Article

The Long Term Educational Effects of Half‐Day vs Full‐Day Kindergarten

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of full‐day and half‐day kindergarten on children's second grade academic outcomes. The subjects for the study were 974 second grade children from a large Midwestern school district. Of these second‐graders, 730 of them had been in full‐day kindergarten and 244 were in half‐day kindergarten. The following measures were compared: (a) children's second grade reading and math scores from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills; (b) whether or not they had been retained in grade during the first three years of school; (c) whether or not they had been referred for special education services during the first three years of school; and (d) kindergarten attendance records. The results indicated that children who were in a full‐day kindergarten program scored significantly higher on both math and reading on a standardized achievement test. In addition, there were fewer children from the full‐day cohort who had been retained in grade. There were no differences in the number of special education referrals between the two groups. Finally, children who attended full‐day kindergarten were absent less during the school year than the half day kindergarten group. The results are discussed in terms of both social and academic perspectives.

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... The majority of studies on the benefits of full-day kindergarten find that children in full-day programs earn significantly higher reading scores at the end of kindergarten than those in half-day programs (Baskett, Bryant, White, & Rhoads, 2005;Gullo, 2000;Lee et al., 2006;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston & West, 2004;Walston, West, & Rathbun, 2005;Yan & Lin, 2005;Zvoch et al., 2008). Unfortunately, however, the initial benefits for children attending full day-kindergarten do not continue through elementary school and only last, at most, through first or second grade (Gullo, 2000;Saam & Nowak, 2005;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston et al., 2005;Wolgemuth, Cobb, & Winokur, 2006). ...
... The majority of studies on the benefits of full-day kindergarten find that children in full-day programs earn significantly higher reading scores at the end of kindergarten than those in half-day programs (Baskett, Bryant, White, & Rhoads, 2005;Gullo, 2000;Lee et al., 2006;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston & West, 2004;Walston, West, & Rathbun, 2005;Yan & Lin, 2005;Zvoch et al., 2008). Unfortunately, however, the initial benefits for children attending full day-kindergarten do not continue through elementary school and only last, at most, through first or second grade (Gullo, 2000;Saam & Nowak, 2005;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston et al., 2005;Wolgemuth, Cobb, & Winokur, 2006). ...
... In addition, initial academic benefits of attending full daykindergarten are generally not sustained through elementary school (Gullo, 2000;Saam & Nowak, 2005;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston et al., 2005;Wolgemuth et al., 2006). Researchers have speculated reasons for the fade-out, including the characteristics of children who attend full-day programs, the quality of instruction and support in school environments post-kindergarten, and summer learning loss (Hahn et al., 2014;Zvoch, 2009). ...
... The majority of studies on the benefits of full-day kindergarten find that children in full-day programs earn significantly higher reading scores at the end of kindergarten than those in half-day programs (Baskett, Bryant, White, & Rhoads, 2005;Gullo, 2000;Lee et al., 2006;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston, & West, 2004;Walston, West, & Rathbun, 2005;Yan & Lin, 2005;Zvoch et al., 2008). Unfortunately, however, the initial benefits for children attending full day-kindergarten do not continue through elementary school and only last, at most, through first or second grade (Gullo, 2000;Saam & Nowak, 2005;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston et al., 2005;Wolgemuth, Cobb, & Winokur, 2006). ...
... The majority of studies on the benefits of full-day kindergarten find that children in full-day programs earn significantly higher reading scores at the end of kindergarten than those in half-day programs (Baskett, Bryant, White, & Rhoads, 2005;Gullo, 2000;Lee et al., 2006;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston, & West, 2004;Walston, West, & Rathbun, 2005;Yan & Lin, 2005;Zvoch et al., 2008). Unfortunately, however, the initial benefits for children attending full day-kindergarten do not continue through elementary school and only last, at most, through first or second grade (Gullo, 2000;Saam & Nowak, 2005;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston et al., 2005;Wolgemuth, Cobb, & Winokur, 2006). ...
... In addition, initial academic benefits of attending full day-kindergarten are generally not sustained through elementary school (Gullo, 2000;Saam & Nowak, 2005;Votruba-Drzal et al., 2008;Walston et al., 2005;Wolgemuth, Cobb, & Winokur, 2006). ...
... The differences between these two types of kindergarten programs have been the subject of a good deal of research as the move to full-day programs has been implemented at the state and local levels (e.g., Cryan et al. 1992;Elicker and Mathur 1997;Fusaro 1997;Gullo 2000;Morrow, Strickland and Woo 1998). Not until the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) has the opportunity been available to describe full-day and half-day kindergarten differences at the national level. ...
... This has been found to be true most notably for minority children (Karweit 1989). The academic benefits of a full-day program have also been shown to last into first grade (Cryan et al. 1992) and beyond (Gullo 2000). ...
... Children in full-day classes spend more time in school than those in half-day classes and this difference, as described in the previous chapter, increases the frequency with which children are exposed to a wide variety of specific instructional activities. As described in the introduction to this report, prior research suggests that full-day kindergarten programs compare favorably to half-day programs in terms of children's academic growth (Fusaro 1997;Cryan et al. 1992;and Gullo 2000). ...
... When studies on teaching time in schools are examined, it is seen that full-time education offers a more effective teaching time than dual education (Herry, Maltais & Thompson, 2007;Gullo, 2000;Lee, Burkam, Ready, Honigman, & Meisels, 2006) The Ministry of National Education has announced that normal education will begin in all schools until 2019. In the statements made by the Ministry, it was stated that the dual education will be abolished and full-time education will be started, and it has also stated that approximately 77 thousand classrooms are needed (TRT, 2017). ...
... Okullardaki öğretim zamanıyla ilgili yapılan çalışmalar incelendiğinde tam gün eğitimin ikili eğitime göre daha etkili bir öğretim zamanı sunduğu görülmektedir (Gullo, 2000;Herry, Maltais & Thompson, 2007;Lee, Burkam, Ready, Honigman, & Meisels, 2006). ...
... Not all kindergarten teachers are supportive of the whole-day curriculum. Teachers have noticed the increased parental demand for more didactically oriented instruction in the whole-day program and warned of the dangers of enroling children in such a developmentally inappropriate program and while neglecting the other school readiness skills (Gullo, 2000;Rothenberg, 1995). The increased teaching of literacy and mathematics skills associated with whole-day programs reduces the time available for other types of learning, such as free play, arts and crafts activities, and music (Samuels, 2015). ...
... The respondents believed that the care and support that whole-day kindergarteners received from their teachers would never be comparable to the love and care from their parents. Lastly, previous studies' findings regarding the unnecessary fatigue incurred by a whole day of instruction (Boardman, 2002) and the greater tendency for didactic instruction in the whole-day program (Gullo, 2000;Rothenberg, 1995;Undheim & Drugli, 2012) were not found in this study. ...
... (2008) menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak yang sekolah di FDS memiliki tingkat literasi yang lebih tinggi daripada yang tidak sekolah di FDS. Hal yang hampir sama juga diungkapkan oleh Gullo (2006) dan Cryan dkk. (1992). ...
... (1992). Hasil penelitian Gullo (2006) megatakan bahwa anak-anak yang belajar di TK FDS secara signifikan memiliki nilai matematika dan kemampuan baca yang lebih tinggi daripada yang sekolah di TK setengah hari, sedangkan hasil penelitian Cryan dkk (1992) mengatakan bahwa keikutsertaan anak-anak di TK FDS memiliki hubungan yang positif dengan performa dia di sekolah berikutnya (SD), khususnya di kelas 1. ...
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p>Program Sekolah Lima Hari (PS5H) merupakan program yang menuai pro dan kontra. Puncaknya saat Mendikbud RI mengeluarkan Permendikbud Nomor 23 Tahun 2017 tentang Hari Sekolah. Di Jawa Tengah pro kontra program lima hari sekolah sudah lebih awal terjadi, sejak muncul SE Gubernur Jateng Nomor 420/006752/2015 yang kemduian ditindakanjuti dengan SK Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Provinsi Jawa Tengah Nomor 420/03737. Salah satu wilayah yang mengikuti SE tersebut adalah Kota Salatiga. Sayangnya, walaupun model yang dikehendaki SK Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Provinsi Jawa Tengah adalah model 11 (hari Sabtu libur total), tetapi pelaksanannya di lapangan tidak demikian. Selain itu, pelaksanaan program tersebut juga berakibat pada pendidikan keagamaan di wilayah Salatiga. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, penelitian ini menemukan tiga hal. Pertama, pelaksanaan PS5H tidak menggunakan model 11 sebagaimana diatur pasal 6 SK Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Provinsi Jawa Tengah Nomor 420/03737. Kedua, PS5H berdampak tidak langsung terhadap lembaga pendidikan keagamaan Islam. Ketiga, program tersebut berdampak langsung secara fisik, psikis, sosiologis, dan ekonomis. </p
... The results of Clark and Kirk's (2000) research concluded that full day school program can improve academic achievement, socialization and behavioural control, as well as parents and teachers attitudes. The researches of Fusaro and Royce (1995) and Gullo (2000) found that children in schools with full-day system have more academic readiness than children in schools with half-day system. In contrast to general researches, Sergesgetter and Gilman (1988) found that there are no significant differences between children who studying in full-day school and half-day school. ...
... In addition, research on full-day school that showed full-day school practice can help students to improve academic, social, moral, emotional and even parental satisfaction (Cannon, Jacknowitz, & Painter, 2006;Kauerz, 2005;Cooper, Allen, Patall, & Dent, 2010;Ray & Smith, 2010;Clark & Kirk, 2000;Fusaro & Royce, 1995;Gullo, 2000) also factors to strengthen the development of schools that implementing a full-day system. ...
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The full day school program is a new model in the education management system in Indonesia. This phenomenon is interesting because there is a paradox in it. Education in Indonesia is often criticized for the learning which is too heavy, but the full day school program gets a positive response from the community although it has longer school hours. This research aims to answer the questions; 1) How is a full day school praxis program in Indonesia? Second, how is the implementation of humanizing the classroom learning program in schools that implement the full day school program? This research is a qualitative research with locus at Islam Terpadu Salsabila Elementary School (SDIT Salsabila), Yogyakarta. Research subject is determined by purposive sampling. Method of data collections are: 1) participant observation, 2) in-depth interview, 3) questionnaire, and 4) document analysis. Data analysis technique is inductive-qualitative. The results are; First, the full day school program in Indonesia is growing as a result of the increasing number of busy working parents. They do not have the opportunity to accompany their children at home because they are busy working from morning to evening. The full day school program is an educative solution for them. Secondly, humanizing the classroom is implemented through students’ active involvement in the classroom and the learning process is democratic and fun. This approach is a solution so that students do not feel boredom in learning although they spent their time throughout the day at school.
... Researchers using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort data commonly demonstrate greater gains in reading and math at the end of FDK (Cannon et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2006;Yan & Lin, 2005). Gullo (2000) made the case that time in school is related to children's achievement and because FDK children spend more time in school than children in HDK, this points to advantages in learning. An example of the relation between time in school and achievement is shown in Hall-Kenyon, Bingham, and Korth (2009), who reported specific effects of attendance on children's receptive language skills. ...
Article
In 2010, the province of Ontario introduced a new universal two-year play-based full-day kindergarten program. The authors exploited the phasing-in of this program over five years, allowing a natural experiment in which children from full-day kindergarten could be compared with those from half-day kindergarten in matched neighborhoods. Children (N = 592) were followed from kindergarten to Grade 2 with direct learning and self-regulation measures. Grade 3 wide-scale achievement test scores were available for 269 of the children. Results showed lasting benefits of full-day kindergarten on children’s self-regulation, reading, writing, and number knowledge to the end of Grade 2, including some benefits for vocabulary. Full-day kindergarten children were significantly more likely to meet provincial expectations for reading in Grade 3. The study points to the benefits of a play-based full-day kindergarten program and brings evidence to bear on the mixed findings in the research literature about the fade-out effects of full-day kindergarten.
... The respondents believed that the care and support that whole-day kindergarteners received from their teachers would never be comparable to the love and care from their parents. Lastly, previous studies' findings regarding the unnecessary fatigue incurred by a whole day of instruction (Boardman, 2002) and the greater tendency for didactic instruction in the whole-day program (Gullo, 2000;Rothenberg, 1995;Undheim & Drugli, 2012) were not found in this study. ...
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Decades of research in the West cannot determine whether the whole-day or half-day kindergarten program is more beneficial to children’s development. In Hong Kong, despite strong public demand for the whole-day program, mixed research findings have led the government to support the half-day program only. As a supplement to a large-scale 2-year longitudinal study, this mixed methods study adopted Donabedian’s (2003) approach to explore this complex social-educational issue with reference to Hong Kong-Chinese educators’ perceptions of the whole-day kindergarten program. The authors surveyed 180 kindergarten educators from 15 randomly sampled kindergartens and conducted follow-up interviews with 30 of these educators one year later. The results showed that the whole-day program allowed for structural, curricular, and pedagogical improvement, enhanced children’s development, and eased families’ childcare concerns. The disadvantages, however, were reduced parent–child time and heavier tuition fees. The findings imply that no “best” program exists, only a better program “fit.” Program selection should reflect family preferences and needs while ensuring high-quality learning opportunities and active parental involvement. The whole-day program is recommended for families that lack a stimulating home environment and childcare resources; the half-day program might be a better fit for financially able families with adequate childcare resources. The authors argue that the supply of the free whole-day program should better match the needs of families.
... Based on the explanation above, this study was conducted in order to reveal the characteristics of the full-day schoolbased elementary school. The research was conducted based on Clark and Kirk (2000) and Gullo (2000) research states that participation in full-dayschool kindergarten has positive effects on academic and social outcomes. Reynolds (1994). ...
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This study was based on the idea of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia that elementary and Secondary school should implement a full-day school system gradually. This study aimed at describing the characteristics of the full-day school based elementary school in MIUT Thawalib, Padang Panjang. This study was an inductive-qualitative research; case studies. The intruments in this study were interviews, observation, and documentation about research news, research results and theories related to the characteristics of the school-based full-day school at the elementary level. The materials were studied in this study were notes, transcripts, books, newspapers, magazines, and website. The results obtained indicate that full-day school at the primary level has applied "Integrated Curriculum". The objective of full-day school program is that students can make more progress in terms of learning which will certainly have a positive impact for them. The learning process should be active, creative, transformative and intensive. On the other hand, the learning process does not require students to analyze and study full time, but it is a system that does not burden nor boring. School hours and learning materials also conform to the national standard curriculum. Outside of school hours, learning activities will be related to general knowledge and development of the individual, such as music and religious activity or worship practices. In this system, it is also applied some exciting game formats in order to make the learning process full of joy for students to learn.
... Doing so would provide policymakers with a broader understanding of the ways in which FDK can potentially enhance the outcomes of children with disabilities. Future studies might examine, for example, absenteeism, delinquency, remedial services, and retention, all problematic outcomes that were not currently available in our data set but that have been found to be mitigated by FDK participation (Cryan et al., 1992;Gullo, 2000). ...
Article
Despite the vast body of research examining the relationship between full-day kindergarten attendance and children’s outcomes, little is known about the effects of full-day kindergarten on children with disabilities (i.e., students with 1 of the 13 categories of disabilities recognized under federal law). This study fills this research void by examining whether full-day kindergarten participation predicts differences in achievement and social-emotional outcomes for children with disabilities. Using a national data set of kindergarten students from the 2010–2011 school year (ECLS-K:2011) and employing propensity matching, this study finds that relative to part-day kindergarten (PDK), full-day kindergarten (FDK) attendance is associated with higher achievement scores but also with higher frequencies of internalizing behaviors and lower incidences of self-control at the end of the kindergarten school year. The relationships between FDK attendance and outcomes varied by type of disability classification, such that significant achievement effects emerged only for children with learning and communication disorders. In addition, less time spent on child-initiated activities was associated with higher mathematics scores for children in FDK programs but not for children in PDK programs. Policy implications of the results are discussed.
... Chang and Singh (2008), in their analysis of US kindergarten performance, report more positive results on reading and maths in first grade for those children in full-day kindergarten. Gullo (2000) also found greater benefits from full-day programmes based on a comparison of second-graders in a Midwestern school district, half of whom had been in full-day and half of whom had been in part-day kindergarten. Lee et al (2006), Schroeder (2007), and Zvoch et al (2008 all report positive results of full-day kindergarten. ...
Article
An expanding body of research demonstrates that high quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) programmes generate positive outcomes for children; in response, policy makers in number of countries are making significant programme investments. No research consensus, however, has emerged around the specific types of policy intervention that are most effective. Much remains to be clarified in terms of specific policy interventions that flow from the evidence base. To respond to these important gaps in ECEC knowledge, we advance a call for a research agenda that will systematically examine the effects of early years policy instruments and settings.
... Studies investigating the intensive margin, and thus expansions of the opening hours of child care centers, are scarce. There are some earlier studies providing correlations between full-day child care and child development (Cryan et al., 1992;Gullo, 2000;Walson and West, 2004). 3 Only recently there are a few studies that aim at providing causal estimates for the impact of attending child care on a full-day basis. ...
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An important issue on the political agenda of many developed countries is the intensive margin of formal child care and, consequently, the effects of expanding the operating hours of child care institutions. We add to this debate by studying the effects of offering full-day child care on child development. Specifically, we analyze the consequences of a substantial increase of full-day slots at the expense of half-day slots and hence, when holding the extensive margin constant. The conversion was triggered by several reforms to the German child care system. Using unique administrative data covering the full population of eight birth cohorts in one West German state, we find that more hours have a negative effect on children's socio-emotional well-being. Subgroup analysis suggests that this result is driven by children from disadvantaged family backgrounds, especially those from low-education backgrounds, single-parent households and migrant families. On a brighter note, we find that full-day care has a positive effect on the school readiness of immigrant children.
... As research upholds that the skills that children acquire during kindergarten are highly predictive of future outcomes (Alexander, Entwisle, & Dauber, 1993;Juel, 1988;Pianta & Walsh, 1996;Smith, 1997), stakeholders are concerned about these issues pertaining to the effects of the general education classroom context as early as school entry (i.e., kindergarten). Research has predominantly focused on how features of the kindergarten classroom context may influence academic achievement (see, e.g., Gullo, 2000;Karweit, 1992;Lee et al., 2006;NEA, 2008;Walston & West, 2004;Weast, 2004); less overall is known about the effects of the kindergarten classroom setting on social skill development. That said, social skills are especially critical to foster in kindergarten. ...
Article
Background/Context Though the development of social skills in kindergarten is critical, a research gap exists in how the context of the general education classroom may influence the social skills outcomes of students with disabilities: None have considered the role of peer effects in this domain. This gap is critical to address, as multiple high-needs groups are increasingly present in the same general education classroom settings. Purpose/Objective This study asks two key research questions: (1) In kindergarten, to what extent do the classroom social skills outcomes of children with disabilities differ based on the number of ELL classmates? (2) In kindergarten, to what extent do the classroom social skills outcomes of ELL students differ based on the number of classmates with disabilities? Population/Participants The data are sourced from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class (ECLS-K), which is a nationally representative sample of students, teachers, and schools. Information was first collected from kindergartners (as well as parents, teachers, and school administrators) from U.S. kindergarten programs. This study utilizes data collected at the fall and spring of kindergarten. Research Design This study combines secondary data analyses and quasi-experimental methods. There are three social skills outcomes: (1) approaches to learning, (2) interpersonal skills, and (3) self control. The study begins with a baseline, linear regression model. To address issues pertaining to omitted variable bias, the study employs multilevel fixed effects modeling. Findings The coefficients indicate that students with disabilities tend to have improved social skills with an increase in the number of ELL classmates. The effects remain significant even after accounting for multiple omitted variable biases. Notably, the reverse relationship does not hold: The number of classmates with disabilities has no significant influence on the outcomes of ELL students. Conclusions/Recommendations This research offers more in-depth insight into how the classroom context and the effects of classmates may have a unique relationship for specific high-needs groups such as students with disabilities—a strand of research in this area that is often overlooked. School practices can thus be guided by determining not simply if one group of students performs better or worse on average, but rather by asking, better or worse for whom in particular?
... Much research has been undertaken in the United States of America regarding the advisability and benefits of all-day attendance for kindergarten children. Some writers (da Costa & Bell, 2001;Gullo, 2000;Cryan, Sheehan, Weichel & Bandy-Hedden, 1992;Housden & Kam, 1992) have seen this change in attendance as being supportive of the academic preparation of young children. In addition, supporters of full-day kindergarten point to the current research in the neurosciences, which highlights the importance of 'a well-planned and wellexecuted pedagogy' in the first years of a child's life, with full-day kindergartens being seen as raising 'the threshold for student achievement' and producing 'academically stronger students' (Tantum, 1999, p. 24-26). ...
Article
Within the current climate of heightened interest in the education of young children, it is essential that consideration be given to different factors which may impact, either positively or negatively, on the achievement of young learners when their academic progress in literacy and numeracy is considered. The research study reported in this paper aimed to investigate whether age and gender impacted on the academic results of five- and six-year-old students in Tasmanian state schools. The dual-method study considered the children's development in the area of early literacy and numeracy, at the commencement of their year in Prep (following their previous year in kindergarten). Results for 884 students from the PIPS (Performance Indicators of Primary Schools) testing procedure (mandated by the Tasmanian Department of Education for all children at the start of their year in Prep) were used to inform this study. Quantitative results revealed that children's age had a significant impact on the results they receive in PIPS at the commencement of Prep. Younger children (aged 5.00–5.03 years at the time of the test) within the Prep class cohort were found to be performing at significantly lower levels of academic achievement than their peers who were six to 11 months older in the areas of maths, reading and phonics. Likewise, girls achieved statistically higher results in reading and in the PIPS total scores when compared to the scores of boys. This study provides key evidence that there are children who, because of their age or gender, are achieving lower test scores on PIPS. These children and their literacy and numeracy needs must be more fully understood and acted upon.
... Growth in the prevalence of full-day kindergarten, from 11 percent of kindergartners enrolled in 1969 to 63 percent enrolled in 2002, is attributed to various economic, social, and educational factors (Ackerman, Barnett, and Robin, 2005;Kaurz, 2005). Increases in the percentage of children from single-parent households and from households with two working parents are important factors contributing to the call for full-day programs because childcare arrangements are less costly and less complicated for these types of families when children are enrolled in kindergarten for the full school day (Gullo, 2000;Morrow, Strickland, and Woo, 1999). ...
... The extant research on full-day kindergarten is inconclusive regarding short-term, long-term, and longitudinal outcomes for students. Many studies reported more positive outcomes for children in full-day kindergarten compared to those in half-day (Baskett, Bryant, White, & Rhoads, 2005;Cryan, Sheehan, Wiechel, & Bandy-Hedden, 1992;Fusaro, 1997); specifically, higher achievement in literacy and math was found (Gullo, 2000;Lee, Burkam, Ready, Honigman, & Meisels, 2006;Weiss & Offenberg, 2002;Zvoch, Reynolds, & Parker, 2008). But other researchers identified methodological limitations in these earlier studies in terms of sample size, selection bias, and duration of outcome periods (Canon, Jacknowitz, & Painter, 2006;Cryan et al., 1992;Puelo, 1988). ...
... Children who attend full-school-day rather than half-day kindergarten do better academically and socially during the primary grades (Gullo, 2000;Wang & Johnstone, 1999). ...
... Rothenberg (1995) indicates that Full-Day Kindergarten students showed more independent learning, classroom involvement, productivity, and reflectiveness. Several others also find that students enrolled in Full-Day Kindergarten showed greater academic achievement than Part-Time Kindergarten students (Cryan, Sheehan, and Bandy-Hedden;1992;Rothenberg, 1995;Hough and Bryde, 1996;Elicker and Mather, 1997;Fusaro, 1997;Elicker, 2000;Gullo, 2000). In particular, several studies have shown improved literacy (daCosta and Bell, 2001;da Costa, 2005). ...
... In addition, kindergarten outcomes may not generalize to younger ages. Findings indicate that participation in full-day kindergarten has positive effects on academic and social outcomes (Clark & Kirk, 2000;Gullo, 2000). ...
... The percentile point advantage on cognitive achievement tests of math and reading can be as much as 17 percentile points while children are in kindergarten, and as much as 15 points while children are in Grade 1 and 2. 37 The second grade reading and math scores of full-day kindergartners on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills were also higher by four to five points. 38 Further, an early review of studies examining the effects of kindergarten scheduling on children's outcomes -as well as additional analyses of the ECLS-K data-find that while full-day kindergarten is beneficial for all children, it may be particularly beneficial for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. 39 For example, ECLS-K data reveal statistically significant advantages in mathematics and reading score gains for children who attended public school full-day kindergarten. ...
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Today, more than 93 percent of all 5-year-olds attend kindergarten,1 but those kindergarten classes vary widely. A key difference, and one with significant implications for state budgets, parents, and children, is whether the class is a full-day or half-day program. Some kindergarten classes meet for up to six hours per day, following the same full-day schedules found in the lower primary grades. Other kindergartens use a half-day schedule, meeting for only two to three hours per day, as either a morning or afternoon session.2 It seems obvious that a longer school day would benefit children and families. In the best programs, a longer day would enable children to receive more individualized, academically-focused instruction from teachers, as well as more time interacting with their peers—both of which can lead to long-term benefits.3 For working parents, a longer school day could mean fewer family expenses for child care and less worry about transporting children from one setting to another during the day. Program administrators and policymakers considering a switch from half-day to full-day programs, however, may wonder how full- day programs should be structured to ensure that children benefit, and whether the advantages of full- day programs outweigh the additional costs. This brief addresses these questions and highlights: • Trends in the provision of full-day kindergarten • Activities in full- and half-day kindergarten programs • Research on children's academic and social outcomes in half- versus full-day kindergarten programs • The need for additional research
... ); specifically, higher achievement in literacy and math was found (Gullo, 2000; Lee, Burkam, Ready, Honigman, & Meisels, 2006; Weiss & Offenberg, 2002; Zvoch, Reynolds, & Parker, 2008). But other researchers identified methodological limitations in these earlier studies in terms of sample size, selection bias, and duration of outcome periods (Canon, Jacknowitz, & Painter, 2006; Cryan et al., 1992; Puelo, 1988). ...
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A ccording to the 2007 U.S. Census Bureau report, 94.6% of 5-to 6-year-old children are enrolled in school. Of these, approximately 68% are enrolled at a full-day kindergarten program, compared to about 13% in 1970 (Elicker & Mathur, 1997). What is responsible for this shift? Elicker and Mathur (1997) identified several rationales for full-day kindergarten, including: 1) reducing transition and transportation time associated with child care arrangements for working families, 2) increasing instructional time for teachers to meet the higher demands for student performance, and 3) allowing time for more developmentally appropriate practice, integrated curriculum, and child-initiated activities in kindergarten. Although certainly not inherently dichotomous, the rationale of extra time for instruction can be seen as running counter to the rationale for providing a child-initiated, developmentally appropriate program. Certainly, the length of the kindergarten day and what is done with that extra time remains of great interest to policymakers, researchers, educators, and parents; stakeholders need to know how the length of the day is related to the quality of the program. We devote this issue of Focus on Pre-K & K to a study of full-day kindergarten in one U.S. state, where public support for those classrooms is a relatively new occurrence. The study presented here by a research team from the University of Delaware offers a disturbing perspective on the quality of full-day kindergarten in that state. An important finding is that children in the participating classrooms spent the majority of instructional time engaged in whole-group instruction. We suspect that this finding is likely to resonate in other schools systems, as our own observations of kindergarten programs in many settings confirm. While the researchers related whole-group instruction to lower level interactions between teachers and children and lower cognitive demands on the young learners—even as instruction became more heavily academic—it is certainly possible for whole-group instruction to be effective in a developmentally appropriate classroom.
... Greater attention to quality might improve the average effectiveness of early intervention programs like Head Start. Likewise, extension of the programs by enrolling children at younger ages, providing full-day services, and/or continuing to provide enriching services after school enrollment typically enhance the effects of preschool on the intellectual performance of children from impoverished backgrounds (see also Clark & Kirk, 2000; Cryan, Sheehan, Wiechel, & Bandy-Hedden, 1992; Elicker & Mathur, 1997; Fusaro, 1997; Gullo, 2000; Sheehan, Cryan, Wiechel, & Bandy, 1991; Vecchiotti, 2003), although the large EPPE study showed no differences between the effects of full-day and part-day programs in the United Kingdom (Sylva et al., 2004). ...
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We begin by placing contemporary patterns of child care in their broader Socio-cultural and historical context before sketching changing patterns of child care and explaining the importance of quality when assessing effects of child care on child development. Intensive research has established that high-quality nonparental care promotes and does not derail developmental processes. Because diverse experiences (often involving multiple types of nonparental care) differentially affect the development of children who have distinctive individual characteristics, we examine the effects of nonparental care on many developmental domains (such as relationships and compliance with adults, peer relationships, adaptation and behavior problems, personality maturation and cognitive/intellectual development) closely, emphasizing the crucial intersection between home and out-of-home care settings. Experiences both inside and outside the home continue to affect children's development and we illustrate how practitioners and parents can share children's care in ways that are most likely to enhance children's developmental outcomes. Keywords: care providers; child care; day care; developmental outcomes; quality of child care
... Longer programs may allow teachers the flexibility to individualize instruction to match the children's needs and interests. Kindergarten children who attend full-day programs attain higher reading and math achievement scores than children in part-day programs (Gullo, 2000). If this finding extends downward in age, then full-day pre-k is likely to be better than part-day programs. ...
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States have accumulated considerable experience in operating publicly sponsored pre-kindergarten programs. In spite of this extensive experience, only fragmentary accounts exist of how these pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs handle issues such as program intensity, location, staffing, and population served. These issues are addressed by the National Center for Early Development and Learning's Multi-State Study of Pre-Kindergarten, which collected data from 240 programs. Data were weighted to represent the 4 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio) and each of the 2 regions in California and New York from which they were drawn. Using these weighted data, we estimate that slightly more than half of these school-related programs were part-day and slightly more than half were located outside of school buildings. Although these programs varied in process quality, on average, they met National Association for the Education of Young Children recommended standards for class size, adult:child ratios, and teacher certification. The programs served an ethnically, linguistically, and economically diverse population of children, although about half of pre-k children were from low-income backgrounds. African American, Asian, and Latino children were more likely than White children to attend a pre-k class with a high proportion of children from low-income backgrounds. Issues of process quality were highlighted in the study.
... With respect to cost, a child's failure in kindergarten can cost a school district as much money as hiring additional teachers when one considers the expense of remedial education, additional resources and resource specialists, and repeating the grade itself. For example, Gullo (2000) found that children in full-day programs were less likely to be retained a grade than children in half-day programs, although there were no significant differences in special education placement. This may be because full-day programs provide the time to help children with socialemotional skills, as well as cognitive skills that prepare them to progress to the first grade; hence, reducing the need to use grade retention as suggested by Hong and Yu (2008). ...
Article
This article describes kindergarten from the perspective of the whole child. Specifically, it reviews current research on best practices to improve children’s math and language arts competencies, memory skills, and the role of kindergarten in beginning science. It also describes the social experiences children have in kindergarten with respect to their academic success. Similarly, it reviews the impact of emotional competence on school success. This article then reviews research describing three major influences on children’s kindergarten adaptation and success (i.e., transition, parental involvement, retention). The article concludes with a discussion of full-day kindergarten programs and their potential for improving the chances of all kindergarten children, especially low-income and ethnic minority children, for success in school. KeywordsKindergarten-Cognitive, social, and emotional development-Transition, families-Full-day programs
... While the present studies focused on the first component of school readiness identified by the NEGP – readiness in the child – we acknowledge the contributions made by home and school environments to children's readiness for school and for continued school success. For example, factors such as the amount that parents read to their children (Bus, van Ijezndoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Halsall & Green, 1995), class size (Finn, 1998; Finn, Gerber, Achilles, & Boyd-Zaharias, 2001; Mayer, Mullens, Moore, & Ralph, 2000), the length of the kindergarten day (Cryan, Sheehan, Wiechel, & Bandy-Hedden, 1992; Finn & Pannozzo, 2004; Gullo, 2000) or teacher experience (Reynolds, 1995) may affect children's concurrent or subsequent school outcomes. In addition, children from more disadvantaged backgrounds (e.g., low-income and/or single-parent households) face negative cognitive and social outcomes, even before kindergarten (Entwisle & Alexander, 1999). ...
Article
Two studies examine patterns of school readiness in children at school entry and how these patterns predict first-grade outcomes in a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (N = 17,219). In Study 1, cluster analyses revealed four profiles at kindergarten entry: comprehensive positive development (30%), social/emotional and health strengths (34%), social/emotional risk (13%), and health risk (22.5% of the sample). Study 2 results suggested that children with one of the two “risk” profiles were more likely to be from families with multiple socioeconomic disadvantages. In addition, all four profiles differentially predicted academic and social adjustment in early elementary school. Children with a risk profile performed the worst on all outcomes; children with a comprehensive positive development profile performed the best. The authors discuss the need for early identification of children who may be at risk for entering school with few school readiness strengths.
... The results of this study concur with the existing body of research which has largely shown significant academic benefits of full-day vs. part-day kindergarten programs (e.g., Cannon, Jacknowitz, & Painter, 2006; Clark & Kirk, 2000; Gullo, 2000; Kaplan, 2002; Lee et al., 2006; Walston & West, 2004; Weiss & Offenberg, 2002). Unlike prior studies, however, the current investigation linked kindergarten program type not only to levels of academic achievement, but to individual growth trajectories of students' math and reading skills during the kindergarten year using data from a nationally representative study. ...
Article
Children's kindergarten experiences are increasingly taking place in full- versus part-day programs, yet important questions remain about whether there are significant and meaningful benefits to full-day kindergarten. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study's Kindergarten Cohort (N= 13,776), this study takes a developmental approach to examining associations between kindergarten program type and academic trajectories from kindergarten (ages 4-6 years) through 5th grade (ages 9-12 years). Full-day kindergarten was associated with greater growth of reading and math skills from fall until spring of kindergarten. Initial academic benefits diminished soon after kindergarten. The fade-out of the full-day advantage is in part explained by differences in the children who attend part- and full-day kindergarten as well as school characteristics.
... The existing literature suggests that full-day kindergarten's impact on academic and social outcomes is somewhat mixed, but taken as a whole tends to imply that full-day kindergarten's pros outweigh its cons. Some studies find relatively large gains (e.g., Gullo, 2000), while others do not (Karweit, 1992). It should be noted, however, that existing work has several limitations. ...
Article
Over the past three decades, enrollment in full-day kindergarten has grown considerably—from roughly one-tenth to just over half of US kindergartners today. Full-day kindergarten reappeared first in the 1960s as an intervention designed to help disadvantaged children “catch up” to their peers through additional schooling. More recently, it has gained popularity among non-poor parents and schools, so that children presently enrolled in full-day programs are, on average, very similar to their half-day counterparts in baseline test scores as well as other child, parent and school characteristics. Using longitudinal data, I estimate the impact of full-day kindergarten on standardized test scores in mathematics and reading, as children progress from kindergarten to first grade. I find that full-day kindergarten has sizeable impacts on academic achievement, but the estimated gains are short-lived, particularly for minority children. Given the additional expense of full-day kindergarten, information regarding the size and duration of gains should be of great interest to policy makers.
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This study addressed the role of children in studying education is the use of education system. The goal of this study is to develop the international community-based research approach, which is a characteristic assessment involving non-participating observation, interviews and documentation. This research focuses on the models of teaching materials for training to use the full daily school system. The whole research focuses on the models of instructional media for learning through the use of a full day state education system. The data were analyzed to use a qualitative descriptive tool. The aim of data collection is to define teaching assessment by means of interview, review, assessment, documents and research instruments. Participants included 300 elementary school graduates, namely Sidenreng Rappang Regency, Enrekang Regency, Pinrang Regency, Barru Regency and Parepare City, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The findings of the study showed no substantial associations between the introduction of a full day public education system, personal development, and a positive mindset. The researcher shall be allowed to examine the research questionnaire identified for this analysis and the field of activity research. On the other hand, the full days public school is substantially successful in the training program for elementary school children. Most of the functionality used in the originality of this research by the research instrument selected for the study are approved and used to understand the impact of mobile-based surveys on the character development to be significant predictors.
Article
This study investigated the reasons parents of kindergarten children selected the attendance option of either full days or half-days for their child/ren. Three-hundred-and-thirty-two kindergarten parents from 30 schools across three Tasmanian school districts were participants in this study. Postal surveys were employed to gather data investigating the reasons behind parents' selection of either full-day or half-day attendance. Forty-nine percent of responses from ‘full-day parents’ (n=208) offered child-based reasons (including child's readiness for full days, preparation for Prep grade the following year, childcare issues, and quality of the learning program) for their selection. However, 94 per cent of parents of ‘half-day students’ (n=114) cited child-based reasons (including frequency of attendance, child's age, readiness for half-days, and quality of the learning program) for their decision. Few ‘half-day parents’ (4.3%) cited family-based reasons, while 50.6 per cent of ‘full-day parents’ cited these reasons (including work commitments, childcare convenience, transport issues and home location). Hence, while a majority of ‘half-day parents’ made their choice for child-based reasons, these results indicate that full-day kindergartens serve at least two functions: providing a service that supports an aspect of family life plus educating the kindergarten child.
Article
This study is a randomized control trial of full- versus half-day prekindergarten (pre-K) in a school district near Denver, Colorado. Four-year-old children were randomly assigned an offer of half-day (4 days/week) or full-day (5 days/week) pre-K that increased class time by 600 hours. The full-day pre-K offer produced substantial, positive effects on children’s receptive vocabulary skills (0.275 standard deviations) by the end of pre-K. Among children enrolled in district schools, full-day participants also outperformed their peers on teacher-reported measures of cognition, literacy, math, physical, and socioemotional development. At kindergarten entry, children offered full day still outperformed peers on a widely used measure of basic literacy. The study provides the first rigorous evidence on the impact of full-day preschool on children’s school readiness skills.
Article
Executive Summary Six hundred kindergarten students, 300 in all-day kindergarten (all-day K) classes, 300 in half-day classes (half-day K) were evaluated for reading and mathematics proficiency to determine whether all-day K significantly improves the academic performance of kindergarten students. The students included in the study were students at Whittier elementary schools (all containing mainly Hispanic, free and reduced lunch-eligible students). Reading readiness was assessed in early January using the DIBELS assessment methods and benchmarks. Analysis of variance showed that all-day K students performed significantly better than half-day K students. All-day K brings the performance of English-language-learner (ELL) students up to the level of non-ELL half-day students for all benchmarks except word use fluency. Students in the Reading First program performed significantly better than students not in Reading First, but this may be biased due to the use of benchmarks specifically designed to measure the core outcomes of the Reading first program. Students in both all-day K and Reading First performed the best. Stepwise regression showed the Reading First independent variable providing more variance explanation than the all-day K factor.
Article
The study explores the longitudinal effects of all-day kindergarten on student's mathematics achievement from the fall of kindergarten through the spring of first grade. Using data from the first four rounds of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States, two sets of two-level hierarchical linear models were performed as longitudinal multilevel analyses. The first set included the entire student population as one model and the second set consisted of five separate HLM models, each representing one of five socio-economic (SES) quintiles. We found: (1) when the analyses included the entire population, the all-day kindergarten students begin with significantly higher math scores, but do not show significantly different rates of change as compared to their half-day kindergarten counterparts; and (2) when the analyses are applied to the five SES quintiles, the all-day students of the lower two SES groups and the highest SES group show significantly higher initial scores than do those of the half-day students, although the change rates for the scores in all the SES groups do not differ.
Article
The goal of this study was to explore the long-term effects of all-day kindergarten programs on children's academic performance. The study used three waves of data from a nationally representative database from the United States, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), with the first wave at the beginning of kindergarten and the third wave at the end of the first grade. The average age of the children at the first wave was five years and eight months; at the third wave seven years and three months. The study further examined if these effects vary as a result of teacher curricular activities relating to reading and mathematics. The study conducted three-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using three measures of reading and maths IRT scores, sets of teacher activities in reading and maths, children's age, gender and socioeconomic status. The results indicated that all-day kindergarten children began with significantly higher scores and showed faster growth rates in both reading and math compared with half-day kindergarten children. Importantly, all-day kindergarten teachers had significantly higher frequencies of reading and mathematics activities than did half-day kindergarten teachers. These results suggest an important implication for the potential benefits of all-day programs in the US.
Article
This study investigated the effect of full- and half-day kindergarten programmes on English language learners (ELL) and English-only-speaking children's literacy and mathematics performance in a large urban school district. Considerations were given to how the length of the school day, children's language status (ELL and non-ELL), and children's attendance patterns influenced achievement. Results reveal that all children in full-day kindergarten settings performed significantly better on spring literacy assessments and mathematics when compared to children in half-day settings. Non-ELL children performed significantly higher on spring literacy assessments than ELL children. Children who missed fewer than 10 days of kindergarten had significantly higher spring literacy and mathematics scores than children with more than 10 absences. Findings from this study have significant policy and practice implications related to the overall quality, availability, and the effect of kindergarten programming in the USA.
Article
Research Findings: This study investigated the effects of full- and half-day kindergarten programs on classroom instructional quality and children's academic achievement. Considerations were given for how the length of the school day, language status (English language learner [ELL] and non-ELL), and children's attendance patterns influenced achievement. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently and were interpreted to note the convergence (or lack thereof) of the findings. Quantitative results revealed no difference in the quality of instruction being offered in full- and half-day classrooms. Additionally, full-day kindergarten positively impacted children's academic achievement in literacy but not in mathematics, regardless of children's language status. In regard to language development, ELL children benefited more from full-day kindergarten than did their English-speaking peers, whereas all (ELL and non-ELL) children enrolled in full-day kindergarten made greater language gains when they missed fewer than 10 school days. Practice or Policy: Findings from this study have significant policy and practice implications related to the overall quality, availability, and cultural and developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programming in the United States.
Article
The benefits of all‐day kindergarten are increasingly supported by educational policy groups. Rigorous, prospective empirical research is impractical for schools of limited fiscal means where education must take priority over institutional research. However, post‐hoc analyses of archival and informal measures can provide invaluable information concerning educational issues of national concern. A method of university and elementary school collaboration was employed in evaluating the educational effects of a transition from half‐day to full‐day kindergarten in an economically challenged suburban–rural school district in Maine. A child developmental scale and educational measures were used to evaluate differences in improvement scores between children enrolled in half‐day kindergarten one year and children enrolled in full‐day kindergarten the following year. Additional measures addressed parent and teacher attitudes toward full‐day kindergarten. Overall, children enrolled in full‐day kindergarten showed greater improvement than children in half‐day kindergarten. Results of teacher and parent questionnaires indicated a high degree of satisfaction with full‐day kindergarten. The research effort, based on a service learning model, provided a cost‐effective strategy for recovering and analyzing archival data.
Article
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how recent methodological developments in the analysis of individual growth can inform important problems in education policy. Specifically, this article focuses on a method referred to as growth mixture modeling. Growth mixture modeling is a relatively new procedure for the analysis of longitudinal data that relaxes many of the assumptions associated with conventional growth curve modeling. In particular, growth mixture modeling tests for the existence of unique growth trajectory classes through a combination of latent class analysis and standard growth curve modeling. Antecedent predictors of the latent classes can be incorporated as well as relations from the latent classes to specific outcomes. This article applies growth mixture modeling to data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten class of 1998-1999. The specific policy question posed in this article focuses on the estimation of latent growth trajectory classes in reading proficiency and the effects of full-day or part-day kindergarten programs on growth within reading trajectory classes. Results identify a 3-class solution corresponding to slow-developing, normal-developing, and fast-developing reading growth in children. The results further show that full-day kindergarten attendance benefits children in the slow-reading development class relative to the normal and fast-reading development class, but the effect is lessened when holding constant socioeconomic status and age of entry into kindergarten. The implications of the method for quantitative education policy analysis are also discussed.
Article
The study explored the effects of two kindergarten program organization factors—length of school day and class size—on kindergartners' reading, math and general knowledge achievement at the end of the kindergarten year. Two waves of data were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) with an analytic sample of 15,575 children. A slight positive relationship was found between small class size and children's achievement in reading and math, particularly for children from minority and lower SES backgrounds. No relationship was linked with class size and general knowledge achievement. The relationship between full-day program and the three early academic skills was positive and statistically significant: almost all children made slightly higher gains in full-day programs compared with their counterparts in part-day programs. The findings suggest that policy makers may consider reducing very large class size and making full-day programs available to young children, particularly to poor minority children, at the same time aligning class size and length of kindergarten day with a child's characteristics and school curriculum.
Chapter
In the past decade, educators and policy makers have focused considerable attention on the role of early experiences in young children’s development. The research strongly suggests that the experiences that children have early in life lay the foundation for later growth and development. This has been documented in three influential National Research Council reports, Eager to Learn (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2001), Neurons to Neighborhoods (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000), and Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Although there is general agreement among policy makers and educators regarding the important role that early experiences play in children’s development, there is considerable controversy as to how policies should be translated into early childhood practices. In many instances, the same evidence is used to support divergent positions. The lack of insight into how to apply policies is problematic given the fact that implementing certain unproven assumptions can result in inappropriate experiences for young children
Article
Since September 2000, the French Catholic School Board of Central and Eastern Ontario (CECLFCE) (Ontario, Canada), has decided to offer a full-day educational program instead of his half-day educational program to all 4-year-old children of its territory. Given the educational, financial and political stakes inherent in the establishment of the full-day preschool program, the CECLFCE has opted to conduct an evaluation of this project in order to determine its effects on children's development. This article summarizes a longitudinal study conducted in three stages, at the end of kindergarten, grade 2 and grade 5. In each stage, we compared the development of children who attended the full-day preschool program (2000-2001) to other who attended the half-day program (1999-2000). This study addresses the following question: is a full-day preschool program more likely to enhance, in the longer term, linguistic, academic, social-emotional, and psychomotor development than a half-day preschool program? Our results indicate that the full-day preschool program for 4-year-old children is more likely to enhance, in the longer term, linguistic and academic development in reading and mathematics. However, the program has little effect on writing competence, as well as in regard to social-emotional and psychomotor development.
Article
In the context of a quasi-experimental research design, literacy data obtained on students were examined to assess relationships between kindergarten program model (full- vs. half-day) and student literacy outcomes. Application of multilevel modeling techniques to the time series data collected from kindergarteners in economically disadvantaged school contexts in a large southwestern school district revealed that students exposed to a full day of instruction had greater literacy growth than their peers in half-day classrooms. Further examination of the program model results revealed that the relative efficacy of full-day kindergarten tended to be greater in smaller class size environments. These results, if replicated, suggest that full-day kindergarten initiatives targeted toward students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more successful when implemented in classrooms with relatively small student enrollments. Implications for instructional policy and practice are discussed.
Article
This portion of a larger comparative study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) versus half-day kindergarten (HDK) classrooms highlights the effects of FDK versus HDK on the achievement of students with low/moderate income status. Authors collected statistical and semi-structured interview data from one large and two other school corporations in the midwestern United States. The results of this study did not corroborate with published accounts of FDK students scoring better on certain language arts/reading criteria and mathematics criteria, nor did it indicate a benefit for students from low SES backgrounds. The results of this study indicated that no significant difference exists when the authors directly compared the scores from students recorded as free meal code and students enrolled in Title I schools in either the full-day or half-day kindergarten.
Technical Report
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This is a report on phase I of an ongoing study of the status, nature and impact of full-day kindergarten (FDK) in Delaware’s public school districts. Phase I examines the status and nature of FDK in Delaware. Phase II, planned for completion in spring 2004, will compare the educational impact of FDK and half-day kindergarten (HDK) Delaware State Board of Education. Full text http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/2429
Article
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A study was conducted to compare the relative effects of three different kindergarten schedules on children's end-of-the-year achievement and prosocial classroom behaviors. Subjects included 82 children attending “all-day” kindergarten, 79 children attending “alternate-day” kindergarten, and 55 children attending “half-day” kindergarten. No significant differences were found among the three groups on a test of entry level development. At the end of the year, the children attending “all-day” kindergarten scored significantly higher than either of the other two groups on a test of achievement. Children attending “alternate-day” kindergarten were rated significantly lower by their teachers on negative social behavior factors than children in either of the other groups. Possible reasons for these differences and implications for kindergarten programming are discussed.
Article
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A comprehensive evaluation of a newly-implemented full-day kindergarten program was carried out over a 2-year period. The evaluation included documentation of program processes and outcomes, viewed from multiple perspectives, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. When compared with children in half-day kindergarten classrooms, children in full-day classrooms spent more time (in absolute and relative terms) engaged in child-initiated activities (especially learning centers), more time in teacher-directed individual work, and relatively less time in teacher-directed large groups. Parents of full-day children expressed higher levels of satisfaction with program schedule and curriculum, citing benefits similar to those expressed by teachers: more flexibility; more time for child-initiated, in-depth, and creative activities; and less stress and frustration. Kindergarten report card progress and readiness for first grade were rated significantly higher for full-day children. This study illustrates the converging validity and richness of evaluation results which are possible when a comprehensive, ecological approach is used.
Article
This article addresses 3 issues in the organization and delivery of preprimary instruction. Attendance issues, including who will attend, who will provide the services, and whether attendance is mandatory or optional, are considered first. The second issue involves the basis for program entry, focusing primarily on the benefits/problems of using age as a criterion for school entry. Third, the article examines the effects of alternative curricula and length of school day on student achievement. The longer kindergarten day was found to have short-term benefits, particularly for disadvantaged students. Several approaches to kindergarten and prekindergarten instruction were found to be effective. The limitations of existing studies for addressing these policy questions are described. Finally, the problem of the increasing academic nature of the preprimary curriculum is discussed.
Article
This study examined differences between 326 students enrolled in a full-day kindergarten program and 311 students in a half-day program. Data were obtained from six measures of academic achievement from the California Achievement Tests, administered in the spring. Results indicated no significant differences between the two groups on four measures of academic achievement--visual recognition, sound recognition, vocabulary, and language expression. Significant differences were found on two scores, comprehension and mathematics concepts and applications. Further analysis determined that the difference in comprehension scores was due to girls in the half-day program scoring higher than boys in the full-day program and could not be attributed to differences in the programs. The difference in mathematics concepts and applications scores was due to boys in the full-day program significantly outscoring boys in the half-day program. (Includes 23 references.) (MDM)
Article
Discusses social and educational forces that are leading to the development of all-day kindergarten. Also considered are the effects of pressures on children, parents, and schools on all-day kindergartens and the constituents of developmentally appropriate practices in kindergarten. (BB)
Article
Policymakers have recently tinkered with length of day and number of years in kindergarten. They might better institute curriculum changes recognizing that five year olds have different learning habits than older children. The key is providing developmentally and individually appropriate learning environments for all kindergarten children. A sidebar highlights recent kindergarten research. (25 references) (MLH)
Article
The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize empirical evidence on the effects of different kinds of scheduling on kindergarten children. A search was made for all research conducted within the last 10 years that directly compared kindergarten children in different programs on academic readiness for first grade and on socioemotional development. Eight studies comparing student outcomes in half-day, everyday (HDED) and full-day, alternate day (FDAD) schedules were located and reviewed. Sample sizes ranged from adequate to large; to control for teacher effects, each study included more than one teacher in each of the schedules compared. While aggregate findings revealed no differences in socioemotional adjustment and neither schedule was revealed as clearly superior, results did indicate a slight edge favoring FDAD in academic achievement. Eight studies were also located that compared students in HDED and full-day, everyday (FDED) schedules. The evidence strongly supported the academic advantages of the FDED schedule. Tables providing background information and summaries of results for the two sets of studies are appended. (Author/RH)
Article
A study was conducted to compare the effects of kindergarten schedules on teachers' ability to assess end of the year achievement. Subjects included 72 children attending “full-day” kindergarten, 70 children attending “alternate-day” kindergarten, and 53 children attending “half-day” kindergarten. Thirty teachers participated in the study. At the end of the academic year the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) was administered to all children. Teachers were asked to rate the children's academic achievement prior to the administration of the MRT. Findings indicated that teachers' ratings of academic performance were positively and significantly related to children's scores on the MRT for the full-day and half-day teaching schedules. Teachers' ratings of children's achievement in the alternate' day kindergarten were not significantly related to their MRT scores. There were also significant differences between teachers' teaching in the alternate-day schedule and those teaching in the other two schedules in their ability to accurately assess end of the year performance on the MRT. Teachers teaching in the full-day and half-day schedules were more accurate in their ratings as compared to the alternate-day teachers. Implications for kindergarten assessment are discussed.
Article
This statewide longitudinal study was designed to investigate the effects of kindergarten schedule (half day, alternate day, and full day) and prior preschool attendance on elementary children's success (achievement, incidence of grade retention, provision of special educational services, and classroom behavior). Academic data are summarized from two phases of the study: a retrospective analysis of children's outcomes related to kindergarten attendance in 27 school districts in the years 1982, 1983, and 1984; and a prospective analysis of two cohorts of children, one entering kindergarten in fall 1986 in 27 school districts and one in fall 1987 in 32 school districts. Behavioral outcome data are reported in detail. Existing data found in cumulative folders, representing scores from 13 different standardized tests, and various outcome data were analyzed for the retrospective study. Outcome data for the ongoing study were gathered from the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (administered in kindergarten), the Metropolitan Achievement Tests (administered in first grade), and the Hahnemann Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale (administered in kindergarten). Results from the longitudinal study indicate that children who attend preschool prior to kindergarten experience greater subsequent success in elementary school than those who do not. Results from both phases of the study indicate that participation in full-day kindergarten is positively related to subsequent school performance, at least through first grade. Additional analyses demonstrate the significant impact of age at entrance to kindergarten and of gender.
Article
Readiness, or preparing young children for the formal curriculum, is garnering much attention and controversy in the field of early childhood education. Many factors have been examined in efforts to determine what affects academic readiness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of children's age of entry, number of years of preschool, and sex on academic readiness at the end of kindergarten. A total of 4, 539 children participated in the study. Of these, 104 children started public school at age 3 (K3), 1, 234 started school at age 4 (K4), and 3, 201 started at age 5 (K5). At-risk status was determined using the Cooperative Preschool Inventory (Caldwell, 1974), and first-grade readiness was determined using the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT; Nurss & McGauvran, 1974). Controlling for risk status, regression analysis revealed that age of entry and number of years of preschool accounted for a significant amount of the variance, while sex did not. Analyses of covariance indicated that children who entered the public school preschool program at K3 or K4 scored significantly higher on the MRT than children who entered at K5. The findings also indicated that if children were the youngest in their class they did not score as high as their older counterparts in the K4 and K5 cohorts. However, no difference was found on achievement scores between the oldest and the youngest for the K3 cohort.
Article
How successfully children adapt to the routine of schooling in the first grade or two likely has long-term implications for their cognitive and affective development. This study aims to understand how home and school factors either facilitate or impede this process of adaptation by examining longitudinal data on cognitive performance for a large and diverse sample of youngsters over grades 1 and 2 in Baltimore City Public Schools. Report-card marks in reading and mathematics and scores on verbal and quantitative subtests of the California Achievement Test (CAT) battery over the 2-year period are the achievement criteria. The analysis directs attention to some of the social-structural (socioeconomic background, gender, and minority/majority status) and social-psychological (significant others and self-reactions) factors that shape youngsters' development during this period, as measured by changes in their cognitive standing. Racial comparisons (black youngsters vs. white) and comparisons by school year (first vs. second) highlight some key differences in the transition to full-time schooling. We find more numerous social-structural and social-psychological influences on CAT gains over the first year than over the second, and fall to spring stability in testing levels is more pronounced in the second year than in the first. This pattern identifies the first year of schooling as a period of considerable consequence for shaping subsequent achievement trajectories, and, for this reason, it may be especially important as a key to understanding black-white achievement differences. Minority and majority youngsters in this sample began school with similar CAT averages, but, by the end of the first year, blacks' performances lagged noticeably behind those of whites, and the cleavage widened over the second year. Blacks also received lower report-card marks than whites. This, along with smaller CAT gains, reveals that the transition to school is more problematic for blacks than it is for whites. We also observed stronger persistence of blacks' marks from one period to the next, indicating that recovering from these initial difficulties is more challenging. Social-psychological aspects of these early achievement patterns also differ by race in important ways: blacks' achievements are less influenced by parent variables than are those of whites, and black youngsters' self-expectations are less affected by the expectations held for them by their parents than are those of whites. These results and others are discussed in terms of their implications for students' development and for what they reveal about social structure in relation to the early schooling process.
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