Epidemiology of Gender Identity Disorder: Recommendations for the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health
International Journal of Transgenderism 05/2009; 11(1):8-18. DOI: 10.1080/15532730902799946
Formal epidemiological studies on the incidence and prevalence of gender identity disorder (GID) or transsexualism have not been conducted. Accordingly, crude estimates of prevalence have had to rely on indirect methods, such as parental endorsement of behavioral items pertaining to GID on omnibus questionnaires for children and youth or the number of adult patients seeking contra-sex hormonal treatment or sex-transformative surgery at hospital- or university-based gender clinics. Data from child and adolescent parent-report questionnaires show that the frequent wish to be of the other sex is quite low but that periodic cross-gender behavior is more common. In the general population, cross-gender behavior is more common in girls than it is in boys but boys are referred to gender identity clinics more frequently than are girls. Prevalence estimates of GID in adults indicate that it is higher in natal males than in natal females although this may be accounted for by between-sex variation in sexual orientation subtypes. Prevalence estimates of GID in adults based on clinic-referred samples suggest an increase in more recent cohorts. It remains unclear whether this represents a true increase in prevalence or simply greater comfort in the seeking out of clinical care as professionals become more attuned to the psychosocial and biomedical needs of transgendered people.
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- "In the United States, the study of prevalence rates for transsexual individuals is hampered by a lack of governmental data. One must rely on limited service provider data and self-reporting (Zucker and Lawrence 2009).With regard to prevalence rates for the larger category of transgender,Rudacille (2005, 14) states that any estimates are ―mere guesswork.‖ 1 Regardless of origin or prevalence, Introduction. "
ABSTRACT: To date, media and scholarly attention to gay politics and policy has focused on the morality debates over sexual orientation and the legal aspects of rights for non-heterosexuals. However, transgender concerns as such have received little attention. With transgender activism becoming more visible, policymakers in the United States and around the world have begun to respond to demands for more equitable treatment. Jami K. Taylor and Donald P. Haider-Markel bring together new research employing the concepts and tools of political science to explore the politics of transgender rights. Volume contributors address the framing of transgender rights in the U.S. and in Latin America. They discuss transgender interest groups, the inclusion of transgender activists in advocacy coalitions, policy diffusion at the state and local levels, and, importantly, the implementation of transgender public policy. This volume sets the standard for empirical research on transgender politics and demonstrates that the study of this topic can contribute to the understanding of larger questions in the field of political science. - See more at: http://www.press.umich.edu/4883502/transgender_rights_and_politics#sthash.K5pWg0hR.dpuf
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- "To date, research on prevalence rates have tended to focus on people, typically in the adult population, who present for gender transitionerelated care (e.g., for sex reassignment surgery or for hormone therapy) at specialist gender clinics , where rates have been as low as 1:2,900 to 1:400,000 . However, Olyslager and Conway  estimated that the number of people who identify as transgender is likely to be at least 1:100. "
ABSTRACT: To report the prevalence of students according to four gender groups (i.e., those who reported being non-transgender, transgender, or not sure about their gender, and those who did not understand the transgender question), and to describe their health and well-being. Logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between gender groups and selected outcomes in a nationally representative high school health and well-being survey, undertaken in 2012. Of the students (n = 8,166), 94.7% reported being non-transgender, 1.2% reported being transgender, 2.5% reported being not sure about their gender, and 1.7% did not understand the question. Students who reported being transgender or not sure about their gender or did not understand the question had compromised health and well-being relative to their non-transgender peers; in particular, for transgender students perceiving that a parent cared about them (odds ratio [OR], .3; 95% confidence interval [CI], .2-.4), depressive symptoms (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 3.6-9.2), suicide attempts (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 2.9-8.8), and school bullying (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.4-8.2). This is the first nationally representative survey to report the health and well-being of students who report being transgender. We found that transgender students and those reporting not being sure are a numerically small but important group. Transgender students are diverse and are represented across demographic variables, including their sexual attractions. Transgender youth face considerable health and well-being disparities. It is important to address the challenging environments these students face and to increase access to responsive services for transgender youth.
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- "Nevertheless, it is controversial as to whether these conditions occur as comorbid disorders, or whether the behaviors associated with gender dysphoria are simply atypical manifestations of RRBI. While in non-clinical samples males are more often referred to clinics for treatment of gender identity disorders than females (Zucker and Lawrence 2009), it has been suggested that prevalence among the general population may in fact be almost equal between males and females (Landén et al. 1996). The only published empirical report investigating this comorbidity, to our knowledge, found that more males with ASD suffered from such complications than affected females (de Vries et al. 2010). "
ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature exploring gender differences associated with the clinical presentation of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The potentially mediating effect of comorbid psychopathology, biological and neurodevelopmental implications on these gender differences is also discussed. A vastly heterogeneous condition, while females on the lower-functioning end of the spectrum appear to be more severely affected, an altered clinical manifestation of the disorder among high-functioning females may consequently result in many being un or misdiagnosed. To date, there is strong bias in the literature towards the clinical presentation of ASD in males. It is imperative that future research explores gender differences across the autism spectrum, in order to improve researchers', clinicians' and the publics' understanding of this debilitating disorder.
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