Article

Design and marketing connections

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Marketing and design are interconnected. Innovative design opens up new markets and clever design rekindles interest in a mature market. Well-designed products communicate quality and value to the consumer. Logotypes, leaflets, packaging and signage provide visual cues to reinforce the values of the company to the customer. Advertising and promotional activity makes consumers aware of new products and gives a message to the consumer about the product and/or service available. However, little is known about design management processes and activities from a marketing perspective. The paper addresses this issue primarily through the use of detailed cases.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Cue utilisation theory considers packaging to be an extrinsic cue, along with price, logo and brand name (Birch et al., 2018;Olson, 1972), that is a product-related attribute that is not part of the physical product and its intrinsic cues (i.e., ingredients, texture, aroma). Extrinsic cues are indicators from which consumers can infer product quality (Bruce and Daly, 2007;McDaniel and Baker, 1977), especially when a brand is unfamiliar and there are limited opportunities to inspect intrinsic product properties (Zeithaml, 1988). Packaging provides visual cues to reinforce the values of the company to the customer (Bruce and Daly, 2007;Hota and Charry, 2004;Khan, 2017;Underwood et al., 2001, Van Ooijen et al., 2017Van Esch et al., 2019). ...
... Extrinsic cues are indicators from which consumers can infer product quality (Bruce and Daly, 2007;McDaniel and Baker, 1977), especially when a brand is unfamiliar and there are limited opportunities to inspect intrinsic product properties (Zeithaml, 1988). Packaging provides visual cues to reinforce the values of the company to the customer (Bruce and Daly, 2007;Hota and Charry, 2004;Khan, 2017;Underwood et al., 2001, Van Ooijen et al., 2017Van Esch et al., 2019). In addition, visual stimuli from packaging through design elements such as illustration, colour, typography and shape, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 n a t i o n a l J o ...
... Transparent packaging may increase consumers' confidence where the consumption of products will not result in adverse health effects for the people who consume them, especially when the perishable goods are associated with a high level of PQR. When a perishable product is associated with a high level of PQR, consumers will rely more strongly on the transparent packaging to check for the quality of the product (Bruce and Daly, 2007;McDaniel and Baker, 1977) and to limit the potential risk of harm to their health, which may reinforce the desire to buy the product. We then assume that transparent packaging will trigger more positive consumer product evaluations than opaque packaging when the PQR of a product is high. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the positive effect of packaging transparency on purchase intention is moderated by product quality risk (PQR) associated with the product category. Design/methodology/approach Two separate experiments were conducted. Study 1 was designed to test the mediating role of perceived quality to account for the positive effect of transparency on purchase intention. Two types of packaging (opaque vs transparent) for a product associated with a high level of PQR were examined. Study 2 extended the findings by introducing the moderating role of PQR. A 2 (type of packaging: opaque vs transparent)*2 (PQR: low vs high) between subjects design was used. Findings The moderating role of the product PQR level is established: transparent packaging improves the product perceived quality and brand purchase intention when the product is associated with a high PQR, whereas there is no such preference for transparent packaging when the product is associated with a low PQR. Practical implications The results offer insights to better understand the potential gains from adopting transparent packaging. If a brand manager's main goals are to develop sales, costly investments in research and development of transparent packaging appear to be fruitful only for products associated with high PQR. Originality/value This paper contributes to packaging, cue utilisation and perceived risk literatures by evidencing the moderating role of PQR to explain the positive effect of transparency on purchase intention.
... Managing design is an aspect of marketing's activities, but relatively little is known about the connections between marketing and design. At one level, marketing requires design expertise to meet user needs and communicate brand values through a myriad of elements: products, packs, corporate identity, advertising and environments, such as a retail outlet or a restaurant (Bruce & Daly, 2007). ...
... Advertising and promotional activity make consumers aware of new products and give a message to the consumer about the product and/or service available (Bruce & Daly, 2007). Aldersley-Williams (1994) Gray (2003, p. 974) that "designers talk strategy, but like pretty shapes and colours." ...
... Marketing requires design expertise to meet customer needs and communicate brand values through a myriad of elements, namely products, packages, corporate identity, advertising and environments, such as a retail outlet or a restaurant (Bruce & Daly, 2007). Riezebos (2003) argues that in a brand strategy, several instruments are used to achieve set goals. ...
... FMCGs are generally low-cost, low involvement products, with a high propensity to be commoditised, i.e. faceless, brandless products; thus, packaging holds significant value in product differentiation, through the manipulation of product appearance and asset communication (Clement et al., 2015). However, from a traditional organisational perspective these design activities are often considered as 'nice-tohave'; peripheral and non-core contributors to mainstream business performance (Bruce & Daly, 2007). The development of new customer-facing packaging formats and design are often viewed as risky; with apprehensions associated with potential sales losses, reduced brand recognition, and high switch-over production costs resulting in minor, incremental or no changes to package design (Simms & Trott, 2014b, 2014a). ...
... Much of the existing literature also fails to provide insight into management of PD&D beyond artwork and graphic design (Simms & Trott, 2014a). However, efforts have been made to develop more industry specific models to help recognise stages and factors for FMCG design management in NPD (Bruce & Daly, 2007;Simms & Trott, 2010, 2014aVazquez et al., 2003). Vazquez and Bruce (2002) and Vazquez et al. (2003) provide insight into various stages of design management processes initially highlighting key procedural protocol to begin to identify some of the individuals and NPD stage-gates. ...
... More thoughtful, considered and targeted efforts can be made to address some of the challenges currently being faced by the industry today at a more granular level. Present provocations apparent in existing literature such as, 'why is the focus on innovation in packaging design still seen as a nice-to-have, not core to business?' (Bruce & Daly, 2007) or 'why are the business case arguments related to packaging design always geared towards cost-savings in materials and infrastructure (Simms & Trott, 2014b, 2014a and not potential lost in increased sales at point-of-sale conversion value?' (Clement et al., 2015;Connolly & Davison, 1996) can begin to be seen in a new light. When we map out the actual role archetypes that are the constituents of the industry itself, we can begin to fracture the overgeneralised perception of faceless, ambiguous descriptions of PD&D professionals to begin to answer some of these questions in the future. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Packaging design can be acknowledged as a significant strategic avenue within New Product Development (NPD) for Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). Packaging can have direct impact on sales conversions, consumer visual and brand perception. However, packaging design and development (PD&D) remains underutilised in organisations, viewed as a risky activity and unnecessary additional cost. Limited research has been conducted to address how PD&D activities are managed. This study expands our current understanding of the PD&D landscape through content analysis and frequency of occurrence measures, of a sample of LinkedIn profiles (n=200) to begin to identify and categorise professionals involved in PD&D for the FMCG sector through their own perception of self. The contribution of the study is to assist in understanding the synergy of key decision-makers and influencers in the industry landscape, expanding on existing design management literature to provide an expanded comprehension and more strategic outlook of characteristics and capabilities of those involved.
... This may be absent in cases where the packaging is not considered as an integral part of brand identity. From marketing perspective, researches on packaging has shown that packaging with design can be considered to be an element which strengthens the organization's image along with logo and commercials (Bruce and Daly, 2007). However, Weitzel and Laar (2001) has investigated and concluded that adoption of the communicative features into packaging considering from different cultures has an influence on the consumers. ...
... Designers decide how to mix design elements, and determine the desired level of congruity among them". Bruce and Daly (2007) state that design adds value to products and companies. Package design reflects to the "creativity, intellectual property, and competence of the company". ...
... This may be absent in cases where the packaging is not considered as an integral part of brand identity. From marketing perspective, researches on packaging has shown that packaging with design can be considered to be an element which strengthens the organization's image along with logo and commercials (Bruce and Daly, 2007). However, Weitzel and Laar (2001) has investigated and concluded that adoption of the communicative features into packaging considering from different cultures has an influence on the consumers. ...
... Designers decide how to mix design elements, and determine the desired level of congruity among them". Bruce and Daly (2007) state that design adds value to products and companies. Package design reflects to the "creativity, intellectual property, and competence of the company". ...
... The application of design briefs and similar documents is a relevant tool for generative development stages [63,64,74]. However, in the analyzed cases, the implementation of sustainability was limited in such documents. ...
... [63],Dewulf et al. (2012) [64], andPetala et al. (2010) ...
Article
Full-text available
The alignment of the strategic and the operational level of packaging development in relation to the integration of sustainability is not addressed extensively in current research. This paper aims to address this, by focusing on the decision-making interrelations of key actors (marketing and packaging development) within multidisciplinary product-packaging development teams. The research is conducted by means of a qualitative approach, consisting of semi-structured interviews with individual packaging development team members, complemented with a newly developed visualization tool. The research builds upon eight cases within brand owners, packaging material suppliers and packaging development consultants. The main findings of the study include the decision-making trade-offs between sustainability considerations and other project indicators, such as costs, time-to-market and technical challenges. These trade-offs are linked to the strategic and operational roles of key actors, and to internal and external factors influencing sustainable development processes. This research’s contribution is to address the alignment of the strategic and the operational levels of sustainable packaging development, in relation to (1) decision making and interrelations within multidisciplinary development teams; and (2) the relevance of development-influencing factors. This provides opportunities for further development of sustainable packaging models and tools, in order to align the strategic and operational level of development.
... This may be absent in cases where the packaging is not considered as an integral part of brand identity. From marketing perspective, researches on packaging has shown that packaging with design can be considered to be an element which strengthens the organization's image along with logo and commercials (Bruce and Daly, 2007). However, Weitzel and Laar (2001) has investigated and concluded that adoption of the communicative features into packaging considering from different cultures has an influence on the consumers. ...
... Designers decide how to mix design elements, and determine the desired level of congruity among them". Bruce and Daly (2007) state that design adds value to products and companies. Package design reflects to the "creativity, intellectual property, and competence of the company". ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since 2015, online food delivery has witnessed a 150% growth in the restaurant business as per a report by the Red Seer Consulting accounting for 30-35% of the total restaurant business in India. The restaurant business in Kharghar, Navi Mumbai has also joined this bandwagon of online food delivery by partnering with main players like Food panda, Zomato and Swiggy. Although online food-delivery platforms are expanding choice and convenience, allowing customers to order from a wide array of restaurants with a single tap of their mobile phone/tab, there is also a need to see how this has affected the restaurant owner/management. The purpose of this research is to study the benefits and challenges faced by the restaurant owners in Kharghar as a result of partnering with the food delivery platforms, namely, Foodpanda, Zomato, Swiggy, and a comparative study of these platforms. Our methodology is based on questionnaire based survey conducted on 50 restaurants in Kharghar node using the food delivery platforms mentioned above. The results showed that while there are many benefits for the restaurant owners like high volumes of orders and marketing of their restaurants to a wider market, etc., there are equal challenges like cut in to profits and high registration rates, commissions to keep up with the competitors, etc. These findings may help the new restaurant owners to decide what is in store for them as they partner with these online food delivery platforms. Introduction 70 percent of the global population is projected to own a smartphone by 2020-that's less than four years from now for those of you counting-there's a lot of pressure on industries to keep up with the demand for digitization. The hospitality industry is no exception. In order to stay competitive in the travel and hospitality marketplace today, customer service is the key. Achieving excellence in providing a superior experience is a game-changing differentiator for leading businesses. With the world going mobile, the best way to service customer needs is to connect with them directly on their smartphone-which they never leave home without. In fact, more than 85 percent of people carry their smartphone with them when they travel. Additionally, 77 percent of the millennial generation reacts more positively to businesses that offer texting communication options. The Food and Restaurant industry is seeing significant digital transformation-Digital menus, kiosks, tablets on tables, digital tabletops and digital kitchens. Crucial success has been achieved in customization, food delivery, and payment options. Today, in India, Zomato, Swiggy, and FoodPanda are a few names that have made services like online table reservations, social media reviews, and mobile payment options. Indeed, every business owner in the restaurant sector strives to have a highly organized mobile application and impressive online presence so that they attract large numbers of people in a short time span.
... Package design plays a key role in the construction and communication of the identity of a brand (Bruce and Daly, 2007;Underwood, 2003). While the original function of packaging was to protect the product and enable its storage, shipment, and transfer to the consumer, today, package design is a creative asset in its own right (Bruce and Daly, 2007;Perks and Cooper, 2005;Simms and Trott, 2010). ...
... Package design plays a key role in the construction and communication of the identity of a brand (Bruce and Daly, 2007;Underwood, 2003). While the original function of packaging was to protect the product and enable its storage, shipment, and transfer to the consumer, today, package design is a creative asset in its own right (Bruce and Daly, 2007;Perks and Cooper, 2005;Simms and Trott, 2010). In broad terms package design is a combination of two distinct parts, structural and graphic (Hine, 1995). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to understand how social, cultural and political economic dynamics inform packaging design. Specifically, it focuses on one of the oldest Turkish pasta brands, Piyale, and seeks to understand the impact of the changes in the macro-institutional structures on its packaging practices over the course of almost a century. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is mainly based on data collected through archival and documentary research. The archival data are gathered from various sources including the personal archives of the former managers, advertisements published in the popular magazines of the time and industry reports and documents. Data are analyzed using a combination of compositional and social semiotic analysis. Findings The analysis indicates four distinct periods in the brand’s history. The design elements and visual identity reflect the social, cultural, political, economic and technological changes shaping the Turkish society in these different time periods. The findings show that a socio-historically situated analysis of a brand’s packaging design transformation reveals the complex relationship between design and culture and provides clues to the market-society interface. Originality/value This study provides a comprehensive historical analysis of the visual identity evolution of the oldest Turkish pasta brand Piyale and contributes to research on packaging histories in the non-Western markets.
... Significant research has highlighted design and marketing interaction (Cooper & Press 1995) (Mathieu 2006) (Bruce & Daly 2007). However, various studies have shown from the idea of convergence of purpose of design that the contribution of design to marketing can be integrated with a marketing mix, branding and new product development concepts (NPD). ...
... In addition to these ideas it can be perceived that the construction between design and marketing remains unclear. Design is seen as a "strategic tool" to assist the marketing management (Cooper & Press 1995: Bruce & Daly 2007. It is not known how this convergence comes about apart from the vague idea that design is linked transversely with marketing. ...
Article
Full-text available
The idea of design transversality is embedded in all topics related to design and is linked to many academic fields and organizations. In this paper, on the basis of liminal theory, we argue that the idea of design and transversality connexity is a central idea, which must be highlighted and is derived from a strong epistemological concept. The paper then defines design in liminoidity, which means that design is "not here, not there" but in an ontological sense lies always betwixt and between two ideas and no consideration of this design characteristic can be the core from which paradigmatic negative conflicts between fields and disciplines, in their links to design, can be generated.
... In effect, earlier studies analyze the role and the impact of design on customers' behavioural intentions from numerous disciplinary perspectives (Walsh 1996). These studies highlight the design capacity to open new markets and renovate older ones (Bruce and Daly 2007). There is thus ample reason to shed more light on the intersections of marketing and design. ...
... For instance, Beverland (2005) mentioned how uneasy the relationship between marketing and design could be. Moreover, design management processes and activities need to be further investigated (Bruce and Daly 2007), and new approaches to combine both paradigms and reduce their differences are essential (Henseler 2017). This special issue contributes to the debate, with the six studies showing how design and innovation can be drivers for new product development in the cultural and creative sector. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides insights into the interdisciplinary intersections between marketing and design. It explores the various design intersections in the marketing fields. The collaboration between marketing and design is restricted by the paradigm boundaries, but not by the industry, researchers, and research projects. Challenges for both disciplines' future are explored, highlighting the need for a paradigm shift in marketing.
... In addition to the source of information, the design of wayfinding signage can also be perceived as an added value for institutional branding. Bruce and Daly (2010) found that the signage design can both reinforce the institutional value to the user by giving wayfinding information as well as strengthen the identity of the organisation. This design uniformity can also be influential in building up environmental knowledge while requiring decreased cognitive efforts. ...
Article
Signage design has been considered critically important for wayfinding, being a functional medium of delivering environmental information. Complex institutional environments have several factors affecting the wayfinding, including but not limited to the design of information signage and its visual preference. Visual preferences of information design in wayfinding signage vary, depending on the cultural and individual differences. This study explores the variance in design and visual preferences of wayfinding signage and its influencing elements. Responses through online questionnaire have been accumulated by the participants from Hong Kong and Pakistan based on their design and visual preference of campus wayfinding signage. Questions were asked related to the user preferences for signage colour if in line with the institutional visual identity, mono or multi-colour coding of information and its visual volume. In total, 170 university students and visitors participated in the exploratory study from the respective countries. The results demonstrated that participants of Hong Kong preferred inline colours of signage, along with mono or less colour coding and detailed information. While the other group preferred attractive colours with multi-colour coding and less detailed wayfinding information with pictograms. Individual differences concerning age, literacy level and gender were also computed, however trivial differences have been recorded. This study suggests the need for detailed cross-cultural investigation concerning elements of signage design and visual preference to identify the drivers for culturally consistent university signage.
... Industrial designers are among the several persons that participate in NPD, which is a simplified version of the stage-gate model diffused by Cooper (1990). They are trendsetters (Borja de Mozota, 2013), professionals working in multifunctional teams composed by people from engineering, manufacturing, and marketing (Perks et al., 2005), gatekeeper or integrator of the customers' needs (Leonard-Barton, 1992;Bruce and Daly, 2007), and communicators in marketing campaigns for the products (Walsh et al., 1988): ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a critical literature review on design management. Design/methodology/approach The map of the field is based on the analysing the chain of associations between the papers (Latour, 1987). The strategy for this review is informed by the methodology described by Callon et al. (1986) on following the construction of the arguments. The first search was conducted in EBESCO and Web of Science looking for papers dealing with design management; “design management”; innovat* and design* in the management, including title, keywords and abstract. It resulted in 8,216 articles that were exported and downloaded in a database. Findings Five groups emerged: design as rational decision making, industrial design, managing as designing, design as proposals of new meaning and design as a network construction. Originality/value This paper maps the role of designers in innovation and design management literature. Design management is a variegated field of research, and the focus of this paper has been on product design in business and management literature. To begin with, the research philosophy which was inferred by analysing the preferred methodology in the papers belonging to five perspectives was analysed, and the ontology, essence, metaphysics delineated. Then, a map of the field of on the role of designers was proposed. The author concluded with a reflection of a possible research agenda in design management, focussing on investigating the role of designers in transformational economies, such as Vietnam.
... On numerous occasions, packaging has been an integral part of product brand identity, such as the famous Coca-Cola silhouette (Healey, 2009). From a marketing perspective, some authors connect packaging with design and consider it to be an element that strengthens the organisation's image along with the logo, brochures and commercials (Bruce and Daly, 2007). Additionally, van den Berg-Weitzel and van de Laar (2001) explore the adaption of the communicative features of packaging to different cultures. ...
Article
This study's primary objective is to analyse how consumers evaluate product packaging in two distinct phases of the consumer decision-making process: at the moment of acquisition and post-consumption. The packaging's technical, functional, and informative attributes, as well as its influence on satisfaction and loyalty, were evaluated. An empirical study was conducted with a product of immediate consumption, milk, using four versions of packaging and a total sample of 265 family units. The model was evaluated using Partial Least Squares (PLS), and differences were compared using ANOVA. The results demonstrate the most and least valued attributes, the primary differences between the four types of packaging, and the perception generated at each moment. The research provides interesting theoretical and empirical perspectives and has business implications for marketing directors and product managers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... To this aim, we believe it is important to recall the contribution by innovation and marketing scholars on the interconnection between design and marketing (Beverland, 2005;Veryzer, 2005). As Bruce and Daly (2007) pointed out, marketing and design, though with a different focus, are both concerned with the understanding and fulfilling of consumer needs; as such, they complement each other in the development of new products or services and co-participate to the process of value creation. ...
Article
A growing proportion of innovation, especially in consumer-based industries, is linked to both aesthetic and symbolic components, yet there is still wide uncertainty as to how consumers respond to the design of products and whether their product choices are consistent across product categories. We draw attention to instances whereby less technology-intensive initiatives can convey innovation in services industries. The focus is on the case of Eataly, a food retailer in which – it is argued – non-technological innovations have shaped the firm’s core values and triggered consumer interest towards a supermarket where, besides physical goods, experience has become the object of transaction. By emphasizing the importance for retailers to focus not only on single products, but also other dimensions of the firm’s organization, we intend to contribute the literature that explores changing facets of innovation in service industries.
... In the literature we can find the elements such as the creation of more innovative, attractive products that appeal customer's attention (Jerrard & Hands 2008, Bloch 1995, Creusen & Schoormans 2005. Design helps to create "visual equity" -a situation where products are easily recognizable and distinctive from the competition (Bruce & Daly 2007). The second perspective within marketing area relates to the brand, and some authors mention: stronger brand identity and positive experiences connected with it. ...
Article
Full-text available
For many companies innovations are crucial for achieving a competitive advantage. Many factors have been revealed to be determinants of company innovativeness. One is organizational culture which can support or diminish innovative attempts of employees. In recent years there is a growing interest in design and design thinking as methods of implementing innovations. Interdisciplinary, multicultural teams, fast prototyping, co-creation with users are only examples of specific methods that are being promoted by designers and design thinkers, that can significantly affect organisational culture. The objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of design and design thinking on the organizational culture. In the first part literature findings are presented. The second part shows results of the exploratory research that has been conducted among designoriented companies from Sweden and Poland. This project was qualitative study aimed to compare managers’ attitudes towards design; to look into existing processes in companies connected with design and to explore the different roles that designers play in organizations.
... Public appearances and promotional events are other areas where impression design is used as an added value. Research has shown that investment in design leads to an increase in sales of over 41% and that 90% of new design projects are profitable (Bruce & Daly, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper studies product design components from the human-environmental relationship perspective. Stimulus responses and customer attitude towards environmental cues are of main interest to marketers and space designers. Findings suggest that a combination of different design elements, such as functional, aesthetic and symbolic impression design influence people behavior and have a direct impact on brand image and product success. The study is a conceptual paper and aims to discuss previous theories, methodologies and applications used in real-world settings regarding the interaction between design and consumer behavior.
... Ethnographic Market Research is conducted directly in the customer's environment and is often based on video recordings of customers as they use products. This kind of research consists mainly of observing the problems customers experience with existing products (Elliott and Jankel-Elliott, 2003) but it also identifies users' emotions connected to the use of products (Bruce et al., 2007). Therefore, the technique is also called Empathic Design since it helps market researchers understand and empathize with customers (Leonard and Rayport, 1997). ...
Article
Mid-sized businesses (MSB) and mid-sized B2B businesses (MSB2B) in particular are often ignored in the research on innovation management. Yet, MSBs are very important for the growth of economies worldwide and it is of utmost importance for their future performance to develop new products. For the successful development of new differentiated products in MSBs, the early identification and consideration of customers’ hidden needs is crucial. Techniques that can be used to generate customer insights are often referred to by the term voice of the customer (VOC). However, extant research has treated this term very inconsistently. This is why, it is difficult for MSBs to decide which techniques are most useful to them. For MSBs, that have limited resources, this is a particular issue and best practices of how MSBs identify their customers’ needs for different types and different phases of innovation projects are lacking.This review aims at clarifying the aforementioned issues for MSB2Bs. Based on an analysis of the limited research on using hidden needs techniques in MSB2Bs, actionable recommendations are derived as to which hidden needs techniques are most useful for MSB2Bs and which best practices should be considered when developing new products in MSB2Bs. Opportunities for academia and practitioners are identified and managerial implications for industrial product innovation in MSB2Bs are discussed.
... Designers' practices and capabilities are geared towards developing new products and services rather than selling these new products and services to the market, which is the field of marketing (Beverland & Farrelly, 2011;Bruce & Daly, 2007;Chen & Venkatesh, 2013). If new products and services are radically new in terms of design, the ground may need to be prepared before customers are willing to embrace these new offerings. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on design innovation: that is, the development of products that are new in terms of products’ appearance, the emotions products evoke, and/or the way they enable customers to express their identity. Although prior research acknowledges the importance of design innovation for product and organisational performance, studies on how to manage design innovation are relatively scarce. The present study attempts to fill this gap by investigating design innovation and its management in terms of the degree of exploration and exploitation activities and designers’ decision freedom when developing new offerings. We collected data on projects in which external design consultancies were actively involved during the development process (n = 83). For each project, we surveyed both the external senior designer and the project manager at the client’s side. Our results suggest that exploration activities enhance design innovativeness, and that design innovativeness results in better market performance. Furthermore, we find that exploitation activities moderate the relation between design innovativeness and process performance: when exploitation activities are high (low), design innovativeness results in better (worse) process performance. In addition, we find that when designers have decision freedom, the positive relation between exploration activities and design innovativeness is enhanced. However, our data also suggest that design innovativeness has a negative (positive) influence on market performance when designers have high (low) levels of decision freedom.
... Despite these conflicts in the underpinnings of design-led and marketing-led NPD approaches, the goals of design and marketing do have similarities that have been well documented in the literature: Beverland (2005), Borja de Mozota (2003), Bruce and Daly (2007), Cooper (1994), and Kristensen and Grønhaug (2007), amongst others, identify a series of design-marketing convergences. However, in terms of the backgrounds, approaches, skillsets, and inherent presuppositions within the professions, Martin's (2009) 'predilection gap' model opposes designers and businesspeople. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article seeks to discern and chart recent flux in the territory of practice of the design profession. Whereas in the past the voice of marketing was paramount in the new product development (NPD) process, today the designer’s role is evolving. New approaches to business, manufacture, and consumption are propagating an ascendancy of design and the design profession. The extended role, remit, and responsibilities of designers are here examined. Using a qualitative case study methodology in the context of NPD, the research uncovers a distinct shift towards ‘designer-led’ NPD. The transition is manifest in three key areas: (1) design involvement spanning the NPD cycle; (2) an increased breadth and complexity of design problems; (3) new value in managing the people dimension of the process. These changes are expanding the dimensions of the designer’s remit. In this paper the notion of ‘designer-led’ NPD is identified, defined, and described. A model is developed to assist designers navigating the paradoxes of this new era. Finally, methods to enable design professionals to reconcile conflicting design–business demands are suggested.
... This situation creates misunderstanding between the two disciplines (Beverland & Farrelly, 2011). Yet when they work hand in hand, they can achieve interesting results (Beverland & Farrelly, 2011;Bruce & Daly, 2007). Design is a discipline that integrates elements from production to distribution, from consumption to waste and from demography to consumer culture (Julier, 2014). ...
Article
Within the rising access economy, products that were traditionally owned are now accessed, shared, rented or swapped. A recent research has shown that access-based consumption, when consumers pay a fee to have access to a product or service, threatens the relationship between consumers and objects. Specifically, access prevents consumers from enacting practices of appropriation and from gaining anything other than utility from this type of consumption. To address this issue, this research draws on the discipline of design and the theory of practice to examine how users form relationships with objects they use. Design, by changing consumer practices, could be the key in restoring the relationship between users and accessed objects. This article looks at a Parisian car sharing system to understand the role of design in restoring this relationship.
... Contextualized amongst conspicuous consumption, the concept of brand prominence represents ''the extent to which a product has visible markings that help ensure observers recognize the brand'' (Han et al, 2010). Varying levels of prominence are classified ranging from ''loud'' (prominent) to ''quiet'' (subtle) (Canterbery, 1998;Mason, 2001;Han et al, 2010), with brands displaying markings to enable consumers to identify their products based on their name and logo (Aaker, 1992;Kapferer, 1992;Stride and Lee, 2007;Bruce and Daly, 2007), physical elements such as designs, symbols, and slogans (Aaker, 1992), and the distinctiveness of its physical product (Kapferer, 1992). Research suggests that brand prominence is largely connected to status-seeking consumers and their displays of wealth (Corneo and Jeanne, 1997;Mason, 2001;Truong et al, 2008;Han et al, 2010), with the purchase intentions of subtle or prominently branded products influenced differently. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study extends the existing analysis of brand prominence undertaken by Han et al (J Mark 74:15–30, 2010), to individually measure a broader range of prominence measures, including branding elements of style, design, colours, logos, and shapes, assessed across three luxury items (shoes, handbags, and belts). Perceptions of such prominence are utilized to examine how status consumption and product perceptions (including perceptions of quality and emotional value) influence consumers’ desire to purchase a range of luxury fashion goods. Results reveal that this enhanced assessment of brand prominence influences consumer perceptions of the quality of luxury goods, with quality and the status consciousness of respondents influencing the emotional value they derive from luxury goods. This emotional value in turn substantially influences purchase intentions alongside the direct influence of brand prominence. Intriguingly, significant differences are observed when comparing the level of prominence of brand elements manipulated in the data collection phase, with distinct influence evidenced across groups. The enhanced capture of brand prominence reveals to luxury practitioners that the prominence of branding extends to a range of brand elements, and that differing acknowledgment of such prominence impacts significantly on both how consumers view luxury items, and their drivers of purchase.
... Orth and Malkewitz (2008) highlight that packaging design is seen as various blended elements that are designed to achieve a particular sensory effect. Bruce and Daly (2007) state that design increases products value and their organisations. The aforementioned researchers state that packaging designs add to the creativity, intellectual property and competence of the company. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The main thrust of this research paper is to investigate the effect of designs that come with a package and how they influence consumer purchasing habit of FMCG products in Zimbabwe during and after the multi-currency period. The objectives of the research was to ascertain the major effect of packaging designs on consumer purchasing pattern of FMCG goods in Zimbabwe, to establish the major function of packaging on FMCG products and to examine the salient effect of other factors that can be controlled and that cannot be controlled (such as price, quality, promotion, socio cultural environment, social class, personality and self concept, attitudes and learning) on the purchasing pattern of consumer on FMCG goods during and after the multi-currency period in Zimbabwe. Design/ methodology/ approach –The researcher adopted the descriptive survey and exploratory research designs to gather data from the retail sector. The research was conducted in Harare Zimbabwe where most of the retail outlets are mainly concentrated. A study sample of 47 respondents from the retail sector was used targeting firms in the FMCG sector. Data to answer research problem was obtained through an in-depth interviews and questionnaires. 5 policy makers were interviewed while 42 questionnaires were sent to retail managers and of which 32 were then returned. The target samples were guided with a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. Respondents were Stratified and conveniently selected. Findings – The findings revealed that, the element with the most influential factor on purchasing habit of FMCG products is printed information as indicated by more respondents. Thus the correct message will sell a product hence designers and product strategists must think first on all messages they are sending to consumers. Printed information has more bearing on the buying pattern of consumers, followed by size. Background image, colour and font styles were also pointed out as having an effect on the buying behaviour of FMCG products. Font styles however have the least effect the purchasing behaviour of consumers. This corresponds with Deliya and Parmar (2012)study which concluded that font style has the least effect as compared to all the packaging elements. It should be concluded that size and material are the visual elements mainly considered by customers when buying products while product information is also the main verbal elements having an effect on consumer decision making. Conclusively packaging elements are perceived to be an element of the product. The research also revealed that, during and after the multi-currency period, consumers in Zimbabwe preferred to purchase more of foreign packaged products than local packed products.
... In particular, when one considers design activities themselves to be the realization of knowledge and information that it has created, and the forming of these into a specific form (Utterback et al., 2006), it is more effective to closely coordinate design development activities between design divisions and other divisions (e.g. marketing, sales, manufacturing and production, R&D, etc.) rather than to transfer and integrate the increasing knowledge (Kotler & Rath, 1984;Gorb & Dumas, 1987;Roy & Potter, 1993;Olson, Slater & Cooper, 2000;Bruce & Daly, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to identify management requirements for creating more highly advanced and innovative designs. This study focuses on ways to involve design divisions in the product development process as well as organizational requirements that impact that process by evaluating the results of existing design management research and analyzing survey results of recipients of Japan's Good Design Award. In this analysis we show that having design divisions involved from an early stage contributes to the overall product development process, and separately preparing for organizational factors in design development is insufficient to create highly advanced and innovative designs. Further, we examined the impact of organizational factors related to design development on the contribution of design divisions in developing highly advanced and innovative designs.
... At present, most studies have explored the impact of pop-up ads from the perspective of users, not web designers. Design is seen as a character with function and strategy in business [13] , and designers work closely with advertisers. One of the imperative aspects of successful website advertising is the visual design [14] . ...
Article
Full-text available
With the development of the internet, online pop-up advertisements (hereinafter, referred to as pop-up ads) have emerged. However, online users may disdain and reject online advertisements, which affects online purchase intention. This study is on reducing the negative impact of pop-up ads on users and improving the commercial effect. Self-administered questionnaires were used to survey online users and website designers. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS and the open answers were sorted out by thematic analysis. The results revealed that attractive storylines, background music, and exquisite visual presentations are effective in reducing users’ rejection to pop-up ads as well as advertisement customization. It is better for pop-up ads to appear in the middle or end of videos. The VIP system is also a choice for users to eliminate them. Designers are supposed to keep a balance between users and advertisers. In addition, internet regulation needs to be strengthened to reduce eroticism and violence in pop-up ads as well as avoid the negative impact of these kind of pop-up ads on minors.
... Industrial designers are among the several persons that participate in NPD, which is a simplified version of the stage-gate model diffused by Cooper (1990). They are trendsetters (Borja de Mozota, 2013), professionals working in multifunctional teams composed by people from engineering, manufacturing, and marketing (Perks et al., 2005), gatekeeper or integrator of the customers' needs (Leonard-Barton, 1992;Bruce and Daly, 2007), and communicators in marketing campaigns for the products (Walsh et al., 1988): ...
Article
Purpose Mobile shopping is the current trend for firms to conduct business, having great advantages over electronic shopping as well as traditional shopping. The purpose of this paper is to discuss not only the driving forces of mobile shopping behaviors from the theory of reasoned action (TRA) perspective, but also the additional promotion and barrier sides of the mobile business. Design/methodology/approach A structural equation modeling approach with latent constructs is applied on a self-administered survey data of 208 Vietnamese consumers to test the hypotheses. Findings The results of this study have proved the predictive power of TRA in exploring consumer behavior in the context of mobile shopping. Also, both promotion and barrier variables have significantly strong impacts on the intention to adopt mobile shopping. Research limitations/implications Future studies would benefit from investigating other variables (e.g. specific aspects of trust and risk) and using actual behavior (e.g. online purchases). Practical implications Business managers should pay attention to both promotion and barrier factors to understand how and why Vietnamese consumers adopt mobile shopping. Originality/value This pioneering study adapts the TRA model with extended promotion and barrier variables to explain mobile shopping in the context of Vietnam.
... 4,5 From a marketing perspective, packaging can also enhance the organization's image, brand logos, and commercial ads of the brand. 6 With the rise of self-service establishments, the role of packaging has become even more relevant and necessary. 7 Packaging is the fifth "P" in the marketing mix and is also referred to as "sales packaging". ...
Article
The main objective of this empirical study is to comprehend how consumers appraise product packaging. Three quality attributes of packaging – technical, functional and informational - and their influence on consumer satisfaction and loyalty were assessed. The study was conducted on Ghee product packaging, involving 199 family units, using four types of packaging. A total of 398 structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from both the moments (moment of purchase and after usage). Statistical tools such as ‘SPSS’ and ‘AMOS 20’were used to construct and evaluate the sequential chain of quality attributes, satisfaction and loyalty. The results identify the most and least valued quality attributes and what differences persist between the four types of ghee packaging. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in terms of consumers’ purchase experiences with regard to the packed ghee product. The present study provides empirical perspectives to marketing managers, product managers and ad agencies, besides throwing up business implications.
... Solomon (2017) investigated the consumer's aspect and psychology behind every decision regarding the purchases; his study presents how the consumers take decisions regarding the purchases and advertisement influence, the human sensory channels and consequently behavior. Last but not least, Bruce & Daly (2007) studied the design management processes and activities from a marketing perspective primarily through the use of detailed cases. Present paper aims to deliver a complete study on the product and packaging design, based on a combination of the most appropriate methodologies and strategies that were mentioned earlier, with ultimate goal to increase the value of the final products and thus fully satisfy the customer. ...
... Beverland (2005) observed that companies with good design management succeeded in integrating marketing and design functions. Bruce and Daly (2007) found that marketing-design integration was necessary to ensure effective design management activities and processes. Thus, the sixth hypothesis is formulated: ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to suggest an integrative model to investigate design orientation by analyzing its links with market orientation and its ability to generate and maintain a competitive advantage and improve effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach The structural equation technique is used to test the research hypotheses based on data from the Spanish furniture and lighting industries. The data are obtained from the responses of 209 companies to a questionnaire targeted at design and marketing managers. Findings The results suggest that design orientation helps companies to gain competitive advantages in product differentiation and improve business effectiveness. The design orientation is stimulated by proactive market orientation and by marketing-design integration during the development of new products. The design orientation fully mediates the effect of proactive marketing orientation on perceived effectiveness. Originality/value This study uses a quantitative research approach to propose and test an integrative model that relates design orientation with the generation of competitive advantage in product differentiation and perceived effectiveness.
... One of the unique features of the carriage is colourful design to attract more users. Design is very important factor in marketing [Bruce and Daly, 2007]. Design influences people's perception and raises attentions and interests to new merchandises or projects. ...
Article
Luxembourg has two distinctive issues in terms of mobility: the highest number of car per capita in the country and 120,000 international commuters per day from three surrounding countries (Germany, France, and Belgium). These issues lead to traffic congestion during rush hour and air pollution. The new initiative aims to give incentive to the residents and commuters to use public transport. Although these programs are mainly intended for these daily users, they could exert positive implications for tourists visiting the country. A new tram system could make it easy to travel from the airport to the accommodations. Also, since the system is easier to understand than bus routes, tourists’ area of activities would expand.
... Borja de Mozota, 2003;Cooper et al., 2003;Leenders et al., 2007), (4) as strategy (Liedtka, 2000), and (5) its link to other functions (e.g. Bruce and Daly, 2007;Jevnaker, 2005;Martin, 2007). Of particular note is Jevnaker's (2005) study of 'outlying' design-business relationships in innovative companies whose success is concluded to owe much to their championing of design. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Consultancy designer involvement in new product development in mature product categories: Who leads, the designer or the marketer? Abstract This research sets out to uncover how design is contributing more intensively to new product development. More precisely, it aims to understand the growing involvement of designers, and in particular consultancy designers, in NPD in mature product categories. The study seeks to build on recent evidence of design taking a greater leadership and strategic role in new product development, particularly in embracing the theory and praxis of the discipline of marketing. The research methodology involved a quasi-ethnographic case study within a medium-size, internationally focused design consultancy undergoing significant transition. Three key areas/themes mediating designer involvement in new product development emerged in the findings: (1) a broadened designer remit, (2) the importance of consultancy-client relationships, and (3) a performance-design tension. If design consultancies take greater leadership in NPD, new marketing-related competencies will have to be adopted by designers, designers will have to be more sensitised and knowledgeable about the types and intensities of consultancy-client relationships, and designers and managers will have to actively manage the sometimes contradictory tensions between design integrity and commercial hard sell.
... Several studies point out the shared goals and interrelationship between the disciplines (e.g. Bruce and Daly, 2007;Cooper, 1994;Kristensen and Grønhaug, 2007). This research aims to examine emerging notions of reconciliation and harmony between the two disciplines. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper seeks to discern and chart the recent flux in the territory of practice in the consultant industrial design profession. External market conditions, such as globalisation and the repercussions of immediate digital communications, are evolving to create new ways and approaches to business, manufacture and consumption. These changes are having great impact upon the design industry, and it is suggested that design is moving into a new era of ascendency. Using a qualitative case study methodology, the research uncovers a distinct shift towards 'design leadership' in the context of the new product development (NPD) process for mature product categories. This flux is manifest in three key areas-designer remit, an expansion in the designer's skillset, and an increased weighting in the importance of design interfaces. The notion of design leadership is identified, defined and described. Finally, the research develops a model to assist practicing designers navigate these changes.
... Research by Azzi et al. (2012), Mumani & Stone (2018) and Johnson et al. (2019) provide insight into much more rigorous and holistic in-depth understandings of the factors affecting packaging design. Effort has also be made on understanding and developing more industry specific models to help recognise product development and design management for FMCG product(s) and associated packaging (Bruce & Daly, 2007;Simms & Trott, 2010, 2014aVazquez et al., 2003). Simms and Trott (2014) provide a 'grounded framework for packaging management' in NPD providing insight into three distinct levels of packaging development: skin deep, body modification and format change. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recognising the value design offers has been of great importance for the effective development and launch of Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). Packaging design is acknowledged as a significant success factor in New Product Development (NPD) for the FMCG industry to help provide clear product differentiation and competitive advantage in saturated and complex markets. The search for approaches to maintain or improve market share has driven the field of consumer research over the last few decades. The potential to influence consumer perception of a product through visual design is well documented in the literature. Packaging design relies on effective management of symbolic, semantic, aesthetic and visual information elements. Stakeholders have been increasingly demanding that design practitioners provide a clear rationale and accountability for their design proposals in this risk-averse industry. However, limited research has been produced to address how packaging design and development is managed; and, how design practitioners rationalise and validate their design decision-making. The authors’ look to address this through the study of design practitioners in ‘real-world’ FMCG design practice. A case study is presented with a UK company involved in the design and manufacture of food and beverage packaging for suppliers, retailers and brands in the UK FMCG market. The research aims to identify preliminary insights and a narrative into the factors affecting practitioner rationale, decision-making and explore future research. The study triangulates evidence from interviews, participant observation, direct observation and document analysis to identify influences through a convergence of findings. Nine preliminary influences are recognised that appear to affect practitioner rationale and decision-making. Keywords: FMCG; New Product Development; Design Management; Packaging; Design Decision-Making
... It is evident that device design plays a significant role in user adoption and therefore clever design can increase the usage of these devices over the long term. 20 Many commercial health products can be too technical and complicated for the consumers in high-risk groups, such as the elderly. 21 Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of a novel ECG recording technique, a wearable Necklace-ECG, for the detection of AF by (a) cardiologists and (b) an automated algorithm. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the major cause of stroke since approximately 25% of all strokes are of cardioembolic‐origin. The detection and diagnosis of AF are often challenging due to the asymptomatic and intermittent nature of AF. Hypothesis A wearable electrocardiogram (ECG)‐device could increase the likelihood of AF detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a novel, consumer‐grade, single‐lead ECG recording device (Necklace‐ECG) for screening, identifying and diagnosing of AF both by a cardiologist and automated AF‐detection algorithms. Methods A thirty‐second ECG was recorded with the Necklace‐ECG device from two positions; between the palms (palm) and between the palm and the chest (chest). Simultaneously registered 3‐lead ECGs (Holter) served as a golden standard for the final rhythm diagnosis. Two cardiologists interpreted independently in a blinded fashion the Necklace‐ECG recordings from 145 patients (66 AF and 79 sinus rhythm, SR). In addition, the Necklace‐ECG recordings were analyzed with an automatic AF detection algorithm. Results Two cardiologists diagnosed the correct rhythm of the interpretable Necklace‐ECG with a mean sensitivity of 97.2% and 99.1% (palm and chest, respectively) and specificity of 100% and 98.5%. The automatic arrhythmia algorithm detected the correct rhythm with a sensitivity of 94.7% and 98.3% (palm and chest) and specificity of 100% of the interpretable measurements. Conclusions The novel Necklace‐ECG device is able to detect AF with high sensitivity and specificity as evaluated both by cardiologists and an automated AF‐detection algorithm. Thus, the wearable Necklace‐ECG is a new, promising method for AF screening. Clinical trial registration: Study was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT03753139).
... Marketing and design are interconnected activities shaped by the creation of value (Bruce & Daly, 2007). Inclusive marketing facilitates a better understanding of customers' needs (Bizjak, Knežević, & Cvetrežnik, 2011). ...
Article
The management of diversity and inclusion is a major challenge for businesses in developing inclusive products and marketing strategies focused on people with disabilities. Universities can foster positive attitudes toward inclusiveness if they facilitate student recognition of differences as assets and enable them to appreciate the creation of communities where different individuals are valued. This study analyzes the experience of an innovative undergraduate seminar on inclusive marketing based on social learning theory. Designed and conducted by a former marketing manager with visual impairment, together with university scholars, the course develops the learning potential of inclusive marketing strategies and tactics through role-playing exercises and case studies. By presenting the inclusive marketing seminar theoretical framework, syllabus, and impact on students’ attitudes, this research analyzes an approach to training future marketing professionals and leaders to understand people with disabilities as important stakeholders and provides key insights for universities, companies, and governments in the application of inclusive marketing and communication strategies.
... Christensen (1997) contends that this may be because customers are sometimes unable or unwilling to articulate their unmet needs and because it induces firms to closely focus on similar competitors causing them to miss out on new marketplace opportunities. A common challenge for managers has been to coordinate the activities of these functions so that the organization can design, produce and commercialize offerings that are popular with customers, yet preserve the firm's identity and overall business strategies (Bruce and Daly 2007). These results clarify the relationship between organizational strategy and design as distinct, albeit clearly inter-related processes (Hillebrand and Biemans 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
As design has been slowly embraced as an element of business research, a number of well-established organizational strategy concepts have been called into question. This article empirically examines the relationship between firm performance and market orientation (MO), one of the most commonly employed variables within business strategy, among design-driven firms. Our findings suggest that the positive relationship between MO and performance present in most business strategy literature does not appear to hold among organizations with a strong strategic focus on design. Design-driven firms seem to actively downplay MO, resulting in a statistically significant negative relationship between the concept and its three sub-factors: customer orientation (CUST), competitor orientation (COMP), and inter-functional coordination (INTER) on two measures of firm performance, project-level success and competitive advantage. Drawing on related literature and follow-up interviews with firm managers, we rationalize these results as evidence of design-driven firms efforts to avoid the so-called ‘tyranny of the served market’ where a narrow focus on current customers and established competitors within incremental markets can lead to myopia and limit innovation. The implications of this study may be to provide support to managers of design-driven organizations to de-emphasize MO’s narrow focus on close industry rivals and well-defined customers as well as much-needed empirical support for anecdotal accounts of how many traditional business strategy variables, such as MO, may be insufficient, or at least incomplete explanations of design-driven organizations.
... These functional documents codifying the various written communication, blueprints, diagrams and schematics employed during the NPD process to specify the many requirements of a project including strategic objectives, descriptions of the target customers and competitors, technical requirements, development timelines and benchmarks, product sourcing and pricing information, along with a wide variety of product form details -e.g. branding, shapes and colours, materials, as well as more holistic design attributes such as personality, user experience and meaning (de Mozota 2006;Bruce and Daly 2007;Phillips 2004;Bart and Pujari 2007;Blyth and Worthington 2001;Ryd 2004). Although product design briefs have been referred to anecdotally in business strategy scholarship (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study empirically examines the role of product design briefs as knowledge- based artefacts of cross-functional collaboration within design-driven new product development (NPD). Contemporary NPD is increasingly seen as a design-driven and knowledge-based activity where information sharing within team-based envi- ronments is critical to successful product design and development processes. However, the mere presence of inter-functional structures has not necessarily led to better outcomes for firms. By drawing on a proprietary sample of 80 prod- uct design briefs gathered from design-driven product-oriented firms, our results provide insight into how organizations create, codify and communicate knowl- edge from different functional areas and support flows of knowledge within NPD, specifically by: (1) providing an inventory of 51 information elements commonly present in product design briefs; (2) organizing these information elements into a parsimonious framework of strategic dimensions using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) alongside a widely-established taxonomy; (3) defining differences between information elements as rated by managerial ‘importance’ across three key func- tional areas of NPD: (a) design, (b) marketing and (c) engineering/ R&D/ develop- ment; and (4) providing a theoretic rationale for these differences and underlying strategic dimensions by integrating our findings with relevant literature.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Anthropomorphism is the innate human tendency to attribute human or human-like characteristics to non-human entities or objects. Even though it is widely used by marketing practitioners, there is a scarcity of academic research that systematically attempts to capture this phenomenon. The aim of the current study is to investigate anthropomorphism in product packages of the 2010 Nielsen’s Top 100 grocery brands in the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This study uses a mixed-method design combining quantitative content analysis and correspondence analysis. The former methodology allowed for documentation of anthropomorphic package elements, whereas the latter facilitated the study of structural relationships between anthropomorphic cues and product-related attributes such as type, category and target market. Findings – The findings reveal that anthropomorphism is widely used in the packaging of grocery brands in the sample investigated. Moreover, the evidence shows that there appears to be an association between anthropomorphism and product-related attributes. Research limitations/implications – The current study contributes to both theory and practice. It illuminates the under-investigated interface of anthropomorphism and marketing by capturing anthropomorphic elements appearing in product packaging. The combination of anthropomorphic package elements and product-related attributes may assist managers in designing their packages to provide unique product experiences. Originality/value – This study serves as a roadmap for both academics and practitioners wishing to engage in a fruitful dialogue on the emerging area of anthropomorphic marketing.
Research
Full-text available
Finding the intersection between Identity Based Brand Management and Product Design
Article
Full-text available
Every social and global issue is a business opportunity just waiting for the right kind of inventive Entrepreneurship, the right kind of investment, the right kind of collective action.-Peter Drucker The main intention in conducting this research is to grasp how customers appraise item bundling. Three quality traits of bundling-specialized, practical and instructive-and their effect on shopper fulfillment and dependability were surveyed. The investigation was directed on Fruit Juice item bundling, including 199 nuclear families, utilizing four kinds of packaging. A sum of 398 organized survey was utilized to gather the information from both the occasions (point of procurement and post purchase). Measurable techniques, for example, amos 20 and spss are the software used to develop and assess the consecutive hawser of value properties, fulfillment and steadfastness. The outcomes distinguish the particularly esteemed excellence properties and pardon contrasts persevere amongst the four sorts of food packing. This investigation adds to the group of information as far as shoppers buy encounters with respect to the processed food item. The current investigation gives experimental points of view to showcasing supervisors, item chiefs and promotion organizations, other than hurling business suggestions.
Article
There are many roles that design can play in organisations. It can be source of good marketing strategy, and designer by himself can be a promotional tool for a company. Thanks to those actions companies can gain publicity, media attention and good PR.On the second level, design can be perceived as ‘process of making things better’. In this case companies can achieve more effective product development process, new tools and technologies.On the third level we have the situation when designer work alongside with company managers with the whole business concept. At this level, designers’ work looks more like a brand consultant, a strategist. In this approach design should be reflecting certain brand name and brand values.As our study presented, Swedish companies operate on those two, higher levels, while Polish still limit the scope of design. We strongly believe, that Polish companies, as they gain more experience with design activities, will be more likely to perceive design in this more mature approach. In the meantime, presenting best practices from companies from other, more mature countries could be a good way of promoting design as a strategic asset rather than promotional tool. We believe that in order to fasten this process, Polish companies should as follows:1. Work more often with external and foreign designers;2. Expand the area of designer responsibilities in companies;3. Place the responsibility for design in hands of professional design managers.
Article
Package design plays an important role in attracting consumer’s attention and generating expectations in the consumer that affect the perception of the product and their decision-making. Studies were undertaken on the traditional handloom products of Himachal Pradesh, India to develop a package design for readymade woolen garments. In the process of development of a package, seven products were identified viz. gents blazer, gents shirt, woolen shawls, woolen ties, woolen socks, stoles and woolen caps. During the design research, studies were performed to evaluate the latest trends in packaging for the Handloom products along with other parameters such as shape, size, structure, graphics, color, materials, ergonomics, etc. Product visibility and sustainability were also focused with considering the development of new packages. Different parameters were studied to observe the consumer perceptions for development of a new package based on a) Dimensions of the product b) 3-D modelling for all the variants c) Graphics formation based on the key observations of design research. The technical specifications were developed based on the prototypes. Finally, innovative packages with distinct graphics were adjudged to be the best. Furthermore, the use of this design process supports the packaging designers to develop packages which align with consumer perceptions.
Article
Full-text available
Brosur, etkin tasarimi ile urun ve hizmet tanitimi yapan, genellikle tek parca ve uc kirimli olarak kullanilan basili malzemelerdir. Brosur bilgi, davet, organizasyon, urun ve olay gibi tek bir konuya odaklanarak onun hakkinda olumlu fikir sahibi edinmeyi ve harekete gecirmeyi hedefler. Diger tanitim materyalleri olan afis ve dergiye gore en onemli farki, kisa zamanda tuketilmesi ve buna ragmen etkili tanitim icin en sik kullanilan grafik tasarim urunlerinden birisi olmasidir. Durum boyle olunca verilmek istenen mesajin zamaninda ve dogru bicimde hedefe ulasmasi gerekir. Bu saglandigi takdirde diger grafik tasarim urunlerinden farkli bir yere sahip olmaktadir. Iste bu yuzden etkili brosur tasarlamak icin yapilmasi gerekenler incelenerek, nelere dikkat edilmesi ve nelerden kacinilmasi gerektigi ortaya cikarilmalidir. Calismada ilk olarak grafik tasarim ilkeleri ele alinmistir. Daha sonra brosur hakkinda bilgiler verilerek, brosur tasarlamaya baslamadan once bilmemiz gerekenler, tasarim sirasinda yapmamiz gerekenler, kacinmamiz gereken hususlar aciklanmistir. Sonra tasarimi tamamlanan brosurun baski islemlerine deginilmistir. Sonuc olarak etkili bir brosur tasarlamak icin butun etkenleri icine alarak neler yapmamiz, nelere dikkat etmemiz gerektigi konularinda oneriler sunulmustur.
Conference Paper
GENDE (http://www.gende.it) is a tool to allow designers, but also common people, to automatically design new products that evolve according to the principles of Genetic Algorithms (GAs). The selection of the products that will actually take part to the evolutionary process, relies on crowdsourcing mechanisms: only the most appreciated products survive. In the era of 3D-printing, GENDE can pave the way to a completely new class of mass products in which personalization become intrinsic to the design process and is driven by common users rather than being confined in the later stages of production and in the hands of professional designers. While GENDE has been originally thought as an automatic design tool, its unique process that involves users from the beginning of the design, can also be used as a powerful marketing tool.
Article
Design is increasingly recognized as offering strategic value to business in driving innovation, and has assisted organizations in balancing the needs of several stakeholders while maintaining competitiveness. However, for organizations which are not design-oriented, realizing outcomes through design can present a complex challenge. This paper presents the findings of a two-year action research project, and contributes a method for building an appetite for design, developing an awareness of the value design can offer, and for taking action within organizational constraints. Outcomes include enhanced perception of design methods, a clearer understanding of stakeholders, and the contribution of a framework for integrating design in organizations yet unfamiliar with the value of design.
Article
Full-text available
Desde una perspectiva descriptiva y reflexiva, este artículo busca caracterizar, clasificar y analizar los conceptos de valor para el marketing y el diseño, identificando sus elementos comunes y discordantes que permitan generar una reflexión sobre su interrelación e importancia. Primero se hace un acercamiento inicial al concepto de valor, para posteriormente explorarlo desde las dos disciplinas, identificando los principales pilares conceptuales para compararlos y finalmente analizarlos en conjunto. Como conclusión, se determinó que la caracterización, identificación y clasificación de los conceptos de valor contribuye enormemente a la investigación de valor en las dos áreas y que la brecha entre estos conceptos es dada por algunas diferencias conceptuales, pero sobre todo por el grado de importancia que se le da a cada una.
Chapter
Design is significant from both managerial and consumer standpoints. The chapter begins with an exploration of the importance of design in the marketplace. Then, the chapter provides a brief history of the design discipline and proposes a definition of “good design.”
Article
Marketing often cooperates with external design in the new product development (NPD) process. While this relationship is crucial for NPD success and is a typical case of interorganizational collaboration between a business‐oriented function (marketing) and a creative partner (external design), a comprehensive understanding of this relationship remains lacking. As the NPD field evolves to open systems that have changed concepts like functional integration into interorganizational integration, this study contributes to NPD literature by developing an integrated conceptual framework leading to a model of drivers and pathways of NPD success in the marketing‐external design relationship. Building on the literature on NPD, design management and relationship marketing, and on nine dyadic case studies from the luxury fragrance and cosmetics industry, a content analysis was conducted, enriched by a crisp‐set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This research confirms several NPD success drivers suggested in the literature and reveals three new drivers: source of design expertise, designer brand commitment, and number of NPD stages involving designer. The first new driver (source of design expertise) impacts the relationship process, which then impacts NPD success, while the other two drivers (designer brand commitment and number of NPD stages involving designer) directly influence NPD success. The article also identifies the pathways of NPD success, showing that contact authority and designer brand commitment are necessary conditions for NPD success, especially when combined with a high number of NPD stages involving designer or a previous relationship. The results also indicate that pathways of NPD success may differ according to the source of design expertise. From a managerial perspective, this study provides recommendations to managers to select the right design partner and choose from a range of drivers and pathways to devise more effective ways to work with external designers, thereby leading to NPD success. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
This chapter uses the automotive industry to explore the advantages and limitations of developing a design language. A design language is an overarching visual style that unifies an organization’s products and brands under one umbrella. While a design language may be a vital component of a firm’s strategy, using a design language to unify the brand carries significant risks. If the design language does not resonate with consumers, a decline in sales could result. Findings from the branding and consumer behavior literatures shed light into design language issues.
Article
Full-text available
This study surveys a broad spectrum of US manufacturer and service firms to examine the effect of tacit knowledge transfer on firm innovation capability. The authors present a set of hypotheses concerning the relationships between inter-firm relationship strength and tacitness of knowledge transfer, extent of tacit knowledge transfer and innovation capability, and innovation capability and innovation performance based on the theory of knowledge. Moderating roles of firm collaborative experience and firm size on the relationship between inter-firm relationship strength and the extent of tacit knowledge transfer are considered. Empirical results generally support the predictions from the theory and managerial implications are included.
Article
Full-text available
This article empirically explores the nature of the role of design in the new product development process. The investigation adopts a multiple case study methodology. Data were collected through a six-month interview program carried out with mid-size to large U.K. manufacturing companies. The researchers articulate the scope and detailed nature of actions undertaken by design across all phases of the new product development process. Design functional, integration, and leadership actions are unraveled from the data. A taxonomy characterizing three roles for design in new product development is developed and explained. In the first role, design is explored as a functional specialism. The second categorization develops the role of design as part of a multifunctional team. The third role depicts the designer as process leader. Detailed actions and skills associated with each role are discussed and illustrated. Contextual factors explaining and influencing each design role are unraveled. These are articulated as speed of development process, innovativeness of the product development effort, and use of external design agencies. The implications of these findings for the development of design skills and capabilities are discussed in terms of recruitment, training, and educational policies.
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on the predevelopment activities of the product innovation process: those often ignored steps that precede the actual development of the product. We first look at the mounting evidence that identifies holes in the way in which many industrial firms handle the predevelopment steps. The evidence also reveals that new product success and failure is often decided before the new product project even enters the product development phase. Second, we turn to ways that managers can, should and have improved the effectiveness of these early and crucial stages of the innovation process.
Article
There is a growing belief that investing in industrial design is beneficial to company performance. This article sheds more light on how and when integrating industrial design in the product development process can enhance a company's competitive position. The basic premise is that the impact of industrial design on company performance is not unconditional, but dependent on industry evolution and design strategy. We opted to define industrial design in a general way, namely as the activity that transforms a set of product requirements into a configuration of materials, elements and components. This activity can have an impact on a product's appearance, user friendliness, ease of manufacture, efficient use of materials, functional performance, and so on.
Article
For the past three years the Design Innovation Group at the Open University in collaboration with Vivien Walsh at UMIST has been examining the processes, practices and management of product design, development and innovation in several sectors of manufacturing industry.This paper presents some of the findings, in particular from the survey of the plastics products sector, but with additional evidence from a preliminary analysis of data in the office furniture, domestic heating equipment and electronic business equipment industries.The focus of the paper is on the employment and activities of product designers and their role as ‘gatekeepers’, who, in the commercially successful, ‘design-conscious’ firms, manage to integrate the contributions of marketing, design and production in new product development.The paper also includes some evidence on the relationship between ‘good design’ and business performance.
Article
A taxonomy of different types of client-design consultant relationships is delineated. Relationships that span a number of years and entail a high degree of rapport between client and design consultant are particularly beneficial. Such long-term relationships enable design professionals to gain a deep understanding of the client's business and they engender mutual respect and trust between the client and design professional, which facilitates the creation of effective design solutions. Long-term relationships are more evident in Denmark and Sweden, than in the UK.
Article
Design is a potent strategic tool that companies can use to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. Yet most companies neglect design as a strategy tool. What they don't realize is that good design can enhance products, environment, communications, and corporate identity.
Article
This paper is concerned with the role of design in the competitiveness of manufacturing companies and reports on design management in commercially successful firms. The findings are based on a survey of design policies and practices in over one hundred British and foreign companies from several industries, ranging from furniture to electronics. The paper shows that while in theory design plays a key role in competition, influencing both “price” and “non‐price” factors, in practice many managers do not give design high priority in company strategy and product development. The commercially most successful firms were those that not only invested resources in design and managed it effectively, but had other strengths, for example in marketing and manufacturing.
Article
The roles of marketing and industrial design in the product development process for discontinuous innovations were discussed. Questions concerning how and the degree to which marketing and industrial design are integrated into the development process are investigated. The use of different data sources and sampling of various group of managers was employed for investigating the research questions of interest. The research suggests that the marketing and Industrial Design (ID) roles in the context involve increased challanges with respect to validation of key assumptions and product application directions.
Article
The relationship between design and marketing is an uneasy one. Managing this tension is critical for luxury marketers, whose point of differentiation is a combination of design excellence and market execution. This article explores the tensions between marketing and design and the integration of design into the brand management process in luxury wine firms. The results of the investigation describe five design-based values held by luxury winemakers: remaining true to craft, expressions of place, stylistic consistency, living up to the brand's heritage, and remaining current. Five methods of integrating design into the firm are identified. These are top leadership support and integration at the strategic level, simultaneous loose–tight coupling, being in the marketplace versus being of the marketplace, intergenerational teams, and deliberate decoupling. This last is a novel solution and involves designers walking a fine line between their commitment to their values and the ongoing evolution of the brand. Essentially, designers of luxury wine products downplay their scientific expertise, market knowledge, and responsiveness in favour of appealing to their five espoused values.
Article
Design methodology has always seemed to have a problematic relationship with science. The design methods movement started out with intentions of making design more scientific, but the more mature field of design methodology has resulted in clarifying the differences between design and science. This paper reviews the relatively short history of design methodology and its relationship with science, maps out some of the major themes that have sustained it, and tries to establish some agreed understanding for the concepts of scientific design, design science and the science of design.
Article
This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies-from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
Chapter
Promoting New Research Practices in Organizational Research - Gillian Symon and Catherine Cassell Using Interviews in Qualitative Research - Nigel King Electronic Interviews in Organizational Research - Stephanie J Morgan and Gillian Symon Life Histories - Gill Musson Critical Incident Technique - Elizabeth Chell Repertory Grids - Catherine Cassell and Susan Walsh Cognitive Mapping in Organizational Research - Seonaidh McDonald, Kevin Daniels and Claire Harris The Twenty Statements Test - Anne Rees and Nigel Nicholson Qualitative Research Diaries - Gillian Symon Stories in Organizational Research - Yiannis Gabriel and Dorothy S Griffiths Pictorial Representation - David R Stiles Group Methods of Organizational Analysis - Chris Steyaert and Ren[ac]e Bouwen Participant Observation - David Waddington Analytic Induction - Phil Johnson Critical Research and Analysis in Organizations - Kate Mackenzie Davey and Andreas P D Liefooghe Hermeneutic Understanding - John McAuley Discourse Analysis - Penny Dick Talk-in-Interaction/Conversation Analysis - Dalvir Samra-Fredericks Attributional Coding - Jo Silvester Grounded Theory in Organizational Research - Hannakaisa L[um]ansisalmi, Jos[ac]e-Maria Peir[ac]o and Mika Kivim[um]aki Using Templates in the Thematic Analysis of Text - Nigel King Using Data Matrices - Sara Nadin and Catherine Cassell Preserving, Sharing and Reusing Data from Qualitative Research - Louise Corti, Paul Thompson and Janet Fink Methods and Strategies Historical Analysis of Company Documents - Michael Rowlinson Ethnography - John D Brewer Case Study Research - Jean Hartley Soft Systems Analysis - Susan Walsh and Chris Clegg Reflections and Update Action Research and Research Action - Frank Heller A Family of Methods Co-Research - John Bennington and Jean Hartley Insider/Outsider Teams for Organizational Research The Future Conference - Fran Ryan
Article
Companies may have difficulty in adapting design as a strategic tool in industrial competition if they do not have an understanding of its meaning and value in practice. Part of the problem stems from the lack of a clear typology of design dimensions and attributes—the equivalent of marketing's 4 “P”s (Lorenz 1995). This research provides a fresh look at the design factor and a new typology and framework that will allow companies to analyse and adapt their values, image, process and production (VIPP's), thereby gaining competitive advantage by design.
Article
This paper draws upon six case studies of Millennium Product award winners to explore how companies use design to compete in international markets. Small manufacturing companies in the developed world are under increasing pressure to differentiate their products and services as customers are becoming more demanding and markets more international. Our case study organisations have attempted to integrate a wide range of new skills with their traditional competencies in engineering design in order to achieve competitive success. Detailed case studies provide a picture of the migration of capabilities in these small manufacturing companies towards a new types of design activities that span well beyond the traditional activities associated with engineering design.
Article
Many companies face the challenge of balancing art with commerce. The conflict between corporate pragmatism and artistic passion and quality is persistent: designers chafe under corporate requirements, budgets, and deadlines, and nondesigners struggle to understand the business value of artistic choices. At German carmaker BMW, the fanaticism about design excellence is matched only by the company's driving desire to remain profitable. Global design director Chris Bangle presides over the intersection of art and commerce at BMW, managing the often-strained relationships among the designers, engineers, and business managers. Bangle goes to great lengths to protect his designers from the unproductive commentary of others in the company, literally posting "Stop: No Entry" signs on the design studio doors. He also protects the design process, making sure that time-to-market pressures do not harm the designs by shifting the focus to engineering too soon. As a mediator, Bangle appeals to the core values of the company and a deeply held sense about BMW-ness--a pride of product shared by everyone in the company that expresses itself in the classic quality of the cars. Every employee, designer and nondesigner alike, understands that if a car doesn't meet this standard of excellence, it's simply not a BMW--and customers won't buy it. Managing at the intersection of art and commerce means translating the language of art into the language of the corporation. In this First Person account, the author describes his inventive techniques for getting the best from his artists--and getting his ideas across to corporate managers.
Braun AG: The FK40 Coffee Machine
  • K Freeze
Freeze, K. (1991), Braun AG: The FK40 Coffee Machine, Boston: Design Management Institute.
The Contribution of Design to Business: A Competence-Based Perspective Management of Design Alliances: sustaining a competitive advantage
  • T Kristensen
Kristensen, T. (1998), " The Contribution of Design to Business: A Competence-Based Perspective ". In: Bruce, M. and Jevnaker, B. (eds.), (1998) Management of Design Alliances: sustaining a competitive advantage, John Wiley & Sons.
Inanimate Integrators: A Block of Wood Speaks Design Bruce and Daly Design and marketing connections Downloaded by
  • D Leonard-Barton
Leonard-Barton, D. (1991) " Inanimate Integrators: A Block of Wood Speaks ", Design Bruce and Daly Design and marketing connections Downloaded by [University of South Carolina ] at 15:03 15 April 2013 Journal of Marketing Management, Volume 23 JMM 952 Management Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, Summer, pp.61-67.
In-House, Outsourced or a Mixed Approach to Design
  • M Bruce
  • B And Morris
Bruce, M. and Morris, B. (1998), " In-House, Outsourced or a Mixed Approach to Design ". In: Bruce, M. and Jevnaker, B. (1998), Management of design alliances, John Wiley & Sons.
The Benefits and Costs of Investment in Design: Using Professional Design Expertise in Product, Engineering and Graphic Projects, UK: Report for the Design Innovation Group, The Open University and UMIST Design Management in the Clothing Industry
  • S Potter
  • R Roy
  • C Capon
  • M Bruce
  • V Walsh
  • J And Lewis
Potter, S., Roy, R., Capon, C., Bruce, M., Walsh, V. and Lewis, J. (1991), The Benefits and Costs of Investment in Design: Using Professional Design Expertise in Product, Engineering and Graphic Projects, UK: Report for the Design Innovation Group, The Open University and UMIST. Sampoli, L., (1991), " Design Management in the Clothing Industry ", MSc Dissertation, UMIST.
Terry's Group: Designing Novelty Chocolates
  • M Bruce
Bruce, M. (2004), Terry's Group: Designing Novelty Chocolates, Boston: Design Management Institute.
The Design Dimension
  • C Lorenz
Lorenz, C. (1986), The Design Dimension, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Design Management in SMEs Management of Design Alliances: sustaining a competitive advantage Defining a design manager's role in food retail
  • M Bruce
  • R Cooper
  • D Vazquez
  • London
  • M Bruce
  • B Jevnaker
Bruce, M., Cooper, R. and Vazquez, D. (1998), Design Management in SMEs, Report to British Design Council, London. Bruce, M. and Jevnaker, B. (1998), Management of Design Alliances: sustaining a competitive advantage, John Wiley & Sons Bruce, M. and Vazquez, D, (1999), " Defining a design manager's role in food retail ", International Journal of New Product Development and Innovation Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 167-178.
Managers and Designers: Two Tribes at War?
  • D Walker
Walker, D. (1990), " Managers and Designers: Two Tribes at War? ". In: Oakley, M. (ed) Design Management, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp.145-155
Cox review of creativity in business: Building on the UK's strengths. Available at: www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/cox, [Accessed 15th
  • G Cox
Cox, G. (2005), Cox review of creativity in business: Building on the UK's strengths. Available at: www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/cox, [Accessed 15th November 2006].
From a commodity source to a consumer brand Creating Value: How the UK can invest in creative businesses
  • C Makin
Makin, C. (2006), " From a commodity source to a consumer brand ", Presentation at Manchester Business School, November. Mintel (2006), Own-label and Drink Intelligence, October NESTA (2005), Creating Value: How the UK can invest in creative businesses, NESTA Research Report, London: NESTA.
Product Development Performance: Strategy, Organisation and Management in the World Auto Industry
  • K B Clarke
  • T Fujimoto
Clarke, K.B. and Fujimoto, T. (1991), Product Development Performance: Strategy, Organisation and Management in the World Auto Industry, Harvard Business School Press.