Article

Correction to Deci and Ryan

Authors:
  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
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Abstract

Reports an error in "Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life's domains" by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 2008[Feb], Vol 49[1], 14-23). Figure 1 on page 17 was incorrect. The correct figure is printed in the text. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-03783-002.) Self-determination theory (SDT) differentiates motivation, with autonomous and controlled motivations constituting the key, broad distinction. Research has shown that autonomous motivation predicts persistence and adherence and is advantageous for effective performance, especially on complex or heuristic tasks that involve deep information processing or creativity. Autonomous motivation is also reliably related to psychological health. Considerable research has found interpersonal contexts that facilitate satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness to enhance autonomous motivation, which comprises intrinsic motivation and well-internalized extrinsic motivation. SDT has been applied in varied cultures and in many life domains, and research is reviewed that has related autonomous and controlled motivation to education, parenting, work, health care, sport, and close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

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... We found that both intrinsic motivation and identified motivation are positively associated with service employees' job creativity. In other words, service employees with autonomous motivation are more likely to have higher levels of job creativity, which is consistent with previous studies (Amabile 1993;Deci and Ryan 2008;Vansteenkiste et al. 2004). A positive association between autonomous motivation and job creativity is due to the fact that employees with autonomous motivation are more likely to possess an increased sense of volition and choice (Deci and Ryan 2008), which enables employees to make deeper processing of information and engenders an increased readiness to transmit information across domains (Ryan 1993). ...
... In other words, service employees with autonomous motivation are more likely to have higher levels of job creativity, which is consistent with previous studies (Amabile 1993;Deci and Ryan 2008;Vansteenkiste et al. 2004). A positive association between autonomous motivation and job creativity is due to the fact that employees with autonomous motivation are more likely to possess an increased sense of volition and choice (Deci and Ryan 2008), which enables employees to make deeper processing of information and engenders an increased readiness to transmit information across domains (Ryan 1993). ...
... In short, our study can provide a more nuanced understanding of work motivations associated with employee outcomes, such as service employees' job creativity, customer orientation, and job performance. First, this study found that service employees' autonomous intrinsic and identified motivation at work had a significant positive effect on their job creativity, which supported the findings of previous studies that employees with autonomous motivations at work are more likely to behave with an increased sense of volition and freedom (Deci and Ryan 2008), encouraging free flows of information sharing, an increased readiness to move across domains (Ryan 1993), and effective performance on complex or heuristic tasks (Deci and Ryan 2008). On the other hand, the results of our study found that introjected motivation at work was insignificantly related to service employees' job creativity and that external motivation is negatively associated with service employees' job creativity, which is also in the line with prior studies that found that the effects of controlled motivation on employee outcomes are mixed (Cameron et al. 2005;Konheim-Kalkstein and van den Broek 2008;Liu et al. 2013). ...
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This study examines how work motivation, specifically intrinsic motivation, identified motivation, introjected motivation, and external motivation, influences service employees’ job performance. The explicit purpose of this study was to reveal the mechanism through which work motivation affects the job performance of service employees. Working with a sample of 281 hotel employees in South Korea, structural equation modeling was employed to test research hypotheses that the four types of work motivation influence service employees’ job performance by incorporating the mediating variables of service employees’ job creativity and customer orientation. The results of this research suggest that intrinsic motivation and identified motivation are positively related to service employees’ job creativity, while external motivation is negatively related to service employees’ job creativity; service employees’ job creativity is positively related to customer orientation; customer orientation is positively related to job performance. Furthermore, the relationship between intrinsic motivation/identified motivation and job performance are sequentially and fully mediated by service employees’ job creativity and customer orientation. This study attempts to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanism through which work motivation affects service employees’ job performance through job creativity and customer orientation.
... Broadly, it can be defined as a psychological state that gives an individual the inner energy and confidence to learn certain skills or knowledge with greater enthusiasm (Nix, Ryan, Manly, & Deci, 1999;Spreitzer, Sutcliffe, Dutton, Sonenshein, & Grant, 2005). Most studies (Deci & Ryan, 2008;Spreitzer et al., 2005;Wallace, Butts, Johnson, Stevens, & Smith, 2016) indicate that those with thriving features navigate and regulate their internal sources and behaviours autonomously according to their basic psychological needs and contextual features. Thus, thriving allows individuals to assess their capabilities and improve themselves accordingly (Spreitzer et al., 2005), which might be beneficial while facing with difficulties and stressors. ...
... Firstly, the researcher examined the literature in terms of the theoretical definitions of perceived stress, mindfulness, thriving and self-efficacy, in addition to the intervention programs based on these four concepts (Blecharz et al., 2014;Deane et al., 2017;Hirschi, 2009;Malow & Austin, 2016;Scales et al., 2011;Sibinga et al., 2011;Siegel, 2007;Tacón et al., 2003). Previous research reveals that these four concepts are based on self-regulation (Deci & Ryan, 2008;Feldman, Hayes, Kumar, Greeson, & Laurenceau, 2006;Greason & Cashwell, 2009;Shapiro, Carlson, Astin, & Freedman, 2006;Spreitzer et al., 2005;Wallace et al., 2016). Accordingly, the researcher developed the mindfulness-based thriving program as in line with the self-regulation theory (Shapiro & Schwartz, 2000). ...
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Introduction: Adolescence is a period of rapid change marked by increased stress levels. Individuals with high self-efficacy better alleviate the effects of the stress of this period by exerting conscious control over their own thoughts, behaviours and feelings – a trait strongly associated with mindfulness. In this regard, the concept of mindfulness-based self-efficacy has been a much-researched area in recent students. Mindfulness practices ensure individuals with vitality and energy since they learn to become more open and engaged. In this respect, mindfulness is associated with thriving. This experimental research investigates the effects of the Mindfulness-Based Thriving Program (MTP) on high school students’ perceived stress, mindfulness, thriving and self-efficacy levels. Methods: The study was conducted with 17 randomly assigned, female 11th grade students (X̄=16.62 for experimental group, X̄=16.77 for control group), who acquired educational support in Uskudar Municipality Youth Academy in the 2019-2020 academic year. The inclusion criteria included scoring highly on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and scoring lowly on the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Thriving Scale (TS) and Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) in a pre-test assessment. The experimental group (n=8) received a six-session MTP intervention developed by the researcher, while the control group (n=9) received no intervention. To determine the immediate and long-term effects of the MTP, all participants completed post-tests (PSS, MAAS, TS, GSES) two months after the program. Results: The 6-week MTP applied to adolescents was significantly effective in decreasing perceived stress and increasing mindfulness, thriving and self-efficacy levels. Discussion: All findings were supported by the relevant literature and recommendations on their possible application have been given. Limitations: Scores obtained from the scales, the narrow range of the sample (only 11th grade female students), the lack of a placebo group to support reliability and the lack of a comparable program for the current one all indicated the limitations of the study. Conclusions: The 6-week MTP applied to adolescents showed the effectiveness in decreasing perceived stress and increasing mindfulness, thriving and self-efficacy levels. In this regard, thriving and mindfulness together have an important role in the development of self-efficacy and in decreasing perceived stress during adolescence. Thus, all these conclusions highlight the potential contribution of eclectic mindfulness practices for adolescence.
... Research focused on MPE frequently used the conceptual framework of self-determination theory (e.g., Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000, 2008a. This theory is grounded in an organismic approach that considers that individuals are, by nature, active, curious, self-motivated, vital, and enthusiastic, even if they may display passivity, laziness, anxiety, or depression symptoms. ...
... The present study utilized the self-determination theory (e.g., Deci and Ryan, 2008a), the control-process theory of selfregulation (e.g., Carver and Scheier, 1998;McCullough and Willoughby, 2009), and the theory of multiple pathways of TSC (e.g., Hagger, 2014) in order to examine how MPE, TSC, and SWB might be interrelated, and whether TSC might mediate the relationships between MPE and SWB. The data of all latent variables come from confirmatory factor analysis. ...
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Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE) and trait self-control (TSC) were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB). However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE), controlled MPE (C-MPE), and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE) with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS). Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30), who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation) and C-MPE (full mediation) with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = .935; absolute GoF = .330; relative GoF = .942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%). Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes.
... During emerging adulthood, the parent-child relationship is affected by the tension between the child's strivings for both autonomy and relatedness. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2008, autonomy can be defined as a sense of self-determination, or willingness, and choice when acting, whereas relatedness can be described as the need to establish high quality, satisfying, and positive relationships with others. Deci and Ryan (2000, p. 246) suggested that these basic psychological needs "are universal and must be satisfied in all cultures for people to be optimally healthy," implying that all individuals are innately inclined to engage in situations that allow for the satisfaction of these needs. ...
... Despite these limitations, the findings from this research corroborate many of our assumptions regarding the relations among PPC, connectedness and autonomy development, and adjustment difficulties during emerging adulthood. Generally, the findings of the present study suggested that the satisfaction of both the basic needs for autonomy and relatedness seem to be fundamental for emerging adults in establishing a balanced relationship with their parents and others in both the Italian and US contexts (Deci & Ryan, 2008). We provided evidence that PPC appears to be a stressor that affects the emotional functioning of emerging adults (Rogers, Buchanan, & Winchell, 2003). ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the relations among perceived parental psychological control (PPC), autonomy and relatedness, and negative outcomes during emerging adulthood in two cultural contexts: Italy and the USA. More specifically, we explored the mechanisms through which dependency-oriented PPC (DPPC) and achievement-oriented PPC (APPC) are associated with both internalizing and externalizing difficulties, focusing on the mediating role of autonomy and relatedness. Participants were 418 European-American and 359 Italian college students. Results indicated that the expressions of PPC with regard to dependency and achievement were related to emerging adults' negative outcomes through different pathways, and these effects were moderated by the cultural group. The implications of the findings for future related empirical investigations and clinical interventions were discussed. Free e-prints available at http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/BCPuTW6sUJnf6Fb4D7J7/full
... It is a quality of a leader to collect and listen for feedbacks from subordinates and to act accordingly if they are appreciated. Internalized moral perspective is acting in accord with one's values rather than to appease others, receive rewards, or avoid punishments, it refers to an internalized and integrated form of self-regulation (Deci & Ryan, 2008). This sort of self-regulation is guided by internal moral standards and values versus group, organizational, and societal pressures, and it results in expressed decision making and behavior that is consistent with these internalized values (Avolio et al., 2004); . ...
... This sort of self-regulation is guided by internal moral standards and values versus group, organizational, and societal pressures, and it results in expressed decision making and behavior that is consistent with these internalized values (Avolio et al., 2004); . Authenticity is achieved when individuals enact internalized selfregulation processes-that is, their conduct isguided by internal values as opposed to external threats, inducements, or social expectations and rewards (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Both of these research streams provide impressive empirical evidence of the positive consequences that accrue in terms of physical and psychological well-being to individuals who achieve relatively high levels of authenticity (Ryan & Deci, 2003); Kernis & Goldman, 2013). ...
... Therefore, hedonistic psychology focuses on pleasant and unpleasant experiences (Daniel Kahneman, Diener, & Schwarz, 1998). In a nutshell, well-being is interpreted as the presence of positive affect dan the absence of negative affect, which can only happen by maximizing an individual's happy feeling (Deci & Ryan, 2008;Ryan & Deci, 2001). Diener andLucas (1999, 2000) point out that based on this view, the construct of subjective well-being is developed with three aspects: life satisfaction, the presence of positive affect and the absence of negative affect, and this subjective well-being can be attained when individuals make a self-assessment/ judgment about their lives. ...
... The feeling of satisfaction is a subjective moment (Ryan & Deci, 2001) that encompasses pleasures of both body and mind (Kubovy, 1999), including the pleasant moments (Daniel Kahneman et al., 1998). Efforts to maximize happy feelings can help positive affect (positive affect) and negate the negative affect (Deci & Ryan, 2008). The fishermen show the happy and flourishing feeling they experience when they come home to their families with the abundant harvest after grappling with ferocious storms and lashing winds. ...
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Everybody aspires and deserves some personal well-being. This kind of well-being is subjective, and it is shaped by the way individuals perceive and feel the situations surrounding their lives. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gratitude and social support on fishermen's subjective well-being. This study's subjects were 299 fishermen living in the coastal area of Pelabuhan Ratu, who were chosen through an accidental sampling technique. In collecting data, subjective well-being was measured using Flourishing Scale (Diener et al., 2009) and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2008), Gratitude Scale, which was based on Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (Watkins, Woodward, Stone, & Kolts, 2003), and Social Support Scale that was based on Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Dahlem, et al., 1991). Multiple regression analysis showed that the entire independent variables significantly influenced subjective well-being. Meanwhile, each dimension's regressive coefficient on the independent variables showed four sub-variables that significantly influenced the dependent variables: sense of abundance, simple appreciation, appreciation to others, and family support.
... This team motivation mix is evident in a response by an AIC who described a lack of motivation as a trigger to team stress: Extrinsic motivation stressors, such as salary, praise or title, or intrinsic motivation stressors, such as autonomy or mastering skills, have occurred between team members because their emotional responses to a lack of motivational needs have not been satisfied. According to Deci and Ryan (2008), intrinsically motivated team members have been said to do better-quality work. However, if extrinsic motivation is delivered to the intrinsically motivated worker through an intrinsic social incentive, the intrinsic motivation will be satisfied and the extrinsic motivation will motivate the worker. ...
... The evidence above suggests that intrinsic motivations could be a way of turning these stressors into challenges, instead of being a hindrance to audit quality. Deci and Ryan (2008) suggest that teams with more team members who are intrinsically motivated to master their competence can reduce team stress levels and that this reduction will in turn reduce the risk of threatening behaviour. ...
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This study investigates audit team stress, its triggers and consequences to provide qualitative evidence about what audit team stress is and how its triggers and consequences can influence team stress and audit quality. Audit teams in three different audit firms, including different audit team ranks, discussed team stress experiences from one specific engagement during group and individual interviews. Audit work can be stressful, and its consequences can threaten audit quality. Additionally, shared team stress differs from individual personal stress. This research discusses how audit team stress, its triggers and consequences can occur at an interteam stress level, when all team members experience the same stress, and at an intrateam stress level, when individuals feel stress from a team experience. Contributions are made to audit literature and practitioners about audit experiences at a team level and its influence on audit quality, including new insights about time budget pressures and auditor affect.
... Quality of life is concerned with the balance between positive affect and negative affect, along with perceived satisfaction with one's life (Diener, 2000;Diener et al., 1999). The eudaimonic tradition advocates that virtue and the fulfilment of human potential and self-realization are at the core of quality of life (Deci and Ryan, 2008;Waterman, 1993). ...
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Purpose There is a lack of theoretical and empirical studies regarding concepts of social sustainability based on social infrastructure. The idea of understanding this paper is that quality social infrastructure leads to the general quality of people’s life in the built environment and that is rounded up to social sustainability. This paper aims to integrate these concepts into the network, hereinafter referred to as a social sustainability model. Design/methodology/approach The methodology used in this paper is desk research. The authors follow methodological steps in the building of conceptual network: setting up a research problem; choice of databases; reviewing the literature and categorizing the selected data; identifying and default conceptual definition; integrating the concepts; synthesis and making it all make sense; and assembly and validating the concept. Through that, a large volume of bibliographic materials was scanned, and a limited number of documents have been reviewed and critiqued. The documents have been selected from varied disciplines, including social infrastructure, quality of life, social sustainability, urban sociology, housing policy as among the articles. Findings The result is the model which represents the links between social infrastructure (utility equipment, public infrastructure, vital objects and fundamentals) and further between factors inside quality of life structure (users, quality of life, reflections). The result is the model which representing the links between social infrastructure (utility equipment, public infrastructure, vital objects and fundamentals) and further between factors inside well-being structure (users, quality of life, reflections). Research limitations/implications There is a potential risk of errors arising from the use of assumptions, limited desk reviews and data from secondary resources. Originality/value The authors portray the development of social sustainability model. Within this model, the authors can critically observe all levels within the existing built environment: user responses to the built environment, their satisfaction, social inclusion, health, etc. Within this model, they can observe the links between existing research, their frequency, capture, direction and not least to determine which areas have not been explored and where the lacks of research are. The conclusion outlines the framework and its main concepts of social sustainability based on social infrastructure and well-being, including their theoretical premises and components.
... In other words, their bodily, cognitive, and emotional awareness are based on self-regulation. Self-regulation is the ability of autonomously directing and organizing their own feelings, thoughts, behaviors, using their inner strength, personal resources, taking into account the basic psychological needs and contextual characteristics (Deci and Ryan 2008;Posner and Rothbart 2000;Wallace et al. 2016). Therefore, there are many therapy models, such as mindfulness therapy, body awareness therapy, psychophysical therapy, and yoga therapy, which focus on reinforcing the strength of self-knowledge and self-regulation. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to adapt the Scale of Body Connection into Turkish and to test the mediating role of body awareness and body dissociation in the relationship between interpersonal emotion regulation, mindfulness, and flourishing. Data was sourced from a total of 440 participants (125 males, 315 females) from Istanbul Medeniyet University, as well as their relatives through a snowball sampling method. The participants had an age range between 15 and 84, with a mean age of 24.41 (SD = 9.35). The construct validity of the scale was tested via a confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients were analyzed to test the internal consistency. Finally, a path analysis was used to test the research model. The results of the CFA showed that the scale is a valid instrument after eliminating few items. In addition, the reliability level of the scale was found to be satisfactory. The findings of the path analysis indicated that both mindfulness and interpersonal emotion regulation have significantly positive relationship with body awareness while mindfulness has a significantly negative relationship with body dissociation. In addition, there is a negative relationship between body dissociation and flourishing while body awareness has a significantly positive relationship with flourishing. The adjusted model accounted for a 9% variance in body awareness, 22% variance in body dissociation, and 6% variance in flourishing scores of participants.
... Future studies should be replicated with samples that are more diverse. One additional limitation is that the intervention did not include substantial environmental components to increase participants' feelings of relatedness, which has been shown to increase IM and subsequent behavioral change (29,32). Future studies should include components to increase participants' feelings of belonging and relatedness in order to increase self-determined types of motivation. ...
Article
Objective We examine if the Gray Matters intervention (education and behavioral self-monitoring app targeting lifestyle risks for Alzheimer’s disease [AD]) affected participants’ motivation for change and whether high motivation predicts improved diet and physical activity over 6 months.DesignIn this 6-month randomized controlled trial (treatment n=104; control n=42; assessed pre/post intervention) amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, and intrinsic motivation were assessed via the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Diet quality was assessed via adherence to the DASH diet, and physical activity was assessed in minutes.ParticipantsEligibility criteria included not having significant cognitive impairment. Participants were aged 39–64 (M = 54.17, SD = 6.9), 66% female, 81% married, 90% White, and 80% had a college degree.InterventionTreatment included an activity tracker, Gray Matters app, access to booster sessions, contact with a student health coach, and study website.SettingParticipants were in the general community.ResultsIndependent samples t-tests determined that intrinsic motivation (IM) increased significantly for the treatment group (M = 2.09 SD = 4.82), compared to the control group (M = 1.00 SD = 5.52; t (130) = -3.04, p =.003). Comparing subgroups of people with High vs Low IM we found that High IM males increased vigorous physical activity more than Lower IM males (F(1,42)=5.053, p=.030). Comparing persons aged 58–64 years with High vs Lower IM, High IM persons had less improvement in diet quality F(1,48)=4.538; p=0.038).ConclusionRCT results support that the Gray Matters AD-focused intervention increased IM, and IM was associated with improved physical activity and diet quality for some subgroups.
... Moreover, personal strengths appear to be a necessary prerequisite for greater participation, which in turn is the key indicator of active learning for students and teachers alike. 10. In 2030, all students will have a strong understanding of their preferred styles from a variety of styles and will, therefore, be able to effectively use this understanding, which will be particularly important in light of content that is difficult to understand or difficult to focus on. ...
Article
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Purpose of the study: The current study aims to identify the engines of the future of Egyptian education to achieve the fourth goal of the United Nations Convention on Sustainable Development. Methodology: The research followed the analytical method in the comparative analysis of the future of Egyptian education between 2020 and 2030. Main Findings: The results of the research, in addition to the conclusions of researchers from the literature and previous studies, stressed on the importance of the existence of ten motives for the future of education for sustainable development 2030. Applications of this study: This research attempts to address this dilemma through the perspectives and engines of education for sustainability. Where teachers can meet the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) approach to enhance knowledge and positive attitudes towards appropriate action for sustainability in relevant, meaningful, exciting, and creative ways, this research offers experiences that allow pupils to become more connected to nature, develop children's sense of practical orientation that embraces positive attitudes, change behaviour and hope for the child's future. Novelty/Originality of this study: There is no research or studies that addressed the motives of the Egyptian education future for sustainable development.
... The hedonic view highlights low negative and positive affect, subjective feelings of happiness (Diener, 1984). Assessment of the WB view relates to people's assumptions on their happiness with life overall and how they assess their lives (Ryan & Deci, 2008). PWB has historically been described as a lack of anxiety, stress over time, and depression. ...
Article
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The association of Facebook use and users’ psychological well-being has attracted growing scholarly attention, yet the nature of this association remains contentious. A literature review was conducted to examine psychological well-being influences linked with Facebook use. A total of 36 articles, extracted from a Scopus database, met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the study. While most study results revealed that Facebook usage was positively linked with users' psychological well-being, negative links have also been identified, which have far-reaching implications for healthcare providers such as counselors, psychologists, and public health workers to be aware of its possible consequences on psychological well-being of users. We explain the variables that mediate and moderate the Facebook use–psychological well-being link (such as social factors, Facebook use frequency, individual differences, and problematic Facebook). The application of meta-analysis techniques is required to quantify the nature and path of the Facebook use–psychological well-being link.
... Moreover, personal strengths appear to be a necessary prerequisite for greater participation, which in turn is the key indicator of active learning for students and teachers alike. 10. In 2030, all students will have a strong understanding of their preferred styles from a variety of styles and will, therefore, be able to effectively use this understanding, which will be particularly important in light of content that is difficult to understand or difficult to focus on. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of the study: The current study aims to identify the engines of the future of Egyptian education to achieve the fourth goal of the United Nations Convention on Sustainable Development. Methodology: The research followed the analytical method in the comparative analysis of the future of Egyptian education between 2020 and 2030. Main Findings: The results of the research, in addition to the conclusions of researchers from the literature and previous studies, stressed on the importance of the existence of ten motives for the future of education for sustainable development 2030. Applications of this study: This research attempts to address this dilemma through the perspectives and engines of education for sustainability. Where teachers can meet the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) approach to enhance knowledge and positive attitudes towards appropriate action for sustainability in relevant, meaningful, exciting, and creative ways, this research offers experiences that allow pupils to become more connected to nature, develop children's sense of practical orientation that embraces positive attitudes, change behaviour and hope for the child's future. Novelty/Originality of this study: There is no research or studies that addressed the motives of the Egyptian education future for sustainable development.
... La pregunta que guía esta investigación es: ¿qué ha motivado a estudiantes de ingeniería a estudiar matemáticas? Para responderla, se propone un marco conceptual que se basa, por un lado, en la teoría de la autodeterminación, desarrollada por Deci y Ryan (2008), y, por otro, en la meta-teoría del dominio afectivo, desarrollado por Hannula (2012). En específico, el marco conceptual propuesto en este artículo relaciona los conceptos de motivación concebidos en estas dos teorías. ...
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Based on the self-determination theory and the meta-theory of affective domain, the aim of this article is to analyze the motivations and demotivations of engineering students to study mathematics. The methodology used was the formation of a focus group of eight male students (19 to 24 years of age) from the Andrés Bello University in Santiago-Chile, who were asked about their motivating and non-motivating experience that contributed to their decision to study (or not) mathematics, and their specific motives for learning mathematical concepts and solving to problems. Results show that students are motivated and demotivated by the following themes: "being a teacher", "role of the teacher", "evaluations", "being an engineer" and "performance". It is concluded that motivations are exclusively extrinsic. This means that students are motivated to study mathematics if they satisfy their needs due to external factors (social relations, competence and autonomy) or are discouraged when they cannot satisfy those needs.
... Third, internal motivation and identified regulation show a high correlated tendency. This result could be due to the inherent characteristics of the identification; that is, the identified regulation is an internalization (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Thus, cautious interpretation of the results is needed. ...
... Different types of motivation and basic psychological need have also been related with variables that influence the junior-to-senior transition process (Ryba & Stambulova, 2013). Autonomous motivation has been associated with persistence, positive affect, high performance and psychological wellbeing (Deci & Ryan, 2008), whereas controlled motivation and amotivation have been associated with negative affect and low performance (Gillet, Vallerand, Lafrenière, & Bureau, 2012). Environment can be a positive or negative influence on the junior-to-senior transition in professional sport (Chamorro et al., 2015;Chamorro et al., 2016). ...
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Within the context of the transition from junior-to-senior sport, this study aims in first place to explore differences in young Spanish elite soccer players based on the importance given to getting different achievements in their future (including sport, studies and private life) and, in second place, to explore differences among those players in levels of passion, motivation and basic psychological need. 478 elite youth soccer filled out a questionnaire based on the presented theoretical models. A cluster analysis shows a sport oriented group ( N = 98) only interested in becoming a professional, a life spheres balance group ( N = 288) characterized by balancing the importance of achievements in the sport sphere, as well as in education and a private life and a group ( N = 91) only interested in private life achievements. The life spheres balance group shows higher levels of harmonious passion (η ² = .06, F (2, 475) = 9.990, p < .001) than the players of the other groups. The life spheres balance group shows higher levels of autonomous motivation (η ² = .10, F (2, 475) = 13.597, p < .001), autonomy (η ² = .07, F (2, 475) = 6.592, p < .01) and relatedness satisfaction (η ² = .07, F (2, 475) = 5.603, p < .01) than the sport oriented group as well as lower levels of amotivation (η ² = .04, F (2, 475) = 6.665, p < .01) than the private life oriented group. This study suggests players who perceive equal future importance in their life spheres appear to be more resourceful than the other two groups regarding athletes’ internal resources, such as passion and motivation, to cope with the transition to professional soccer.
... The three basic psychological needs are competence, relatedness, and autonomy, and opportunities to satisfy these needs contribute to students' motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2008). In pursuing these needs, Ryan and Deci (2000) present four types of extrinsic motivation, in addition to intrinsic motivation, which refl ect students' natural propensity to learn and assimilate. ...
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We surveyed 139 (88 traditional, 51 nontraditional) students on various motivational measures of self-determination, attribution, and expectancy-value to (a) investigate motivational differences by student status and (b) identify the motivational variables that best predict academic achievement by student status. Results of a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that nontraditional students report significantly higher levels of interest and teacher influence, just to name two. Results of two stepwise regression analyses suggest that ability-attribution and cost-value variables predict traditional students’ academic achievement, and self-efficacy and peer-personal support variables predict nontraditional students’ academic achievement. Implications are further discussed, along with avenues for future research.
... The self-determination theory' questionnaire proposed by Deci and Ryan [37] was used to measure the autonomy construct. This questionnaire uses a five point Likert scale to calibrate the responses. ...
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Background: Employee job satisfaction has been established to be one of the important factors that work towards addressing the subject matter of productivity in organizations. Healthcare professionals deserve some level of basic psychological need satisfaction in the area of job autonomy. Reasons that lead to employees achieving job autonomy and job satisfaction have been researched by industrial and organizational psychologists but very few of such studies have directed their attention towards the role psychological capital can play. Therefore, this study sought to find out how much of an impact positive psychology can make on the job autonomy of healthcare employees leading to the fulfillment of job satisfaction. Methods: Data were collected from 385 healthcare professionals from the public sector. A structural equation model was performed to analyze the relationship that exists between the constructs of psychological capital and job autonomy leading to job satisfaction on the part of the employees. Results: Results showed both a direct and indirect positive relationship between hope and job satisfaction and indirect through job autonomy. Apart from self-efficacy, that had a very low positive relationship, optimism largely influenced job autonomy of healthcare professionals. Results also showed that psychological capital positively related to job autonomy while job autonomy minimally influenced job satisfaction. Conclusions: It is concluded from this study that healthcare professionals deserve some level of basic psychological need satisfaction in the area of job autonomy and that can stimulate positive work ethic.
... Many confuse independence with autonomy; autonomy is more in line with volition, or the free choice to rely on self or others, whereas independence is solely concerned with not relying on others. Autonomy reflects a higher level of psychological health in which the individual chooses when to rely on others and when he or she can function alone (Deci & Ryan, 2008). can support autonomy in their children. ...
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The relationship between psychological well-being and perceived wellness in graduate-level counseling students
... Initial attention to the topic can be traced through the Taylor's work on "scientific management" where the follower's motivation was perceived as a consequence of scientifically crafted reward system. Recently, s few studies have been generated that grab the attention of the contemporary scholars on the notions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as a framework of SDT [10]. SDT perspective is wider with reference to the human motivation that is aligned with the individual's instinctive growth dispositions and pivotal cognitive requirements emphasize on the extent to which behavior of the individual is perceived as controlled or autonomously motivated. ...
... This proviso must be borne in mind. It was, however, the possibility of causal links between consumer orientation and reduced wellbeing and achievement that prompted the analysis reported here as it resonated with established empirical links between lack of autonomy and poorer wellbeing and achievement in SDT research (e.g Deci and Ryan 2008;Orsini, Binnie, and Wilson 2016;Teixeira et al. 2020). ...
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Consumerist views have increased in English higher education. At the same time, the wellbeing of university students is of growing concern. Some research suggests that consumerist views amongst students link to lower wellbeing and achievement. This prompted the current paper which speculates that the concept of autonomy (as depicted in self-determination theory) might provide a useful lens through which to analyse consumerist attitudes in UK higher education and their possible effects on students. Self-determination theory posits that people are fulfilled and have optimal motivation when their basic needs for competence, relatedness and autonomy are met. These three basic needs are complementary. Each could provide a lens for examining the facilitators or barriers to optimal motivation within higher education. This paper focuses on autonomy and explores possible links between a consumerist orientation and student wellbeing and achievement in English universities. Using self-determination theory, autonomy-enhancing ways of framing policy and managing the student experience and teaching and learning are outlined. The concept of autonomy offers a useful framework for potential enhancement of student motivation and wellbeing at policy, institutional and programme levels. Further empirical work could usefully explore and refine the hypotheses advanced.
... To date, research shows that AL impacts discretionary power (Laschinger et al., 2013), and high levels of discretionary power is associated with high levels of employee well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Therefore, it is expected that discretionary power will mediate the relationship between AL and employee well-being. ...
Article
There is a need to understand how leadership affects the well‐being of local government employees working under conditions of prolonged austerity‐driven reforms. A total of 118 Australian local government employees were surveyed. The analysis involved hierarchical regression using the PROCESS macro in SPSS, which identified the total, direct, and bootstrapped bias‐corrected indirect effects. The findings suggest that managers demonstrated some leadership behaviours required to lead staff positively; however, authentic leadership behaviours need to be strengthened to ensure they can lead an under‐resourced, under‐staffed sector of government. These findings are consistent with recent findings from the Australian Local Government Association analysis of gaps in the skill profile of local government. Authentic leadership and PsyCap capabilities are known to increase sector capability, especially to achieve higher outcomes in a time when austerity is still driving policy. Local government is not sustainable without effective leadership that can navigate austerity‐led policies with agility based on constructive feedback to ensure a productive workplace that enhances employee well‐being. The paper explores the link between leadership and employee wellbeing for local government employees working under conditions of prolonged austerity‐driven reforms. 118 Australian local government employees were surveyed. The findings suggest that managers demonstrated some leadership behaviours required to lead staff positively, however authentic leadership behaviours need to be strengthened to ensure they can lead an under‐resourced, under‐staffed sector of government.
... A possibility to plan a job, to have the right of a voice in work discussions seemed to be the factors of great importance for employees who provided judgements on how well they felt at workplaces. Self-direction at work, probably, affected the most fundamental self-determination needs of a person (Deci & Ryan, 2008), therefore this component was so significant. Leadership and supervision sensitive to employee family responsibilities also played an essential role in defining the level of well-being by an employee. ...
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This article tends to fill the existing knowledge gap in understanding if work-life balance (WLB) can not only make a direct impact on employee well-being, but also play a mediating role between work culture and well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of WLB on the relationship between the structural dimensions of work culture – temporal flexibility, supportive supervision and operational flexibility – and employee well-being. The data were collected on the basis of a survey of employees employed by business and public sector organisations in Lithuania. The research revealed that all the components of work culture were important factors in defining employee well-being, had a strong direct impact on well-being and affected WLB. The results demonstrated that a direct effect of work culture on well-being was much stronger than the one moderated by an indirect effect of WLB. The findings also suggest that family-friendly culture can help employees to reach a better WLB, which, in its turn, assists employees in feeling higher satisfaction with general well-being at work. The current study expands the role of WLB as a mediator in organisational settings and its findings may be important for practitioners who seek to improve the performance of their organisation by enhancing the well-being of employees.
... In the beginning, the researcher examined literature in terms of the theoretical definitions of mindfulness and thriving (20,33,34) additionally to the intervention programs based on these two concepts (26,35,36,37). Many studies emphasized that these two concepts were based on self-regulation (24,38). In line with these researches, the researcher developed the mindfulnessbased thriving program according to the self-regulation theory (39). ...
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Objective: This experimental research examined the effects of the Mindfulness-Based Thriving Program (MTP) on university students' mindfulness and thriving levels. Method: The study was conducted with randomly assigned 19 female students attending to a public university in Turkey. The inclusion criteria were to have low scores on Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Thriving Scale in pre-test assessment. Experimental group (n=10) received a 6-session MTP intervention developed by the first researcher while control group (n=9) received no intervention. To determine the immediate and long-term effects of the MTP, all participants completed post-tests two months after the program. Data were analyzed by using two-way ANOVA test. To determine the significant differences between subgroups , the Tukey (HSD) test was performed. Results: Post-test and follow-up results of experimental group for MAAS and Thriving Scale were found to be higher than their pre-test results, while there were no statistically significant changes in results of control group. Results revealed that six-session MTP for university students was significantly effective in increasing mindfulness and thriving levels. Discussion: Research results highlight the potential contribution of eclectic mindfulness practices during adolescence. Although, there are many studies supporting the positive effect of mindfulness-based interventions on students, empirical evidence about MTP's effect on thriving is very scarce. In this respect, this study is expected to contribute the current literature by examining the MTP's effect on mindfulness and thriving .
... "Competence motivation" is intrinsic in the sense that no other incentives are required to engage in activities. It differs from extrinsic motivation, which is oriented to external benefits or caused by external circumstances (Deci and Ryan, 2008). Although more recent theories view intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as segments on a continuum rather than a dichotomy (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the division of these types continues to appear in the research literature. ...
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Measures of psychological attributes, such as motivation, typically involve rating scales, assuming that an attribute can be ordered. If an attribute has an ordinal structure, its levels stand in ordinal relations to one another, and these must be transitive. We tested if transitivity is preserved when people compare different motives in terms of their importance to learning. We found transitivity violations in both strict (Study 1) and non-strict (Study 2) orderings in about half of the participants. Nevertheless, based on the distribution of such violations, we conclude that an ordinal structure of motivation can be found, but only when levels of motives differ noticeably. As the levels become subjectively similar, transitivity is not preserved, and the ordinal structure cannot be justified even in non-strict ordering. The findings question the mainstream practice of measuring psychological attributes before their structure is properly explored.
... Dans son modèle, Viau (2006) met en avant des déterminants de la motivation (valeur de l'activité, sentiment de compétence et contrôlabilité : Déci et Ryan, 2008 ;Vallerand et Ratelle, 2002) et deux indicateurs (engagement et persévérance). Plus généralement, la documentation scientifique attribue souvent l'impact positif du recours aux artefacts numériques sur la motivation à partir de quatre éléments : 1) le travail avec un nouveau support (Karsenti, 1999) ; 2) l'enseignement plus individualisé (Relan, 1992) ; 3) l'autonomie accrue pour l'apprenant (Karsenti, 1999a(Karsenti, , 1999b et ; enfin, 4) les feed-back fréquents et rapides (Karsenti, 1999c). ...
Thesis
Cette thèse porte sur l’appropriation des artefacts numériques par les enseignants exerçant leurs activités dans deux établissements du secondaire à Kinshasa (RDC). Ceci en prenant en compte les conditions environnementales puisque l’appropriation est considérée comme un environnement énacté. Notre approche s’est focalisée sur l’articulation entre les conditions caractérisant un environnement extérieur à l’enseignant (infrastructure numérique, par exemple) et son processus d’appropriation de cet environnement, à partir des artefacts numériques considérés comme des médiateurs entre le sujet et son environnement. La méthode ethnographique mobilisée a fourni les résultats concernant l’appropriation des artefacts numériques et les conditions environnementales (extrinsèques et intrinsèques) interdépendantes pour les enseignants, en référence au modèle d’appropriation de Coen et Schumacher (2006). Cette orientation méthodologique, essentiellement fondée sur l’étude multi-cas, a permis de documenter les conditions environnementales de l’appropriation des artefacts numériques, à partir du vécu, du cadre de vie et de la culture de référence propres aux enseignants.Notre recherche a été réalisée dans deux établissements présentant des caractéristiques différentes en termes d’infrastructures numériques, politiques technopédagogiques, rémunération des enseignants. Pour obtenir des données, deux phases d’enquêtes ont été effectuées : la première, exploratoire, s’est focalisée sur les artefacts numériques mobilisés et les caractéristiques des conditions environnementales des enseignants dans leur contexte spécifique. En tenant compte des résultats de la première phase, la deuxième phase s’est consacrée à l’interdépendance entre l’appropriation et les conditions environnementales. Ainsi, grâce à la triangulation des données (observations en situation réelle, entretiens et questionnaires), nous avons pu obtenir les résultats significatifs concernant l’appropriation des artefacts numériques et ses conditions environnementales. Pour chaque établissement scolaire étudié, les résultats ont mis en évidence trois aspects : les phases et leurs indicateurs pour deux phases de l’appropriation (transformation et routinisation), ainsi que les conditions extrinsèques et intrinsèques qui les influencent.
... The MWMS-R 20-items questionnaire was previously applied to volunteer samples to assess autonomous and controlled modes of volunteer's motivation functioning. Consistent with the SDT predictions (Deci & Ryan, 2008), the higher scores on the MWMS-R subscales of autonomous motivation (identified, integrated, and intrinsic motivation) linked positively to the work effort of volunteers (Bidee et al., 2013) and mediated between the reported values behind volunteerism and outcomes such as work satisfaction, work engagement, burnout, and overall life satisfaction (Haivas et al., 2012). On this scale, participants were asked to rate the reasons for engaging in volunteer work according to the different forms of autonomous and controlled motivations. ...
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Objective: This study aimed to explore the autobiographical foundations of specific narrative identities, which made it possible to choose medical volunteering in the time of the pandemic, resist highly hazardous conditions of working in COVID-19 "red zones," and emerge from this work with a sense of meaning and optimism. Method: In this study, we focused on the graphical life stories, self-defining memories (SDMs), and self-defining future projections (SDFPs) of four individuals who worked at COVID-19 "red zone" hospitals as medical volunteers. Results: The analysis revealed that all participants incorporated their volunteering experiences as meaningful and satisfying into their general narrative identity. They scored high on standard scales assessing subjective well-being and reported autonomous regulation of volunteer motivation. We identified narrative trunk lines and metaphors across autobiographical data, which differentiated the participants into four types of general identities extensively manifesting in volunteering identity: faith-based, influence-based, help-based, and success-based. The participants' graphical life stories, SDMs, and SDFPs showed similar patterns consisting of adult-oriented childhood, focus on mid-life events, and a redemption sequence in narration. Conclusion: These findings could be taken as touchstones to highlight the essentiality of self-continuity and persistence of self in active coping with global challenges.
... SDT regards AS as a psychological necessity and a requirement for self-regulation, which determines the extent to which employees are willing to commit themselves to their tasks and work roles [46,51,52]. We expected to find support for the link between the need for AS and the productivity of workers on sites because two psychological components can explain why autonomy predicts work performance [53]. ...
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Labor productivity is an important aspect of the construction industry, and motivation is believed to be an influential factor that affects it. While previous studies have emphasized the role of controlled motivation (i.e., external factors), the role of autonomous motivation (i.e., internal factors) has been ignored. This knowledge gap hampers further efforts to explore new determinants that increase construction labor productivity (CLP). Accordingly, self-determination theory (SDT) is promising in terms of its ability to bridge this gap and explain how autonomous motivation can be generated by integrating reasonable leadership styles and psychological satisfaction. Therefore, this study develops a novel model for assessing the effects of engaging leadership, three basic psychological satisfaction factors (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and work motivation on CLP. Based on the data collection in Vietnam, we found that both autonomous motivation and controlled motivation positively and significantly contributed to CLP. In terms of promoting autonomous motivation and improving CLP, competence and relatedness satisfaction played a key role. Ultimately, these results highlighted two crucial features related to CLP improvement in addition to the conventional view: “negative legacy” and “new light of hope”. This study expands and reinforces SDT knowledge by comprehensively illuminating leadership and psychological and motivational indicators in the construction context. It provides substantial practical recommendations for CLP improvement, such as enhancing autonomous motivation, promoting satisfaction with competence and relatedness, and reducing selfish work, which is a novel factor that negatively contributes to CLP. This factor is the first discovered in the construction domain.
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The use of reflective journals is one intervention strategy that may address the problems inherent in large classes in Japan and allow both learners and teachers to position themselves better within the context of learning and teaching intelligible pronunciation. Results from this small qualitative study show that reflective journals shift the common pedagogical focus towards promoting motivational behaviour to meet individual learner needs. In order to achieve this, students need to adopt a greater independence in the language learning process. Triangulation of data from the reflective journals, interviews and a questionnaire supports the use of the action learning framework embedded within the reflective journal design to establish realistic and achievable pronunciation learning goals. With teacher guidance and support, reflective journals promote motivational action in order to independently achieve those goals. In particular, students increased their language learning strategy use in order to develop their pronunciation. While more research is needed in this area, this study recommends teachers use this cognitive tool of student reflection as an effective strategy to increase self efficacy, focus learning objectives and develop motivational behaviour when teaching pronunciation.
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Work autonomy (WA) is an important factor in improving work performance, yet such freedom and its role in construction workforce management have rarely been discussed. To address this gap, this study quantitatively measured the WA of onsite construction workers in Vietnam, developed a new model by which to discover the function of WA in increasing construction labour productivity (CLP) and determined the ways through which WA can be cultivated and maintained. The WA of 215 workers was measured using the relative autonomy index (RAI) and an aggregated motivation index (AMI) that was developed in this research. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was conducted to examine the effects of WA on CLP. The SEM results indicated that WA positively and significantly contributed to CLP. Promoting WA required paying attention to the competence and relatedness satisfaction of the workers. Furthermore, latent and potentially extensive labour management-related problems were identified, namely, unsuccessful career development and the underutilisation of experienced workers. Three meaningful policy recommendations were put forward to solve the aforementioned problems and improve CLP: the effective organisation of crew members, the improvement of training and the improvement of site amenities. This study expands theoretical knowledge by (1) developing and justifying the AMI as an auxiliary to conventional indices, (2) proposing five conditions necessary for optimal scoring in WA measurement and (3) developing a motivation matrix that identifies and distinguishes the attributes of different groups. In practical terms, the findings support the introduction of reasonable policies that advance the career development of workers, promote WA and improve CLP. These achievements, in turn, significantly advance effective and sustainable construction workforce management.
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This study analysed the complex relationship between Facebook usage intensity, fear of missing out (FOMO), and depression. It examined the moderated mediating effect (conditional indirect effect) of Facebook usage intensity on FOMO-driven depression associated with Facebook usage behaviour among Korean university students. The study conducted an online questionnaire survey of 480 university students in Korea from 15 October to 5 November, 2021. The results showed that 1) Facebook usage intensity has a statistically significant and positive impact on depression; 2) there was a partial mediating role of FOMO in the Facebook usage intensity and depression relationship along with the internal influence mechanism of Facebook usage intensity on depression; 3) the effect of Facebook usage behaviour positively moderated the relationship between Facebook usage intensity and FOMO; and 4) Facebook usage behaviour had a FOMO-based positive moderate mediating effect on the relationship between Facebook usage intensity and depression. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between Facebook usage intensity, FOMO, depression, and Facebook usage behaviour among Korean university.
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How’s Life? This rather mundane question has become a focus of renewed attention since the first release, in 2011, of the Better Life survey by OECD and its recent updating (OECD, 2013). This survey finds its origin in the famous Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi report (2009) that suggests the creation of new indicators to measure social and economic progress, complementary to the traditional GDP marker. Beyond the Easterlin Paradox, justification for such a novel approach lies in the inability of GDP to deal with social inequities and, more fundamentally, with the multi-dimensional nature of progress. In a recent meeting of the G20 in Australia, The Director of IMF, Christine Lagarde, made it clear that viable economic development could not be separated from environmental sustainability, social well-being and equity. Another driver of our growing interest into well-being is a remarkable and probably irreversible change that happened in 2010. That year, and for the first time in human history, half of the World population lived in cities. At the same period, this proportion had already reached 90% in Australia. There is no questioning the fact that these figures have had and will continue to have a significant impact on the way we plan for and manage our cities. Future cities will have to be liveable and sustainable in order to cope with population growth and resource scarcity.
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Background: Mental illness stigma has been a global concern, owing to its adverse effects on the recovery of people with mental illness, and may delay help-seeking for mental health because of the concern of being stigmatized. With technological advancement, internet-based interventions for the reduction of mental illness stigma have been developed, and these effects have been promising. Objective: This study aimed to examine the differential effects of internet-based storytelling programs, which varied in the levels of interactivity and stigma content, in reducing mental illness stigma. Methods: Using an experimental design, this study compared the effects of 4 storytelling websites that varied in the levels of interactivity and stigma content. Specifically, the conditions included an interactive website with stigma-related content (combo condition), a noninteractive website with stigma-related content (stigma condition), an interactive website without stigma-related content (interact condition), and a noninteractive website without stigma-related content (control condition). Participants were recruited via mass emails to all students and staff of a public university and via social networking sites. Eligible participants were randomized into the following four conditions: combo (n=67), stigma (n=65), interact (n=64), or control (n=67). The participants of each group viewed the respective web pages at their own pace. Public stigma, microaggression, and social distance were measured on the web before the experiment, after the experiment, and at the 1-week follow-up. Perceived autonomy and immersiveness, as mediators, were assessed after the experiment. Results: Both the combo (n=66) and stigma (n=65) conditions were effective in reducing public stigma and microaggression toward people with mental illness after the experiment and at the 1-week follow-up. However, none of the conditions had significant time×condition effects in reducing the social distance from people with mental illness. The interact condition (n=64) significantly reduced public stigma after the experiment (P=.02) but not at the 1-week follow-up (P=.22). The control condition (n=67) did not significantly reduce all outcomes associated with mental illness stigma. Perceived autonomy was found to mediate the effect of public stigma (P=.56), and immersiveness mediated the effect of microaggression (P=.99). Conclusions: Internet-based storytelling programs with stigma-related content and interactivity elicited the largest effects in stigma reduction, including reductions in public stigma and microaggression, although only its difference with internet-based storytelling programs with stigma-related content was not statistically significant. In other words, although interactivity could strengthen the stigma reduction effect, stigma-related content was more critical than interactivity in reducing stigma. Future stigma reduction efforts should prioritize the production of effective stigma content on their web pages, followed by considering the value of incorporating interactivity in future internet-based storytelling programs. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05333848; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05333848.
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Research on how sociopolitical factors differentially affect the health and well-being of individuals is nascent and mechanisms responsible have not yet been identified. This work examined how the civil liberties afforded across 79 countries differentially affect the health satisfaction of men and women and tested one potential reason for this link: autonomy satisfaction, the experience of being choiceful, and free to express oneself. Women reported lower health satisfaction in countries that were lower in civil liberties, a relation mediated by autonomy. Implications for women and other marginalized groups most affected by a society's restrictive policies and norms are discussed.
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This study aims to explore the executives’ professional identity in terms of psychological processes referring to Dubar's (1992) professional identity model and ethos of work described by Mercure and Vultur (2010). The relational and biographical transactions proposed by Dubar were examined using six psychological scales (adaptability, protean career, well-being, motivation at work, organizational commitment, sense of work) from psychology of work and career guidance administered to 460 executives by means of an online questionnaire. We expected that these measures could explain the two identity transactions and allow distinguishing different types of executives. Factor analysis revealed two factors, each corresponding to a transaction. Cluster analyses update four distinct groups of executives that we compared to the six ethos of work from Mercure and Vultur. The discussion emphasizes the value our approach to improve our knowledge of professional identity and highlights the value of the results for career guidance practices and human resource management. Future research can extend this line by bridging the boundaries of the present study.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of emotional culture on the quality of employee–organization relationships (EORs). To understand the nuances of the influence of positive and negative emotional cultures on employee relational outcomes, this study specifically examined four fundamental emotional cultures, namely, joy, love, fear and sadness, in the cultivation of EORs. Further, as more recent emotional connotations of culture delve into the connections between employees’ fundamental need for psychological satisfaction and business success, likewise, this study proposes employees’ psychological need satisfaction as a potential mediator that explains how emotional culture influences employee–organization relational outcomes. Design/methodology/approach To test the hypothesized model, the authors conducted an online survey on a random sample of 509 employees working in 19 diverse industry sectors in a one-week period in February 2017, with the assistance of a premier global provider of survey services, Survey Sampling International. To test the hypothesized model, structural equation modeling analysis was employed using AMOS 24.0 software. Findings Results indicated that joy, happiness, excitement, companionate love, affection and warmth could meet employees’ psychological need for mutual respect, care, connection and interdependence within the organization. Such culture contributed to employees’ feelings of trust, satisfaction, mutual control and commitment toward the organization. By contrast, employees in organizations with a dispirited, downcast and sad emotional culture were less inclined to develop quality relationships with the organization. Employees in organizations where the emotional culture was fearful, anxious, tense or scared were less likely to satisfy their psychological need for relatedness. Originality/value This study is among one of the earliest attempts to theorize and operationalize organizational emotional culture, which fills the research gap in decades of organizational culture research that focused predominantly on the cognitive aspect. Also, this study expands the thriving relationship management literature, in particular, employee relationship management research by showing the positive impact of emotional culture of joy and love and negative impact of emotional culture of sadness on employee relational outcomes.
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While motivation for physical activity (PA) and PA participation have been linked, research on the relationship between motivation for PA and mental health outcomes is scant, with studies involving children largely underrepresented. Grounded in self-determination theory, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether autonomous motivation versus external motivation (a form of controlled motivation) for PA is associated with fewer emotional and behavioural difficulties and higher levels of PA in children. A sample of 87 children (aged 8–12 years) were recruited from five primary schools in Victoria, Australia. An adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ) was used to measure motivation for PA and structured parent-report questions were used to assess moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) levels. Parents also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to measure children’s emotional and behavioural difficulties. Children’s autonomous motivation was associated with fewer emotional and behavioural difficulties (β = −0.25, p = 0.038) and higher levels of MVPA (β = 0.24, p = 0.014). These results indicate autonomous motivation is associated with improved mental health outcomes and higher levels of PA in children. Thus, PA interventions that promote autonomous motivation may enhance children’s mental health compared to interventions that promote mainly controlled forms of motivation.
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Munka, szabadidő és alvás a három fő tevékenység, melyek ciklikus váltakozásai mentén éli életét a modern ember. A három alaptevékenység a múltban egyértelműen elkülönült egymástól. A határok elmosódása a későmodernitás trendje, melynek következményeképpen napjainkban két, egymással ellentétes, utazási forma terjedésének lehetünk tanúi: a staycation (turizmus az otthon elhagyása nélkül) és a workcation (nyaralás alatti munkavégzés). A tanulmány ez utóbbi jelenséget vizsgálja meg elméleti és gyakorlati oldalról: a szerző először egy saját workcation koncepciót fogalmaz meg, majd a szakirodalom és az online kérdőíves megkérdezés elemzésének eredményeként hat különböző workcation turista típust különít el és jellemez. Ezek alapján meghatározza azt a szegmenst, mely igények figyelembevételével egy adott település fenntartható turisztikai fejlesztéseket vihet végbe. A szerző zárásként egy külföldi példát is bemutat, ahol ezek a fejlesztések már megvalósultak, és sikeresen működnek.
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IntroductionSelf-determination theory (SDT), when applied to curricular construction, emphasizes curiosity, self-awareness, and resilience. Physicians need these qualities to face the challenges of clinical practice. SDT offers a lens for medical educators to track learner development toward sustainable, rewarding careers. This study describes the changes observed in learner communications about feelings of competence, relatedness, and autonomy across a 3-year family medicine training program designed to develop activated, lifelong learners.Methods This retrospective, mixed-methods case study uses a phenomenological approach to explore how 51 learners described their experiences at various intervals in residency training. Data collected from 2009 to 2015 from resident focus groups, competency assessment meetings, and faculty assessment reports inform a 3-stage analysis process to determine learner motivation levels along the SDT continuum.ResultsAggregated qualitative and quantitative data show residents’ progression from introjection (controlled motivation) in PGY1, to identification (autonomous motivation) in PGY2, and integration (autonomous) by the end of PGY3. The examination of a single learner’s data set reveals an advanced motivation level in PGY1 (identification), followed by a period of retrograde in PGY2 (introjection), then rebounding in PGY3 (identification), which illustrates how motivation level can be affected by external competency requirements and challenges related to career transitions.DiscussionThe examination of self-motivation in medical learners has implications for curriculum development, assessment, teaching and self-directed learning, and resilience training. Learner awareness of intrinsic motivation, and the curriculum designed around it, can better prepare residents for challenges during residency and help them flourish in twenty-first-century medicine.
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The understanding of elements contributing to employee performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan is still deficient. As the SMEs of Pakistan have had difficulty surviving in their early years, their initial failure rate is 90% -95%. Initially, this is a concept paper to provide useful insights into the relationship between organizational innovation, transformational leadership, and work stressor on employee performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan's manufacturing sector. The relationship between organizational innovation, transformational leadership, and work stressor and their effect on overall employee performance is established through a review of the literature. The mediating role of creativity was also an attempt to explore. In order to reach the optimum level of employee performance to increase the outcome of SMEs in Pakistan, it is mandatory to provide an open and supportive environment to employees so they can cultivate their creative ideas. This study mainly focused on the factors that directly influence employee creativity to ensure progress in employee performance. This study emerged from the fact that a very limited study is being carried out on this issue, and further research should be carried out in this field, especially in Pakistan. A model is proposed, and hypotheses will be developing and discussed based on theoretical considerations. The findings of this study can contribute to business practice by informing employee performance, improvement strategies. Business leaders could gain additional insights into strategies to engage and motivate employees to improve performance.
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Prevalence of overweight and obesity is an important health problem worldwide. It was shown that physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth individuals. However, few children and adolescents meet the World Health Organization recommendations about physical activity levels. The need to start promoting regular physical activity from an early age is crucial to avoid these problems. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to show a school-based motivational program for the promotion of healthy lifestyle in inactive adolescents grounded on Self-Determination Theory aimed at promoting physical activity adherence. The study is a quasi-experimental study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03974607) aimed for adolescents from the 1st and 2nd high school level aged between 12 and 14 years old. The program will be based on the promotion of the three basics psychological needs: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The satisfaction of these needs is essential to fulfill the self-determined motivation and psychological well-being. The length of the sessions are 60 min, 3 times per week, during 5 months. The sessions will be based on the participants’ interests. Finally, this protocol will intend to change the perception of physical activity programs in order to focus the strategies on the motivational aspects, rather than physical activity itself as was usually conducted by previous programs
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This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables-control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy-were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
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Yoked pairs of subjects solved puzzles such that one member of each pair was given choice about what puzzles to work on and how much time to allot to each, while the yoked subject was assigned the same puzzles and time allotments as those chosen by the first subject. It was predicted and found that subjects who chose the activities and time allotments -in other words, who had additional self-determination--would be more intrinsically motivated than subjects doing the same activity without choice.
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S elf-determination theory is an increasingly popular theory of human motivation in exercise and sport psychology. Its popularity stems primarily from the fact that it explains a wide variety of phenomena on the basis of very few principles related to the three basic psychological needs of competence, autonomy, and relatedness. The aim of the present volume was to gather together contributions from eminent researchers involved in applying the theory to the domain of exercise and sport. In doing so the book has provided an invaluable compendium of the current state of the research in the area, as well as outlining key theoretical advances and practical recommendations that have paramount importance in the exercise and sport domain but are equally applicable to a wider range of behavioral contexts. Indeed, many of the authors in the present volume are pioneers in the advancement of theory above and beyond the application of the theory to exercise and sport. Our aim in this final chapter is to summarize evidence in the areas addressed by the contributors to this book and make recommendations for future research. The contributions in the present volume can be encapsulated under five subheadings that summarize the key research questions relevant to self-determination theory applied to the domain of exercise and sport: (a) methodological issues; (b) self-determination theory and the antecedents of 282 Chatzisarantis and Hagger motivation; (c) self-determination theory and psychological outcomes; (d) self-determination theory and exercise and sport behavior; and (e) theoretical integration and advancement.
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Recent research in the United States suggests that individuals who strongly value extrinsic goals (e.g., fame, wealth, image) relative to intrinsic goals (e.g., personal growth, relatedness, community) experience less well-being. This study examines such goals in university samples from two cultures—the United States and Russia. Participants (N = 299) rated the importance, expectancies, and current attainment of 15 life goals, including 4 target intrinsic and 4 target extrinsic goals. Results confirmed the relevance of the intrinsic-extrinsic distinction for both samples and that stronger importance and expectancies regarding extrinsic goals were negatively related to well-being, although these effects were weaker for Russian women. Furthermore, for both men and women, perceived attainment of intrinsic goals was associated with greater well-being, whereas this was not the case for perceived attainment of extrinsic goals.
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In 3 studies, the authors examined how autonomous and controlled forms of motivation for the regulation of eating behaviors were related to self-reported eating behaviors, and sustained dietary behavior change. Studies 1 and 2 supported the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of a scale designed to measure different forms of regulation as defined by Self-Determination Theory. A motivational model of the regulation of eating behaviors suggested that an autonomous regulation was positively associated with healthy eating behaviors whereas a controlled regulation was positively associated with dysfunctional eating behaviors and negatively associated with healthy eating behaviors. In Study 3, long-term adherence to healthier dietary behaviors in a population at risk for coronary artery disease was examined over a 26-week period. A general measure of self-determined motivation assessed at week 1 was found to be a reliable predictor of the level of self-determination for eating behaviors 13 weeks later. In turn, self-determination for eating behaviors was a significant predictor of dietary behavior changes at 26 weeks. Finally, the dietary behavior measures were related to improvements in weight and blood lipid parameters (LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides). Results are discussed in terms of their implication for the integration and maintenance of a successful healthy regulation.
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Recent studies have demonstrated that external rewards can affect intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. Money tends to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas positive verbal reinforcements tend to increase intrinsic motivation. This paper presents evidence that negative feedback and threats of punishment also decrease intrinsic motivation. Subjects solved puzzles during the first part of the experimental session, after which observations relevant to their intrinsic motivation were made. Subjects in the negative feedback condition were given more difficult puzzles to solve than were the controls so that they railed more frequently than the control subjects. Those in the high failure condition showed less intrinsic motivation following their puzzle-solving session than did control subjects. Subjects in the threat condition received an aversive buzzer each time they were unable to solve a puzzle, while the control subjects did not. Those subjects threatened with the buzzer showed less intrinsic motivation than control subjects. (Author/BW)
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This study tested whether students who learned with an active orientation would be more intrinsically motivated to learn and would learn more than students who learned with a passive orientation. The active orientation was created by having subjects learn material with the expectation of teaching it to another student; the passive orientation was created by having subjects learn the same material with the expectation of being tested on it. The results indicate that subjects who learned in order to teach were more intrinsically motivated, had higher conceptual learning scores, and perceived themselves to be more actively engaged with the environment than subjects who learned in order to be examined. The two groups were equal, however, in their rote learning scores. The effects of exposure to the material were ruled out as an explanation because the two groups reported spending equal time with the material. The results are discussed in terms of intrinsic motivation theory.
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The goal of the present study was to examine partially conflicting hypotheses derived from two motivational theories, namely self-determination theory (SDT) and future time perspective theory (FTPT). In line with SDT, it was found that framing an exercise activity in terms of future intrinsic goal attainment has a positive effect on effort expenditure, autonomous exercise motivation, performance, long-term persistence, and even sport club membership. On the other hand, framing an exercise activity in terms of future extrinsic goal attainment undermined those outcomes compared to a no-future-goal control group. Correlational analyses indicate that future extrinsic goal framing led to non-autonomous persistence while future intrinsic goal framing resulted in autonomously driven perseverance at the free-choice activity. In contrast to FTPT, the no-future-goal control group did not differ from a future content-free goal group, in which the general future importance of the present task was stressed. Finally, presenting those goals in an autonomy-supportive rather than a controlling way resulted in the same motivational and behavioral benefits as future intrinsic goal framing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested the validity of the psychological processes proposed by E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan's (1980) cognitive evaluation theory when the information aspect of the situation is salient. Specifically, whether the effects of verbal feedback on intrinsic motivation are mediated by perceived competence was examined. 115 male undergraduates participated in a 1st phase wherein their intrinsic motivation and perceived competence toward an interesting motor task, the stabilometer, was assessed. 84 Ss who reported at least a moderate level of intrinsic motivation toward the task returned for the 2nd phase of the study in which they were subjected to conditions of either positive, negative, or no verbal feedback of performance. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competence were again assessed. One-way ANOVA showed that positive feedback increased while negative feedback decreased both intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Results of a path analysis conducted with verbal feedback, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation supported (1) the mediating effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation and (2) cognitive evaluation theory. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Self determination theory proposes that behavior change will occur and persist if it is autonomously motivated. Autonomous motivation for a behavior is theorized to be a function both of individual differences in the autonomy orientation from the General Causality Orientations Scale and of the degree of autonomy supportiveness of relevant social contexts. We tested the theory with 128 patients in a 6-month, very-low-calorie weight-loss program with a 23-month follow-up. Analyses confirmed the predictions that (a) participants whose motivation for weight loss was more autonomous would attend the program more regularly, lose more weight during the program, and evidence greater maintained weight loss at follow-up, and (b) participants' autonomous motivation for weight loss would be predicted both by their autonomy orientation and by the perceived autonomy supportiveness of the interpersonal climate created by the health-care staff. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. Results indicate that (a) when money was used as an external reward, intrinsic motivation tended to decrease; whereas (b) when verbal reinforcement and positive feedback were used, intrinsic motivation tended to increase. Discrepant findings in the literature are reconciled using a new theoretical framework which employs a cognitive approach and concentrates on the nature of the external reward. (26 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors propose a new common treatment factor, autonomous motivation (Deci & Ryan, 200010. Deci , E. L. and Ryan , R. M. 2000. The what and the why of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11: 227–268. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references), defined as the extent to which patients experience participation in treatment as a freely made choice emanating from themselves. Ninety-five depressed outpatients were randomly assigned to receive 16 sessions of manualized interpersonal therapy, cognitive–behavior therapy, or pharmacotherapy with clinical management. Self-report and interviewer-based measures of depressive severity were collected at pretreatment and posttreatment. Autonomous motivation, therapeutic alliance, and perceived therapist autonomy support were assessed at Session 3. Autonomous motivation was a stronger predictor of outcome than therapeutic alliance, predicting higher probability of achieving remission and lower posttreatment depression severity across all three treatments. Patients who perceived their therapists as more autonomy supportive reported higher autonomous motivation. Zusammenfassung Autonome Therapiemotivation: Ein neuer allgemeiner Faktor bei kurzer Behandlung von Depression Die Autoren schlagen autonome Motivation als einen neuen allgemeinen Behandlungsfaktor vor. Autonome Motivation wird definiert als das Ausmaß, in dem Patienten die Teilnahme an der Behandlung als von ihnen selbst kommend und frei gewählt empfinden. 95 ambulante depressive Patienten wurden dem Zufall nach entweder auf eine 16 Sitzungen umfassende und nach einem Manual durchgeführte interpersonelle Therapie oder auf kognitive Verhaltenstherapie oder auf Pharmakotherapie mit klinischem Management verteilt. Selbst- und Fremdeinschätzungen der Schwere der Depression wurden vor der Therapie und nach deren Ablauf erhoben. Die autonome Motivation, die therapeutische Allianz und die wahrgenommene therapeutische Unterstützung von Autonomie wurden in der dritten Sitzung erhoben. Die autonome Motivation war ein besserer Prädiktor des Ergebnisses als die therapeutische Allianz. Sie sagte mit höherer Wahrscheinlichkeit die Heilung oder eine geringere Schwere der Depression nach der Behandlung bei allen drei Behandlungen voraus. Patienten, die ihren Therapeuten als die Autonomie starker unterstützend wahrnahmen, gaben auch eine höhere autonome Motivation zu Protokoll. Résumé La motivation autonome pour la thérapie: un nouveau facteur commun dans les traitements brefs de la dépression Les auteurs proposent un nouveau facteur thérapeutique commun, la motivation autonome (Deci & Ryan, 2000), définie comme la mesure dans laquelle les patients vivent leur participation au traitement comme un choix établi librement et émané d'eux-mêmes. 95 patients ambulatoires dépressifs étaient attribués au hasard à 16 séances soit de thérapie interpersonnelle manualisée, de thérapie cognitivo-comportementale ou de pharmacothérapie avec accompagnement clinique. Des mesures de gravité dépressive auto-évaluatives et par interviews étaient prises avant et après le traitement. La motivation autonome, l'alliance thérapeutique et le soutien perçu du thérapeute en faveur de l'autonomie du patient étaient évalués à la séance 3. La motivation autonome était un facteur de prédiction de l'efficacité plus fort que l'alliance thérapeutique, prédisant une plus grande probabilité de rémission et une dépressivité moins forte après le traitement à travers les trois groupes de traitement. Les patients qui percevaient leurs thérapeutes comme plus encourageants en faveur de leur autonomie rapportaient une motivation autonome plus élevée. Resumen Motivación autónoma para la terapia: un nuevo factor común en tratamientos breves para la depresión Los autores proponen un nuevo factor común de tratamiento: la motivación autónoma Deci & Ryan, 2000), definida como el grado en que los pacientes experimentan su participación en el tratamiento como una elección libre emanada de sí mismos. Noventa y cinco pacientes externos deprimidos fueron asignados a dieciséis sesiones de terapia interpersonal manualizada, terapia cognitivo-conductual o farmacoterapia con manejo clínico respectivamente. Se contó con autoinformes y mediciones de la severidad de la depresión por el entrevistador tanto antes como después del tratamiento. La motivación autónoma, la alianza terapéutica y el apoyo autónomo percibido en el terapeuta se evaluaron en la sesión 3. La motivación autónoma fue un predictor de resultado mayor que la alianza terapéutica, predijo mayor probabilidad de lograr remisión y menor severidad de depresión postratamiento en los tres tipos de tratamiento. Los pacientes que percibieron una mayor autonomía en el apoyo de sus terapeutas registraron una mayor motivación autónoma. Resumo Motivação autónoma para a terapia: Um novo factor comum nos tratamentos breves para a depressão Os autores propõem um novo factor comum para o tratamento – motivação autónoma (Deci & Ryan, 2000) – definido como até que ponto os pacientes experienciam a participação no tratamento como uma escolha livre feita por si próprios. Noventa e cinco pacientes em regime de ambulatório foram aleatoriamente distribuídos para 16 sessões de terapia interpessoal manualizada, terapia cognitivo-comportamental ou farmacologia com monitorização clínica. Foram recolhidas medidas (auto-relato e entrevistas) de gravidade da depressão, antes do tratamento e após o tratamento. A motivação autónoma, a aliança terapêutica e o apoio percebido de autonomia do terapeuta foram avaliados na sessão 3. A motivação autónoma foi um preditor de resultados mais forte do que a aliança terapêutica, predizendo uma maior probabilidade de alcançar a remissão e uma menor gravidade depressiva nos três tratamentos. Os pacientes que perceberam os seus terapeutas como mais como mais capazes de fornecer autonomia mostraram maior motivação autónoma.
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The present study had 2 major objectives. The 1st was to investigate the validity of a motivational model of couple happiness based on self-determination theory. The 2nd objective was to test the postulated simplex structure and the generalizability of the 6 forms of motivation proposed by this theory. Both members of 63 couples individually completed the Couple Motivation Questionnaire as well as measures of perceived couples' adaptive behaviors and of dyadic happiness. Results revealed that the proposed model of couple happiness was supported through significant path analyses explaining 61% and 55% of the variance of men's and women's relationship happiness, respectively. Empirical support was also provided for the postulated simplex structure. Results highlight the importance of autonomy-driven processes as opposed to controlling and amotivated processes in the development and maintenance of the quality of couples' relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Guided by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), two studies examined adolescents' risk behaviors as a function of their extrinsic aspirations for wealth, fame, and image relative to their intrinsic aspirations for growth, relationships, and community; and as a function of their perceptions of their parents' autonomy support. In the first study, adolescents who reported using cigarettes had significantly stronger relative extrinsic aspirations than did adolescents who reported not smoking. In the second study, a composite risk behavior index for adolescents' use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, and their having had sexual intercourse was significantly predicted by their relative extrinsic life goals, and both students' health-compromising behaviors and their relative extrinsic goals were significantly negatively predicted by their perceptions of their parents' autonomy support.
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The imposition of external constraints on an activity has frequently been shown to undermine intrinsic motivation. Given that limits must often be set upon peoples' activities, especially in parenting and education, the present study addressed the question of whether limits can be set without undermining intrinsic motivation for the activity being limited. Using cognitive evaluation theory, contrasting limit setting styles of either a controlling or informational nature, or no limits, were placed upon forty-four first- and second-grade children engaged in a painting activity. The intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, creativity, and quality of artistic production were expected to be decreased by controlling limits relative to informational and no-limits, which were not expected to differ from each other. The results provided substantial support for these predictions, suggesting that limits can be set without undermining intrinsic motivation if they are informational in nature. Support was also found for the consensual assessment of creativity method recently developed by Amabile (1982a). Results of the study are discussed along with the general relation between creativity and intrinsic motivation.
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We tested the hypothesis that a psychosocial dental intervention formulated in terms of self-determination theory would increase patients’ perceived competence and autonomous motivation for dental care and would decrease their plaque and gingivitis over a seven month period, compared to standard dental treatment. We also tested a process model in which the intervention was expected to increase perceived dental competence and autonomous motivation, that they would be positively associated with oral health behaviors (i.e., brushing and flossing), which was expected to decrease plaque and, in turn, decrease gingivitis. We also examined whether: changes in perceived competence and autonomous motivation would mediate the effect of the intervention on dental-health behaviors; dental-health behaviors would mediate the links from changes in perceived competence and autonomous motivation to change in plaque; and change in plaque would mediate the relation of dental health behaviors to change in gingivitis. Finally, we examined the fit of the overall model with structural equation modelling. Results supported all predictions.
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According to self-determination theory, when the social context is autonomy supportive, people are motivated to internalize the regulation of important activities, and whereas when the context is controlling, self-determined motivation is undermined. A model that incorporates perceptions of coaches' interpersonal behaviors (autonomy support vs. control), 5 forms of regulation (intrinsic motivation, identified, introjected and external regulation, and amotivation), and persistence was tested with competitive swimmers (N = 369) using a prospective 3-wave design. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that experiencing relationships as controlling fostered non–self-determined forms of regulation (external regulation and amotivation). Greater levels of self-determined motivation occurred when relationships were experienced as autonomy supportive. Individuals who exhibited self-determined types of regulation at Time 1 showed more persistence at both Time 2 (10 months later) and Time 3 (22 months later). Individuals who were amotivated at Time 1 had the highest rate of attrition at both Time 2 and Time 3. Introjected regulation was a significant predictor of persistence at Time 2 but became nonsignificant at Time 3. External regulation was not a significant predictor of behavior at Time 2, but became negatively associated with persistence at Time 3. The findings are discussed in light of the determinants of the internalization process and the consequences of different forms of self-regulation for psychological functioning.
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Self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985) was used to predict medical students' career choices for internal medicine or surgery based on their experiences of the autonomy support provided by the instructors in the two corresponding third-year clerkships. Fourth-year medical students (n = 210) at three medical schools completed questionnaires that assessed (1) retrospective prior likelihood (as of the end of second year) of their going into internal medicine and surgery, (2) their perceived competence with respect to these two medical specialties, (3) their interest in the problems treated in each specialty, (4) the autonomy support of the instructors on the two corresponding rotations, (5) the current likelihood (late in the fourth year) of going into each of the two specialties, and (6) their actual residency choices. For a subset (n = 64), actual prior likelihoods of going into the two careers had also been assessed at the end of their second year. Structural equation modeling confirmed, as hypothesized, (a) that perceived autonomy support of the corresponding clerkship would predict students' choices of internal medicine or surgery, even after the effects of retrospective (and actual) prior likelihood had been removed, and (b) that this relationship between perceived autonomy support and career choice was mediated by perceived competence and interest. The present study suggests that students' experiences on clerkships do affect the likelihood that they will select particular specialties, and that students' interest in the areas are good indicators of the selections they will make.
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This study assessed three dimensions of parent style, autonomy support, involvement, and provision of structure in 64 mothers and 50 fathers of elementary-school children in Grades 3-6, using a structured interview. Construct validity data for the interview ratings suggested that the three parent dimensions were reliable, relatively independent, and correlated with other parent measures in hypothesized ways. Aspects of children's self-regulation and competence were measured through children's self-reports, teacher ratings, and objective indices. Parental autonomy support was positively related to children's self-reports of autonomous self-regulation, teacher-rated competence and adjustment, and school grades and achievement. Maternal involvement was related to achievement, teacher-rated competence, and some aspects of behavioral adjustment, but no significant relations were obtained for father involvement. The structure dimension was primarily related to children's control understanding. Results are discussed in terms of the motivational impact of the parent on school competence and adjustment and in terms of transactional models of influence.
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Studies in 2 work organizations tested a self-determination theory based model in which employees' autonomous causality orientation and their perceptions of their managers' autonomy support independently predicted satisfaction of the employees' intrinsic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn predicted their performance evaluations and psychological adjustment. Path analysis indicated that the self-determination theory model fit the data very well and that alternative models did not provide any advantage.
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Empirical research and organismic theories suggest that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards or praise relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals congruent with inherent growth tendencies. In a sample of adult subjects (Study 1), the relative importance and efficacy of extrinsic aspirations for financial success, an appealing appearance, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualization and more physical symptoms. Conversely, the relative importance and efficacy of intrinsic aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling, and physical health were associated with higher well-being and less distress. Study 2 replicated these findings in a college sample and extended them to measures of narcissism and daily affect. Three reasons are discussed as to why extrinsic aspirations relate negatively to well-being, and future research directions are suggested.
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Past studies in U.S. work organizations have supported a model derived from self-determination theory in which autonomy-supportive work climates predict satisfaction of the intrinsic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn predict task motivation and psychological adjustment on the job. To test this model cross-culturally, the authors studied employees of state-owned companies in Bulgaria, a country that has traditionally had a central-planning economy, a totalitarian political system, and collectivist values. A sample from a privately owned American corporation was used for comparison purposes. Results using structural equation modeling suggested that the model fit the data from each country, that the constructs were equivalent across countries, and that some paths of the structural model fit equivalently for the two countries but that county moderated the other paths.
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The proposition, derived from self-determination theory (SDT), that autonomy-support has a positive effect on self-motivation and well-being, is examined in two distinct cultural settings. Participants were 264 high school students from Russia and the United States who completed measures of perceived parental- and teacher-autonomy-support, academic motivation, and well-being. Means and covariance structure analyses were used to examine the cultural comparability of measured constructs. Results supported the hypotheses that Russian adolescents would perceive parents and teachers as more controlling than U.S. students; and in both samples, perceived autonomy-support would predict greater academic self-motivation and well-being. Results are discussed in terms of SDT’s postulate of a basic human need for autonomy in the context of cultural variations.
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describe a cultural perspective, outline why many psychologists now believe it is both necessary and useful for social psychology, and discuss how it is influencing the study of social psychology / review theoretical and empirical research that has taken a cultural perspective on [5 levels]—the biological, the cognitive, the personal motivational, the intergroup, and the group/cultural / at each level, our focus will be on research that examines typically unexamined assumptions about the nature of basic social psychological concepts and principles in the hope of identifying important questions and promising new directions for social psychological research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Extended findings that support cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes by exploring the effects of informational vs controlling feedback, when self-selected and administered vs other-administered, and in conditions of task-involvement (intended to create an informational orientation in relation to the activity) vs ego-involvement (intended to create a controlling orientation in relation to the activity). 128 undergraduates working on a hidden figures task received either an ego- or task-involving induction and then a series of 3 puzzle problems for which half of the Ss received informational feedback and the other half controlling feedback. Half the Ss had the feedback self-administered, and half had it administered by the experimenter. After puzzle-solving, Ss were left alone with additional puzzles and magazines and were observed to see if they worked on the puzzles. Finally, Ss completed a questionnaire assessing their interest and attitudes toward the target activity. Results confirm that controlling feedback, whether self- or other administered, undermined intrinsic motivation relative to task-involvement. Results are discussed in terms of the application of cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes and self-control theories. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Developed a 32-item, paper-and-pencil measure with 4 subscales combined to provide an overall orientation. It is shown that the responses from 68 teachers had a good range and were internally consistent and temporally stable. Further, the measure was found to be externally valid in that teachers of Grades 4–6 who were more autonomy oriented on the measure were rated as such by their students. The children of the autonomy-oriented teachers were more intrinsically motivated and had higher self-esteem than children of more control-oriented teachers. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews recent experimental literature on reward contingency effects on intrinsic motivation. Agreement emerges among investigators for most contingency effects when experimental procedures use standard terminology. However, some discrepancies are apparent, especially with respect to performance-contingent effects that both increased and decreased intrinsic motivation relative to task-contingent effects. These discrepancies are discussed in terms of cognitive evaluation theory (E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, 1980). An integration of the various effects was tested using 96 college students working on a puzzle-solving activity for whom various reward conditions were in effect. Results of the study and review suggest that it is the relative salience of controlling and informational aspects of rewards that mediate the contingency effects. The importance of the interpersonal context of reward administration for the facilitation or undermining of intrinsic motivation is underscored. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Following the review of a number of motivational systems, the author contrasts an expectancy-value theory with a drive-habit theory of motivation. The emphasis is on human motivation. Harvard Book List (edited) 1971 #354 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Self-determination theory was applied to explore the motivational basis of adherence to long-term medication prescriptions. Adult outpatients with various diagnoses who had been on a medication for at least 1 month and expected to continue (a) completed questionnaires that assessed their autonomous regulation, other motivation variables, and perceptions of their physicians' support of their autonomy by hearing their concerns and offering choice; (b) provided subjective ratings of their adherence and a 2-day retrospective pill count during an interview with a clinical psychologist; and (c) provided a 14-day prospective pill count during a subsequent, brief telephone survey. LISREL analyses supported the self-determination model for adherence by confirming that patients' autonomous motivation for adherence did mediate the relation between patients' perceptions of their physicians' autonomy support and their own medication adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the dynamic interplay among job demands, job control, and work self-determination in order to predict burnout dimensions. A three-way interaction effect was found between job demands, job control and work self-determination in predicting each dimension of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment). Overall, results showed that job control moderates the unhealthy effects of job demands in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization only for employees with high levels of work self-determination. In addition, job control increases the relation between job demands and the sense of personal accomplishment only for employees with high levels of work self-determination. These results are discussed in light of the Job Demand–Control model.
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This study explored the relationships among dispositional self-consciousness, situationally induced-states of self-awareness, ego-involvement, and intrinsic motivation Cognitive evaluation theory, as applied to both the interpersonal and intrapersonal spheres, was used as the basis for making predictions about the effects of various types of self-focus Public self-consciousness, social anxiety, video surveillance and mirror manipulations of self-awareness, and induced ego-involvement were predicted and found to have negative effects on intrinsic motivation since all were hypothesized to involve controlling forms of regulation In contrast, dispositional private self-consciousness and a no-self-focus condition were both found to be unrelated to intrinsic motivation The relationship among these constructs and manipulations was discussed in the context of both Carver and Scheier's (1981) control theory and Deci and Ryan's (1985) motivation theory
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Sheldon and colleagues have recently focused research attention on the concept of self-concordance, in which people feel that they pursue their goals because the goals fit with their underlying interests and values rather than because others say they should pursue them. Self-concordant individuals typically evidence higher subjective well-being (SWB). But is this also true in non-Western cultures, which emphasize people’s duty to conform to societal expectations and group-centered norms? To address this question, this study assessed goal self-concordance and SWB in four different cultures. U.S., Chinese, and South Korean samples evidenced equal levels of self-concordance, whereas a Taiwanese sample evidenced somewhat less self-concordance. More importantly, self-concordance predicted SWB within every culture. It appears that “owning one’s actions”—that is, feeling that one’s goals are consistent with the self—may be important for most if not all humans.
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Motivation is underappreciated in self-regulation theories (as is true in social personality psychology at large).This paper reviews the role of motivation in the context of the strength, or limited-resource, model of self-control in several domains. Sacrificing one desire in order to pursue another is more difficult when the incipient response is strongly motivated, a notion that highlights the struggle between urges and restraints.A reduction in ego resources can be temporarily overcome by strong motivation – nevertheless, ego depletion is not solely a loss of motivation: Recent experiments indicate that regulatory resources are rooted in physical energy stores. Motivational conflicts, especially the clash between selfish motives and behaviors that promote social acceptance, set the stage for the necessity of self-regulation and the circumstances in which ego depletion is most likely. Self-regulation is the self 's capacity for altering its behaviors. It greatly increases the flexibility and adaptability of human behavior, enabling people to adjust their actions to a remarkably broad range of social and situational demands. It is an important basis for the popular conception of free will and for socially desirable behavior. It provides benefits to the individual and to society, and indeed good self-control seems to contribute to a great many desirable outcomes, including task performance, school and work success, popularity, mental health and adjustment, and good interpersonal relation-ships (Baumeister,. Motivation is underappreciated in psychology generally, no doubt partly because the cognitive revolution of recent decades has induced the majority of researchers to think in cognitive rather than motivational terms. Motivation's role in self-regulation has been similarly underestimated.This article seeks to remedy that deficiency. It will examine the multiple ways that motivation is relevant to self-regulation.The relevance to self-regulation spans a wide range, from the confluence of motivation and self-regulation (as in the motivation to engage in self-regulation) to their conflict (as when self-regulation is used to restrain motivation).
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For psychiatric care workers and administrators, physical threat from behaviorally dysregulated patients is an important issue tied to many others, including workers' job satisfaction, motivation, well-being, and attitude toward patients. Yet, the impact of threats to physical safety may be offset by factors in the clinical environment. The authors tested hypotheses derived from self-determination theory concerning the relations of workplace need satisfaction and perceived threat to motivation, attitudes, and well-being among clinical staff within an adolescent psychiatric inpatient hospital. Also tested were relations between need satisfaction and treatment motivation among adolescent patients. To improve the experience of psychiatric workers and their patients, clinical staff and their administrators must attend to the satisfaction of needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence.
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Research testing self-determination theory was discussed in terms of recent work on intrinsic moti- vation, participative management, and leadership. On three occasions, managers' interpersonal ori- entations-toward supporting subordinates' self-determination versus controlling their behavior-- were related to perceptions, affects, and satisfactions of the subordinates. Data from 23 managers and their subordinates in a major corporation showed that managers' orientations did correlate with the subordinate variables, although the magnitude of the relation varied, seemingly as a function of factors in the corporate climate. An organizational development intervention, focused on the concept of supporting subordinates' self-determination, was provided for the managers. Evaluation of the program showed a clearly positive impact on managers' orientations, though a less conclusive radia- tion to subordinates. To be self-determining means to experience a sense of choice in initiating and regulating one's own actions. Recent research linking self-determination to, enhanced creativity (Amabile, 1983), conceptual learning (Benware & Deci, 1984), self-es- teem (Deci, Schwartz, Sheinman, & Ryan, 1981), and general well-being (Langer & Rodin, 1976) has stimulated psychologists to clarify the antecedent conditions that promote self-determi- nation and to detail the relevance of self-determination to vari-
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This prospective study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' course-specific self-regulation and their perceptions of their instructors' autonomy support on adjustment and academic performance in a college-level organic chemistry course. The study revealed that: (1) students' reports of entering the course for relatively autonomous (vs. controlled) reasons predicted higher perceived competence and interest/enjoyment and lower anxiety and grade-focused performance goals during the course, and were related to whether or not the students dropped the course; and (2) students' perceptions of their instructors' autonomy support predicted increases in autonomous self-regulation, perceived competence, and interest/enjoyment, and decreases in anxiety over the semester. The change in autonomous self-regulation in turn predicted students' performance in the course. Further, instructor autonomy support also predicted course performance directly, although differences in the initial level of students' autonomous self-regulation moderated that effect, with autonomy support relating strongly to academic performance for students initially low in autonomous self-regulation but not for students initially high in autonomous self-regulation. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sci Ed84:740–756, 2000.
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ABSTRACT This research ascertained the role of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavioral persistence in a real-life setting. At the beginning of the academic year, 1,042 first-term junior-college students enrolled in a compulsory college course completed a scale assessing intrinsic motivation, four styles of extrinsic motivation (namely, external regulation, introjection, identification, and integration), and amotivation toward academic activities. At the end of the semester, individuals who had dropped out of the course and those who had persisted were identified. Results showed that individuals who persisted in the course had reported at the beginning of the semester being more intrinsically motivated, more identified and integrated, and less amotivated toward academic activities than students who dropped out of the course. Gender differences also emerged. These revealed that females
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Three studies examine people's willingness to rely on others for emotional support. We propose that emotional reliance (ER) is typically beneficial to well-being. However, due to differing socialization and norms, ER is also expected to differ across gender and cultures. Further, following a self-determination theory perspective, we hypothesize that ER is facilitated by social partners who support one's psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Results from the studies supported the view that ER is generally associated with greater well-being and that it varies significantly across different relationships, cultural groups, and gender. Within-person variations in ER were systematically related to levels of need satisfaction within specific relationships, over and above between-person differences. The discussion focuses on the adaptive value and dynamics of ER.
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The utility of self-determination theory in predicting adherence to antiviral therapy (ART) was investigated in 205 HIV+ (85% male) patients. Participants completed brief structured adherence interviews and measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, and perceived competence, specific to ART. Adherence measures included percentage of doses administered and precision of dose scheduling. As hypothesized, greater autonomy support predicted greater autonomous motivation for adherence, which predicted adherence through an indirect relationship mediated by perceived competence. Autonomy support from health care providers was most predictive of autonomous motivation. Psychological distress also contributed to the variance in adherence. Study results demonstrate the importance of psychological factors in predicting ART adherence, and emphasize the role of internal motivations and competencies.
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Objective: The PA Counseling (PAC) trial tested a primary care intervention using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the guiding framework. This paper presents specific results related to SDT constructs in a physical activity (PA) context. Specifically, whether patients who received both brief autonomy supportive PA counseling from their health-care provider and intensive (3 month) autonomy supportive counseling from a PA counselor would report greater levels of autonomy support, autonomous motivation, perceived competence and PA adoption, than patients receiving only brief counseling. In addition, we tested Williams’ SDT process model in the context of PA adoption.Method: Measures of autonomous motivation and perceived competence for PA were measured at baseline and 6 weeks. PA was assessed at baseline and 13 weeks. An autonomy support index was calculated by multiplying minutes of counseling by perceptions of autonomy support. Group differences in autonomy support, autonomous motivation, perceived competence and PA were examined. The SDT process model of PA adoption was tested via path analysis.Results: The results showed higher autonomy support and autonomous motivation at 6 weeks and higher PA levels at 13 weeks for the experimental group. The SDT process model for PA adoption showed that autonomous motivation and perceived competence at 6 weeks significantly predicted 13-week PA for the experimental group.Conclusions: This study provides a rigorous field test of SDT theory in a PA context. It demonstrates the versatility and applicability of the SDT model for health behavior change. SDT-trained PA counselors appear to provide valuable contribution to facilitating patient behavior change, by increasing patient autonomous motivation for PA.