Article

The Role of Cognitive Ability Tests in Employment Selection

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  • Outtz and Associates
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Abstract

Cognitive ability tests correlate with measures of job performance across many jobs. However, cognitive ability tests produce racial differences that are 3 to 5 times larger than other predictors - such as biodata, personality inventories, and the structured interview - that are valid predictors of job performance. Given that (a) cognitive ability tests can be combined with other predictors such that adverse impact is reduced while overall validity is increased, and (b) alternative predictors with less adverse impact can produce validity coefficients comparable to those obtained with cognitive ability tests alone, sole reliance on cognitive ability tests when alternatives are available is unwarranted.

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... In particular for more complex job levels, the predictive validity of g is high (Hunter, 1986). At the same time, however, several studies (e.g., Goldstein, Zedeck, & Goldstein, 2002;Murphy, 2002;Outtz, 2002) have shown that the cognitive ability test represents the predictor that most likely will have substantial adverse impact on employment opportunities for most ethnic minority groups. ...
... More specifically, in Chapters 5 and 6, it is investigated whether method factors, i.e., the psychological measures that are used, explain differences between the ethnic majority group and ethnic minority groups. Introduction 17 Goldstein, Zedeck, & Goldstein, 2002;Murphy, 2002;Outtz, 2002) have shown that the cognitive ability test represents the predictor that most likely will have substantial adverse impact on employment opportunities for most ethnic minority groups. A possible solution for this dilemma has been sought in the use of other (non-cognitive ability) selection measures, e.g., the AC and the employment interview. ...
... This is especially the case for more complex job levels (Hunter, 1986). At the same time, several researchers (e.g., Goldstein, Zedeck, & Goldstein, 2002;Murphy, 2002;Outtz, 2002) have shown that the cognitive ability test represents the predictor most likely to have substantial adverse impact on employment opportunities for most ethnic minority groups. Ethnic score differences between .50 ...
Article
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The research reported in the present dissertation has highlighted several issues. One important issue is language as Dutch language-proficiency of applicants explained a substantial part of the score differences between the ethnic majority group and ethnic minority groups. Interestingly, assessor-applicant (dis)similarity did not differentially affect evaluations of ethnically diverse applicants. This finding alleviates concerns that discrimination of ethnic minority groups due to (dis)similarity may occur during personnel selection. However, a difference was found in the decision-making process of ethnic majority assessors judging ethnic minority applicants compared to ethnic majority applicants. This finding indicates that assessors are, in some way, affected by the ethnicity of applicants. Gaining experience in assessing ethnic minority applicants, exchanging knowledge about assessment in a multi-cultural setting among assessors, or perhaps further stand! ardizing the selection process should diminish differential effects. Furthermore, selection measures, both cognitive and non-cognitive, appear to differentially predict training performance of ethnic majority and minority trainees. A possible explanation of this differential effect may lay in the subjective evaluations of supervisors during training. Finally, scores on a newly developed situational judgment test (SJT) turned out to show substantially smaller ethnic group differences than generally are found on the cognitive ability test. These findings yield practical guidelines for personnel selection in a multi-cultural setting, such as further standardization of the decision-making process to hire or reject applicants and diminishing the influence of language skills of applicants by means of SJTs.
... D uring the selection process, organizations attempt to predict future job performance, often using cognitive ability testing. Many have argued that general cognitive ability is the single best predictor of job performance across a wide range of occupational settings (e.g., Gottfredson, 2000Gottfredson, , 2002Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004;Murphy, 2002;Outtz, 2002;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998, 2004Wagner, 1997). There are, however, potential drawbacks to using cognitive ability tests as predictors. ...
... There are, however, potential drawbacks to using cognitive ability tests as predictors. The most obvious negative consequence of cognitive ability testing is that it is likely to result in substantial adverse impact against protected racial and ethnic groups (Murphy, 2002;Outtz, 2002). Typically, African Americans score one standard deviation lower than Whites on tests of cognitive ability (e.g., Ceci, 2000;Hunt, 1996;Hunter & Hunter, 1984;Murphy 2002). ...
... Typically, African Americans score one standard deviation lower than Whites on tests of cognitive ability (e.g., Ceci, 2000;Hunt, 1996;Hunter & Hunter, 1984;Murphy 2002). Murphy (2002) and Outtz (2002) noted substantial differences between scores for Hispanics and Whites on cognitive ability tests, although the differences are not as great as those between White and African American scores. Consequently, very few members of the lower scoring minority groups are selected when organizations utilize cognitive ability tests as predictors. ...
Article
General cognitive ability is likely the single best predictor of job performance, although it typically results in race-based adverse impact. The majority of the 22 cognitive ability testing cases in appellate and district courts from 1992 to 2004 involved class action plaintiffs and civil service jobs. Organizations that used professionally developed tests that were validated and that set cutoff scores supported by the validity study fared well in court. The validation study must be conducted according to professional standards, and the results should be used properly when setting cutoff scores. Plaintiffs in cognitive ability test-related lawsuits were likely to be members of minority groups; the majority of cases were race-based claims. Utilizing a consultant to develop and validate selection tests may ensure the appropriate expertise and a professionally developed and validated test; however, it does not alleviate the responsibility of the employer for adverse impact.
... Some of these subgroup differences may be attributed to the test format (Hough, Oswald, & Ployhart, 2001), meaning that GBAs could present a potential solution to mitigating adverse impact. In support of this notion, technological innovations to assessment methodology like the use of video-based assessment formats have been shown to reduce adverse impact compared with traditional paper-and-pencil tests (Chan & Schmitt, 1997;Outtz, 2002), while research on the emergent properties of video GBAs has also demonstrated some evidence for reduced adverse impact associated with a GBA format (Montefiori, 2016). The mechanisms underlying these benefits of video-based and GBA formats are not currently well-established, although factors like reduced cognitive load and test anxiety may be related. ...
... Cognitive ability is one of the most commonly assessed constructs in occupational settings (Kuncel & Hezlett, 2010;Ones, Dilchert, Viswesvaran, & Salgado, 2017). Assessments of cognitive ability have demonstrated strong predictive evidence for job performance outcomes, with validity coefficients typically ranging across meta-analytic studies from r = 0.35 to 0.55 (Outtz, 2002;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). Cognitive ability is structured hierarchically, with a general cognitive ability (or g, the general intelligence factor) underlying more specific cognitive abilities (Carroll, 1993;Gottfredson, 1997). ...
... Evidence supported the criterion-related validity of the VRG used for Visual Speed & Accuracy, suggesting that this VRG was a significant indicator of academic performance. Previous research on predicting performance largely pertains to general measures of cognitive ability (Kuncel & Hezlett, 2010;Outtz, 2002) rather than sub-measures such as spatial ability. However, we identified a meta-analysis by Piburn (1993) where comparisons between spatial ability and GPA were aggregated, controlling for prediction by verbal ability measures. ...
Article
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Virtual reality (VR) technology may provide unique benefits for assessing individual characteristics, in contrast with traditional assessments. This study examined validity evidence for the use of VR game (VRG) scores to indicate specific cognitive abilities. Participants completed three VRGs, three computer‐based assessments (CBAs), and additional scales. To evaluate convergent validity, VRG scores were compared with CBA scores. For divergent validity, VRG scores were compared with five factors of personality based on the Five Factor Model. For criterion‐related validity, VRG scores were compared with academic achievement (i.e., grade point average). Findings generally provided support that the VRG scores are related to certain spatial reasoning subdimensions of cognitive ability. However, further research is needed to examine the qualities of VRGs as assessment tools.
... De facto, a complexidade de uma determinada função relaciona-se de forma íntima com as exigências de processamento, manipulação e transmissão de informação que a mesma comporta (Gottfredson, 2002). Contudo, apesar das vantagens da aptidão cognitiva geral que decorrem da sua validade preditiva ímpar para os critérios que têm sido alvo de estudo, este preditor reúne algumas desvantagens particularmente relevantes, enquanto ferramenta de selecção, que se relacionam com as questões do impacto adverso (Hunter & Hunter, 1984;Outtz, 2002;Avis, Kudish, & Fortunato;Smith, 1994). Este problema decorre das diferenças de pontuação encontradas nos testes de aptidão cognitiva geral entre diversos grupos sociais 8 . ...
... Estas diferenças apresentam, com frequência, uma magnitude significativa 9 e acabam por estar na génese de taxas de contratação desiguais entre grupos, quando os resultados nos testes de aptidão cognitiva geral constituem um critério de selecção. A natureza destas questões levanta sérias implicações legais, que respeitam sobretudo à promoção de iguais oportunidades de emprego, independentemente do grupo social em causa (Outtz, 2002). ...
Chapter
O presente capítulo versa sobre o processo de recrutamento e selecção de pessoas e encontra‑se organizado em torno de um conjunto de assuntos de reconhecida relevância neste domínio, ancorados quer a questões teóricas quer a aspectos de índole mais pragmática, a partir dos quais traçamos alguns pontos de reflexão no sentido de enquadrar e desenvolver a temática em apreço. A secção introdutória desenvolve‑se segundo uma abordagem global ao recrutamento e selecção, consubstanciando‑os como processos integrados na est ratégia da organização e que, por conseguinte, são condicionados por variáveis de ordem intra‑organizacional, bem como por factores que radicam nas múltiplas ver tentes da envolvente da organização. Na segunda secção deste capítulo apresenta‑se, em traços genéricos, as orientações preconizadas pelo paradigma psicométrico nas acções de recrutamento e selecção enunciando‑se, a jusante, algumas das limitações da sua aplicação na conjuntura organizacional actual. Apoiando‑nos nos aspectos referidos parte‑se para a análise do recrutamento e selecção como etapas integrativas de um processo social, abrindo, assim, espaço para a discussão das vantagens decorrentes da adopção de princípios consagrados nas perspectivas da validade social dos procedimentos de recrutamento e selecção. A secção subsequente incide sobre noções fundamentais e especificidades do recrutamento e selecção, em particular sobre os conteúdos atinentes às fontes, tipologias, estratégias e etapas do processo de recrutamento. As questões relacionadas com o processo de recrutamento e selecção e com os critérios que determinam a escolha das ferramentas de selecção servem de mote para a secção final deste capítulo que encerra com uma breve conclusão na qual se alude aos conteúdos centrais que foram objecto de análise ao longo do mesmo.
... There is also evidence that interpersonal skills, referred as social or people skills, social competencies, soft skills, social self-efficacy, and social intelligence represent important factor for success in schooling and work (Salas, Bedwell, and Fiore, 2011 [14]; Ferris, Witt, and Hochwarter, 2001 [14]; Hochwarter et al., 2001 [15]; Klein et al., 2006 [16]; Riggio, 1991 [17]; Schneider, Ackerman, and Kanfer, 1996 [18]; Sherer et al., 1982 [19]). Hunter (1986) [10] reviewed the validities of a range of different selection predictors. ...
... There is also evidence that interpersonal skills, referred as social or people skills, social competencies, soft skills, social self-efficacy, and social intelligence represent important factor for success in schooling and work (Salas, Bedwell, and Fiore, 2011 [14]; Ferris, Witt, and Hochwarter, 2001 [14]; Hochwarter et al., 2001 [15]; Klein et al., 2006 [16]; Riggio, 1991 [17]; Schneider, Ackerman, and Kanfer, 1996 [18]; Sherer et al., 1982 [19]). Hunter (1986) [10] reviewed the validities of a range of different selection predictors. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is presenting a model for a better prediction of long term job performance as seen by a Multinational Company from the West side of Romania (51 staff). This study is discussing a human resources procedure on recruiting assessment and its valid connection to the annual personnel evaluation individual scores, by analyzing archival data. Results conclude that age, gender, professional expertise, year of hiring, numeric and verbal abilities and interview score can predict job performance. Our hypothesis states that if we replace the classical weighted scoring algorithm with a fuzzy expert system, we will provide a better prediction of long term job performance.
... screening out a disproportionately high percentage of black applicants). Therefore, while there is agreement as to the predictive power of cognitive ability tests and the likelihood of adverse impact against members of racial and ethnic minority groups, there are debates about what, if any, role cognitive ability tests should play in employee selection decisions (Murphy, 2002; Outtz, 2002; Osterman, 2007; Ployhart et al., 2003). Several issues are relevant to better understanding the existence, and implications of, racial differences in the relationship between cognitive ability and job performance. ...
... extrarole and/or prosocial behaviors), a selection strategy that de-emphasizes cognitive ability and instead emphasizes personality-based predictors and social skills may be more appropriate for prediction and selection purposes (McKay and McDaniel, 2006; Murphy, 2002; Osterman, 2007). Similarly, if the organizational goals of employee selection are more than just maximizing individual performance and instead emphasize diversity as a means of competitive advantage, a selection system that relies heavily on cognitive ability tests will likely limit the diversity of the organization by restricting employment opportunities (Murphy, 2002; Outtz, 2002). In this sense, scientific research cannot tell organizational decision makers whether, or how much, to emphasize cognitive ability in their selection systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine moderating effects of employee race on ability–performance relationships in a well-controlled study. Design/methodology/approach – The cognitive ability of a large sample (n?=?972) of employees in a garment manufacturing organization was measured using a well-validated instrument (the General Aptitude Test Battery). Relationships to objective measures of performance were assessed for differential validity. Findings – Contrary to expectations, the correlation between ability and performance was found to be stronger for black employees than white employees. This results in underprediction of performance for black job applicants if a common cutoff score is used. Research limitations/implications – The near demise of research on differential validity may be premature. Subgroup differences are more likely to be detected when appropriate research designs are used. Practical implications – Organizations may risk moral and legal problems if they use selection procedures without adequately addressing potential problems with differential validity. Originality/value – This paper stimulates interest in examining potential race-based differential validity effects when examining organizational selection procedures.
... That is, the use of general cognitive ability in personnel selection makes it difficult to balance the goal of a valid and efficient selection system with other valuable organizational goals such as social equity and diversity (Murphy, 2002;Outtz, 2002). The use of measures with smaller subgroup differences (personality) in lieu of cognitive ability would be deleterious to any selection paradigm because of the consequential under-representation of individuals likely to be high task performers (Kehoe, 2002). ...
... Table 12 indicates that black-white differences on cognitive measures are generally much larger than differences found in measures of job performance in the present study. Outtz (2002) interprets discrepancies such as this to mean that measures of general cognitive ability capture variance unrelated to job performance or that individuals can compensate for general cognitive ability on the job. He also notes that the disparity between differences on general cognitive ability measures and differences on job performance often results in more false negatives for minorities. ...
... GMA have garnered substantial attention (e.g., Herrnstein & Murray, 1994). Given the legal landscape and a demographic shift to a more diverse workforce (Offermann & Gowing, 1993;Outtz, 2002), the potential for adverse consequences to minorities is a probable deterrent against the use of GMA in selection contexts (e.g., Outtz, 2002;Schmitt, Rogers, Chan, Sheppard, & Jennings, 1997). Despite these concerns, GMA is still a frequently assessed predictor in a wide range of employment settings. ...
... GMA have garnered substantial attention (e.g., Herrnstein & Murray, 1994). Given the legal landscape and a demographic shift to a more diverse workforce (Offermann & Gowing, 1993;Outtz, 2002), the potential for adverse consequences to minorities is a probable deterrent against the use of GMA in selection contexts (e.g., Outtz, 2002;Schmitt, Rogers, Chan, Sheppard, & Jennings, 1997). Despite these concerns, GMA is still a frequently assessed predictor in a wide range of employment settings. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency and equity of general mental ability (GMA) in a nontraditional employment setting—professional football. The National Football League (NFL) uses a measure of GMA, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, to evaluate potential draftees in an assessment-style environment. A total of 762 NFL players, represented from three draft classes, were included in our sample. In terms of efficiency, results indicated that GMA was unrelated to (a) future NFL performance, (b) selection decisions during the NFL Draft, and (c) the number of games started in the NFL. In regards to equity, differential prediction analyses by race suggested only the existence of intercept bias. The implications of these findings to the NFL and the selection literature are further discussed.
... De facto, a complexidade de uma determinada função relaciona-se de forma íntima com as exigências de processamento, manipulação e transmissão de informação que a mesma comporta (Gottfredson, 2002). Contudo, apesar das vantagens da aptidão cognitiva geral que decorrem da sua validade preditiva ímpar para os critérios que têm sido alvo de estudo, este preditor reúne algumas desvantagens particularmente relevantes, enquanto ferramenta de selecção, que se relacionam com as questões do impacto adverso (Hunter & Hunter, 1984;Outtz, 2002;Avis, Kudish, & Fortunato;Smith, 1994). Este problema decorre das diferenças de pontuação encontradas nos testes de aptidão cognitiva geral entre diversos grupos sociais 8 . ...
... Estas diferenças apresentam, com frequência, uma magnitude significativa 9 e acabam por estar na génese de taxas de contratação desiguais entre grupos, quando os resultados nos testes de aptidão cognitiva geral constituem um critério de selecção. A natureza destas questões levanta sérias implicações legais, que respeitam sobretudo à promoção de iguais oportunidades de emprego, independentemente do grupo social em causa (Outtz, 2002). ...
Chapter
Resumo: Este capítulo partilha a temática do capítulo anterior munindo-se, todavia, de um conjunto de aspectos que se aglutinam nas questões concernentes à exactidão dos processos de selecção. A secção inicial incide sobre noções fundamentais relacionadas com a fidelidade e validade dos métodos de selecção, conferindo-se especial destaque à análise do conceito de validade preditiva e do seu impacto na exactidão e, por consequência, na eficácia das práticas de selecção. Na secção subsequente enunciam-se algumas notas acerca da definição, dimensões e mensuração do desempenho profissional e das implicações da utilização generalizada desta variável enquanto critério de validação dos instrumentos de medida/métodos utilizados na selecção de pessoas. Por último, parte-se para a análise de alguns destes métodos, como os testes de aptidão cognitiva, os questionários de personalidade, os testes práticos de função e as entrevistas, com enfoque nas questões relacionadas com a frequência da sua utilização e com os coeficientes de validade preditiva (também designada validade relativa ao critério) que têm sido obtidos em estudos de inegável proeminência neste domínio. Os principais tópicos que integram as secções deste capítulo serão revisitados no espaço final que lhe serve de conclusão, realçando-se alguns dos assuntos chave apresentados.
... A recent review of court decisions related to cognitive ability testing states that ''General cognitive ability is likely the single best predictor of job performance, although it typically results in race-based adverse impact'' (Shoenfelt and Pedigo, 2005, p. 271). This conclusion mirrors earlier research on cognitive ability/intelligence testing (Hunter, 1986; Hunter and Hunter, 1984; Murphy, 2002; Outtz, 2002; Ree and Earles, 1992; Ree et al., 1994; Schmidt and Hunter, 1998) and raises a dilemma for the Human Resources professional – is it possible to find an effective cognitive ability test that does not have adverse impact? One approach to solving this problem includes creating different forms of cognitive ability tests. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to validate the unobtrusive knowledge test (UKT) in a minority population, and examine its potential for limiting stereotype threat. Design/methodology/approach – Study One: (convergent validity): UKT and Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) scores were correlated for 131 students. Study Two: (stereotype threat) 202 minority students were placed into one of four groups based on whether or not they were given instructions to elicit stereotype threat, and whether they took the Excellence scale of the UKT or the WPT. Findings – Correlations provided evidence of convergent validity between the Excellence subscale of the UKT and the WPT. The stereotype threat study was inconclusive, with no differences being seen in the threat/non-threat conditions for the WPT, and higher scores in the threat condition than the non-threat condition for the UKT. Research limitations/implications – Unreliability of some scales and low correlations of others with the WPT, lessened the overall UKT's convergent validity. Practical implications – The need to develop measures of intelligence not subject to adverse impact is clear, and the results of the current research provide justification for further research establishing the properties of the UKT as a selection tool. Originality/value – This paper offers new evidence of the usefulness of the UKT as a measure of cognitive ability for minority populations, and raises questions about the impact of stereotype threat on the UKT test.
... In general, results corroborate several researches in the field that general intelligence test is a good predictors of individuals' learning measures (Schmidt, 2002; Outtz, 2002; Schimdt & Hunter, 1998; Tracey, Sturman & Tews, 2007). It can be observed, however, that results obtained by Schimdt and Hunter (1998) indicate that 31% of the variance of performance at a training program was explained by general cognitive ability, a higher value than the one obtained in present study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the predictive validity of academic grades and G-36 scores in personnel selection. The sample was compose by 83 individuals from public organization with mean age of 22.01 (SD=2.99) years old, being 81.9% males and 91.6% with eleven years of education (High School at least). Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to verify the association between training performance and both predictors. Significant correlations were observed between variables range. Linear regression indicated a shared variance of 23.0% between G-36 and theoretical disciplines results. New research could be development to investigate the contribution of knowledge tests to personnel selection.
... Measures of GMA are the best single predictors of performance, particularly for high-complexity jobs (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). However, such measures also lead to the largest race-based differences in test-score means, and, consequently, differential passing rates and differential selection rates (Aguinis & Smith, 2007;Hough, Oswald, & Ployhart, 2001;Outtz, 2002). The presence of differential selection ratios across groups, or what is called adverse impact, has serious societal implications and, hence, is an important limitation of the current staffing model that relies on GMA as the predictor of choice in most situations (e.g., . ...
Article
We highlight important differences between twenty‐first‐century organizations as compared with those of the previous century, and offer a critical review of the basic principles, typical applications, general effectiveness, and limitations of the current staffing model. That model focuses on identifying and measuring job‐related individual characteristics to predict individual‐level job performance. We conclude that the current staffing model has reached a ceiling or plateau in terms of its ability to make accurate predictions about future performance. Evidence accumulated over more than 80 years of staffing research suggests that general mental abilities and other traditional staffing tools do a modest job of predicting performance across settings and jobs considering that, even when combined and corrected for methodological and statistical artifacts, they rarely predict more than 50% of the variance in performance. Accordingly, we argue for a change in direction in staffing research and propose an expanded view of the staffing process, including the introduction of a new construct, in situ performance, and an expanded view of staffing tools to be used to predict future in situ performance that take into account time and context. Our critical review offers a novel perspective and research agenda with the goal of guiding future research that will result in more useful, applicable, relevant, and effective knowledge for practitioners to use in organizational settings.
... The one standard deviation in scores on paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive ability that separates White from Black test takers is a ubiquitous statistic in personnel selection practice and research (Roth, Bevier, Bobko, Switzer, & Tyler, 2001; Sackett & Wilk, 1994; Schmitt, Clause, & Pulakos, 1996). In practice, this means that, despite evidence for cognitive ability as a consistently valid predictor of job performance (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998), the use of cognitive ability tests is likely to produce substantial group differences between Whites and racial minorities as well as subsequent adverse impact (Outtz, 2002). Because group differences in cognitive ability test scores cannot be easily reduced (Murray, 2005), practitioners often use tests of constructs other than cognitive ability that might produce smaller group differences in conjunction with cognitive ability tests in applicant selection (Hogan, Hogan, & Roberts, 1996; Schmitt, Rogers, Chan, Sheppard, & Jennings, 1997). ...
... Although many selection tools have been found to be good predictors of job performance , these tools also produce varying degrees of subgroup differences (Pyburn, Ployhart, and Kravitz 2008). Tests of cognitive ability are one of the best predictors of job performance, but also have been found to produce large subgroup differences between racial or ethnic majority and minority group members (Outtz 2002; Sackett et al. 2001). Such an outcome, when minority group members tend to score lower than majority group members, is potentially in violation of the provisions of the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most critical problems that hospitality firms face in selecting employees is to ensure that any employment tests the employer uses are valid and do not screen out minorities. For example, the use of cognitive ability tests often leads to subgroup differences between majority and minority group members. Such a discrepancy opens an employer to charges of adverse impact (against minorities), and employers often have adjusted (or otherwise disregarded) test scores to avoid potential adverse impact and give minorities an even-handed opportunity for employment or promotion. The practice of adjusting test scores in this way was set aside in 2009 by the U.S. Supreme Court, in Ricci v. DeStefano, in which the city of New Haven, Connecticut, attempted to avoid adverse impact by disregarding test results. The court said this amounted to discrimination against the majority group members who did well on the test. The court’s holding means that if a test creates apparent adverse impact, in the absence of strong basis in evidence for disregarding the test scores, the employer may face the awkward choice of being sued for adverse impact or disparate treatment, depending on how it treats the test. The implications of Ricci v. DeStefano for hospitality employers include ensuring that jobs are correctly analyzed before any test is given and that multiple forms of various valid types of test are used to select job candidates.
... Research on priming and whether a test is diagnostic on stereotype threat (Marx, Brown, & Steele, 1999; Shih et al., 1999; Stangor et al., 1998; Steele & Aronson, 1995) could have major implications in the field of industrial/organizational psychology, especially in employee selection or other high-stakes testing, such as those that help to determine promotions or raises. Research in cognitive skills testing continues to report stubborn mean differences, with racial minority groups scoring a full standard deviation below non-minorities (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2001; Outtz, 2002). In addition, the testing situation is often one of great importance to the test taker in a highly identified domain (e.g., employment tests for jobs, admissions for educational institutions, licensing exams for professions), thus increasing the likelihood of a stereotype threat effect. ...
Article
This investigation extends stereotype threat research by examining its effect on sex and ethnicity in employment testing. Study 1 used archival data from a company-specific cognitive ability test, demonstrating score increases (greater for some minorities) when applicants completed demographic items after a cognitive skills test, rather than before the test. The first experiment (Study 2) used college students taking the same company-specific test with inconclusive results. Possible reasons dictated the design of a second experiment with a college population (Study 3). This study used the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) and investigated priming through positioning of demographic items, as well as high/low threat. Positioning of the demographic items after the WPT was associated with an increase in test scores.
... This is especially the case for more complex job levels (Hunter, 1986). At the same time, several researchers (e.g., Goldstein, Zedeck, & Goldstein, 2002;Murphy, 2002;Outz, 2002) have shown that the cognitive ability test represents the predictor most likely to have substantial adverse impact on employment opportunities for most ethnic minority groups. Ethnic score differences between .50 ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine applicant and method factors related to ethnic score differences on a cognitive ability test, a personality test, an assessment center (AC), an employment interview, and a final employment recommendation in the con-text of police officer selection (N = 13,526). Score differences between the majority group and the first-generation minority groups were comparable to research findings from the literature. However, score differences between the majority group and sec-ond-generation minority groups were much smaller. On the cognitive ability test and the personality test most variability was explained by Dutch language-proficiency. Confirming assumed-characteristics theory, more variability on the interview and the employment recommendation was explained by Dutch language-proficiency and ed-ucation than on the AC. Unsupportive of complexity–extremity theory, there seemed to be a general tendency to give lower scores to the ethnic minority group. The personnel selection literature has extensively investigated differences on psy-chological measures between ethnic minority and majority groups. This study fo-cuses on ethnicity-related applicant demographics, such as language-proficiency and education, and their interplay with selection-method factors in their impact on test scores. Personnel selection measures can differ in the extent of assessor influ-HUMAN PERFORMANCE, 19(3), 219–251 Copyright © 2006, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
... The use of tests should be guided by the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that are identified as being critical to the job and job level. One type of test that is related to multiple job roles measures cognitive ability, because most jobs require a baseline of intelligence [5], [8], [9], [11], [12], [13], [14]. Despite wide acceptance of the efficacy of cognitive ability screening for applicants, there have been relatively few studies to determine the relationship between this screening and long term job performance outcomes. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is presenting a model for a better prediction of long term job performance as seen by a Multinational Automotive Company from the West side of Romania. This study is discussing a human resources procedure on recruiting and selection assessment and its valid connection to the annual personnel performance evaluation individual scores. Does the hiring rating score can predict long term job performance? The answer to this question is yes, depending on what recruiting and selection assessment score is combined from. This study concludes that age, gender, professional expertise, background professional experience, level of numerical and ver-bal abilities and interview rating predict in a proper manner long term job performance. Even better, if we replace classical weighted scoring algorithm with a fuzzy expert system, it gives more accuracy to predicting long term job performance.
... There is well-established evidence that cognitive ability tests are superior to other selection measures in the prediction of performance for most professions (Bertua, Anderson, & Salgado, 2005;Carretta & Ree, 2000;Hunter & Hunter, 1984;Kanfer, Wolf, Kantrowitz, & Ackerman, 2010;Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004;Oakes, Ferris, Martocchio, Buckley, & Broach, 2001;Salgado, Anderson, Moscoso, Bertua, & DeFruyt, 2003;Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). However, alternative predictors have been proposed in personnel selection because general cognitive ability has been challenged for its adverse impact regarding racial differences (Outtz, 2002) and issues of face validity. Gottfredson (2002) categorized these alternative predictors as 'can do' (ability), 'will do' (motivation), and 'have done' (experience). ...
Article
This study examined whether a semistructured interview is valid in predicting training performance in theoretical and simulation examinations and overall training success; which aspects of the interview show incremental validity over cognitive ability tests; and whether additional variables enhance the prediction from the interview. The sample involved data from 337 trainees of the German Air Navigation Service Provider selected by the German Aerospace Center and 657 (interview) and 6,885 (cognitive ability) candidates being the corresponding reference samples. Findings indicate incremental validity of the interview over the cognitive ability tests. Additional variables contributed only to the prediction of theoretical examination performance. Attention, general motivation, and social competence predicted the criteria best, particularly the theoretical examination performance and overall training success.
... A subject of fierce discussion is the additional problem of adverse impact or unfairness for members of different minorities. In general, there is a difference up to one standard deviation between members of ethniccultural majorities and minorities, while differences in job performance are substantially lower (approximately half a standard deviation or less) (Outtz, 2002). A type of selection instrument which, on the other hand, fulfils the requirement of acceptance in a reliable manner is the work sample or work sample tests. ...
Article
A type of selection measure is presented which combines the psychometric characteristics of an intelligence test with the surface and content validity characteristics of a work sample for clerical occupations. Consequently, this measure - AZUBI-BK - is more positively evaluated by participants than a conventional measure of general mental ability (N=1375). Preferences for the work sample-intelligence test hybrid applied for potential applicants from different school types, for job-experienced as well as for inexperienced subjects and for members of the ethnic majority as well as for ethnic minorities. AZUBI-BK showed high correlations with total scores (uncorrected r=.77 and .73) and corresponding factors of two intelligence tests, respectively. Criterion-related validity was equal to the reference measure in predicting theoretical examinations (uncorrected r=.61) and higher in predicting supervisory ratings (uncorrected r=.43). In the latter case, the new instrument shows incremental validity over an intelligence test but not vice versa; in a regression equation, AZUBI-BK can fully account for the variance in supervisory assessment. Adverse impact of AZUBI-BK for ethnic minorities is small which, however, was also true for a conventional intelligence test.
... Ondanks dat cognitieve tests een goede voorspellende waarde hebben voor toekomstige werkprestaties (zie bv. Kuncel en Hezlett 2010; Schmidt en Hunter 1998), leiden dergelijke tests ook tot relatief grote verschillen tussen verschillende groepen (Outtz 2002;Ployhart en Holz 2008;Roth et al. 2003). Gestandaardiseerde tests zijn vaak niet cultuurvrij, maar bevatten een bias die nadelig is voor de resultaten die minderheden op deze tests behalen (zie bv. ...
Book
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De verschillen in arbeidsparticipatie tussen personen met en zonder migratieachtergrond zijn groot en hardnekkig. Op dit moment werkt 61% van de personen met een niet-westerse migratieachtergrond (15-74 jaar). Bij personen zonder migratieachtergrond werkt 69%. Het verschil dreigt door de coronacrisis verder op te lopen. Overheden en werkgevers kunnen met gerichte maatregelen deze ongelijkheid tegengaan. Kansrijk zijn onder andere: het eerder toegang geven van migranten tot de arbeidsmarkt, een slimmer plaatsingsbeleid, sterkere financiële prikkels voor zowel werkgevers als werknemers. Een neutraler wervings- en selectieproces is belangrijk om arbeidsdiscriminatie tegen te gaan. Dit blijkt uit de publicatie Kansrijk integratiebeleid op de arbeidsmarkt van het Centraal Planbureau (CPB) en het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) die op 15 oktober is gepubliceerd.
... Whereas intentional discrimination based on race is analogous to occurrences of what racial minorities experienced with traditional forms of racism, unintentional discrimination could occur when employers use certain employment practices (e.g. selection tests, job requirements, etc.) that may appear neutral but have a differential effect along a protected category (Outtz, 2002;Ployhart & Holtz, 2008). Theories of disparate treatment and adverse impact were originated to legally address this differential treatment and historical racism (Estreicher & Harper, 2008). ...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to provide a current comprehensive understanding of racial discrimination in organizations. We begin by reviewing relevant theory that explains why racial discrimination occurs and how it is manifested through prejudice, stereotyping, and aversive racism. This discussion is followed by a review of research on the various targets of racial discrimination (i.e., Blacks, Asians, American Indians, Native Hawaiians, Whites, and Hispanics). Subsequently, we consider types of racial discrimination by comparing and contrasting overt, traditional forms of racial discrimination (i.e., formal) with covert, current forms (i.e., interpersonal).
... The alternative would be to search for an alternative test with the same validity or accuracy of prediction, but less adverse impact. Personality questionnaires, biodata, and structured interviews, for example, demonstrate less adverse impact than ability tests, and some organisations give more weight to these selection measures in decision-making models to overcome the adverse impact problems associated with ability tests (Kriek, 2005;Outtz, 2002). ...
Chapter
Organisational success, to a large extent, depends on the quality of people employed. The race for talented personnel or workers is becoming increasingly more competitive amidst technological advances and employers’ accessibility to talented people across the globe. Effective recruitment and selection processes that are sufficiently advanced and based on evidence of job competency and person-organisation, -job and -team fit are crucial for the expansion or replenishment of talented employees in the modern workplace. This chapter reviews the theory and practice of recruitment and selection from the perspective of personnel psychology. The application of psychometric standards in the decision-making process is discussed, including the aspects of employment equity and fairness in the recruitment and selection process.
... What is perhaps more concerning is that these group differences are typically more pronounced than they are for alternative selection methods, those that often display lower predictive validity. Outtz (2002) showed that ability tests tend to produce differences in scores between ethnic groups that are on average 3 to 5 times larger than for personality tests or structured interviews. Similarly, Dean, Roth and Bobko (2008) people of one ethnicity to perform better on these tests than those of another. ...
Thesis
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The present research represents a coherent approach to understanding the root causes of ethnic group differences in ability test performance. Two studies were conducted, each of which was designed to address a key knowledge gap in the ethnic bias literature. In Study 1, both the LR Method of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) detection and Mixture Latent Variable Modelling were used to investigate the degree to which Differential Test Functioning (DTF) could explain ethnic group test performance differences in a large, previously unpublished dataset. Though mean test score differences were observed between a number of ethnic groups, neither technique was able to identify ethnic DTF. This calls into question the practical application of DTF to understanding these group differences. Study 2 investigated whether a number of non-cognitive factors might explain ethnic group test performance differences on a variety of ability tests. Two factors – test familiarity and trait optimism – were able to explain a large proportion of ethnic group test score differences. Furthermore, test familiarity was found to mediate the relationship between socio-economic factors – particularly participant educational level and familial social status – and test performance, suggesting that test familiarity develops over time through the mechanism of exposure to ability testing in other contexts. These findings represent a substantial contribution to the field’s understanding of two key issues surrounding ethnic test performance differences. The author calls for a new line of research into these performance facilitating and debilitating factors, before recommendations are offered for practitioners to ensure fairer deployment of ability testing in high-stakes selection processes.
... Ondanks dat cognitieve tests een goede voorspellende waarde hebben voor toekomstige werkprestaties (zie bv. Kuncel en Hezlett 2010; Schmidt en Hunter 1998), leiden dergelijke tests ook tot relatief grote verschillen tussen verschillende groepen (Outtz 2002;Ployhart en Holz 2008;Roth et al. 2003). Gestandaardiseerde tests zijn vaak niet cultuurvrij, maar bevatten een bias die nadelig is voor de resultaten die minderheden op deze tests behalen (zie bv. ...
Book
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The book provides an overview of the empirical knowledge on promising (and less promising) policies to improve the labour market outcomes for individuals with a migration background.
... The use of psychometric tests as educational and occupational selection tools is hence justified on the basis of firm evidence that their scores accurately predict real-world success and have considerable value at both practical and theoretical levels (Deary et al., 2007;Foxcroft & Roodt, 2013). Given their usefulness in making employment decisions, GCA tests have been used in human resource selection for over 80 years (Outtz, 2002). Aptitude testing can denote the future performance of job applicants accurately. ...
Article
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Orientation: Details of applicants’ secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be a useful screening tool when processing large applicant pools. Here, the relationships between secondary education (incorporating subject choice) and the reasoning and visual perceptual speed components of the Differential Aptitude Test are explored. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be used as a substitute for reasoning (verbal and non-verbal) and/or visual perceptual speed aptitudes in the selection of operators for an automotive plant in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as the selection needs of the automotive industry. Research design, approach and method: This research adopted a quantitative approach. It involved a non-probability convenience quota sample of 2463 work-seeking applicants for an automotive operator position in South Africa. Participants completed a biographical questionnaire and three subtests from the Differential Aptitude Test battery. The Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) and selected cognitive aptitudes. Main findings: The study’s findings revealed statistically and practically significant relationships between type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice), verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning and visual perceptual speed. Broad performance levels in the three aptitude subtests employed in this study were significantly associated with the type of matriculation certificate held by applicants. The findings specifically indicated that the secondary education types that included the subjects mathematics or both mathematics and science were associated with higher levels of performance in the three aptitudes. This had consequences for these applicants’ success in the screening process which could lead to enhanced chances of employability. Practical and managerial implications: Applicants’ type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be regarded as a key criterion in human resource selection and be instructive in the screening process. This could reduce the candidate pool prior to more costly psychometric assessments. Contribution or value-add: The findings are specifically relevant to the South African automotive industry in terms of their human resource selection practices. The insights gained from the findings may also be used as a guide to human resource practitioners in the selection of similar level employees in other working contexts. The study makes a case for a multiple-hurdle approach to selection.
... Ondanks dat cognitieve tests een goede voorspellende waarde hebben voor toekomstige werkprestaties (zie bv. Kuncel en Hezlett 2010; Schmidt en Hunter 1998), leiden dergelijke tests ook tot relatief grote verschillen tussen verschillende groepen (Outtz 2002;Ployhart en Holz 2008;Roth et al. 2003). Gestandaardiseerde tests zijn vaak niet cultuurvrij, maar bevatten een bias die nadelig is voor de resultaten die minderheden op deze tests behalen (zie bv. ...
... Are there differences in validities of CA tests for different racial and ethnic groups? Test critics who allege unfair discrimination in personnel selection posit potential differences in test validity across racial groups (Outtz, 2002). Meta-analyses and large-scale studies refute the hypothesis of single group validity (Hartigan & Wigdor, 1989;H unter, Schmidt, & Hunter, 1979). ...
Chapter
Cognitive ability (CA) or intelligence testing has been hailed "as the most practical contribution made to humanity by all of psychology" (Roberts, Markham, Matthews, & Zeidner, in press). Spearman's paper from 100 years ago, "General Intelligence, Objectively Determined and Measured," was the initial turning point in directing attention to the construct of CA. Fascinating, detailed historical reviews of CA testing may be found in Carroll (1993) and Roberts et al.
... On the other side, the importance of individual differences at work (Furnham, 1992) and their impact on the job performance (Stephan J. Motowidlo, Walter C. Borman & Mark J. Schmit, 1997) have persuaded some employers to use psychometric tests in recruitment (A. Wolf and A. Jenkins, 2002), despite of their questionable validity (CLMS, 2012;Outtz, 2002). ...
Preprint
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A critical discussion of cognitive theories of learning and an investigation of their utility in the workplace learning.
... Although one can quibble with the approach that was used by Ree and colleagues, the notion that relevant individual differences in cognitive abilities can fully be captured using a general factor has proven to be problematic for I-O psychology-particularly in the domain of selection and assessment-for a number of reasons. First, legal frameworks in some countries frequently demand that selection occurs using measures that are relevant to the job [6]. In a strict sense, a construct that only consists of a general and universal factor is not suitable for selection in the context of this legal framework [7]. ...
Article
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We review papers in the special issue regarding the great debate on general and specific abilities. Papers in the special issue either provided an empirical examination of the debate using a uniform dataset or they provided a debate commentary. Themes that run through the papers and that are discussed further here are that: (1) the importance of general and specific ability predictors will largely depend on the outcome to be predicted, (2) the effectiveness of both general and specific predictors will largely depend on the quality and breadth of how the manifest indicators are measured, and (3) research on general and specific ability predictors is alive and well and more research is warranted. We conclude by providing a review of potentially fruitful areas of future research.
... Measures of GMA are the best single predictors of performance, particularly for high-complexity jobs (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). However, such measures also lead to the largest race-based differences in test-score means, and, consequently, differential passing rates and differential selection rates (Aguinis & Smith, 2007;Hough, Oswald, & Ployhart, 2001;Outtz, 2002). The presence of differential selection ratios across groups, or what is called adverse impact, has serious societal implications and, hence, is an important limitation of the current staffing model that relies on GMA as the predictor of choice in most situations (e.g., . ...
... Are there differences in validities of CA tests for different racial and ethnic groups? Test critics who allege unfair discrimination in personnel selection posit potential differences in test validity across racial groups (Outtz, 2002). Meta-analyses and large-scale studies refute the hypothesis of single group validity (Hartigan & Wigdor, 1989;H unter, Schmidt, & Hunter, 1979). ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine academic performance measures commonly used in personnel selection contexts and associated gender-based differences in these measures. This work specifically examines the extent to which gender-based group differences exist in these data that may influence employment outcomes differentially for men and women. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on data available from academic institutions with a sample of nearly 4,000 prospective applicants, gender-based group differences were evaluated in academic performance measures commonly used in personnel selection. Group differences were evaluated with a commonly used metric of a d-value to reflect the magnitude of these differences. Findings – Women and men yield differential scores on standardized vs non-standardized assessments. Women consistently scored lower on standardized assessments yet scored highest on academic performance outcomes. Women are more likely to experience adverse impact when standardized assessments are used in selection decisions; however men are more likely to have adverse impact when academic performance is used. Practical implications – Organizations may inadvertently create entry barriers depending on the assessment and the format used and whether or not group differences exist in measures. Originality/value – Academic performance measures are frequently used in personnel selection, yet have received little attention in selection research and this study seeks to address this gap.
Article
The relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance has been heavily studied in past research. However, little theory has been developed on how CSR may lead to greater corporate financial performance. In this paper, the authors attempt to fill this theoretical gap by explaining how CSR leads to the tangible benefits of attracting better employees, reduced turnover rate, greater efficiency, and reduced operating costs, via the intangible benefits of firm reputation, organizational commitment, and learning. Thereafter, managerial implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
Article
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The use of social networking websites (SNWs) during employee selection is gaining popularity in organizations. Using a foundation that integrates identity and situational strength theories, we develop a conceptual framework that differentiates SNW information from information gathered through traditional selection procedures, and distinguishes between SNW types. Research questions and hypotheses are tested using a survey of 291 hiring professionals. Results indicate that SNW content is considered useful and is regularly utilized during hiring. Some SNW content is viewed positively (e.g., information supporting qualifications), while other information leads to negative perceptions (e.g., discriminatory comments). Finally, results support distinguishing between personal and professional SNW, as the kind of information sought and the effectiveness of assessing various work-related constructs differs between these SNW categories.
Article
This study examined the extent to which cognitive ability and conscientiousness predicted initial academic performance (i.e., grade point average) and changes in performance over the course of college students' careers. A censored latent growth model that controlled for initial performance was used. Results showed positive effects of cognitive ability and conscientiousness on initial performance, but only positive effects of conscientiousness on performance change. However, because initial performance negatively affected performance change, cognitive ability and conscientiousness negatively indirectly affected performance change through initial performance. In addition, results revealed cognitive ability accounted for more variance in initial performance than conscientiousness, and conscientiousness accounted for more variance in performance change than cognitive ability. Finally, results show that, beyond the third semester, conscientiousness is a better predictor of student performance than cognitive ability.
Article
It is known that human resources are one of the most important functions of management to continue organizational existence and success. In recruitment processes, different kinds of selection methods are being used to select most appropriate candidates who have knowledge, skills and abilities required for the job. In this literature review, common selection methods were introduced and the general cognitive ability tests which have the highest level of validity of prediction power of job performance were examined with their advantages and disadvantages. In the discussion part of study, some recommendations were made to overcome the restrictions and increase the predictive power of cognitive ability measurements.
Article
z: Bu çalışmada, çalışanların psikolojik sermayeleri ile üretkenlik karşıtı iş davranışları Öz: Organizasyonların varlık ve başarılarını sürdürmesinde, yönetimin en önemli fonksiyonlarından birinin uygun nitelikteki insan kaynaklarının temini olduğu bilinmektedir. Bir organizasyondaki en önemli faaliyetlerden biri olan personel alım faaliyetlerinde, iş için gerekli olan bilgi, beceri ve yeteneklere sahip olan en uygun adayların seçilmesi amacıyla farklı seçim yöntemleri kullanılmaktadır. Yapılan bu derleme çalışmasında; yaygın kullanılan seçme yöntemleri tanıtılmış ve bunlar arasında iş performansını yordamada en yüksek geçerlilik oranına sahip olan genel bilişsel yetenek testleri, avantaj ve dezavantajları ile incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuç bölümünde ise, bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin kısıtlarını gidermeye ve iş performansını yordama gücünü artırmaya yönelik bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Abstract: It is known that human resources are one of the most important functions of management to continue organizational existence and success. In recruitment processes, different kinds of selection methods are being used to select most appropriate candidates who have knowledge, skills and abilities required for the job. In this literature review, common selection methods were introduced and the general cognitive ability tests which have the highest level of validity of prediction power of job performance were examined with their advantages and disadvantages. In the discussion part of study, some recommendations were made to overcome the restrictions and increase the predictive power of cognitive ability measurements.
Book
Es wurden die Daten der Abklärung der beruflichen Eignung und Arbeitserprobung sowie die Schulnoten der Umschulung im Berufsförderungswerk Eckert von 136 Rehabilitanden und die IHK-Abschlussnoten von den 105 Rehabilitanden, die die Umschulung beendeten, erhoben und unter verschiedenen Aspekten multivariat untersucht. Für die Anwendung der verschiedenen multivariaten Methoden wurde ein faktorenanalytisches Modell erstellt. Die Ergebnisse dieses neuen Modells wurden mit den Ergebnissen verglichen, die durch die Zusammenfassung der Daten mittels des Modells, das im Berufsförderungswerk Eckert verwendet wird, resultieren. Bei diesem durch inhaltliche Schlussfolgerungen begründeten Modell zeigen sich z. T. hohe Korrelationen zwischen den Faktoren. Die Ergebnisse des neuen Modells, dessen Faktoren definitionsgemäß unkorreliert sind, sind augenscheinlich als etwas besser zu bewerten. Mit beiden Modellen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Validität von psychologischen Testbatterien bezüglich des Umschulungserfolgs ähnlich hoch ist wie bezüglich Schulnoten von Schülern im schulpflichtigen Alter oder Erfolg im Beruf (R ungefähr gleich .5). Sprachliche Fähigkeiten sind für den Umschulungserfolg am wichtigsten. Die Persönlichkeit hat für sich betrachtet keinen Einfluss auf den Umschulungserfolg. Eine regressionsanalytische Betrachtung einzelner Variablen macht dagegen deutlich, dass sowohl Interessen als auch Persönlichkeitsdimensionen Einfluss auf den Umschulungserfolg haben und dass die große Zahl kognitiver Tests diesbezüglich größten Teils überflüssig ist. Die Ergebnisse der diskriminanzanalytischen Verfahren belegen, dass durch die Erhebung kognitiver Fähigkeiten zwischen Umschülern verschiedener Umschulungsrichtungen unterschieden werden kann und rund 50 % der Umschüler statistisch richtig klassifiziert werden können. Hierfür ist allerdings ein Großteil der Informationen der psychologischen Testung nötig. Dies begründet ihre Anwendung, da die Beurteilung der Eignung die Hauptaufgabe der Abklärung der beruflichen Eignung und Arbeitserprobung von Rehabilitanden ist. Die Vorhersage der Abbruchswahrscheinlichkeit durch die Ergebnisse der Abklärung der beruflichen Eignung und Arbeitserprobung scheint hingegen nur sehr bedingt möglich zu sein. Vor allem das mit der Zusammenfassung des Berufsförderungswerk Eckert erstellte logistische Regressionsmodell macht den Fehler, Absolventen als Abbrecher zu klassifizieren.
Article
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z: Bu çalışmada, çalışanların psikolojik sermayeleri ile üretkenlik karşıtı iş davranışları Öz: Organizasyonların varlık ve başarılarını sürdürmesinde, yönetimin en önemli fonksiyonlarından birinin uygun nitelikteki insan kaynaklarının temini olduğu bilinmektedir. Bir organizasyondaki en önemli faaliyetlerden biri olan personel alım faaliyetlerinde, iş için gerekli olan bilgi, beceri ve yeteneklere sahip olan en uygun adayların seçilmesi amacıyla farklı seçim yöntemleri kullanılmaktadır. Yapılan bu derleme çalışmasında; yaygın kullanılan seçme yöntemleri tanıtılmış ve bunlar arasında iş performansını yordamada en yüksek geçerlilik oranına sahip olan genel bilişsel yetenek testleri, avantaj ve dezavantajları ile incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuç bölümünde ise, bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin kısıtlarını gidermeye ve iş performansını yordama gücünü artırmaya yönelik bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Abstract: It is known that human resources are one of the most important functions of management to continue organizational existence and success. In recruitment processes, different kinds of selection methods are being used to select most appropriate candidates who have knowledge, skills and abilities required for the job. In this literature review, common selection methods were introduced and the general cognitive ability tests which have the highest level of validity of prediction power of job performance were examined with their advantages and disadvantages. In the discussion part of study, some recommendations were made to overcome the restrictions and increase the predictive power of cognitive ability measurements.
Chapter
An important construct in Industrial, Work and Organizational (IWO) psychology, organizational behavior, and human resources management (personnel selection, training, and performance evaluation) in general, and personnel selection in particular, is the construct of job performance. Job performance is the most important dependent variable in IWO psychology. A general definition of the construct of job performance reflects behaviors (both visually observable and non‐observable) that can be evaluated. In other words, job performance refers to scalable actions, behaviors, and outcomes that employees engage in or bring about that are linked with and contribute to organizational goals. To date, most researchers focusing on the construct of job performance have confined themselves to particular situations and settings with no attempt to generalize their findings. Also, there has been an emphasis on prediction and practical application rather than explanation and theory building. The consequence of these two trends has been a proliferation of the various measures of job performance in the extant literature. Virtually every measurable individual differences dimension thought to be relevant to the productivity, efficiency, or profitability of the unit or organization has been used as a measure of job performance. Absenteeism, productivity ratings, violence on the job, and teamwork ratings are some examples of the variety of measures used to measure job performance.
Article
The current study examines the views of experts in the science of mental abilities about the primacy and uniqueness of g and the social implications of ability testing, and compares their responses to the views of a group of non-expert psychologists. Results indicate expert consensus that g is an important, non-trivial determinant (or at least predictor) of important real world outcomes for which there is no substitute, and that tests of g are valid and generally free from racial bias. Experts did not reach consensus on issues such as the degree to which specific abilities or combinations of non-cognitive traits can yield predictive validities comparable to that of g alone, the predictive validity of g for non-technical work outcomes (e.g., contextual performance), and the nature and implications of race differences in intelligence. Second, a comparison of responses from experts and a group of applied psychologists reveals several discrepant beliefs between these groups, primarily dealing with the primacy of g, susceptibility of ability tests to racial bias, and the potential value of ability testing. Results are discussed in terms of directions for future research and shared responsibility for various groups of researchers to enhance dissemination of research to relevant audiences.
Article
Introduction:As current screening methods for selecting surgical trainees are receiving increasing scrutiny, development of a more efficient and effective selection system is needed. We describe the process of creating an evidence-based selection system and examine its impact on screening efficiency, faculty perceptions, and improving representation of underrepresented minorities.Methods:The program partnered with an expert in organizational science to identify fellowship position requirements and associated competencies. Situational judgment tests, personality profiles, structured interviews, and technical skills assessments were used to measure these competencies. The situational judgment test and personality profiles were administered online and used to identify candidates to invite for on-site structured interviews and skills testing. A final rank list was created based on all data points and their respective importance. All faculty completed follow-up surveys regarding their perceptions of the process. Candidate demographic and experience data were pulled from the application website.Results:Fifty-five of 72 applicants met eligibility requirements and were invited to take the online assessment, with 50 (91%) completing it. Average time to complete was 42 ± 12 minutes. Eighteen applicants (35%) were invited for on-site structured interviews and skills testing - a greater than 50% reduction in number of invites compared to prior years. Time estimates reveal that the process will result in a time savings of 68% for future iterations, compared to traditional methodologies. Fellowship faculty (N = 5) agreed on the value and efficiency of the process. Underrepresented minority candidates increased from an initial 70% to 92% being invited for an interview and ranked using the new screening tools. Discussion: Applying selection science to the process of choosing surgical trainees is feasible, efficient, and well-received by faculty for making selection decisions.
Article
Our aim was to determine whether personality and ability measures can predict job performance of call centre operators in a South African communications company. The predictors were personality variables measured by the Customer Contact Styles Questionnaire, Basic Checking and Audio Checking ability tests. These measures were completed by 140 operators. Supervisors completed the Customer Contact Competency Inventory for the operators as a measure of job performance. Additional criterion data were utilised by obtaining performance statistics regarding call handling time and quality of responding. Correlations and multiple regression analyses revealed statistically significant small to medium effect size correlations between the predictors and criteria.
Article
In both theoretical and applied literatures, there is confusion regarding accurate values for expected Black–White subgroup differences in personnel selection test scores. Much confusion arises because empirical estimates of standardized subgroup differences (d) are subject to many of the same biasing factors associated with validity coefficients (i.e., d is functionally related to a point‐biserial r). To address such issues, we review/cumulate, categorize, and analyze a systematic set of many predictor‐specific meta‐analyses in the literature. We focus on confounds due to general use of concurrent, versus applicant, samples in the literature on Black–White d. We also focus on potential confusion due to different constructs being assessed within the same selection test method, as well as the influence of those constructs on d. It is shown that many types of predictors (such as biodata inventories or assessment centers) can have magnitudes of d that are much larger than previously thought. Indeed, some predictors (such as work samples) can have ds similar to that associated with paper‐and‐pencil tests of cognitive ability. We present more realistic values of d for both researcher and practitioner use. Implications for practice and future research are noted.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to validate the unobtrusive knowledge test (UKT) in a minority population, and examine its potential for limiting stereotype threat.Design/methodology/approach – Study One: (convergent validity): UKT and Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) scores were correlated for 131 students. Study Two: (stereotype threat) 202 minority students were placed into one of four groups based on whether or not they were given instructions to elicit stereotype threat, and whether they took the Excellence scale of the UKT or the WPT.Findings – Correlations provided evidence of convergent validity between the Excellence subscale of the UKT and the WPT. The stereotype threat study was inconclusive, with no differences being seen in the threat/non-threat conditions for the WPT, and higher scores in the threat condition than the non-threat condition for the UKT.Research limitations/implications – Unreliability of some scales and low correlations of others with the WPT, lessened the overall UKT's convergent validity.Practical implications – The need to develop measures of intelligence not subject to adverse impact is clear, and the results of the current research provide justification for further research establishing the properties of the UKT as a selection tool.Originality/value – This paper offers new evidence of the usefulness of the UKT as a measure of cognitive ability for minority populations, and raises questions about the impact of stereotype threat on the UKT test.
Article
The possibility of predictive bias by race in employment tests is commonly examined by across-group comparisons of the slopes and intercepts of regression lines using test scores to predict performance measures. This research assumed that the criteria, primarily supervisory ratings, were unbiased. However, a concern is that the apparent lack of differential prediction in cognitive ability tests may be an artifact of the predominant use of performance ratings provided by supervisors who are members of the majority group; a criterion that is potentially biased against members of the minority group. We posited that ratings by a supervisor of the same race as the employee being rated would be less open to claims of bias. We compared ability-performance relationships in samples of Black and White employees that allowed for between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons under 2 conditions: when all employees were rated by a White supervisor and when each employee was rated by a supervisor of the same race. Neither analysis found evidence of predictive bias against Black employees.
Article
Examined the impact of increasing the percentage of hires (above the T. A. Cleary [1968] fair-hiring level) from minority groups with demonstrated lower average job performance. Increased minority hiring resulted in only a small performance loss, even when minority hiring exceeded the minority applicant representation. However, when minorities were hired at a rate equal to or greater than their applicant representation, the expected performance loss among the hired minorities was much greater than performance loss across all hires. More important, the discrepancy in performance between majority and minority hires increased as minority hiring increased. With minority hiring above the level of minority applicant representation, this discrepancy exceeded the population difference in performance between the 2 groups. These findings suggest additional considerations when raising minority hiring above minority applicant representation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)