childcare throughout the life of the child (Haas 1990;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007;Tanaka and Waldfogel 2007). Furthermore, there appears to be some correlation between paternity leave and fathers' involvement in housework (Brandth and Kvande 1998;Hook 2006). ...
Despite decades of progress, women remain underrepresented in the upper part of the earnings distribution. We review the recent research trying to explain this phenomenon. After briefly revisiting gender differences in education, we turn our attention to a body of work that has argued that gender differences in psychological attributes are holding back women's earnings. We then review another active area of research focused on the challenges that women may face when trying to juggle competing demands on their time in the workplace and the home, particularly when the home includes children. We discuss recent work documenting women's greater demand for flexibility in the workplace, as well as work measuring the labour market penalties associated with such demand for flexibility, particularly in the higher paying occupations in the economy. We highlight possible countervailing forces (both at work and at home) that may explain why these work–family considerations may remain highly relevant to today's glass ceiling despite reduced time spent in non-market work and a trend towards a more equal division of non-market work between men and women. Finally, we discuss the role that public policy and human resource practices may play in adding more cracks to the glass ceiling.
... Fathers who take leave around the time of childbirth, especially 2 weeks or more, are more likely to be involved in subsequent childcare activities, which correlates with higher satisfaction with parenting and improved developmental outcomes for children.  Despite this, leave policies vary greatly across programs and disciplines. 8, A 2016 survey of surgery residency programs showed less than half of programs had a paternity leave policy and, when present, paternity leave was typically 1 week. 2 Pediatric program directors reported 61% had policies for paternity leave and approximately one-third had policies for domestic partnerships or same-gender unions. ...
Background and objectives:
Adequate parental leave policies promote a supportive workplace environment. This study describes how US family medicine (FM) residency program parental leave policies compare to reported leave taken by residents and faculty.
This is a descriptive study of questions from a 2017 Council of Academic Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) survey of accredited US FM program directors.
The overall survey response rate was 54.6% (261/478). Paid maternity leave policies varied widely (0 to >12 weeks; mean=5.3 weeks for faculty and 4.5 weeks for residents); paid paternity leave ranged from 0 to 12 weeks (mean=2.7 weeks for faculty and 2.4 weeks for residents). Some FM programs reported offering residents (29.1%) and faculty (28.5%) no paid maternity leave; 37.2% offered residents and 40.4% offered faculty no paid paternity leave. Both female and male faculty took significantly less leave than was offered (maternity leave: faculty 0.6 weeks less, P<.01; residents 0.5 weeks less, P<.01; paternity leave: faculty 1.6 weeks less, P<.01; residents 0.6 weeks less, P<.01). The amount of paid and total maternity and paternity leave surrendered by residents was strongly correlated with the amount surrendered by faculty in the same program (correlation coefficients 0.46-0.87, P<.01). Residents in smaller programs, and programs with a rural focus, surrendered more parental leave.
Programs vary widely in their parental leave offerings, and FM residents and faculty frequently take less parental leave than offered. As the amount of leave taken by residents and faculty at the same institution is correlated, institutional culture may contribute to parental leave use.
... Although there are studies which have found long-term effect in care practices of leave-taking fathers (e.g. Haas & Hwang, 2008;Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Schober, 2014), not all studies confirm that a father's parental leave experience has a remarkable, or even any, longterm impact on work and care practices (Arnalds, Eydal, & Gíslason, 2013;Ekberg et al., 2013). ...
Using information published in 2014 annual review of the International Network on Leave Policies and Research, the article analyses parental leave and benefit policies in 29 countries to identify which characteristics can potentially facilitate fathers’ take-up of parental leave. The scarce statistics that is available shows that only few countries have been successful in increasing fathers’ participation in the parental leaves, despite the fact that some recent policy schemes seem to have drawn lessons from the Nordic success. There are several countries which indeed have adopted principles similar to the Nordic countries in their leave schemes, such as fathers’ quota, generous income-related benefit or long duration of the leave. The evidence suggests that only taking over some elements of the successful policy schemes does not necessarily lead to a change in the leave-taking behaviour of fathers and families. The evidence shows reasonably high take-up of parental leave only in countries where there is a combination of fathers’ quota and high level of benefit. There is still no evidence to confirm that replicating the fathers’ quota in its Nordic designs other societies would generate similar behavioural change as it did in the Nordic countries.
... Fathers' parental leave impacts, care, and gender equality: concepts and measurements Fields of scholarship that link fathering, parental leave, care, and gender equality measure changes using different methodologies and units of analysis: quantitative surveys to analyze contributions of time to childcare (and sometimes housework) tasks (Haas and Hwang, 2008;Petts and Knoester, 2018), birth cohort data (Huerta et al., 2014;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel, 2007), policy analysis of national reforms (Duvander et al., 2005;Duvander and Johansson, 2019), time use studies or diaries (Hosking et al., 2010;Meil, 2013), qualitative research interviews with couples (Almqvist and Duvander, 2014;Farstad, 2015;O'Brien and Twamley, 2017;Rehel, 2014), and qualitative interviews with fathers Eerola, 2014;G ıslason, 2017;Kvande and Brandth, 2017;Meil et al., 2017). Within research on the connections between fathers' leave time and gender equality, we identify three recurring, intersecting, and at times contradictory arguments. ...
This research article explores several questions about assessing the impacts of fathers' parental leave take up and gender equality. We ask: How does the conceptual and contextual specificity of care and equality shape what we focus on, and how, when we study parental leave policies and their impacts? What and how are we measuring?
The article is based on a longitudinal qualitative research study on families with fathers who had taken parental leave in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Québec), which included interviews with 26 couples in the first stage (25 mother/father couples and one father/father couple) and with nine couples a decade later. Guided by Margaret Somers' historical sociology of concept formation, we explore the concepts of care and equality (and their histories, networks, and narratives) and how they are taken up in parental leave research. We also draw on insights from three feminist scholars who have made major contributions to theoretical intersections between care, work, equality, social protection policies, and care deficits: Nancy Fraser, Joan Williams, and Martha Fineman.
The relationship between fathers' leave-taking and gender equality impacts is a complex, non-linear entanglement shaped by the specificities of state and employment policies and by how these structure parental eligibility for leave benefits, financial dimensions of leave-taking (including wage replacement rates for benefits), childcare possibilities/limitations and related financial dimensions for families, masculine work norms in workplaces, and intersections of gender and social class. Overall, we found that maximizing both parental leave time and family income in order to sustain good care for their children (through paid and unpaid leave time, followed by limited and expensive childcare services) was articulated as a more immediate concern to parents than were issues of gender equality. Our research supports the need to draw closer connections between parental leave, childcare, and workplace policies to better understand how these all shape parental leave decisions and practices and possible gender equality outcomes.
The article is based on a small and fairly homogenous Canadian research sample and thus calls for more research to be done on diverse families, with attention to possible conceptual diversity arising from these sites.
This research calls for greater attention to: the genealogies of, and relations between, the concepts of care, equality, and subjectivity that guide parental leave research and policy; to the historical specificity of models like the Universal Caregiver model; and to the need for new models and conceptual configurations that can guide research on care, equality, and parental leave policies in current global contexts of neoliberal capitalism.
We call for a move toward thinking about care, not as care time, but as responsibilities, which can be partly assessed through the stories people tell about how they negotiate and navigate care, domestic work, and paid work responsibilities in specific contexts and conditions across time. We also advocate for gender equality concepts that attend to how families navigate restrictive parental leave and childcare policies and how broader socio-economic inequalities arise partly from state policies underpinned by a concept of liberal autonomous subjects rather than relational subjects who face moments of vulnerability and inter-dependence across the life course.
... In some recent studies, the relationship between the two indicators of fathers' engagement have shown that fathers' leave use and their later engagement in childcare are positively related (Almquist and Duvander 2014;Brandth and Kvande 2015;Duvander and Jans 2009;Haas and Hwang 2008;Huerta et al. 2013;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007;Reimer and Andernach 2015;Seward et al. 2006;Wall 2014). However, we do not know how to understand these two indicators differently. ...
In fatherhood research, there is an ongoing question of how to measure fathers’ engagement in childcare. Recent studies mainly use (1) the amount of time spent on childcare and/or (2) the use of paid parental leave as core indicators of paternal involvement. To examine how these two indicators of fathers’ engagement have to be understood differently, this study juxtaposes the determinants of these indicators, also differentiating between absolute and relative (i.e., compared to their partner) measures. Four negative binomial regression models are conducted with German Socio-Economic Panel data on 712 fathers with a child born between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that there are distinct relationships behind the four different measures of fathers’ engagement. Fathers’ absolute and relative time for childcare is mostly explained by other time-use measures and a couples’ employment participation. With regard to fathers’ parental leave use, the absolute rather than the relative measures might be more suitable to explain fathers’ constraints to take up parental leave that are aligned to their work situation.
... Research suggests that the structure of labor policies like paid leave has significant implications for gender equality, making these policies a potentially important lever for accelerating progress toward all of SDG 5's targets, as well as SDGs 10.2, 10.3, and 10.4 . For example, a wide range of studies have found that fathers who take paid leave are more involved in childcare both during the leave period and later in the child's life . This evidence supports the idea that when available to both parents, paid parental leave can support gender equality at home and at work. ...
The Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have the potential to have a significant impact on maternal and child health through their commitments both to directly addressing health services and to improving factors that form the foundation of social determinants of health. To achieve change at scale, national laws and policies have a critical role to play in implementing the SDGs’ commitments. One particular policy that could advance a range of SDGs and importantly improve maternal and infant health is paid parental leave.
This article analyzes literature on paid leave and related policies relevant to SDG 1 (poverty), SDG 3 (health), SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 8 (decent work), and SDG 10 (inequality). In addition, this article presents global data on the prevalence of policies in all 193 UN Member States.
A review of the literature finds that paid parental leave may support improvements across a range of SDG outcomes relevant to maternal and child health. Across national income levels, paid leave has been associated with lower infant mortality and higher rates of immunizations. In high-income countries, studies have found that paid leave increases exclusive breastfeeding and may improve women’s economic outcomes. However, factors including the duration of leave, the wage replacement rate, and whether leave is made available to both parents importantly shape the impacts of paid leave policies. While most countries now offer at least some paid maternal leave, many provide less than the 6 months recommended for exclusive breastfeeding, and only around half as many provide paternal leave.
To accelerate progress on the SDGs’ commitments to maternal and child health, we should monitor countries’ actions on enacting or strengthening paid leave policies. Further research is needed on the duration, wage replacement rate, and availability of leave before and after birth that would best support both child and parental health outcomes and social determinants of health more broadly. In addition, further work is needed to understand the extent to which paid leave policies extend to the informal economy, where the majority of women and men in low- and middle-income countries work.
... Removing eligibility criteria related to practice interruptions, wherever they may occur, will not only eliminate systematic bias against women, but may also encourage men to take paternity leave, for which the benefits to both men and women are well described. 14,15 We support the ABP's mission to maintain the public's trust by ensuring PHM board certification is an indicator that individuals have met a high standard. We acknowledge that the ABP and PHM subboard had to draw a line to create minimum standards. ...
... We also look for heterogeneity in the effects of CA-PFL by birth order, child gender, and family income. Recent studies suggest that there is heterogeneity in leave-taking patterns by birth order for both mothers (Han et al., 2008) and fathers (Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007;Patnaik, 2015), motivating our exploration of whether the effects of CA-PFL also vary with birth order. We hypothesize that the effects of CA-PFL will be larger for parents of first-born than later-born children. ...
Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.
... Today, a father's primary role is to provide a secure financial environment for his family, as demonstrated by a social norm of increasingly long work hours for fathers (Baxter et al., 2007;Craig and Mullan, 2012). Yet fathers are also experiencing cultural change around parenting and are expected to be more emotionally and physically involved in their children's lives than fathers of previous generations (Craig and Mullan, 2012;Hook and Wolfe, 2011a;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel, 2007;Sayer et al., 2004). This suggests tensions around combining long hours of paid work and childcare are likely to be felt by fathers. ...
Time pressures around work and care within families have increased over recent decades, exacerbated by an enduring male breadwinner culture in Australia and manifested in increasingly long work hours for fathers. We identified fathers who spent relatively long hours actively caring for children despite long work hours and we compared them with other fathers who did less work, less childcare, or less of both. Using 13 waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, we explored characteristics associated with the time fathers spent in work and care. The age and ethnicity of fathers differentiated those who spent long hours in both work and childcare from all other groups of fathers, yet other factors were also important for the time fathers spent at work or with children. By examining fathers at the margins of the distributions of work and childcare hours, we add valuable insights into associations between work and care for families.
... Attention is required, for example via the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) at the European level, but also other national level bodies for promotion of gender equality in Europe and its member states through delivering expertise and knowledge, and enhancing policies to change normative views of gender roles. Policy changes, such as increase in well paid ear-marked paternity leaves, such as the ones found in Sweden, has been shown to increase father's involvement in childcare and domestic work not only in the period during the leave but many years after (Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007). Thus it can be used as a useful tool to help reduce the gender division in childcare and household tasks, and consequently help shift the gender norms of the country. ...
This special brings together innovative and multidisciplinary research (sociology, economics, and social work) using data from across Europe and the US to examine the potential flexible working has on the gender division of labour and workers’ work–life balance. Despite numerous studies on the gendered outcomes of flexible working, it is limited in that the majority is based on qualitative studies based in the US. The papers of this special issue overcome some of the limitations by examining the importance of context, namely, family, organisational and country context, examining the intersection between gender and class, and finally examining the outcomes for different types of flexible working arrangements. The introduction to this special issue provides a review of the existing literature on the gendered outcomes of flexible working on work life balance and other work and family outcomes, before presenting the key findings of the articles of this special issue. The results of the studies show that gender matters in understanding the outcomes of flexible working, but also it matters differently in different contexts. The introduction further provides policy implications drawn from the conclusions of the studies and some thoughts for future studies to consider.
... 52,53 At a policy level, compared with countries such as Sweden where paternal leave is supported, the lack of paid paternal leave within the United States may also present barriers to fathers' involvement with their young children as well as erode fathers' sense of efficacy in the parental role. 54 Above and beyond these individual, family, and policy variables, mothers' and fathers' parenting may differ and uniquely predict developmental outcomes. For example, mothers may be the primary providers of emotional security for children via the establishment of early parent-child attachment relationships, whereas for fathers, exploration of the world may be a primary emphasis in parenting. ...
A child’s development is embedded within a complex system of relationships. Among the many relationships that influence children’s growth and development, perhaps the most influential is the one that exists between parent and child. Recognition of the critical importance of early parent-child relationship quality for children’s socioemotional, cognitive, neurobiological, and health outcomes has contributed to a shift in efforts to identify relational determinants of child outcomes. Recent efforts to extend models of relational health to the field of child development highlight the role that parent, child, and contextual factors play in supporting the development and maintenance of healthy parent-child relationships. This review presents a parent-child relational health perspective on development, with an emphasis on socioemotional outcomes in early childhood, along with brief attention to obesity and eating behavior as a relationally informed health outcome. Also emphasized here is the parent–health care provider relationship as a context for supporting healthy outcomes within families as well as screening and intervention efforts to support optimal relational health within families, with the goal of improving mental and physical health within our communities.
... Evidence suggests that involved fatherhood, child development and mothers' labour market outcomes are all interrelated. Leave entitlements for fathers are found to lead to better job and home-life satisfaction for men, and benefit the health of a child (Huerta et al. 2013;Levtov et al. 2015;Nepomnyaschy and Waldfogel 2007). This in turn is likely to have positive effects on gender equality in the home, which is conducive to gender equality at work and in the community. ...
Gender equality lies at the heart of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which asserts gender equality as both a fundamental human right and a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.
The evidence collected in this discussion paper shows that gender equality is critical to achieving a wide range of objectives pertaining to sustainable development. These include promoting economic growth and labour productivity, reducing poverty, enhancing human capital through health and education, attaining food security, addressing climate change impacts and strengthening resilience to disasters, and ensuring more peaceful and inclusive communities. It therefore argues that accelerating gender equality in all spheres of society leads to a more rapid increase in progress towards achieving the 2030 Agenda.
... The early time with children can have lasting consequences and/or benefits. Fathers who are afforded longer leave (Nepomnyaschy & Waldfogel, 2007) and have more early involvement with their children also exhibit more later engagement in parenting activities (Tanaka & Waldfogel, 2007). Current university policy permits four semesters of leave over the duration of a student's program. ...
Using the framing of narrative identity, we illustrate the asymmetry that is characteristic of faculty work lives, especially when caregiving responsibilities clash with the seemingly indestructible ideal-worker norm. Based upon life stories of a multi-generational team of women faculty, we describe the interplay of individual and institutional dynamics that affect women’s work/family choices, success, and fulfillment in academe. We juxtapose our experiences at various career stages with the institutional supports, policies, and programs we would have needed to successfully integrate lives and careers. Across career phases, we employ three naming and framing shifts essential to advancing scholarship and moving policy around work and family to one where both men and women thrive. First, we choose the language of work-in-life integration over balance. Second, we use life-course as a framing for narrative identities, not pipeline. Finally, our accounts go beyond a family-friendly workplace to a life-friendly perspective, which allows us to draw attention to the understudied needs of faculty without children and/or immediate family caregiving responsibilities, and include faculty at later career stages. We conclude this tour-de-force through our work/lives by comparing multi-generational experiences, commenting on progress as well as remaining challenges to elucidate implications for policy, institutional culture, and a better academy.
Evidence suggests that paternity leave‐taking is associated with higher levels of father involvement, but research has been limited in its focus on cross‐sectional analyses and indicators of father involvement used. This study uses national longitudinal data to examine whether paternity leave‐taking is associated with 2 indicators of father engagement when children are infants, whether paternity leave‐taking is associated with trajectories of father engagement during the first few years of a child's life, and whether the relationships between paternity leave and father engagement are explained by fathering commitments and attitudes. The results suggest that longer periods of leave are associated with more frequent engagement in developmental tasks and caretaking when children are infants as well as during the first few years of children's lives. There is also evidence that father attitudes partially explain the relationships between length of paternity leave and father engagement.
Interview and observational studies document that dual-caring is characterized by temporality. Two ‘ideal-typical’ trajectories are identified: ‘halving it all’ in which couples divide care equally on a daily or weekly basis and ‘taking turns’ in which parents take month- or year-long turns in serving as primary caregivers to the child. This study utilizes a new source of couple-level longitudinal information on parental leave to investigate dual-caring trajectories in contemporary Sweden. Results show that while care trajectories in which only one parent serves as the primary caregiver can be captured without longitudinal information, the dominant dual-caring trajectory cannot. In fact, despite a uniquely flexible parental leave system that allows egalitarian couples to share care on a daily basis, most couples do not share care in every point in time, but ‘take turns’ in serving as the primary caregiver to the child, with the mother’s ‘turn’ preceding the father’s. The results demonstrate that cross-sectional and aggregate measures of child care may fail to detect emerging trends in dual-caring.
Parenthood increases gender inequality in paid (employment) and unpaid labor (e.g., caretaking). New parental leave plans aim to increase gender equality by reducing managerial discretion and offering gender-neutral benefits. However, coworkers may undermine these inclusive aims, particularly if they show variable support per employee characteristics. Thus, we examine why and how employee gender and obesity interactively predict coworkers’ support for parental leave and test an intervention to increase equality. Three between-subjects experiments with working American adults (Ns=133-252) indicate that obesity decreases coworkers’ parental leave support for men, but increases coworkers’ parental leave support for women; these effects are replicated and mediated by coworkers’ caregiving ability expectations of the employees, inequalities that are reduced when parental leave is made the default. Discussion focuses on our results’ implications for theory, practice, and for men and women’s paid and unpaid labor, including recommendations for parental leave policy design and delivery to increase equality
Parental leave has been linked to numerous positive child and family outcomes, yet little is known about which new mothers and fathers take longer parental leaves. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the financial, demographic, identity-relevant, and job characteristics that predict the duration of maternity and paternity leave in a community sample of 130 U.S. dual-earner couples who were followed across their transition to parenthood in 2008–2009. The findings show that financial characteristics, especially paid leave, are important for leave duration for both parents. In addition, identity-relevant and demographic characteristics mattered to length of paternity leave, whereas job characteristics were relevant to length of maternity leave. For fathers, longer leaves were associated with a greater proportion of paid leave, older paternal age, having a less planned pregnancy, and lower endorsement of maternal essentialism. For mothers, longer leaves were associated with a greater proportion of paid leave, higher household income, and lower job satisfaction. Together, these predictors explained 21% of the variance in maternity leave duration and 30% of the variance in paternity leave duration. In order for all U.S. parents, including fathers and low-income mothers, to reap the benefits of parental leave, financially incentivized leave would be most beneficial.
Surprisingly few studies have focused on paternity leave-taking in the US. This study utilizes data from three national datasets to provide a comprehensive examination of the attitudes, practices and predictors of paid paternity leave-taking in the US. Specifically, this study focuses on (a) describing attitudes towards fathers receiving a share of paid parental leave, (b) describing rates and lengths of paid paternity leave-taking and (c) analyzing the extent to which economic capital, cultural capital, social capital and father identities predict paternity leave-taking practices. The results indicate that most people support fathers receiving a share of paid parental leave in the US. Yet, rates of paid paternity leave-taking are relatively low and the majority of fathers who take paid leave take only one week or less. Economic capital, cultural capital, social capital and father identities that prioritize engaged fathering are positively associated with taking paid leave and taking longer periods of leave. Overall, the results emphasize that the current structure of US paternity leave policies seems to limit access to paid paternity leave and contribute to patterns of inequality due to more advantaged fathers having greater access and ability to take paid paternity leave than less advantaged fathers.
In the present study, we examine the associations between the amount of time that U.S. employed fathers took off from work after the birth of a child (i.e., paternity leave-taking) and trajectories of how frequently fathers engage with their children and take responsibility for them. To do so, we analyze longitudinal data on 2109 fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a data set that contains information from disproportionately socioeconomically disadvantaged families from large urban areas. The results indicate that, 1 year after birth, paternity leave-taking and lengths of leave are positively associated with fathers’ engagement and responsibility. In addition, paternity leave-taking is positively associated with trajectories of fathers’ responsibility over the first 5 years after birth. Lengths of paternity leave are positively associated with trajectories of fathers’ engagement. Finally, there is evidence that paternity leave-taking and lengths of leave-taking are especially likely to boost fathers’ engagement and responsibility among nonresident fathers. Overall, the findings from the present study suggest that an expansion of paternity leave-taking may encourage higher subsequent levels of father involvement—especially among nonresident fathers.
Research consistently finds that fathers who take time off work when their children are born exhibit higher levels of paternal engagement relative to fathers who do not take time off work. This study aims to identify one possible mediating factor: fathers’ co-residence with their children and their children’s biological mothers over time. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Wellbeing Study and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between fathers’ time off work when their children were born, residence with their children and their children’s biological mothers, and levels of father-child engagement ( n = 2,453). Results indicated that the number of weeks taken off work was positively associated with men’s subsequent residence with their children and children’s mothers when their children were five-years-old, which in turn was positively associated with paternal engagement.
Research has begun to examine the consequences of paternity leave, focusing primarily on whether paternity leave-taking increases father involvement. Yet, other consequences of paternity leave-taking have not been considered using U.S data. This study uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether fathers' time off from work after the birth of a child is associated with relationship quality, relationship support, and coparenting quality. We also consider whether these relationships are mediated by father involvement. Results suggest that fathers' time off of work after a birth and length of time off are each positively associated with relationship quality and coparenting quality one year after a child's birth. They are also positively associated with trajectories of relationship quality and coparenting quality over the first five years after birth. Father involvement at least partially mediates these relationships. Overall, this study suggests that the potential benefits of fathers' time off of work after the birth of a child may extend beyond father involvement and may improve parental relationships.
This study uses a natural experiment in Canada to examine whether reserved paternity leave policy can increase fathers' involvement with their children.
Although a growing body of research suggests that paternal leave‐taking is associated with increased father involvement, the causality of this relationship is unclear. Furthermore, leave‐taking may differently impact multiple dimensions of father involvement, including engagement (direct interaction with children), accessibility (time in children's presence), and responsibility (solo parenting time).
Using two cross‐sectional waves of time diary data from the 2005 and 2010 Canadian General Social Survey, this study exploits the natural experiment of the reserved paternity leave policy introduced in the province of Quebec in 2006 compared to the shared parental leave benefits offered in the rest of Canada. Difference‐in‐differences methods are used to estimate the causal effect of the policy on multiple measures of father involvement.
The reserved paternity leave policy led to a direct increase in fathers' responsibility time—2.2 additional hours of solo parenting time per week—but no direct effect on fathers' engagement or accessibility time. The findings also suggest that there may be indirect, contextual effects of the policy that have shifted the norms in Quebec regarding fathering.
This study concludes that reserved paternity leave can increase fathers' responsibility for children in ways that may benefit family well‐being and gender equality more broadly.
The availability of paid family leave has been widely researched in the context of a two-parent household with one mother and one father, yet few studies have explored whether households with same-sex parents have access to equal benefits. Expanding on previous cross-country comparisons of parental leave policies, this study examines parental leave policies in 34 OECD countries to compare the total duration of paid parental leave available to same-sex and different-sex parent families within a country. We find that same-sex female and different-sex couples receive equal durations of leave in the majority of countries. However, same-sex male couples often receive shorter durations of paid parental leave compared to both different-sex and same-sex female couples. In addition to addressing the implications of laws and policies surrounding same-sex marriage and same-sex adoption on parental leave availability, we highlight specific aspects of paid leave policies that may explain the unequal durations of paid leave between same-sex and different-sex couples.
Parental leave has important benefits for women, men, and families. This study examines how individual, family, and workplace factors are associated with the length of parental leaves taken by workers in diverse jobs and work contexts, but with the same employer, focusing on gender differences in the factors associated with longer parental leaves. The data are the result of a collaboration between university researchers and a municipal employer. We find that gender was a major driver of the duration of parental leaves for these workers, who must use their accumulated paid time off or take unpaid leave for parental leave; women’s leaves were almost three times longer than men’s. We also find gender differences in the factors associated with leave duration. For women, socioeconomic status seemed to matter most, while for men, family and workplace context influenced leave length. The results indicate the centrality of financial considerations in parents’ leave decisions, reinforcing the importance of having a dedicated paid parental leave policy. We argue that paid parental leaves would help reduce disparities between and within genders at work and in the family.
Paternity leave-taking is believed to benefit children by encouraging father-child bonding after a birth and enabling commitments to fathers’ engagement. Yet, no known U.S. studies have directly focused on the associations between paternity leave-taking and children’s reports of father-child relationships. Understanding the potential consequences of paternity leave-taking in the United States is particularly important given the lack of a national paid parental leave policy. The present study uses five waves of data on 1319 families, largely socioeconomically disadvantaged, from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to analyze the associations between paternity leave-taking and 9-year-old children’s reports of their father-child relationships. We also assess the extent to which these associations are mediated by fathers’ engagement, co-parenting quality, parental relationship satisfaction, and fathers’ identities. Results indicate that leave-taking, and particularly 2 weeks or more of leave, is positively associated with children’s perceptions of fathers’ involvement, father-child closeness, and father-child communication. The associations are explained, at least in part, by fathers’ engagement, parental relationship satisfaction, and father identities. Overall, results highlight the linked lives of fathers and their children, and they suggest that increased attention on improving opportunities for parental leave in the United States may help to strengthen families by nurturing higher quality father-child relationships.
Paid parental leave for fathers is a promising social policy tool for degendering the division of labor for childcare. Swedish fathers have had the right to paid parental leave since 1974, but they take only one-fourth of leave days parents take. There are strong cultural norms supporting involved fatherhood, so couples typically want to share leave more than they do. This article explores how workplaces can constrain Swedish fathers’ use of state leave policy, in ways that fathers can take for granted, a topic that has received less attention than individual or family-related obstacles. Based on interviews with 56 employees in five large private companies, we found that masculine workplace norms can make it difficult for fathers to choose to take much leave, while aspects of traditional workplace structure building on these norms can negatively affect fathers’ capabilities of taking much leave. Workplace culture and structure seemed to be based on assumptions that the ideal worker should prioritize work and has limited caregiving responsibilities, setting limits to fathers’ ability to share leave with mothers. Gender theorists suggest such assumptions persist because of male dominance at the workplace and the endurance of gendered assumptions about the roles of men and women.
Wellness and work-life balance are prominent concerns in the veterinary profession and data suggest that personal relationship-building with peers and family assist veterinary trainees and veterinarians with wellness. The demographics of veterinary medical trainees (students, interns, and residents) have shifted to a female-dominated cohort and veterinary training overlaps with peak reproductive age for the majority of trainees. Despite a robust body of literature in the human medical profession surrounding pregnancy, parenting, and family planning (PPFP) among human medical students, interns, and residents, no comparable data exist within the United States veterinary medical community. This study reviewed policies and support services in place to support PPFP at accredited United States veterinary medical training institutions through the use of an online administrator survey and the review of handbooks and relevant written material. Results from this study highlight a lack of consistency across veterinary medical training institutions for policy and support services for PPFP for trainees, especially related to lactation support and parental leave. Our data can help facilitate the development of standards or best practices for policies and support services that support PPFP among veterinary medical trainees, and opens the dialogue to consider the unique needs of our shifted trainee demographics.
El principal objetivo de este estudio ha sido averiguar si, tras el nacimiento de un hijo/a, los varones que se toman bajas por nacimiento más largas tienden a estar posteriormente más implicados en los cuidados infantiles, favoreciendo así el avance en la corresponsabilidad entre mujeres y hombres en los cuidados familiares. El estudio se realiza a partir de una encuesta realizada en la Comunidad de Madrid entre 1.130 parejas con hijos entre 3-8 años. Ello ha permitido, en primer lugar, obtener una estimación de las tasas de utilización y de la duración de las diversas modalidades de baja por nacimiento que usan los trabajadores y las trabajadoras españoles cuando tienen o adoptan un hijo/a. En segundo lugar, se ha analizado la participación del padre, en relación con la de la madre, en 19 actividades de cuidados infantiles específicas, y a partir de ahí se han construido varios indicadores sintéticos de implicación del padre en los cuidados infantiles. A continuación, y a partir de un análisis cuantitativo con modelos de regresión lineal múltiple, se ha obtenido evidencia de que los padres que se tomaron más tiempo de baja tendieron posteriormente a tener una mayor participación en el grupo de actividades de cuidados infantiles más rutinarias y feminizadas. Pero además, estos padres tendían a tener en la actualidad una jornada laboral más corta, lo que también puede facilitar la implicación en los cuidados. Por otra parte, al considerar otros determinantes de la implicación de los varones en los cuidados infantiles, cabe destacar la importancia de las actitudes de género igualitarias (del padre), así como la influencia positiva de trabajar en una empresa familiarmente responsable, o de tener una relación de pareja “muy feliz”
Work–family balance is important for working parents, their children, and their family functioning. However, little research has considered how one’s sense of work–family balance may influence parenting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether perceived work–family balance of fathers of infants predicts engagement behaviors and whether stress mediates this relationship. The sample (n = 64) completed a phone survey, and data analysis consisted of linear regression tests and path analysis models for mediation. Perceived work–family balance did not significantly predict overall father engagement, but did predict fathers telling stories to their infant more often (B = 0.91, t(55) = 2.22, p < 0.05) and dressing their infant more often (B = 0.70, t(55) = 2.05, p < 0.05). Although perceived work–family balance was found to have a significant negative effect on father stress (r = –0.48, p < 0.001), stress did not mediate the relationship between perceived work–family balance and the two engagement behaviors. Greater perceived work–family balance may encourage engagement in behaviors above and beyond the stereotypical fathering behaviors (e.g., playing) and basic caregiving behaviors (e.g., changing diapers). Limitations include a small sample size, cross-sectional nature of the data, and self-report measures. It is recommended future studies use longitudinal designs, larger samples that differ in family type, and include mothers. This study provides preliminary evidence that one’s perceived work–family balance may influence parenting behaviors; thus, workplace policies that increase work–family balance, through greater job flexibility, for example, could promote positive family outcomes and reduce stress.
Many studies have examined the availability of paid parental leave for the general population, but few have looked specifically at whether leave policies meet the needs of single parents. Across OECD countries, 17% of children on average live in single-parent households. Depending on policy framing, parental leave benefits may not meet the needs of parents and children in single-parent families. This study provides the first comprehensive examination of paid parental leave policies in 34 OECD member countries as they pertain to single-mother and single-father households. Using original legislation and administrative sources, we created a new database to examine the total duration of paid leave available to parents in single- and two-parent households after the birth or adoption of a child. Our findings indicate that single mothers receive shorter durations of paid leave compared to two-parent families in 22 countries after the birth of a child; for fathers, this number rises to 29. Single adoptive mothers and fathers receive shorter durations of leave than two-parent households in 17 countries each. We discuss the potential origins of these discrepancies and policy approaches to providing single parents with adequate paid leave while continuing to incentivize dual uptake in two-parent households.
Despite global commitments and efforts, women's equality, particularly at work, has still not been fully realized. Here, we examine whether improved parental leave policies, implemented at the national level, that encourage fathers to participate in caregiving can be effective at reducing unequal gender norms surrounding work. We use data from 1995–2018 that are nationally representative for nine countries, and employ a difference‐in‐differences approach to estimate the effect that changing parental leave policies has on attitudes towards women's work. Our results indicate that changes to parental leave policy that incentivize or encourage fathers to take time off are associated with improvements in attitudes towards women's equality in the workplace. Specifically, we find that incentives for paternal leave stimulates egalitarian changes in attitudes among both men and women. Our study is the first to longitudinally investigate whether parental leave policies can influence gender equitable norms and our findings support the notion that egalitarian changes in policy can improve gender norms.
Es wird dargelegt, wie sich das Zusammenspiel von Beruf und Familie in unterschiedlichen Lebensphasen darstellt. Beispielsweise werden Zusammenhänge zwischen der Erwerbstätigkeit und dem Wohlergehen der Kinder, Determinanten beruflicher Auszeiten von jungen Eltern und die Relevanz der Großelternrolle für den Übergang in den Ruhestand erörtert. Es wird verdeutlicht, dass für ein umfassendes Verständnis beruflicher Entwicklung eine auf Einzelpersonen reduzierte Sicht zu kurz greift, sondern eine systemische Einordnung erforderlich ist, die auch die Wünsche und Bedürfnisse anderer Familienmitglieder einbezieht.
Fathers as providers of child care Early Childhood Longitudinal Study
H E Peters
Averett, S., Gennetian, L., & Peters, H. E. (in press). Fathers as providers of child care. Journal of Population Economics. Bethel, J., Green, J., Kalton, G., & Nord, C. (2005). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLSÁB), sampling. Volume 2 of the ECLSÁB methodology report for the 9-month data collection, 2001Á02 (NCES 2005Á147). Washington, DC: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Bianchi, S., Casper, L., & King, R. (Eds.). (2005).
A model of fathers' behavioral involvement in child care in dual-earner families Balancing the needs of families and employers
Nj: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
J F Bonney
M L Kelley
R F Levant
M M Levin
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bonney, J. F., Kelley, M. L., & Levant, R. F. (1999). A model of fathers' behavioral involvement in child care in dual-earner families. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 401Á415. Cantor, D., Waldfogel, J., Kerwin, J., Wright, M. M., Levin, K., Rauch, J., et al. (2001). Balancing the needs of families and employers. Rockville, MD: Westat.
Who's minding our preschoolers? Current Population Reports
Casper, L. (1996). Who's minding our preschoolers? Current Population Reports, P70Á53, March, Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census.
Fathers and parental leave
Malin, M. (1994). Fathers and parental leave. Texas Law Review, 72(5), 1047Á1095.
Fathers and parental leave revisited
Malin, M. (1998). Fathers and parental leave revisited. Northern University Law Review, 19(1), 25Á56.
Parental leave, progress or pitfall? Research and policy issues in Europe Factors associated with fathers' caregiving activities and sensitivity with young children Where's papa? Fathers' role in child care Are 'family-supportive' employment policies relevant to men
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Moss, P., & Deven, F. (Eds.) (1999). Parental leave, progress or pitfall? Research and policy issues in Europe. The Hague & Brussels: NIDI/CBGS Publications. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD ECCRN). (2000). Factors associated with fathers' caregiving activities and sensitivity with young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(2), 200Á219. O'Connell, M. (1993). Where's papa? Fathers' role in child care. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. PAT E R N I T Y L E AV E A N D F AT H E R S ' I N V O L V E M E N T Pleck, J. (1993). Are 'family-supportive' employment policies relevant to men? In J. C. Hood (Ed.), Men, work and family (pp. 217Á237). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
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Presser, H. (1995). Job, family, and gender: Determinants of nonstandard work schedules among employed Americans in 1991. Demography, 32(4), 577. Shonkoff, J., & Phillips, D. (Eds.) (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. StataCorp. (2005). Stata Statistical Software (Release 9) [Computer software]. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP. Tamis-Lemonda, C. S., & Cabrera, N. (Eds.) (2002). Handbook of father involvement. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Leave-taking and father involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Survey
Tanaka, S., & Waldfogel, J. (2007). Leave-taking and father involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Survey. Community, Work & Family, 10(4), 409Á426.
What other nations do: International policies toward parental leave and child care. The Future of Children: Caring for Infants and Toddlers
Waldfogel, J. (2001b). What other nations do: International policies toward parental leave and child care. The Future of Children: Caring for Infants and Toddlers, 11(1),
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Couple characteristics and fathers as child care providers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America
This research examined the parental leave-taking behaviors and attitudes of a sample of 550 U.S. men whose wives/partners were pregnant, in a longitudinal design that assessed them during the middle trimester of pregnancy, 1 month after the birth, and 4 months after the birth. Identity theory provided the theoretical framework. The fathers' mean length of leave was 5 days, with 71% of fathers taking 5 or fewer days; 91% of fathers took at least some leave. Generally both men and women were strong supporters of job-guaranteed parental leave for fathers, although opinions were mixed about paid parental leave for fathers. The employer's policy regarding length of leave was a significant predictor of the length of leave taken. As predicted by identity theory, sex role attitudes predicted length of leave; supervisor/co-worker attitudes were marginally significant predictors. As predicted by our analysis of the good-provider model and the father involvement model, fathers holding egalitarian sex role attitudes and high in family salience took the longest leaves.
Using data from the first wave of the Millennium Cohort Study, covering a large birth cohort of children in the UK at age 8 to 12 months, this paper examines the effects of leave-taking and work hours on fathers' involvement in four specific types of activities: being the main caregiver; changing diapers; feeding the baby; and getting up during the night. We also investigate the effects of policies on fathers' leave-taking and work hours. We find that taking leave and working shorter hours are related to fathers being more involved with the baby, and that policies affect both these aspects of fathers' employment behaviour. Thus, we conclude that policies that provide parental leave or shorter work hours could increase fathers' involvement with their young children.
Family leave coverage increased after the passage of the Family and Medical Leave Act in 1993, the increase was sharpest among workers covered by the Act, suggesting that the law had a positive impact on coverage.
Seven years after the Family and Medical Leave Act, more employees are taking leave for family or medical reasons, and fewer report that they need leave, but are unable to take it; many employers offer leave over and above that required by the Act, and most report no adverse effects on their business
A multifactorial model was used to identify child, sociodemographic, paternal, and maternal characteristics associated with 2 aspects of fathers' parenting. Fathers were interviewed about their caregiving responsibilities at 6, 15, 24, and 36 months, and a subset was videotaped during father-child play at 6 and 36 months. Caregiving activities and sensitivity during play interactions were predicted by different factors. Fathers were more involved in caregiving when fathers worked fewer hours and mothers worked more hours, when fathers and mothers were younger, when fathers had more positive personalities, when mothers reported greater marital intimacy, and when children were boys. Fathers who had less traditional child-rearing beliefs, were older, and reported more marital intimacy were more sensitive during play. These findings are consistent with a multifactorial and multidimensional view of fathering.
This report is Volume 2 of the methodology report that provides information about the development, design, and conduct of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). This volume begins with a brief overview of the ECLS-B, but focuses on the sample design, calculation of response rates, development of various sets of weights, and nonresponse bias analyses.
Fathers and mothers (
n = 120) of preschool-aged children completed 2 measures assessing fathers' behavioral involvement in child care (i.e., the amount of time that the father was the child's primary caregiver and the number of child-care tasks performed). The results reaffirm the findings from previous studies that father's long work hours can be a barrier to greater participation in child care but that mothers' extended work hours serve to increase father participation in child care. Women's perception of their husbands' competence as parents and marital satisfaction also explain fathers' involvement. Fathers' gender role ideology and attitudes about the fathers' role appear important for fathers' involvement in child care, and findings indicate that men's involvement may be more self-determined than previously believed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In this chapter we focus on theory and research regarding maternal and dual-earner employment and parenting, including an overview of historical and central issues; major theories, themes, and perspectives; early and contemporary research defining 3 distinct phases; practical implications of the research; and future directions. Consideration is given to parental involvement, parenting processes by which maternal and dual-earner employment impinge on children's development; longitudinal research; employed parents' attitudes toward parenting and employment; child developmental and cultural concerns; family adaptations; and changes in conceptions of adults' gender-based roles and responsibilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive analysis and integration of findings concerning the role of maternal employment in children's development based exclusively on longitudinal research. The book comprises the first compendium of longitudinal research specifically examining the role of maternal employment in children's development. . . . The studies in this volume examine constructs and processes involved in the relationship of mothers' employment to children's development.
This book is organized into two main sections. The first main section presents the longitudinal studies (A. E. Gottfried et al.; Lerner & Galambos; Owen & Cox; Goldberg & Easterbrooks; Galambos et al., and Hock et al.)
The second main section concerns the role of maternal employment in the larger context of business and society (Hughes & Galinsky; A. E. Gottfried & A. W. Gottfried). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Predictors of paternal participation in child care and housework are examined. A longitudinal sample of 66 couples expecting their 1st child completed extensive questionnaires during the wives' last trimester of pregnancy and 3–8 mo after birth. Regressions were conducted in which paternal participation in child care and housework was regressed on variables pertaining to each of 4 models of paternal participation: relative economic resource, structural, family systems, and sex-role attitude. Composite models of paternal participation in housework and child care were then developed. Fathers' involvement in child care is best explained by mothers' work hours and fathers' feminism. Fathers' contribution to housework seems best explained by discrepancies in income between spouses, wives' occupational prestige, and dynamics in the marriage. Differences in the determinants of fathers' contributions to child care and housework are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study provides the most recent national estimates of the prevalence of employment during nonstandard hours (evenings, nights, or rotating hours) and on weekends. It also examines in a multivariate context the relevance of job and family characteristics as determinants of such employment, separately for men and for women. The findings support the contention that the demand for employment during nonstandard hours and weekends is pervasive throughout the occupational hierarchy, but particularly in service occupations and in personal service industries and for both men and women. Gender differences exist, however, in the relevance of family factors. Being married reduces women's but not men's likelihood of employment during nonstandard hours, and the presence of children affects women's but not men's hours and days of employment. (The direction of the effect for women depends on the children's age.) Implications of these findings are discussed.
The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.
We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.
Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved with or acknowledged their child at the time of the birth. Secondly, we identify the characteristics that differentiate parents who continue to live apart from those who move in together. Thirdly, for the fathers who moved in with the mother and their child we enquire whether they differ in the extent of their engagement in family life compared with fathers who have been living with the mother since birth. Finally, for fathers who were living apart from their child when the child was 9 months old we assess the extent to which they were in contact, contributed to their maintenance and were involved in their child's life at this time.