Article

A tool for measuring stress tolerance in elite athletes

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

A self-report inventory of sources of life-stress and symptoms of stress is described. The tool can be used to determine the nature of an athlete's response to training, particularly his/her capacity to tolerate training loads. Data are used to demonstrate the use of the inventory to determine i) training responses which are either too stressed or under-stressed, ii) the ideal amount of stress to promote the optimum level of training effort, iii) the influence of outside-of-sport stresses that interfere with the training response, iv) preliminary features of overtraining, v) reactions to jet-lag and travel fatigue, and vi) peaking responses.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Even though many physiological measures have been investigated, most show little validity or practical application [3,15]. In this context, subjective measures (such as questionnaire-based surveys of mood and perceived stress,) have proven as or more effective than objective measures (such as blood markers and heart rate responses) [15,23,25,26]. Even though far more recreational level age-groupers prepare for the (1.5 km swim, 40 km bike, 10 km run) Olympic distance (OD) competition than do so for the (3.9 km swim, 180 km bike, 42.2 km run) Ironman distance (IR) [1], little is known about their training practices and associated health status. ...
... The DALDA was formulated on the basis of multiple tests for response consistency that were conducted in swimmers [26]. The reliability criterion was a stress or source item being responded to in the exact same manner on four of five occasions, each 14 days apart, by at least 80% of athletes. ...
... Completion of the DALDA involves the athlete rating himself/herself as being either "worse than normal", "normal" or "better than normal" on each variable. As they can be representative of an increased level of (negative) stress [5,26], changes in the numbers of "worse than normal" scores are used to monitor athlete's health. The DALDA can be repeatedly administered during a training period [26] and is sensitive to changes in training loads. ...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about how recreational triathletes prepare for an Olympic distance event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes within the competition period and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and their levels of fatigue. During the 6 weeks prior to, and the 2 weeks after, an Olympic distance triathlon, nine recreational athletes (five males, four females) completed a daily training log. Participants answered the Daily Analysis of Life Demands Questionnaire (DALDA), the Training Distress Scale (TDS) and the Alberta Swim Fatigue and Health Questionnaire weekly. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) was completed at the beginning of the study, on the day before the competition, and at the end of week 8. Training loads were calculated using session-based rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). The data from every week of training was compared to week 1 to determine how athletes’ training and health changed throughout the study. No changes in training loads, duration or training intensity distribution were seen in the weeks leading up to the competition. Training duration was significantly reduced in week 6 (p = 0.041, d = 1.58, 95% CI = 6.9, 421.9), while the number of sessions was reduced in week 6 (Z = 2.32, p = 0.02, ES = 0.88) and week 7 (Z = 2.31, p = 0.02, ES = 0.87). Training was characterized by large weekly variations in training loads and a high training intensity. No significant changes were seen in the DALDA, TDS or REST-Q questionnaire scores throughout the 8 weeks. Despite large spikes in training load and a high overall training intensity, these recreational-level triathletes were able to maintain their health in the 6 weeks of training prior to an Olympic distance triathlon.
... Over the past 2 decades, a variety of tools, ranging from questionnaire-based assessments to maximal and submaximal performance tests (10,16,26), have been developed to monitor athletes' responses to training loads. The Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA) is a questionnaire that was developed specifically to monitor the well-being of athletes (26,27). ...
... Over the past 2 decades, a variety of tools, ranging from questionnaire-based assessments to maximal and submaximal performance tests (10,16,26), have been developed to monitor athletes' responses to training loads. The Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA) is a questionnaire that was developed specifically to monitor the well-being of athletes (26,27). Halson et al. (8) showed that the DALDA responded to increases and decreases in training load in a group of well-trained cyclists. ...
... The DALDA is a questionnaire which monitors the amount of stress experienced by athletes (26,27). The DALDA consists of 2 parts; part A contains 9 "sources of stress," while part B contains 25 "symptoms of stress." ...
Article
Capostagno, B, Lambert, MI, and Lamberts, RP. Analysis of a submaximal cycle test to monitor adaptations to training: Implications for optimizing training prescription. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT) was developed to monitor training adaptation to optimize the training prescription of cyclists. However, it is not known which of the variables within the LSCT are most closely associated with changes in training status. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the LSCT data of cyclists (n = 15) who completed a 2-week high-intensity interval training intervention. The cyclists were retrospectively allocated to 1 of 2 groups based on the change in their 40-km time trial (40-km TT) performance. The "adapters" (n = 7) improved their 40-km TT performance, while the "nonadapters" (n = 8) failed to improve their 40-km TT performance. The variables measured in the LSCT were analyzed to determine which measures tracked the improvements in 40-km TT performance the best. Heart rate recovery increased significantly during the training period in the "adapters" group, but decreased in the "nonadapters" group. Mean power output in stage 2 of the LSCT tended to increase during the high-intensity interval training period in the "adapters" group and was unchanged in the "nonadapters" group. The findings of this study suggest that heart rate recovery and mean power output during stage 2 are the most sensitive markers to track changes in training status within the LSCT.
... Cycling trials were completed in groups of four or five participants, at a matched time of day (±2 hours), in laboratory conditions [24.2 (0.5) °C, 62 (7) The Daily Analyses of Life-Demands for Athletes (DALDA) questionnaire was completed on arrival for testing days. 17 Responses for the 'Symptoms of stress' section were summed (i.e., a = 1, b = 2, c = 3). 17 Higher scores indicate fewer symptoms. ...
... 17 Responses for the 'Symptoms of stress' section were summed (i.e., a = 1, b = 2, c = 3). 17 Higher scores indicate fewer symptoms. A mid-stream urine sample was collected on arrival to assess specific gravity (PAL-10S, Atago Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effect of peer presence on the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses. Design: Within-participant design. Method: Fourteen males, with mean (standard deviation) age 22.4 (3.9) years, peak oxygen uptake 48.0 (6.6) mL·kg-1·min-1 and peak power output 330 (44) W, completed an incremental cycling test and three identical experimental sessions, in groups of four or five. Experimental sessions involved 24 min of cycling, whereby the work rate alternated between 40% and 70% peak power output every 3 min. During cycling, heart rate was collected every 3 min, and session-RPE was recorded 10 min after cycling, in three communication contexts: in written form unaccompanied (intrapersonal communication); verbally by the researcher only (interpersonal communication); and in the presence of the training group. Session-RPE was analysed using ordinal regression and heart rate using a linear mixed-effects model, with models fit in a Bayesian framework. Results: Session-RPE was voted higher when collected in the group's presence compared to when written (odds ratio = 5.3, 95% credible interval = 1.6 to 17.6). On average, the posterior probability that session-RPE was higher in the group setting than when written was 0.57. Session-RPE was not different between the group and verbal, or verbal and written collection contexts. Conclusions: This study suggests contextual psychosocial inputs influence session-RPE, and highlights the importance of session-RPE users controlling the measurement environment when collecting votes.
... 25 Sub-maximal shuttle running 26 A sub-maximal shuttle running test was used to assess players' mechanical loading. All players 27 were fitted with a MEMS device (MinimaxX S4, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) worn between the scapular in a tight-fitting vest to reduce movement artefact. Devices contained a 1 tri-axial piezoelectric linear accelerometer (Kionix: KXP94) sampling at a frequency of 100 2 Hz. ...
... 24 Another aspect of the reliability of a psychometric questionnaire is the internal consistency of 25 each question, this was assessed via Cronbach's α, with results indicating that the internal 26 consistency of this questionnaire is poor (α = 0.45). This has implications for the composite 27 total wellness score which is the summation of all five questions. As each item has relatively 28 low inter-item correlations ( Table 2) it could be suggested that a composite score for total 1 wellness should be used with caution. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fitzpatrick, JF, Hicks, KM, Russell, M, and Hayes, PR. The reliability of potential fatigue-monitoring measures in elite youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Monitoring fatigue is of vital importance to practitioners; however, logistics and concerns about reliability may impede the use of certain measures. This study aimed to quantify the reliability of potential measures of fatigue; a subjective wellness questionnaire, jump performance tests, and tri-axial accelerometer variables derived during submaximal shuttle running in elite youth soccer players. A secondary aim was to establish the minimum test duration that could be used for the submaximal shuttle run while maintaining good reliability. Seventeen male youth team players (age: 17.4 ± 0.5 years) were assessed on 2 occasions, spaced 7 days apart. Typical error, coefficient of variation (CV%), interclass correlation (ICC), and minimum detectable change were calculated for a subjective wellness questionnaire, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ) and drop jump contact time (DJ-CT), drop jump height (DJ-JH), and reactive strength (DJ-RSI). A novel submaximal shuttle running test was also used to assess tri-axial accelerometer data reliability. Results suggest that CMJ, SJ, DJ-CT, and DJ-RSI have good test-retest reliability (CV% = 4.5-7.7; ICC = 0.80-0.88); however DJ-JH did not show acceptable reliability (CV% = 6.0; ICC = 0.76). Good reliability was found for all tri-axial accelerometer variables during a 3-minute (2-minute analysis) submaximal shuttle run (CV% = 2.4-8.0; ICC = 0.81-0.95), except for % PlayerLoad anterior-posterior (%PLAP) (CV% = 7.2; ICC = 0.63). The subjective wellness questionnaire demonstrated poor reliability for all items (CV% = 11.2-30.0; ICC = 0.00-0.78). The findings from this study provide practitioners with valuable information about the reliability of a range of potential fatigue-monitoring measures. This can be used to help make accurate decisions about the magnitude of change in these assessments when used in practice.
... However, there has yet to be a consensus on the most appropriate questionnaire to be used. Profile of Mood States (McNair et al., 1981), Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (Kellmann and Kallus, 2001) and Daily Analyses of Life Demands (Rushall, 1990) are just some of the assessment tools which have been used within the literature. However, their length, narrow focus or lack of specificity to the sporting context has led many sports programs to develop their own questionnaires (Saw et al., 2015a). ...
... Questionnaire (Kellmann and Kallus, 2001) and Daily Analyses of Life Demands (Rushall, 1990) are just some of the assessment tools which have been used within the literature. However, their length, narrow focus or lack of specificity to the sporting context has led many sports programs to develop their own questionnaires (Saw et al., 2015a). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The concept of how training load affects performance is founded in the notion that training contributes to two specific outcomes, these are developed simultaneously by repeated bouts of training and act in conflict of each other; fitness and fatigue (Banister et al., 1975). The ability to understand these two components and how they interact with training load is commonly termed the “dose-response relationship” (Banister, 1991). The accurate quantification of training load, fitness and fatigue are therefore of paramount importance to coaches and practitioners looking to examine this relationship. In recent years, the advancement in technology has seen a rise in the number of methodologies used to assess training load and specific training outcomes. However, there is a general lack of evidence regarding the reliability, sensitivity and usefulness of these methods to help inform the training process. The aim of this thesis was therefore to improve the current understanding around the monitoring and prescription of training, with special reference to the relationship between training load, fitness and fatigue. Chapter 4 of this thesis looked to establish test re-test reliability. Variables selected for investigation were measures of subjective wellness; fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality, stress levels and mood state, assessments of physical performance; countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ) and drop jump (DJ) and the assessment of tri-axial accelerometer data; PlayerLoadTM and individual component planes anterior-posterior (PLAP), mediolateral (PLML), and vertical (PLV), were collected during a sub-maximal shuttle run. The results from this investigation suggest that a short three minute sub-maximal shuttle run can be used as a reliable method to collect accelerometer data. Additionally, assessments of CMJ height, SJ height, DJ contact time (DJ-CT) and DJ reactive strength index (DJ-RSI) were all deemed to have good reliability. In contrast, this chapter highlighted the poor test re-test reliability of the subjective wellness questionnaire. Importantly, the minimum detectable change (MDC) was also calculated for all measures within this study to provide an estimate of measurement error and a threshold for changes that can be considered ‘real’. Chapter 5 assessed the sensitivity and reproducibility of these measures following a standardised training session. To assess sensitivity, the signal-to-noise (S: N) ratio was calculated by using the post training fatigue response (signal) and the MDC derived from Chapter 4 (noise). The fatigue response was considered reproducible if the S: N ratio was greater than one following two standardised training sessions. Three measures met the criteria to be considered both sensitive and reproducible; DJ-RSI, PLML and %PLV. All other measures did not meet the criteria. Subjective ratings of fatigue, muscle soreness and sleep quality did show a sensitive response on one occasion, however, this was not reproducible. This might be due to the categorical nature of the data, making detectable group changes hard to accomplish. The subjective wellness questionnaire was subsequently adapted to include three items; subjective fatigue, muscle soreness and sleep quality on a 10-point scale. The test re-test reliability of these three questions was established in Chapter 6, demonstrating that subjective fatigue and muscle soreness have good test re-test reliability. Chapter 6 was comprised of two studies looking to simultaneously establish the dose-response relationship between training load, measures of fatigue (Part I) and measures of fitness (Part II). In Part I training load was strategically altered on three occasions during a standardised training session in a randomised crossover design. In Part II training and match load was monitored over a 6-week training period with maximal aerobic speed (MAS) assessed pre and post. A key objective for both studies was to assess differences in the training load-fitness-fatigue relationship when using various training load measures, in particular differences between arbitrary and individualised speed thresholds. Results from Part I showed a large to very large relationship between training load and subjective fatigue, muscle soreness and DJ-RSI performance. No differences were found between arbitrary and individualised thresholds. In Part II however, individual external training load, assessed via time above MAS (t>MAS), showed a very large relationship with changes in aerobic fitness. This was in contrast to the unclear relationships with arbitrary thresholds. Taking the results from both studies into consideration it was concluded that t>MAS is a key measure of training load if the objective is to assess the relationship with both fitness and fatigue concurrently with one measure. Chapter 7 subsequently looked to validate the training load-fitness-fatigue relationships established in Chapter 6 via an intervention study. The aim was to develop a novel intervention that prescribed t>MAS, in order to improve aerobic fitness, based on the findings from Chapter 6. Additionally, the fatigue response following a standardised training session was assessed pre and post intervention to evaluate the effect the predicted improvements in aerobic fitness would have on measures of fatigue. Results from Chapter 7 indicate a highly predictable improvement in aerobic fitness from the training load completed during the study, validating the use of the t>MAS as a monitoring and intervention tool. Furthermore, this improvement in aerobic fitness attenuated the fatigue response following a standardised training session. The final key finding was the very strong relationship between improvements in aerobic fitness and reductions in fatigue response. This further highlights the relationship between t>MAS, fitness and fatigue. In summary, this thesis has helped further current understanding on the monitoring and prescription of training load, with reference to fitness and fatigue. Firstly, a rigorous approach was used to identify fatigue monitoring measures that are reliable, sensitive and reproducible. Secondly, the relationship between training load, fatigue and fitness was clearly established. And finally, it has contributed new knowledge to the existing literature by establishing the efficacy of a novel MAS intervention to improve aerobic fitness and attenuate a fatigue response in elite youth football players.
... Exactly 7 days before (visit 2) and 2 days after the ultramarathon (visit 3), runners performed the Lamberts Submaximal Running Test (LSRT). Before the runners started the LSRT, they first completed the Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA) questionnaire [27] and scored their delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) on a visual analogue scale (VAS) (DOMS-VAS) [21]. ...
... In contrast to other questionnaires, the Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA) was specifically developed for athletes and with the aim of reflecting sources and symptoms of perceived stress [27]. The DALDA has 34 items and consists a 'sources of stress' part with 9 questions (Part A) and a 'symptoms of stress' part with 25 questions (Part B). ...
... The Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire was completed on arrival for testing days. 21 Responses for the "Symptoms of stress" section were summed (ie, a = 1, b = 2, c = 3). 21 Higher scores indicate fewer symptoms. ...
... 21 Responses for the "Symptoms of stress" section were summed (ie, a = 1, b = 2, c = 3). 21 Higher scores indicate fewer symptoms. A midstream urine sample was collected on arrival to assess hydration via specific gravity (PAL-10S; Atago Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effect of peer presence on session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses. Method: Fourteen males, with mean (SD) age 22.4 (3.9) years, peak oxygen uptake 48.0 (6.6) mL·kg-1·min-1, and peak power output 330 (44) W, completed an incremental cycling test and 3 identical experimental sessions, in groups of 4 or 5. Experimental sessions involved 24 minutes of cycling, whereby the work rate alternated between 40% and 70% peak power output every 3 minutes. During cycling, heart rate was collected every 3 minutes, and session-RPE was recorded 10 minutes after cycling, in 3 communication contexts: in written form unaccompanied (intrapersonal communication), verbally by the researcher only (interpersonal communication), and in the presence of the training group. Session-RPE was analyzed using ordinal regression and heart rate using a linear mixed-effects model, with models fit in a Bayesian framework. Results: Session-RPE was voted higher when collected in the group's presence compared with when written (odds ratio = 4.26, 95% credible interval = 1.27-14.73). On average, the posterior probability that session-RPE was higher in the group setting than when written was .53. Session-RPE was not different between the group and verbal, or verbal and written collection contexts. Conclusions: This study suggests that contextual psychosocial inputs influence session-RPE and highlights the importance of session-RPE users controlling the measurement environment when collecting votes.
... (3) Treino Físico (TFi) e; treino externo (TEx), quando era realizado em outro local que não no clube dos atletas. Como controle de cargas de treino utilizou-se o controle subjetivo de esforço (PSE) e o controle subjetivo da recuperação (PSR) (Foster et al., 2001) a cada sessão de treinamento e o Dayli Analysis Life Demand in Athletes (DALDA) (Rushall, 1990) semanalmente. ...
... Neste sentido, a metodologia pautou-se em três parâmetros principais para a organização do treinamento, sendo o primeiro, e principal, o desenvolvimento de repertório técnico e tático dos atletas, partindo do que é observado como modelo geral na base (Carratalá-Deval, García-García, & Fernándes-Monteiro, 2010;Olívio Junior et al., 2009), em direção aos aspectos determinantes para sucesso internacional na modalidade (Calmet, Trezel, & Ahmaidi, 2006;Franchini et al., 2008;Lima Kons, Da Silva Júnior, Fischer, & Detanico, 2018;Miarka et al., 2016). O segundo parâmetro foi a dinâmica temporal da competição no que tange aos tempos de estímulo e pausa na luta em pé e no solo e como terceiro parâmetro foi o controle de treino baseado principalmente na carga interna (Foster et al., 2001;Viveiros, Costa, Moreira, Nakamura, & Aoki, 2011), nas avaliações de estresse (Rushall, 1990) e nos relatórios técnicos e individuais dos atletas. Partindo destes parâmetros, estruturou-se o planejamento do treinamento, diferindo dos modelos tradicionais, os quais utilizam de repetições de golpes e simulações de lutas durante todo o processo. ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO A atuação profissional em Educação Física, demanda a construção e debate de conhecimentos científicos aplicados, dentre estas, metodologias de ensino-aprendizagem-treinamento para jovens atletas. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma proposta de periodização tática para jovens judocas. Os treinamentos foram formatados com o intuito de desenvolver os aspectos técnicos e táticos, por meio da divisão da luta em "Unidades Funcionais" combinando com as capacidades físicas necessárias para o treinamento de judô. Na competição alvo, o grupo estudado conquistou 21 vitórias em 27 lutas e, principalmente, apresentou ampla variedade nas formas de obter pontuações. Um judoca projetou os adversários nas quatro direções possíveis, um para três direções, enquanto dois fizeram projeções efetivas para duas direções. Dois judocas obtiveram pontuações de três outras formas, ou por punição ao oponente ou na luta de solo, enquanto os outros dois atletas conseguiram pontuar dessas formas de duas maneiras e uma maneira respectivamente. Os resultados apontam para a viabilidade do modelo, com o desenvolvimento esperado das capacidades físicas e elementos para direcioná-los ao alto rendimento esportivo, sobretudo pela individualização do desenvolvimento tático. O número de vitórias, variabilidade técnica e tática e as duas vagas conquistadas na seletiva nacional pelos judocas estudados contribuem para essa expectativa. ABSTRACT The professional performance in Physical Education request the construction and debate of applied scientific knowledge, among these, teaching-learning-training methodologies for youth athletes. The aim of this study was to present a proposal of tactical periodization for youth judokas. The trainings were formatted with the aim of developing the technical and tactical aspects, by dividing the struggle into "Functional Units", combining with the physical capacities necessary for judo training. In the target competition, the group studied won 21 victories in 27 fights and, mainly, presented wide variety in the ways of obtaining scores. A judoka designed the opponents in the four possible directions, one for 3 directions, while two made effective projections for 2 directions. Two judokas obtained scores in 3 other ways, either by punishing the opponent or in solo fighting, while the other two athletes were able to score those forms in 2 ways and 1 way respectively. The results point to the viability of the model with the expected development of the physical capacities and elements to direct them to the high sport performance, above all by the individualization of the tactical development. The number of victories, technical and tactical variability and the two places won in the national team by the judokas studied contribute to this expectation.
... (Bompa, e Haff, 2012;Fox et al., 2018;Haddad et al., 2017) Nesse contexto, a carga interna de treinamento quantificada pela percepção subjetiva de esforço da sessão (PSEsessão) (Foster, 1998) tem sido apontada como um método válido e simples para monitorar atletas em diversos esportes (Haddad et al., 2017;Halson, 2014). Além disso, questionários, tal como o Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes (DALDA) (Rushall, 1990), também têm sido muito utilizados como alternativa para monitorar as respostas de fontes e sintomas de estresse impostas pelas cargas de treinamento. (Coutts et al., 2007;Freitas et al., 2014;Moreira et al., 2010) Alguns estudos com diferentes esportes identificaram a associação entre a carga interna obtida pela ...
... Ao final de cada semana de treinamento foi aplicado o questionário DALDA (Rushall, 1990 Shapiro-Wilk. A comparação entre os momentos/semanas foi feita pela Anova de medidas repetidas seguida do post hoc de Bonferroni. ...
Article
O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas da carga de treinamento obtidas a partir da percepção subjetiva de esforço da sessão (PSEsessão) e dos sinais e sintomas de estresse a partir Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes (DALDA) durante quatro semanas de treinamento de CrossFit®. Participaram da pesquisa 10 atletas de CrossFit® que foram monitorados durante quatro semanas de treinamento. Durante as semanas de monitoramento foram avaliadas as cargas internas de treinamento de cada atleta, no qual ao final de todas as sessões a PSEsessão foi obtida a partir da resposta da escala CR-10 de cada atleta. Além disso, ao final de cada semana de treinamento os participantes responderam ao questionário DALDA. Os resultados demonstraram que as respostas da carga de treinamento e do DALDA não apresentaram diferenças significantes (p>0,05) entre as quatro semanas de treinamento monitoradas. Portanto, conclui-se que as cargas de treinamento as respostas do DALDA não foram diferentes nas quatro semanas de treinamento de CrossFit®, indicando uma possível relação entre as variáveis, visto que não foram observadas grandes alterações nas respostas das cargas e das fontes e sintomas de estresse. Em relação a aplicação prática, o estudo reforça a importância do monitoramento do treinamento utilizando-se de métodos válidos e que auxiliam treinadores, atletas e praticantes do CrossFit® a prescrever de maneira adequada as cargas de treinamento.
... Typically, these questionnaires gather information on parameters such as muscle soreness, tiredness, sleep health and current stress levels [170]. Self-report questionnaires are widely employed to assess fatigue in sport, of which there is a plethora [12,[171][172][173]. ...
... This is predominantly thought to be due to their low-cost, relative ease of implementation and flexibility, enabling them to be administered across a wide range of individual and team sport settings [174]. [11,170,[175][176][177][178][179]. Additionally, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and session RPE (duration of training session multiplied by RPE) are frequently used to monitor both training load and expected responses to training load [11]. ...
Article
Fatigue is a phenomenon associated with decreases in both physical and cognitive performances and increases in injury occurrence. Competitive athletes are required to complete demanding training programmes with high workloads to elicit the physiological and musculoskeletal adaptations plus skill acquisition necessary for performance. High workloads, especially sudden rapid increases in training loads, are associated with the occurrence of fatigue. At present, there is limited evidence elucidating the underlying mechanisms associating the fatigue generated by higher workloads and with an increase in injury risk. The multidimensional nature and manifestation of fatigue have led to differing definitions and dichotomies of the term. Consequently, a plethora of physiological, biochemical, psychological and performance markers have been proposed to measure fatigue and recovery. Those include self-reported scales, countermovement jump performance, heart rate variability, and saliva and serum biomarker analyses. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the fatigue and recovery plus methods of assessments.
... (DALDA) questionnaire, which will provide subjective measures of various components of their psychological and physiological status. 56 Responses to Part A and B of the DALDA require 'normal', 'better than normal' or 'worse than normal' responses and will be used to determine an overall DALDA score, while responses to Part C (scaled responses) will provide separate outcome measures of mood, energy, soreness, fatigue and stress. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Foods rich in nutrients, such as nitrate, nitrite, L-arginine and polyphenols, can promote the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), which may induce ergogenic effects on endurance exercise performance. Thus, consuming foods rich in these components, such as almonds, dried grapes and dried cranberries (AGC), may improve athletic performance. Additionally, the antioxidant properties of these foods may reduce oxidative damage induced by intense exercise, thus improving recovery and reducing fatigue from strenuous physical training. Improvements in NO synthesis may also promote cerebral blood flow, which may improve cognitive function. Methods and analysis Ninety-six trained male cyclists or triathletes will be randomised to consume ~2550 kJ of either a mixture of AGC or a comparator snack food (oat bar) for 4 weeks during an overreaching endurance training protocol comprised of a 2-week heavy training phase, followed by a 2-week taper. The primary outcome is endurance exercise performance (5 min time-trial performance) and secondary outcomes include markers of NO synthesis (plasma and urinary nitrites and nitrates), muscle damage (serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), endurance exercise function (exercise efficiency, submaximal oxygen consumption and substrate utilisation), markers of internal training load (subjective well-being, rating of perceived exertion, maximal rate of heart rate increase and peak heart rate) and psychomotor speed (choice reaction time). Conclusion This study will evaluate whether consuming AGC improves endurance exercise performance, recovery and psychomotor speed across an endurance training programme, and evaluate the mechanisms responsible for any improvement. Trial registration number ACTRN12618000360213.
... Allerdings gilt es zu beachten, dass die individuellen Reaktionen von Athleten auf eine bestimmte Belastung stark unterschiedlich ausfallen können. So können gleiche Trainingsinhalte bei verschiedenen Personen zu völlig unterschiedlichen physiologischen Beanspruchungsausmaßen führen (Bouchard et al. 2011;Skinner et al. 2001 (Snyder et al. 1993 • Fragebögen (Schlaf, Erholtheit, Stress etc.) (Kölling et al. 2015;Morgan et al. 1987;Rushall 1990), • neuromuskuläre Ermüdung (Borresen und Lambert 2008), • Schlafparameter (Halson 2014), • uvm. ...
... Numerous psychological and physiological markers of training status have been evaluated over the years, however, their validity and/or practicality has yet to be fully established (Borresen and Lambert, 2009;Meeusen et al., 2013). Psychological measures such as the Profile of Mood Status questionnaire (McNair et al., 1971) and the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire (Rushall, 1990) have been investigated extensively, however, the subjective nature of these assessments means that they are susceptible to manipulation for competition or training gain (Urhausen and Kindermann, 2002), are influenced by age and cognitive development (Groslambert and Mahon, 2006) and may be unreliable as a result of their reliance on memory recall (Shephard, 2003). Similarly, physiological parameters, including sub-maximal blood lactate concentrations, hormones and neuromotor control of movement have been shown to be altered by heavy overload training (Jacobs, 1986;Lehmann et al., 1992;Fuller et al., 2017;Greenham et al., 2018;Bellenger et al., 2019), however, their practicality and/or validity remains to be established as a result of either variable results, invasive assessment techniques or need for specialised/expensive equipment (Urhausen and Kindermann, 2002;Borresen and Lambert, 2009;Greenham et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
While post-exercise heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) has been shown to increase in response to training leading to improvements in performance, the effect of training leading to decrements in performance (i.e., overreaching) on this parameter has been largely ignored. This study evaluated the effect of heavy training leading to performance decrements on sub-maximal post-exercise HRV. Running performance [5 km treadmill time-trial (5TTT)], post-exercise HRV [root-mean-square difference of successive normal R-R intervals (RMSSD)] and measures of subjective training tolerance (Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes “worse than normal” scores) were assessed in 11 male runners following 1 week of light training (LT), 2 weeks of heavy training (HT) and a 10 day taper (T). Post-exercise RMSSD was assessed following 5 min of running exercise at an individualised speed eliciting 85% of peak HR. Time to complete 5TTT likely increased following HT ( ES = 0.14 ± 0.03; p < 0.001), and then almost certainly decreased following T ( ES = −0.30 ± 0.07; p < 0.001). Subjective training tolerance worsened after HT ( ES = −2.54 ± 0.62; p = 0.001) and improved after T ( ES = 2.16 ± 0.64; p = 0.004). In comparison to LT, post-exercise RMSSD likely increased at HT ( ES = 0.65 ± 0.55; p = 0.06), and likely decreased at T ( ES = −0.69 ± 0.45; p = 0.02). A moderate within-subject correlation was found between 5TTT and post-exercise RMSSD ( r = 0.47 ± 0.36; p = 0.03). Increased post-exercise RMSSD following HT demonstrated heightened post-exercise parasympathetic modulation in functionally overreached athletes. Heightened post-exercise RMSSD in this context appears paradoxical given this parameter also increases in response to improvements in performance. Thus, additional measures such as subjective training tolerance are required to interpret changes in post-exercise RMSSD.
... The study design utilized multiple data collection points to characterize immune changes in response to stressors throughout a season rather than traditional single, acute snapshots of athlete immune health. Self-report questionnaires were completed using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (4), sport-specific psychological wellbeing using the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (39), and the degree of upper respiratory symptoms using the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptoms Survey 21 (2). Self-report questionnaire responses were combined for each survey across the three time points, thus creating an overall average score for the sample. ...
Article
Collegiate athletes are exposed to varying levels of academic and physical stressors, placing them at increased risk for stress-activated latent viral infections. However, the impact of allostatic stress load on the immune response to maximal exercise in athletes remains largely unknown. Purpose: This study examined the effects of a seven-month training period and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus on immune cell response to high-intensity swim tests within a group of collegiate swimmers. Methods: Samples were collected from fifteen NCAA DI swimmers (9 M, 6 F: 19.87 ± 0.64 yrs) before and after exhaustive in-pool swims at 2 time points (V1: immediately post-season one and V3: beginning of season two). An additional off-season (V2) time point was collected in a subset of 9 swimmers. NK-cell, B-cell, and T-cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of exercise, time point, and CMV serostatus (α=0.05). Results: Resting senescent CD8+ T-cells were higher in CMV seropositive participants at V3 (p = 0.005). CMV seronegative participants had a decrease in resting senescent CD8+ T-cells from V1 to V3 (p = 0.021). After acute exercise, CMV seropositive participants had lower naïve CD8+ T-cells (p < 0.001) and higher senescent CD8+ T-cells (p < 0.0015). Increased cumulative stress levels did not appear to affect B-cells and NK-cells compartments. Discussion: Immune response to exercise was impacted by CMV serostatus and allostatic stress load. Young CMV seropositive athletes exposed to elevated stressors should be monitored to determine long-term effects of training and academic stressors.
... It is considered to be one of the most reliable tools for overtraining detection (Meeusen et al. 2013 (Gustafsson, Sagar, Stenlink, 2017).  Daily Analyses of Life-Demands (DALDA; Rushall, 1990) assesses the response of an athlete to training. The questionnaire consists of two parts and contains 34 items and athletes choose from three degrees for each item. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article introduces the issue of monitoring intensively training athletes who wish to avoid overtraining and want their training to be as effective as possible. The current definitions of overreaching and overtraining are addressed, together with the summary of causes, development and prevention of such conditions. The focus of the article is on the overview of relevant diagnostic methods including the latest non-invasive biochemical methods. The complex approach to the selection of psychological and physiological methods to establish the degree of the internal load of athletes is emphasised. A three-degree concept of athlete monitoring according to the demandingness and periodicity of diagnostic methods usage is presented.
... Symptoms of stress were monitored using the Daily Analysis of Life Demands (DALDA) questionnaire [21]. The questionnaire is comprised of two parts: Part A represents the sources of stress, and Part B assesses the manifestation of this stress in the form of symptoms. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of cow’s milk on recovery from repeated simulated team games (STGs) in females. Twenty female team-sport athletes completed an STG circuit (2x ~ 30 min, with 10 min ‘half-time’). Measures of muscle function, soreness and tiredness, symptoms of stress and serum markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress were determined pre- and 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h following the circuit. At 48 h, a second STG was completed. Sprint performance (5 m, 15 m), lap time, countermovement jump (CMJ), heart rate and RPE were recorded during each STG. Immediately following each STG, participants consumed either 500 mL of cow’s milk (MILK) or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) solution. Compared to CHO, MILK had a beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque for knee extension (60°/s) (likely; effect size (ES) = 0.26 to 0.28) knee flexion (60°/s) (likely; ES = 0.45 to 0.61). A benefit for MILK was observed for 5 m sprint (possible-likely; ES = 0.40 to 0.58), 10 m sprint (likely; ES = 0.30 to 0.53) and symptoms of stress (likely–very likely, small). Mostly unclear outcomes for other variables were observed. For STG variables, trivial (HR, CMJ) and unclear (5 m sprint, 15 m sprint, lap-time, RPE) outcomes were recorded. In conclusion, the consumption of 500 mL of milk attenuated losses in muscle function and perceptions of stress following repeated simulated team-sports games. However, further investigation is warranted to determine whether MILK can influence subsequent team-sport performance.
... Subjective measures of training stress have also been used to detect changes in mood resulting from periods of overload training in athletes. Questionnaires that are typically employed are the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) questionnaire [70], the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire [71], or the Recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes [72]. While studies have shown that these questionnaire responses are consistently altered during periods of overload training [6,18,19,26,50,73,74], a number of studies have also demonstrated that subjective questionnaire responses may be exacerbated in athletes who become FOR compared to those that do not follow an overload training period [5,[10][11][12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There are variable responses to short-term periods of increased training load in endurance athletes, whereby some athletes improve without deleterious effects on performance, while others show diminished exercise performance for a period of days to months. The time course of the decrement in performance and subsequent restoration, or super compensation, has been used to distinguish between the different stages of the fitness–fatigue adaptive continuum termed functional overreaching (FOR), non-functional overreaching (NFOR) or overtraining syndrome. The short-term transient training-induced decrements in performance elicited by increases in training load (i.e. FOR) are thought be a sufficient and necessary component of a training program and are often deliberately induced in training to promote meaningful physiological adaptations and performance super-compensation. Despite the supposition that deliberately inducing FOR in athletes may be necessary to achieve performance super-compensation, FOR has been associated with various negative cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic consequences. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated dampened training and performance adaptations in FOR athletes compared to non-overreached athletes who completed the same training program or the same relative increase in training load. However, this is not always the case and a number of studies have also demonstrated substantial performance super-compensation in athletes who were classified as being FOR. It is possible that there are a number of contextual factors that may influence the metabolic consequences associated with FOR and classifying this training-induced state of fatigue based purely on a decrement in performance may be an oversimplification. Here, the most recent research on FOR in endurance athletes will be critically evaluated to determine (1) if there is sufficient evidence to indicate that inducing a state of FOR is necessary and required to induce a performance super-compensation; (2) the metabolic consequences that are associated with FOR; (3) strategies that may prevent the negative consequences of overreaching.
... 30 Across 50 participants from various highperformance sports, use of these questionnaires was low. In this study, the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) 32 was used by 13% of participants; the Profile of Mood States (POMS) 33 and the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) 34 used by 2% of respondents each. ...
Article
Full-text available
Athletes’ optimal training progression can be supported by reliable and valid monitoring tools. This systematic review aims to investigate tools that have been most frequently in the field used by coaches and practitioners of sports of any level. PyscINFO, Scopus, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus databases were searched. Search terms used include: overreaching, overtraining, recover, fatigue, overload, train; monitor, athlete monitor, train monitor and coach, sport scientist, or performance coach. From the 1982 search results retrieved, seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria required articles to be descriptive or observational studies on the training monitoring of athletes, be peer-reviewed, and in English. Physiological measures (e.g. heart rate) and measures of performance and workload (e.g. tests including sprints; global positioning system variables) were most frequently used. Psychological self-reported questionnaires, such as ratings of perceived exertion and mood inventories, were also frequently used in the field. The results indicated that only a few biochemical measures (blood and urine analysis) were regularly used outside of a laboratory. Easily implemented measurements were more commonly used than more advanced ones, indicating that the tools valued by practitioners are those that are time efficient, easy to administer and are non-fatiguing and non-invasive. Knowing what tools are currently used in the field is the first step in knowing what is practical and usable for coaches in the field, where after coaches and practitioners collaborating with sport scientists can develop and implement tools that are both useable and easily administered.
... The perceived recovery scale (PRS) [34] was completed upon arrival to each training session, while the daily analyses of life demands for athletes (DALDA) [35] and visual analogue scales (VAS) for energy, desire to eat, hunger, fullness, and motivation to do physical tasks were completed upon arrival to the first training session of each week throughout the investigation. Furthermore, the DALDA and three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ-R18) [36] were completed during pre-and posttesting body composition visits, prior to ultrasound examination. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, interest in time-restricted feeding (TRF) has increased from reports highlighting improvements in body composition and muscular performance measures. Twenty-six recreationally active males were randomly assigned to either TRF (n = 13; ~22.9 years; 82.0 kg; 178.1 cm; 8 h eating window, 25% caloric deficit, 1.8 g/kg/day protein) or normal diet (ND; n = 13; ~22.5 years; 83.3 kg; 177.5 cm; normal meal pattern; 25% caloric deficit, 1.8 g/kg/day protein) groups. Participants underwent 4-weeks of supervised full body resistance training. Changes in body composition (fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and body fat percentage (BF%)), skeletal muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and muscle thickness (MT) of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris, (RF), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles, resting energy expenditure (REE), muscular performance, blood biomarkers, and psychometric parameters were assessed. Significant (p < 0.05) decreases were noted in BM, FM, BF%, testosterone, adiponectin, and REE, along with significant increases in BP1RM, LP1RM, VJHT, VJPP, VLCSA, BBCSA, and BBMT in both groups. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly elevated at post (p = 0.018) only in ND. Additionally, FFM was maintained equally between groups. Thus, a TRF style of eating does not enhance reductions in FM over caloric restriction alone during a 4-week hypocaloric diet.
... It should be noted that all of these methods have faced criticism from sources such as statisticians. It is important to understand that the testing methods, measurements, and analysis should be based on the resources and intended goals Training Impulse (TRIMP) Morton et al., 1990;Pyne and Martin, 2011 Qualitative questionnaires* Profile of Mood States (ROMS) Morgan et al., 1987 Recovery Stress Questionnaires for Athletes (REST-Q) Kallus and Kellmann, 2016 Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) Rushall, 1990 Total Recovery Scale (TQR) Kenttä and Hassmén, 1998 * indicates variable/monitoring tool that is most appropriate for use by a sport psychologist or licensed psychologist. from use, which will differ from every group and individual. ...
Article
Full-text available
College students are required to manage a variety of stressors related to academic, social, and financial commitments. In addition to the burdens facing most college students, collegiate athletes must devote a substantial amount of time to improving their sporting abilities. The strength and conditioning professional sees the athlete on nearly a daily basis and is able to recognize the changes in performance and behavior an athlete may exhibit as a result of these stressors. As such, the strength and conditioning professional may serve an integral role in the monitoring of these stressors and may be able to alter training programs to improve both performance and wellness. The purpose of this paper is to discuss stressors experienced by collegiate athletes, developing an early detection system through monitoring techniques that identify the detrimental effects of stress and discuss appropriate stress management strategies for this population.
... 3 Ruh hâli profili, sporcular için toparlanma-stres anketi, sporcuların yaşam ihtiyaçlarının günlük analizi, toplam toparlanma skalası bu yöntemlerden bazılarıdır. [44][45][46][47] Bu yöntemler temelde sporcuların, antrenman öncesi ya da sonrasında, çeşitli psikolojik durumları (ruh hâli vs.) ve iyi olma hâlleri (toparlanma durumu vs.) ile ilgili kendi düşüncelerini ifade etmelerine (öz bildirim) dayanmaktadır. 48 Bu psikolojik göstergelerdeki değişimler takip edilerek, antrenmanın sporcuda yarattığı etkiler tespit edilebilir ya da aşırı antrenman gibi istenmeyen durumlar önlenebilir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Antrenman yükü takibi, antrenör yargılarından daha fazla ilgiyi hak eden bir konudur. Bu fikir temel alınarak yazılan makalenin amacı, antrenman yükü ölçüm yöntemlerinin araştırılması ve incelenmesidir. Son yıllardaki teknolojik gelişmeler, çeşitli nesnel ve öznel yöntem-lerle antrenman yükü ölçümü kolaylaşmıştır. Bu yöntemlerden bekle-nilen özellik, antrenman yükünü ne kadar ölçebildiğidir ve bu da bilimin konusu hâline gelmiştir bu doğrultuda da konuyla ilgili yapılan araştırmalar artış göstermiştir. Son çeyrek asırda, çalışmalar sonucunda antrenman yükü, iç yük ve dış yük olarak kavramsallaştırılmıştır. An-trenman planlamasında, katedilen mesafeler, koşu hızları, kaldırılan ağırlık vb. gibi göstergeler antrenman dış yük göstergeleri olarak kul-lanılırken, sporcularda antrenmanlar sırasında oluşan kalp atım hızı, oksijen tüketimi (VO2), laktat konsantrasyonları, algılanan zorluk dü-zeyi vb. gibi yanıtlar ise antrenman iç yük göstergeleri olarak kullanıl-maya başlanmıştır. Antrenman yükü ölçümü amacıyla kullanılan her yöntemin, takip edilmek istenen antrenman tipine göre değişen avan-tajları ve sınırlılıkları (küresel konumlama sistemi); düşük frekanslı ci-hazlarda ölçüm güvenirliliği düşer, VO2supramaksimal antrenmanlar için uygun değil, kalp atım hızı takibi; antrenman yükünden bağımsız çevresel koşullardan etkilenir, laktat konsantrasyonları; laktat eşiğinin üzerindeki antrenman şiddetlerinin sınıflandırılmasında çok uygun bir yöntem değil vs.) bulunmaktadır. Antrenmanın bireyselleştirilmesinde bu sınırlılıkların bilinmesi ve aşılması, bunun yanı sıra iç-dış yük kav-ramlarının birlikte ele alındığı bütünleştirici yaklaşımların sergilenmesi kritik önem arz ederken, gelecekte elde edilecek verilerin gelişmiş al-goritmalar aracılığıyla değerlendirilmesi bizlere antrenman yükü taki-binde daha kesin ve tatmin edici bilgiler verecektir. Monitoring training load deserts much more attention than coaching judgment alone. Based on this idea, the aim of this study is examining and analyzing training load methods. Recently, various objective and subjective tools have been used to quantify training load along with advancing in technology. There has been increasing scien-tific interest to what extent such tools measurement efficiency related to desired parameters and then numerous studies are implemented with this objective. Last quarter, internal and external load are conceptual-ized as training load indicator in which distance run, distance speed, movement repetition etc. are assessed to measure external load indica-tor, whilst heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood lactate rated perceived exertion etc. response to training that are assessed to measure internal load indicator. Such tools using for load monitoring have some advan-tages and limitations based on training type (lower GPS frequency rates reduce reliability for measuring, VO2 is not proper method to mea-sure supramaximal training load, heart rate values may be influenced enviromental conditions, and blood lactate may not be a propher method to quantify exercise intensity above the lactate threshold).To individualize training, one must consider and overcome such limita-tions and recommended to use integrative approach which is combine of external and internal load measures. Furthermore, obtain datas will be needed to assess in conjuction with advanced algorithms to get more accurate and substantial knowledge relevant to load monitoring and quantifying.
... O Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes (DALDA) foi utilizado para medir o estresse, ele foi desenvolvido por Rushall (1990) ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between coping strategies on stress and anxiety symptoms in under-20 soccer players. Twenty-three athletes from four teams from the 2019 Bahia Under-20 Championship participated. The Athletic Coping Strategy Inventory, the Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2R were used. Data analysis was conducted using Pearson’s correlation analysis and Multiple Linear Regression (p< 0.05). The results indicated that coping was related to anxiety at the beginning of the season (Cognitive, R2= 0.43; Self-confidence, R2= 0.30; p< 0.05). While, at the end of the season, with stress (R2= 0.18; p< 0.05), Anxiety (AC, R2= 0.66; p< 0.05). It is concluded that, at the end of the epoch, the magnitude of coping relationships on stress and anxiety were enhanced in young football players in the Under-20 category
... How is the athlete coping with the cumulative stress of training? In response to these questions, Lambert and Borresen (2006 ) suggested to use Training Impulse (TRIMP) and/or session Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) in every session, perceived and action recovery scales ( Kenttä & Hassmén, 1998 ), a muscle soreness scale and the Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA; Rushall, 1990 ) on a daily basis, and the Profi le of Mood States questionnaire (POMS; McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971 ) and the recovery heart rate test ( Lamberts, Lemmink, Durandt, & Lambert, 2004 ) on a weekly basis. A systematic review to assess whether subjective measures accurately refl ected changes in athlete wellbeing (as objectively measured by performance, physiological and biochemical indicators), and whether subjective measures were responsive to acute changes in training load and chronic training, was recently published ( Saw et al., 2016 ). ...
... 43 Player (or athlete) self-reported measures have been used to quantify constructs such as; stress, recovery, mood, and anxiety, primarily to detect symptoms of non-functional overreaching or overtraining. These include instruments such as the RESTQ-Sport, 28 DALDA, 41 POMS 24 which have been shown to be more sensitive to acute changes in training load than objective measures, 43 perhaps because they better reflect the complex multifactorial nature of fatigue. 32 Unfortunately, the practical application of these scales are limited for daily evaluation of athletes and interpretation generally falls outside of the scope of practice of a physical preparation or conditioning coach. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to assess factor structure of player-reported fatigue and quantify within-subjects association between changes in training load measures and next day player-reported fatigue at different time points of an elite football season. Using longitudinal research design, twenty-four professional footballers, mean (SD) age of 25.7 (3.4) years, were monitored during their competitive season, including pre-season. Player-reported fatigue data and session ratings of perceived exertion (session-RPE) were collected via a mobile application. Player’s Heart rate (HR) and global positioning system (GPS) data were collected daily for each player in field sessions. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated three components with Eigenvalues above 1.0; “soreness”, “mood, and “hydration”. Within-player correlations between training load values and next day player-reported fatigue values were trivial to moderate (r ≈ −0.42 to −0.04). In-season we observed large correlations between Total Distance (TD) and PlayerLoad with Soreness (r = −0.55, 95% CI: −0.62 to −0.46; r = −.054, 95% CI: −0.62 to −0.46), but during pre-season, correlations were small (r = −0.15, 95% CI: −0.28 to −0.01; r = −0.13, 95% CI: −0.26 to 0.01). The HR TRIMP, TD and session-RPE measures each showed trivial to moderate correlations (r ≈ −0.41 to −0.08) with next day “mood”. Our in-house player-reported fatigue questionnaire was sensitive to the multi-dimensional nature of fatigue, identifying physiological (soreness), psychological (mood and stress) and nutritional (hydration and nutrition) components. We found the in-season correlations with training load to be greater than previously reported in the literature, specifically with next day player-reported “soreness”. Nevertheless, the correlations between the items of our scale and pre-season training load were small.
... Previously, self-report inventories of stressors and their symptoms have been used to measure individuals' stress response (e.g., Bland et al., 2012;Tatar et al., 2018;Rushall, 1990). However, these inventories are limited in their scope (e.g., sports, school) and utilities. ...
... At each of the four time-points DALDA questionnaire (Rushall, 1990) and an illness episode diary were used. DALDA questionnary (Portuguese version) (Moreira & Cavazzoni, 2009) was filled out at four time-points to verify the stress tolerance (ST). ...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effects of training load on stress tolerance (ST) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in male and female high-intensity functional fitness (HIFF) athletes during two different 10 and consecutive weekly training volume loads [higher (week 1) and lower volume (week 2)]. Methods: 14 athletes [7 males: 29.3 (±5.8) years; 86.3 (±8.2) kg and 176.8 (±3.8) cm and 7 females: 32.7 (±4.4) years; 60.0 (±6.7) kg and 162.5 (±5.9) cm] participated. The ST, assessed by Daily Analysis of Life Demand in Athletes questionnaire (DALDA) and Saliva sampling were performed in four time-points (pre (T1) and post (T2) week 1; pre (T3) and post (T4) week 2). Results: Female athletes showed a decrease in ST (symptoms of stress) from 15 T1 to T3 [F(3,36) = 7.184, p˂ 0.001, ηp2 = 0.374], without difference in male athletes (p > .05). There is a significant difference of SIgA concentration [F(3.36) = 3.551; p = .024; ηp2 = 0.228], with a significant decrease in female athletes group in T2 compared to T1 (p = .013) and T4 (p = .023). In addition, the different training volume loads did not impact mucosal immunity in male athletes (p > .05). Conclusion: The current findings suggest that higher HIFF volume results in decreased ST and SIgA concentration in female 20 athletes and a subsequent decrease in training volume loads contributed to restoring these variables.
... • Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA)[63]: a self-reported questionnaire used to assess life-stress and symptoms of stress in athlete's response to training. DALDA is divided into two sections: (i) self-assessment concerning the general stress sources that occur in the everyday life of an athlete, and (ii) determine what stress-reaction symptoms physically exist in the athlete. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, the number of studies about machine learning algorithms applied to sports, e.g., injury forecasting and athlete performance prediction, have rapidly increased. Due to the number of works and experiments already present in the state-of-the-art regarding machine-learning techniques in sport science, the aim of this narrative review is to provide a guideline describing a correct approach for training, validating, and testing machine learning models to predict events in sports science. The main contribution of this narrative review is to highlight any possible strengths and limitations during all the stages of model development, i.e., training, validation, testing, and interpretation, in order to limit possible errors that could induce misleading results. In particular, this paper shows an example about injury forecaster that provides a description of all the features that could be used to predict injuries, all the possible pre-processing approaches for time series analysis, how to correctly split the dataset to train and test the predictive models, and the importance to explain the decision-making approach of the white and black box models.
... Furthermore, A survey from 41 elite soccer clubs revealed that 78% of clubs used self-report questionnaires as a tool to determine the overall well-being of players and their ability to undertake training (3). Despite a wide range of literature in this area and numerous questionnaires developed for this purpose (23,33,38,48,55,57,60), there is no consensus on the most appropriate method to use. Due to concerns around the sporting specificity and length of time to complete some of these questionnaires, many teams and organisations have developed their own customised, shorter questionnaires (3,23,60,61). ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Establishing the reliability and repeatability of both the movement demands and the consequential responses of athletes applied settings is important. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to assess the between-week reliability of potential fatigue monitoring methods in soccer players. Secondary aims were to establish the repeatability of the movement demands and the changes in monitoring variables from the same small-sided game (SSG) protocol programmed on consecutive weeks. METHODS: Twelve semi-professional soccer players (age, 21±2 years; mass, 80.1±6.8kg; height, 1.81±0.06m) performed the same SSG protocol (4vs4+goalkeepers; 6x7-min, 2-min inter-set recovery) separated by 7 days. Movement demands were monitored using global positioning systems (GPS), with countermovement jump (CMJ), saliva (testosterone and cortisol), and brief assessment of mood (BAM+) collected immediately pre and post SSG training. RESULTS: Results suggest that CMJ variables and hormonal markers have good between-week reliability when measuring athletes at rest (CV, 2.1–7.7%; ICC, 0.82–0.98), however BAM+ did not (CV, 23.5%; ICC, 0.47). GPS variables presented low to high repeatability during SSG training, with reliability statistics varying between metrics (CV, 4.4–62.4%; ICC, 0.30–0.81). In detecting responses from pre- to post-SSG training, CMJ and hormonal markers showed moderate to very-high reliability (ICC, 0.68–0.99), whilst BAM + did not (ICC, 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest CMJ and hormonal markers provide good between-week reliability, yet caution should be applied when using short subjective questionnaires. Additionally, some movement demands may not be repeatable when programming the same SSG session on separate occasions.
... The Daily Analysis of Life Demand in Athletes (DALDA) questionnaire (Rushall, 1990) was filled out 2 h before each match, according to the procedure adopted by Freitas et al. (2014). The DALDA questionnaire was divided into Part A and Part B, representing the sources of stress and symptoms of stress, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aim was to analyze the effects of successive matches on the internal match load, stress tolerance, salivary cortisol concentration and countermovement vertical jump height in twelve youth soccer players (16.6 ± 0.5 yr; 175 ± 8 cm; 65 ± 8 kg) who performed four official matches within a four day-period with a 24-h recovery interval between the matches. The internal match load, monotony index and competitive strain, as well as stress tolerance were examined. Saliva samples were collected and countermovement vertical jump height was assessed 60 min pre and 30 min post each match; delta of salivary cortisol and countermovement vertical jump height for each match were analyzed. Salivary cortisol was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of ANOVA with repeated measures showed no differences between matches for the internal match load (p > 0.05). The scores of the monotony index and competitive strain were 4.3 (±2.3) and 8104 (±6795) arbitrary units, respectively. There was no difference for stress tolerance between matches (p > 0.05). Delta values of salivary cortisol were not different among the assessed matches (F(3,33) = 1.397, p = 0.351, η 2 : 0.09); however, delta of countermovement vertical jump height decreased from match 1 to match 4 (F(3,33) = 8.64, p < 0.001, η 2 : 0.44). The current findings suggest that participating in four successive matches, with 24-h of recovery in between, may not lead to changes in stress tolerance and salivary cortisol of youth players, but it may induce a decrease in players' jumping performance after the fourth match.
... The Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) questionnaire (Rushall, 1990) was employed as a measure of wellbeing. The questionnaire contains 34 items to evaluate the sources and symptoms of stress. ...
Article
Full-text available
Limited research exists on the effects of menstrual phase on athletic performance in team sport athletes. In this case-study we investigated the potential effect of menstrual cycle phase on several physical qualities in rugby athletes. Four eumenorrhoeic female rugby athletes completed a battery of physical tests weekly for 5-9 weeks, including 10-m sprint, countermovement (CMJ) and drop (DJ) jumps, isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and Bronco. Concurrently, athletes tracked their menstrual cycle with a smartphone application (FitrWoman TM). To investigate differences in physical performance between phases, data were allocated into four different menstrual phases at the date of each weekly test. A mixed linear model was created for each physical quality of interest. Mean changes between phases were estimated using magnitude-based inferences with 90% confidence intervals. Individual differences between the average score for each menstrual phase with the value predicted by the trend of the other three phases were also assessed. At a group-level, possible greater performances were observed in the CMJ during the late luteal phase compared with menstruation, in the DJ during late luteal compared with luteal, and in the IMTP during late luteal compared with follicular to ovulation (Δ% = 4.9-7.0%). A variety of responses were observed between individuals for all the tests conducted. Understanding and accounting for individual responses during the menstrual cycle will likely be beneficial to training prescription and interpreting performance monitoring results.
... It is well-documented that subjective measures (mood disturbance, perceived stress, sleep disruption, etc.) consistently show superior responsiveness to training compared to objective measures (Verde et al., 1992;Coutts et al., 2007;Saw et al., 2016). Unfortunately many existing subjective questionnaires [e.g., Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Kellmann and Kallus, 2001), Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (Rushall, 1990), and Multi-Component Training Distress Scale (Main and Grove, 2009)] are long with numerous questions making them time-consuming and complicated and not fit for purpose in a practical setting. Because of this, the Lincoln University Sport Scholarship program decided to incorporate elements of established measures into our own customized, brief, easy-to-use, self-reported measures. ...
Article
Full-text available
University athletes are unique because they not only have to cope with the normal psycho-physiological stress of training and playing sport, but they also need to accommodate the stress associated with their academic studies along with considerable stress from their social environment. The ability to manage and adapt to stress ultimately helps improve athletic performance, but when stress becomes too much for the athlete, it can result in maladaptation's including sleep disruption which is associated with performance loss, negative mood changes, and even injury or illness. This research aimed to determine if sleep quantity and quality were associated with maladaptation in university athletes. We examined subjective measures of sleep duration and sleep quality along with measures of mood state, energy levels, academic stress, training quality and quantity, and frequency of illness and injury in 82 young (18–23 years) elite athletes over a 1 year period in 2020. Results indicate sleep duration and quality decreased in the first few weeks of the academic year which coincided with increased training, academic and social stress. Regression analysis indicated increased levels of perceived mood (1.3, 1.1–1.5, Odds Ratio and 95% confidence limits), sleep quality (2.9, 2.5–3.3), energy levels (1.2, 1.0–1.4), training quality (1.3, 1.1–1.5), and improved academic stress (1.1, 1.0–1.3) were associated with ≥8 h sleep. Athletes that slept ≥8 h or had higher sleep quality levels were less likely to suffer injury/illness (0.8, 0.7–0.9, and 0.6, 0.5–0.7 for sleep duration and quality, respectively). In conclusion, university athletes who maintain good sleep habits (sleep duration ≥8 h/night and high sleep quality scores) are less likely to suffer problems associated with elevated stress levels. Educating athletes, coaches, and trainers of the signs and symptoms of excessive stress (including sleep deprivation) may help reduce maladaptation and improve athlete's outcomes.
... Tests of endurance are, by definition, fatiguing, and characterizing the extent to which one is fatigued following such a test, be it acute or chronic, is critical for tailoring recovery and facilitating future performance. However, the phenomenon of fatigue is in itself physiologically complex and multimodal, so its assessment is correspondingly difficult to objectively characterize (Morgan et al., 1987) or the Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) questionnaire (Rushall, 1990), plasma (Hecksteden et al., 2016;Julian et al., 2017) and salivary (Hough et al., 2013;O'Connor et al., 1989) biomarkers, resting physiological metrics such as heart rate variability (Schmitt et al., 2013) and heart rate recovery (Lamberts, Maskell, et al., 2011), and functional physiological tests such as the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycling Test (Lamberts, Swart, et al., 2011) and the Submaximal Ergometer Rowing Test (Otter et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
Running is fundamentally a simple activity, but the physical realization of it is complex. The gait patterns of a runner are the product of ever-changing systems and interactions of biomechanical components, and as such, the study of these mechanical characteristics is challenging. Traditional methods have focused on discrete components of gait and thus struggle to contextualize observations. Systemic analyses have been limited to simple descriptive models, often with exclusive or restrictive assumptions. This dissertation sought to develop novel methods for the systemic analyses using an established canonical model of the running gait – the spring-mass model – as a template. It further sought to conduct a series of biomechanical studies using this template-based approach as a framework to interpret the observations. Specifically, a method is first presented to estimate the system-level spring-mass characteristics of a runner using nonlinear regression with only the vertical ground reaction force time series of the runner. To facilitate this method, a novel parameterized form of the sinusoidal vGRF approximation was derived and validated. This NLR-based analyses yielded leg stiffness estimates that were consistent with traditional methods and further suggested that additional systemic parameters do not behave as traditional methods assume. Next, two investigations are presented that explore this method along with new methods for spring-mass dynamics comparisons and with established methods for spring-mass parameter analysis. These investigations included a cohort comparison of elite Kenyan distance runners against a cohort of non-elite recreational runners and a paired comparison of subjects before and after an ultramarathon. It was shown that the Kenyan runners behaved more like the simple elastic system than the recreational runners and that the ultra-marathon runners demonstrated consistent systemic patterns but greater overall template dissimilarity following the race. Finally, traditional methods of spring-mass analyses were applied with a more comprehensive mixed-model experimental design to fully characterize the system-level behavior of elite middle distance runners across a spectrum of speeds. The mixed-model template-based analysis revealed that the elite runners ran as stiffer systems than their sub-elite counterparts and that their mechanical behavior was more persistent across speeds. Together, this series of investigations established and validated new methods and improved upon the implementation of existing methods with which to assess running gait holistically and analyze it as a system. It is hoped that this work will provide useful tools, new frameworks, and fresh inspiration for scientists, coaches, and athletes to assess and interpret the movements of runners.
... Internal load is measured by evaluating the physiological and psychological response to a given EL (45), and it includes variables such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (75), session RPE (sRPE) (duration of session [min] 3 RPE) (24), and psychological questionnaires such as Profile of Mood States (POMS) (62), the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (REST-Q-Sport) (48), Daily Analysis of Life's Demands for Athletes (DAL-DA) (77), and the Total Quality Recovery (TQR) scale (49). Also considered as factors affecting IL are sleep (quality and duration) (35), biochemical/hormonal/immunological evaluations (57), psychomotor speed (64), heart rate (HR) (37), HR-RPE relationship (56), HR variability (HRV) (69), training impulse (TRIMP) (9), blood lactate concentrations (11), and blood lactate/ RPE ratio (89). ...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring training load provides information about the physical demands of the sport in which athletes are competing. Strength and conditioning coaches need to use this information to periodize and make decisions on training to optimize performance and prevent injuries. The following narrative review presents the current state of knowledge on monitoring external and internal loads in basketball. The reviewed articles were classified according to the sample represented, considering 3 groups: elite, subelite, and young basketball players. In addition, we analyzed the recording procedures and methodology used in technological and ecological terms. Articles were classified, considering what was monitored and the context in which it was monitored. These settings included competition, training, and small-sided games. Performance and sports injury variables were also taken into account in our review.
... These diagnostic tools are used in research and practice, mainly as indicators of the degree of psychological load in elite athletes which accompany OTS. Rushall, 1990 Self-report of sources of stress in everyday life (part A, 9 items) and symptoms of experienced stress (part B, 25 items). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents an overview of important findings concerning the overtraining syndrome (OTS) in elite athletes. Although the scientific community agrees that OTS is a multifactorially determined and individually variable phenomenon, which can have a serious impact on the individual, there are still some inconsistencies. Therefore, in our study we focused on the terminology of the phenomenon, its prevalence, etiology and symptomatology. We paid specific attention to psychological instruments of detecting OTS indicators. Given that in the period of adolescence the training process in the majority of sport disciplines intensifies significantly, the context of developmental changes during this period in relation to OTS is discussed. The final part of the study summarizes the basic principles of prevention of this pathological phenomenon.
... Furthermore, female athletes appear to respond differently to similar TL than males and report higher perceived exertion, which may lead to poor recovery and self-efficacy [133]. Research that is centered around ASRM has come from valid and reliable measures such as the ubiquitous Profile of Mood States [134], Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes [135] and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes [136]. Some of the limitations of these questionnaires include the lack of specificity to team-based sports, and the time burden on the athlete to complete the process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Athlete monitoring enables sports science practitioners to collect information to determine how athletes respond to training loads (TL) and the demands of competition. To date, recommendations for females are often adapted from their male counterparts. There is currently limited information available on TL monitoring in female Gaelic team sports in Ireland. The collection and analysis of female athlete monitoring data can provide valuable information to support the development of female team sports. Athletic monitoring can also support practitioners to help minimize risk of excessive TL and optimize potential athletic performance. The aims of this narrative review are to provide: (i) an overview of TL athlete monitoring in female team sports, (ii) a discussion of the potential metrics and tools used to monitor external TL and internal TL, (iii) the advantages and disadvantages of TL modalities for use in Gaelic team sports, and (iv) practical considerations on how to monitor TL to aid in the determination of meaningful change with female Gaelic team sports athletes.
... To determine whether athletes were, indeed, functionally overreached, the following indicators were used: (1) a decrease in performance, 4 (2) increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at the same intensity, 2 and (3) subjective indicators of increased stress or fatigue levels. 1,15,16 In addition, changes in performance parameters after a taper period and/or the duration of the overload period were assessed to confirm the state of functional overreaching. ...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this brief review was to present an overview of noninvasive markers in trained to professional endurance athletes that can reflect a state of functional overreaching. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases. After screening 380 articles, 12 research papers were included for the systematic review. Results: Good consensus was found between the different papers in which noninvasive parameters were able to reflect a state of functional overreaching. Changes in power output (PO), heart rate (HR; [sub]maximal and HR recovery), rating of perceived exertion, and scores in the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) and/or Profile of Mood States (POMS) were shown to be able to reflect functional overreaching, whereas changes in maximal oxygen uptake and HR-variability parameters were not. Conclusion: Functional overreaching within a maximal performance test was characterized by a decrease in peak PO and a lower maximum HR, whereas a lower mean PO and a lower HR were observed during time trials. Changes in parameters during a standardized submaximal test when functionally overreached were characterized by a higher PO at a fixed HR or a lower HR at a fixed intensity, higher rating of perceived exertion, and a faster HR recovery. Although both the DALDA and POMS were able to reflect functional overreaching, the POMS was not able to differentiate this response from acute fatigue, which makes it unsuitable for accurately monitoring functional overreaching.
... 5 Moreover, RPE has been widely utilized to estimate the subjective players' TL (TL = RPE × training time) in team sports, where the unpredictable nature of the game makes the TL management more complex. 6 Recently, the use of noninvasive and low-cost psychometric scales, such as the Profile of Mood States, 7 Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes, 8 Total Quality Recovery, 9 and Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, 10 became a suitable method for assessing individual players' response (eg, muscle soreness, sleep duration, quality, and general wellness). 10 However, due to the number of items and their inherent time-consuming characteristics, particularly in elite team-sports settings, these scales present a low applicability on a daily basis. ...
Article
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the training load (TL = rate of perceived exertion × training time) and wellness index (WI) in soccer. Methods: The WI and TL data were recorded from 28 subelite players (age = 20.9 [2.4] y; height = 181.0 [5.8] cm; body mass = 72.0 [4.4] kg) throughout the 2017/2018 season. Predictive models were constructed using a supervised machine learning method that predicts the WI according to the planned TL. The validity of our predictive model was assessed by comparing the classification's accuracy with the one computed from a baseline that randomly assigns a class to an example by respecting the distribution of classes (B1). Results: A higher TL was reported after the games and during match day (MD)-5 and MD-4, while a higher WI was recorded on the following days (MD-6, MD-4, and MD-3, respectively). A significant correlation was reported between daily TL (TLMDi) and WI measured the day after (WIMDi+1) (r = .72, P < .001). Additionally, a similar weekly pattern seems to be repeating itself throughout the season in both TL and WI. Nevertheless, the higher accuracy of ordinal regression (39% [2%]) compared with the results obtained by baseline B1 (21% [1%]) demonstrated that the machine learning approach used in this study can predict the WI according to the TL performed the day before (MD<i). Conclusion: The machine learning technique can be used to predict the WI based on a targeted weekly TL. Such an approach may contribute to enhancing the training-induced adaptations, maximizing the players' readiness and reducing the potential drops in performance associated with poor wellness scores.
Article
Full-text available
O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o efeito da quantidade de balizas em jogos reduzidos no futsal (JRF’s) sobre a carga interna e resposta afetiva. Participaram do estudo oito atletas adultas de futsal feminino, que treinavam regularmente cinco vezes por semana. Foram analisadas duas sessões de treinamento: 1) JRF1baliza 4 x 4 com uma baliza para cada equipe; 2) JRF3balizas 4 x 4 com três balizas para cada equipe. A ordem dos JRF’s foi escolhida de forma randomizada. Para análise da carga interna utilizou-se a escala CR 0-10 de percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE) e para a resposta afetiva, utilizou-se a escala de sentimento (feeling scale). Utilizou-se o teste t pareado para análise da resposta psicofisiológica, considerando significativo um valor p < 0,05. Em nossos resultados os valores de PSE foram semelhantes entre os JRF’s (JRF1baliza: 4,5 ± 1,7 vs. JRF3balizas: 4,4 ± 0,7, p > 0,05) da mesma forma para a resposta afetiva (JRF1baliza: 0,2 ± 0,8 vs. JRF3balizas: 0,1 ± 1,0, p > 0,05), adicionalmente observou-se que os valores de PSE fixaram-se em “um pouco difícil” e a resposta afetiva permaneceu positiva durante ambos os JRF’s. Em suma, conclui-se que os JRF1baliza e JRF3balizas obtiveram respostas semelhante nos marcadores psicofisiológicos (PSE e Afeto) em atletas adultas de futsal feminino.
Article
Full-text available
Background The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport-36) is a self-report measure intended to monitor the recovery-stress balance in athletes. A validated Italian version of this instrument was not available so far. Objective The aim of this study was to provide an initial validation in Italian language of the RESTQ-Sport-36. Methods A sample of Italian athletes ( N = 339; women = 148; men = 191) from various sports completed the RESTQ-Sport-36 and the Italian Mood Scale (ITAMS). We examined the factorial validity and the internal consistency of the RESTQ-Sport-36 and its concurrent validity with the ITAMS. Results A confirmatory factor analysis supported a 12-factor structure after the removal of 3 items. Reliability analysis showed a satisfactory internal consistency of the 33-item Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport-33). Pearson correlation coefficients revealed that the RESTQ-Sport-33 and ITAMS share some common variance but measure different constructs. Conclusion Our results provided support to the factorial validity and reliability of the RESTQ-Sport-33. This instrument can be used to reliably monitor recovery-stress balance of Italian athletes throughout the season.
Background: Athlete-reported outcome measures (AROMs) are frequently used in research and practice but no studies have examined their psychometric properties. Objectives: Part 1-identify the most commonly used AROMs in sport for monitoring training responses; part 2-assess risk of bias, measurement properties, and level of evidence, based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: Methodological quality of the studies, quality of measurement properties, and level of evidence were determined using the COSMIN checklist and criteria. Results: Part 1-from 9446 articles screened for title and abstract, 310 out of 334 full texts were included; 53.9% of the AROMs contained multiple items, while 46.1% contained single items. Part 2-from 1895 articles screened for title and abstract, 71 were selected. Most measurement properties of multiple-item AROMs were adequate, but content validity and measurement error were inadequate. With the exclusion of 2 studies examining reliability and responsiveness, no validity studies were found for single items. Conclusions: The measurement properties of multiple-item AROMs derived from psychometrics were acceptable (with the exclusion of content validity and measurement error). The single-item AROMs most frequently used in sport science have not been validated. Additionally, nonvalidated modified versions of the originally nonvalidated items are common. Until proper validation studies are completed, all conclusions based on these AROMs are questionable. Established reference methods, such as those of clinimetrics, should be used to develop and assess the validity of AROMs.
Article
Full-text available
Günümüzdeki futbolun maç temposunun ve haftalık fikstür yoğunluğunun yapısı göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, milyonlarca liralık maliyetleri olan sporcuların sakatlıklardan korunmaları ve optimum performans seviyelerine ulaştırılmaları gerekmektedir. Antrenman yükünün takibi ve elde edilen verilerin analizi sonucu ortaya koyulan anlamlı bilgilerde sporcuların günümüz futbolundaki tempoyla başa çıkmalarını kolaylaştırarak amaçlarına ulaşmalarını kolaylaştırmaktadır. Bu nedenle antrenmanların ve müsabakaların sporcular üzerinde oluşturduğu fizyolojik, kinematik, psikolojik ve mekanik yükleri objektif verilere dönüştürüp anlamlandırmak futbol dünyası için oldukça önemlidir. Sporcularda oluşan pozitif ve negatif durumları gözlemleyip bu durumlara göre aksiyon almayı sağlayan antrenman yükü takip yöntemleri, günümüzde teknolojik araçların gelişmesi ve spor bilimi dünyasındaki kullanıcıların geçmişe göre daha tecrübeli olması, sporcuların antrenmanlarında oluşan yüklerin daha efektif bir şekilde elde edilmesini kolaylaştırmaktadır. Antrenman yükünün ölçülmesi kadar, elde edilen verilerin işlenip anlaşılabilir bilgilere dönüştürülerek antrenmanlara yön verebilmemizi sağlayan sistemlerde günümüzde teknolojiye paralel bir şekilde gelişmektedir. Spor bilimciler ve antrenörler tüm bu yöntemler ve teknolojilerden elde etmiş olduğu bilgileri anlaşılabilir görsellere dönüştürerek takımdaki teknik personellerle ya da oyuncularla kolay iletişim kurmalarını sağlayabilirler. Bu derlemede daha önce yapılmış olan ve sadece antrenman yükü takip yöntemlerini incelemiş fakat elde edilen verileri nasıl analiz ederek pratik kullanılabilir bilgilere dönüştürebiliriz sorularına cevap veremeyen çalışmaların aksine, antrenman yükü takibini ve elde edilen verilerin analizini aynı zamanda analiz yöntemlerinde elde edilen verilerin anlaşılabilir görsellere nasıl dönüştürülmesini gerektiğini okuyuculara aktarmak amaçlanmıştır.
Article
Full-text available
Aims: The present study investigated the quality of coach-athlete relationship (CAR) and coping as associated factors stress, anxiety, burnout, and depression symptoms of soccer players in the transition to professional. Equations, Pearson's Correlation, and Linear Multiple Regression (p < 0.05). Results: Our findings show that from the beginning to the end of the season, CAR and coping strategies were predictors of psychic occurrences. For CAR, the symptoms of anxiety associated with self-confidence and stress symptoms were predicted by Proximity and Com-plementarity, respectively. As for coping strategies, only the symptoms of stress were predicted by the dimension of facing adversity. Conclusion: From the beginning to the end of the season, the magnitude of the predicting factors over some psychopathologies is enhanced in youth soccer players going through a career transition stage.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ashwagandha is a reputed herb in traditional Ayurveda, used for various ailments and improving general well-being. Improved cardiorespiratory endurance can aid in attaining better physiological, metabolic, and functional abilities in humans. According to Ayurveda, Ashwagandha has such potential to improve human health. Aim of the study This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ashwagandha root extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy athletic adults were selected randomly and equally allocated to Ashwagandha and placebo groups. The Ashwagandha group received 300 mg of Ashwagandha root extract capsules, twice daily, for 8-weeks. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the maximum aerobic capacity (VO2 max). Estimation of stress management was done through Total Quality Recovery Scores (TQR), Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ), and Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) questionnaires along with the antioxidant level measurement. Results At the end of the study, a significant improvement in VO2 max outcome was observed in the Ashwagandha group when compared to the placebo group (P = 0.0074). The subjects in the Ashwagandha group also displayed a statistically significant increase at the end of the study when compared to the baseline (P<0.0001). Significantly improved TQR scores were observed in the Ashwagandha group members compared to their placebo counterparts (P<0.0001). DALDA questionnaire analysis in the Ashwagandha group was found statistically significant (P<0.0001) compared to the placebo group. RESTQ assessment also yielded better outcomes, especially for fatigue recovery (P<0.0001), lack of energy (P<0.0001), and fitness analysis (P<0.0001). The enhanced antioxidant level was significant (P<0.0001) in the Ashwagandha group. Conclusion The present findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract can successfully enhance cardiorespiratory endurance and improve the quality of life in healthy athletic adults. No adverse events were reported by any of the subjects in this study.
Article
Haischer, MH, Cooke, DM, Carzoli, JP, Johnson, TK, Shipherd, AM, Zoeller, RF, Whitehurst, M, and Zourdos, MC. Impact of cognitive measures and sleep on acute squat strength performance and perceptual responses among well-trained men and women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study assessed the efficacy of currently used assessments for sleep, anxiety, and stress in predicting 1-repetition maximum (1RM) back squat performance. Fifty-three men (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass, 86.67 ± 13.93 kg; training age, 6.0 ± 2.5 years; 1RM = 163.5 ± 39.5 kg) and 15 women (age, 21 ± 1.5 years; body mass, 63.34 ± 9.6 kg; training age, 4 ± 1.5 years; 1RM = 81.5 ± 12.5 kg) participated. Subjects completed the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA), the revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R), and Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire (OSQ) to evaluate stress, anxiety, and sleep, respectively. Subjects then completed the perceived self-efficacy (PSE) scale, to predict what loads they were 100, 75, and 50% confident that they could lift for a 1RM; then completed 1RM testing with rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and average concentric velocity (ACV) obtained on each attempt. The performance-dependent variable was calculated by subtracting the PSE responses from the actual 1RM (1RM-PSE difference). Bootstrapping with 1,000 replicate samples was used with linear regression to increased robustness of the statistical analyses, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Hours of sleep was an inverse predictor of ACV (p = 0.014; 95% CI = 0.046 to-0.011) and a positive predictor of RPE (p = 0.005; 95% CI = 0.068-0.342). Furthermore, the hypersomnia subscale of the OSQ was a negative predictor of 1RM-PSE difference at 50% confidence (p = 0.028; 95% CI = -3.507 to -0.528), and CSAI-2R total score was a negative predictor of RPE at 1RM (p = 0.043; 95% CI = -0.041 to -0.003); however, the DALDA did not exhibit any significant relationships. These data highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety and sleep when assessing readiness for maximal strength performance.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Physical fitness is foundational to the U.S. Army as a component of combat readiness, and accurate assessment of readiness is imperative for mission success and soldiers’ health and safety. To this end, the Army has developed the Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT), which more accurately assesses these abilities and may aid development of a more combat-ready force. Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) programs nationwide are often challenged by limited structured training time, as well as access to equipment and training space. Development and/or adaptation of a training program that addresses these limitations would benefit ROTC programs nationally. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare a standard military fitness training program to High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) in ROTC cadets. We hypothesized that a HIFT program would be more effective than the standard military program developed by the DoD on both ACFT performance and assessment of common Warrior Tasks and Battle Drills (WTBDs). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Colorado State University (CSU). Participants were recruited from CSU’s Army ROTC program. Before and upon completion of the training intervention, participants completed a battery of testing, conducted over three visits. The first visit consisted of body composition assessment and measurement of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Visit 2 was the ACFT, and Visit 3 was a “benchmark test” to assess WTBD performance. Participants then completed 10 weeks of group training. Once weekly, participants completed the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) survey to monitor the risk of overtraining. Statistical Analysis Responses to training and survey responses were examined using two-way analysis of variance (time × group) with repeated measures. Baseline characteristics were compared using Student’s t-test to assess pre-intervention differences between groups. Pearson product correlations were used to test relationships between ACFT performance, body composition, and performance on the benchmark assessment. The significance level alpha was set at P < .05. Results Twenty-five men and 10 women competed the study (n = 35). Mean age was 19.8 ± 1.3 years, range 18-23. There were no significant changes in absolute or relative VO2max within or between groups. We found no difference in body mass, but did find a small but statistically significant favorable change in body composition, with no difference between groups. Overall ACFT scores and scores in five of the six events increased significantly across both groups, with no significant differences between groups. For the benchmark test, there was no significant difference between pre- and post-intervention benchmark scores, time to completion, 1,600-m ruck time, or accuracy. DALDA survey results indicate no apparent risk for overtraining. Conclusion Three 60-minute sessions per week of moderate-high-intensity training elicited improvements in ACFT scores, with no statistically significant differences between training programs. For this population of ROTC cadets, implementing a structured training program with expert oversight appears to be effective. Based on the successes and unanticipated challenges encountered in this study, training programs that emphasize intensity, train a wide variety of movements, maximize adherence, and are adaptable to a variety of situations are likely to be successful at improving ACFT scores.
Article
Training sollte bestimmten Prinzipien folgen. Die Wissenschaft zeigt, dass sie auch in nicht-leistungssportlichen Settings, wie der klinischen Bewegungstherapie, relevant sind und zunehmend gefordert werden. Die Sportwissenschaftler Lars Donath und Oliver Faude haben die wichtigsten Prinzipien einem aktuellen Prüfstand unterzogen.
Article
A review of clinical, experimental, and field research on stress, together with the author's own research, provides the background for a theory that emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes. Harvard Book List (edited) 1971 #370 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the development of a new instrument, the Life Experiences Survey (LES), for the measurement of life changes. The LES is a 57-item self-report measure that is divided into 2 sections: Section 1 consists of 47 items that refer to life changes in a wide variety of situations; Section 2 consists of 10 items that are designed primarily for use with students. It was designed to eliminate certain shortcomings of previous life stress measures and allows for separate assessment of positive and negative life experiences as well as individualized ratings of the impact of events. The reliability and possible sex differences of the LES are discussed, and the LES is compared with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, the Psychological Screening Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, and the Schedule of Recent Experiences using undergraduate samples. Several studies bearing on the usefulness of the Life Experiences Survey are presented and the implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
Increased activity in the adrenal cortex has long been noted as a component of a non-specific reaction to stress. Levels of adrenocortical steroid excretion have been shown to be related to individual differences in the ability to cope with everyday life, and sleep patterns also seem to reflect this quality. The way a person sleeps may, therefore, be a useful indication of stress.
Article
The implications of the mental load model, used implicitly or explicitly by many investigators, appear to be inconsistent with many experimental results. It is demonstrated that a clearer picture emerges if the concept of arousal is taken into consideration.
The swimmer's race preparation checklists. Sydney: The Forbes and Ursula Carlilc Swimming Organization
  • R S Rushall
Rushall, R. S. ( I 979). The swimmer's race preparation checklists. Sydney: The Forbes and Ursula Carlilc Swimming Organization.
A tool for measuring stress in elite athletes Stress and anxiety in sport
  • B S Rushall
Rushall, B. S. (198 1). A tool for measuring stress in elite athletes. In Y. Hanin (Ed.), Stress and anxiety in sport. Moscow: Physical Culture and Sport Publishers.
Psychological monitoring of athletic stress syndrome
  • W P Morgan
Morgan, W. P. (May, 1980). Psychological monitoring of athletic stress syndrome. A paper presented at the 27th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Las Vegas.
Fifty years of swimming research
  • F Carlile
Physiological, sociological, and psychological responses of training‐adapted talented age‐group swimmers under three levels of training stress. A paper presented at the XXIII FIMS World Congress of Sports Medicine
  • B S Rushall
  • W A Roaf
Physiological, sociological, and psychological responses of training-adapted talented age-group swimmers under three levels of training stress
  • B S Rushall
  • W A Roaf