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The possibility that love and work in adulthood are functionally similar to attachment and exploration in infancy and early childhood was investigated. Key components of attachment theory—developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the role of attachment in exploratory behavior—were translated into terms appropriate to adult love and work. The translation centered on the 3 major types of infant attachment and exploration identified by Ainsworth: secure, anxious/ambivalent, and avoidant. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relations between adult attachment type and work orientation are similar to attachment/exploration dynamics in infancy and early childhood, suggesting that the dynamics may be similar across the life span. Implications for research on the link between love and work are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of an attachment-theoretical approach to the study of adults.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... The attachment style that is formed in a person plays a role in personality development and guides subsequent social behaviour. It also affects the functioning of adults, including in work , . ...
... The level of attachment anxiety makes individuals tend to have a hyperactivating strategy system, which involves excessive efforts to achieve support and closeness in relationships, as well as a deep fear of rejection by others . According to Hazan and Shaver, individuals with attachment anxiety have excessive concern about rejection by co-workers and worry about the approval of others at work . Although attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety have opposite behavioural characteristics, they both involve a great deal of effort and consume energy that trigger burnout. ...
... This finding could be explained due to attachment anxiety that makes nurses tend to have hyperactivating strategies system, which involves excessive efforts to achieve support and closeness in the relationship, as well as a deep fear of rejection by others . Similarly, according to Hazan and Shaver  individuals with attachment anxiety have excessive concern about rejection by co-workers and worry about the approval of others at work. Moreover attachment anxiety is associated with feelings of inferiority and Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 570 insecurity . ...
... Based on the care of the primary person in times of distress, individuals create internal working models of themselves and others that include individuals' feelings, opinions, or behaviors (Zimberoff & Hartman, 2002). If individuals have experienced adequate manifestations of the primary person, which has always been available, they developed a secure style of attachment (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). Conversely, inadequate immediate responses and lack of availability are associated with preoccupied or dismissive attachments (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). ...
... If individuals have experienced adequate manifestations of the primary person, which has always been available, they developed a secure style of attachment (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). Conversely, inadequate immediate responses and lack of availability are associated with preoccupied or dismissive attachments (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). ...
... 944). Hazan and Shaver (1990) were among the first to apply attachment theory to the work environment. They focused on transferring attachments from close relationships to workplace relationships. ...
We aimed to examine the convergent validity of the shortened version of the Workplace Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Leader as Security Provider Scale verifying the relationship of these scales with perceived leadership effectiveness and belonging to the organization in Slovak sample. The relationship between Leader as Security Provider Scale and Workplace Attachment Style Questionnaire confirmed a negative correlation between secure base and safe haven and insecure styles and positive correlations with a secure style. The insecure styles and separations distress predicted belonging to the organization. Secure base and safe haven and preoccupied style were predictors of the perceived effectiveness of the leader. The results suggest that although these two methodologies are related to similar variables dealing with leadership or belonging, they are unique. It is necessary to examine both constructs with other variables such as satisfaction, work engagement, or performance.
Questo studio ha indagato in un campione slovacco la validità convergente della versione ridotta del Workplace Attachment Style Questionnaire e della Leader as Security Provider Scale, verificandone la relazione con l'efficacia percepita della leadership e l'appartenenza all'organizzazione. Le caratteristiche base sicura e rifugio sicuro hanno mostrato una correlazione negativa con stili insicuri e una correlazione positiva con uno stile sicuro. Stili insicuri e stress da separazione hanno predetto l'appartenenza. La base sicura e il rifugio sicuro con uno stile ansioso hanno predetto l'efficacia percepita. Pur riguardando variabili simili sulla leadership o l'appartenenza i risultati indicano che WASQ e LASPP sono diversi tra loro.
... For example, insecurely attached individuals are reported to be more vulnerable to change due to their less successful adaptations to stressful situations (Hudson, 2013). Secure attachment has been correlated with adaptation and work-related adjustment (Blustein et al., 1995;Chen et al., 2021), leadership (Mayseless & Popper, 2019;Underwood et al., 2016), progress in career decision making (Hazan & Shaver, 1990), work-related exploration activities, and career exploration (Littman-Ovadia et al. 2013). ...
... Secure attachment has been associated with freely exploring work environments and greater work satisfaction. Insecure attachment styles hindered efficient productivity and time-dependent task completion (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). The sub-categories of insecure attachment exhibit variation in predicting job success and determining employee-workplace fit across different components of the workplace environment, including autonomy, collaboration, goal setting, and conflict resolution (Littman-Ovadia et al., 2013). ...
... Attachment style influences employee work-related behaviors, attitudes, and responses (Harms, 2011;Hazan & Shaver, 1990;Richards & Schat, 2011), and demonstrate that secure attachment facilitates work-related exploration activities, being positively associated with career exploration (Littman-Ovadia et al. 2013), confidence in receiving good evaluations by colleagues (Blustein et al., 1995), ability to negotiate (Ketterson & Blustein, 1997), and progress in career decision making (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). Insecure attachment, on the other hand, is correlated with lower levels of productive behaviors, organizational commitment (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), and job satisfaction (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). ...
This study examined the relationship between employee attachment style, organizational factors, and career satisfaction among adult employees in Turkey. A total of 288 (167 female, 121 male) employees working in two sectors participated in this study with an age range of 22 to 60 years (M = 31.8, SD = 7.4). Adult attachment styles were measured with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and career satisfaction was assessed with the Career Satisfaction Scale. A series of multiple hierarchical regression analyses and correlational analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between career satisfaction, attachment style, and organizational factors. The results revealed that organizational factors and attachment styles are important predictive measures of career satisfaction. A unique finding was the positive relationship between dismissing attachment and career satisfaction, a result we interpret as an outcome related to economic insecurity and crisis. Both theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed and suggestions for future directions are addressed.
... This theory is viewed as one of the most influential in psychology research (Finkel & Simpson, 2015) and also as a theory that has assisted the advancement of organisational scholarship (Yip et al., 2017). At the centre of the theory is the way in which bonds are created at work with others (Bowlby, 1969) and in the organisation (Hazan & Shaver, 1990). Adopting the attachment theory, the concept of attachment connects and unites a person with their environment; in the context of this study, this being the workplace (Bonnes & Secchiaroli, 1995;Le Roy & Rioux, 2012). ...
... Workplace attachment as found in this research appears to be a bond that assists public service employees and in turn helps improve their outcomes of health. This finding indicates support for the attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969;Hazan & Shaver, 1990). ...
... Ways are needed in which the organisation can make interventions that allow for employees to derive a sense of attachment to their work. Using the attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969;Hazan & Shaver, 1990;Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), this can be done through encouraging employees to be rewarded for those activities that create meaningful experiences of work (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007). Finally, given previous findings that have attributed the role of relations to fostering workplace attachment , organisations can explore ways of encouraging positive relationships in the workplace as these may ultimately have links with positive employee health experiences. ...
The South African public service is noted to be in a state of flux with challenges affecting employee health. The study investigated the influence of career adaptability on the relationship between workplace attachment and employee health. Employee health was measured through two facets, namely physical and mental health. The study formulated four hypotheses. Data to test these proposed hypotheses were collected through a survey making use of a self-administered questionnaire among a sample of 214 public service employees. The findings indicate support for a relationship to exist between workplace attachment and facets of employee health. However, no evidence existed to support the moderating role of career adaptability on the relationship between workplace attachment and facets of employee health. Based on these findings, a range of interventions targeted at employees and the public service are suggested.
... The attachment later functions similarly with the adults. People take longer to form attachments not only in romantic relationships (Greškovičová & Mrázková, 2020;Greškovičová & Mrázková, 2021) but also at work (Hazan & Shaver, 1987, 1990. ...
... The Adult Attachment in the Workplace Scale (AAW; Scrima et al., 2014) measures three attachment styles towards co-workers, arriving from attachment definitions by Hazan and Shaver (1990). According to Hazan and Shaver (1990), an employee with secure attachment likes to work, and values work relationships. ...
... The Adult Attachment in the Workplace Scale (AAW; Scrima et al., 2014) measures three attachment styles towards co-workers, arriving from attachment definitions by Hazan and Shaver (1990). According to Hazan and Shaver (1990), an employee with secure attachment likes to work, and values work relationships. If they fail at something, they do not make a big deal out of it. ...
The paper is based on attachment theory in the workplace, such as attachment to colleagues and attachment to the workplace. The paper aimed to present the Adult Attachment in the Workplace Scale (AAW) and the Workplace Attachment Style Questionnaire (WASQ) in Slovak translation: their internal structure, mutual relations, and demographic context. The research sample consisted of 386 adult working participants, of which 230 were women and 156 men aged 19 to 69 years. Most of them worked in the health and social services (12.69%), trade (11.13%), construction (10.62%), manufacturing (10.62%), and services (8.29%). The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis results confirmed the 3-factor structure of both questionnaires but in a shortened version. Correlation analysis showed the expected relationships between the styles of attachment to the workplace and colleagues. Women scored higher in the secure attachment to the workplace and colleagues. The correlations between attachment styles of the two measurement tools were significant as expected. The discussion deals with the possibilities of measuring attachment styles in the workplace depending on the object of attachment and other options for verifying the validity of measuring the attachment styles in the workplace.
... Hazan and Shaver  were the first to note that the functions of attachment figures can be observed in the workplace where leaders might serve as attachment figures for their employees. From an attachment perspective, leaders might serve as a secure base for their employees who turn to the leaders for support during stressful workplace situations, such as when a change or a loss occurs . ...
... Several studies consider leaders as important participants in attachment research [15,21,22,24], but there are only a few studies that focused on the perception of the leader as an attachment figure [23,24]. Despite the pioneering work of Hazan and Shaver , leaders are usually not acknowledged as attachment figures. Work engagement as a confirmed predictor of complex organizational performance is expected to be enhanced by a supportive organizational environment and a culture, that can be fostered by a perception of the leader as a security provider . ...
The study aimed to explore the perception of the leader as a security provider as a potential mediator of the relationship between work engagement and perceived general and citizenship work performance. Five hundred and forty-two adults completed the Leader as a security provider scale, Utrecht work engagement scale, General work performance questionnaire, and Citizenship organizational behavior questionnaire to self-report on their organizational behaviors. The perception of the leader as a secure attachment figure partially mediated loyalty and adherence to the organization's rules in engaged employees. Perceived separation distress can increase interpersonal citizenship performance; however, it can decrease organizational compliance in engaged employees. Fear of losing the leader can potentially harm the organizational goals by favoring the personal relationships before organizational compliance.
... Specifically, This study investigated the "love"/affective sphere and the "work"/career sphere; these should not be considered a complete representation of human life, yet it could be sustained that significant decisions taken in these two life areas are virtually common to the life of any adult person. In terms of previous research, for example, Hazan and Shaver (1990) implemented multiple studies where participants were surveyed about "love and work" in their lives to assess the main hypothesis that the two areas were functionally similar to attachment and exploration in early childhood, and to analyze their reciprocal influences and effects on well-being. ...
... In particular, the authors have seen that the secure attachment style is the most significant predictor of procrastination, buck-passing and vigilance decision making styles and decision self-esteem; while fearful attachment style was found to be the most significant predictor of hypervigilance decision making style (Deniz, 2011). Furthermore, a study (Hazan & Shaver, 1990) demonstrated that attachment style was related to decisions and behavior in the "love and work" life areas as adults; specifically, secure-attached adults approach their work with more confidence but attribute more importance to affective relationships; ambivalent-attached respondents were more preoccupied that love concerns would interfere with their work performance, and feared the consequences of poor work performance the most; finally, avoidant-attached persons were found to value their career as they use it to reduce social interactions, and were also the less satisfied by it. ...
People often make life choices that will affect their future (e.g. getting married). However, research on decision making focuses more on abstract dilemmas than on decision making. The aim of this study is threefold: to analyze (1) whether people rely mainly on intuitive or rational processing (System 1 or 2) when making life choices; (2) whether some characteristics of recalled life choices (e.g., difficulty in making the decision) differ between life areas (sentimental and work contexts); (3) whether personality traits and System 1 or 2 utilization may predict final satisfaction in life choices. By conducting a cross-sectional study on 188 participants' recall of selected life decisions (in the sentimental and work life areas) we found that System 1 is more involved than System 2 in sentimental choices while the opposite happens for work ones. Lastly, satisfaction in life choices is partially predicted by the involvement of cognitive systems and individual differences, with different predictors emerging across life areas. Discussion suggests directions for future research on naturalistic decision making.
... Individuals who display negligible amounts of anxiety and avoidance are described as securely attached (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). In the last decades, researchers extended the application of attachment theory to social and organizational settings (Hazan & Shaver, 1990;Richards & Schat, 2011;Ronen & Mikulincer, 2012;Scrima et al., 2015). Findings from literature reviews indicated that attachment is related to organizational behaviors (Harms, 2011), processes (Paetzold, 2015) and outcomes (Yip et al., 2018). ...
... In their seminal work studying attachment and workplace-related attitudes and outcomes, Hazan and Shaver (1990) found that securely attached individuals approached work with a positive mindset, were more satisfied with work relationships, and reported higher levels of job satisfaction. Conversely, anxious individuals were less satisfied with their job and felt more underestimated by their coworkers. ...
Despite growing interest in understanding the effectiveness of consulting in
organizational settings, the contribution of individual and interpersonal factors
suggested in the literature has yet to be determined. This article examines the
relationship among the client–consultant working alliance, the consultant’s
attachment orientation, and consulting effectiveness from the consultant’s
viewpoint. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 193 internal and
external consultants in Canada. The hierarchical regression analyses suggested that
the professional agreement dimension of the working alliance was the strongest
predictor of consulting effectiveness as perceived by consultants, in terms of both
process and outcomes. Additionally, the consultant’s attachment orientation,
whether anxious or avoidant, moderated the associations between the working
alliance and consulting effectiveness. These findings shed new light on factors
contributing to consulting effectiveness from the consultant’s perspective and pave
the way for innovative avenues in consultants’ training and professional practice
... The social connectedness factor, derived using an EFA, consisted of three indices of social support (Pietrzak & Cook, 2013), including (1) number of close friends and supportive relatives (structural social support), which was assessed with the question, "How many close friends and relatives do you have?"; (2) secure attachment style (Hazan & Shaver, 1990); and (3) perceived social support using the Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Scale (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991); Cronbach's α = 0.91. Results of an EFA analysis revealed that scores on these measures loaded on a single factor (eigenvalue = 1.72, 57.3% of variance explained); factor loadings ranged from 0.66 to 0.80 Religiosity Religiosity/spirituality was assessed using the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL; Koenig & Büssing, 2010), which assesses frequency of engagement in organized religious services and private spiritual activities, as well as intrinsic religiosity; Cronbach's α = 0.92. ...
Background: Population-based data on risk factors for suicide attempts among
veterans remains limited. Methods: A national probability sample of 2307 veterans was followed over the course of four timepoints spanning seven years to examine how a range of baseline risk factors predict incident suicide attempt. Suicide attempt data were aggregated into a single follow-up timepoint. Results: Sixty-two veterans (3.1%) reported attempting suicide during the 7-year period. The strongest risk factors for suicide attempts were higher baseline levels of loneliness, lower baseline levels of adaptive psychosocial traits (e.g., dispositional gratitude), baseline thoughts of self-harm, and greater post-baseline trauma exposures (12.3%–41.3% of explained variance). Veterans with multiple co-occurring risk factors were at greatest risk for attempts; of veterans with 0, 1, 2, 3, and all 4 of these factors, the predicted probability of suicide attempt was 2.0%,
5.3%, 13.5%, 30.4%, and 55.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Baseline loneliness, dispositional gratitude, thoughts of self-harm, and new-onset traumas emerged as the strongest risk factors for suicide attempts among veterans, underscoring the potential importance of targeting these factors in prevention efforts. Veterans with multiple co-occurring risk factors have substantially greater risk for suicide attempts, suggesting that examination of multiple coinciding vulnerability factors may help improve suicide risk prediction models.
... According to attachment theory, infants' bonds with caregivers and their early experiences become internal working models that determine individuals' self-perceptions and their expectations of others' sensitivity in future relationships (4,5). It has been suggested that mental representations, or internal working models, form the framework of interpersonal expectations in adulthood and guide the individual's emotions, attitudes, and behaviors about interpersonal relationships, especially close relationships, and influence self-development (5)(6)(7)(8)(9). ...
Objective: The aim of the current study was to adapt the Adult Disorganized Attachment Scale (ADA) into Turkish and to examine its psychometric properties.
Method: The study was conducted with 2 separate sample groups of married individuals. The first sample group, which was used to perform exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), consisted of 285 individuals (66% female, 33.7% male) aged 20-45 years (32.41±5.40 years). The second sample group, for which only CFA was performed, comprised 585 individuals (50.4% female, 49.2% male) between the ages of 21-50 years (34.33±6.23 years). The Paulson Daily Living Inventory (PDLI) and the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR-I) were used as convergent validity criteria, and the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI) was used as a discriminant validity criterion.
Results: As a result of the EFA, a single-factor structure that evaluates disorganized attachment in adult romantic relationships was obtained. The model fit indices obtained as a result of CFA were within the acceptable limits in both sample groups. The other validity and reliability values determined were also found to be sufficient.
Conclusion: This Turkish version of the ADA can be considered a valid and reliable scale to be used in studies related to attachment in adult romantic relationships.
Keywords: Adaptation, adult romantic relationships, disorganized attachment, reliability, validity
... Przywiązanie kształtuje się już we wczesnym dzieciństwie  i tworzy schemat wchodzenia w relacje z innymi ludźmi w okresie dorosłości na wzór tych występujących w dzieciństwie między rodzicem a dzieckiem. Ma to znaczenie szczególnie w przypadku bliższych, romantycznych relacji i związków , jak również orientacji na aktywność zawodową . Istotnym elementem przywiązania jest poczucie zaufania oraz bezpieczeństwa i to stopień jego natężenia definiuje poszczególne rodzaje stylów przywiązania: bezpieczny, unikowy oraz lękowo-ambiwalentny . ...
Podstawowym celem prezentowanego badania było przygotowanie polskiej adaptacji kwestionariusza Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ) autorstwa Hofmann, Carpenter i Curtiss (2016). Kwestionariusz służy do pomiaru sposobu, w jaki ludzie wykorzystują relacje międzyludzkie do regulowania własnych emocji. W badaniu wzięło udział 400 osób w wieku od 16 do 80 lat, w tym 265 kobiet i 135 mężczyzn. Badani otrzymywali do wypełnienia polską wersję kwestionariusza IERQ - KIRE, składającą się z 20 itemów podzielonych między cztery podskale: Wzmacnianie pozytywnego afektu, Zmianę perspektywy, Ukojenie i Modelowanie społeczne. Analiza rzetelności wykazała dużą spójność wewnętrzną zarówno dla podskal, jak i całego narzędzia. W celu przeprowadzenia analizy trafności skorelowano wyniki KIRE z takimi konstruktami, jak: style radzenia sobie ze stresem, defensywny pesymizm, inteligencja emocjonalna, samoocena zależna od wzmocnień, style przywiązania oraz depresyjność. Uzyskano umiarkowany związek pomiędzy KIRE a inteligencją emocjonalną oraz unikowym stylem radzenia sobie ze stresem (SSU). Wykazano również korelację o średniej sile z defensywnym pesymizmem oraz słaby związek ze stylem zorientowanym na zadanie (SSZ) i bezpiecznym stylem przywiązania. Analiza czynnikowa wykazała, iż model osiągnął satysfakcjonujące dopasowanie, co potwierdza trafność teoretyczną adaptowanego kwestionariusza.
... Przywiązanie kształtuje się już we wczesnym dzieciństwie  i tworzy schemat wchodzenia w relacje z innymi ludźmi w okresie dorosłości na wzór tych występujących w dzieciństwie między rodzicem a dzieckiem. Ma to znaczenie szczególnie w przypadku bliższych, romantycznych relacji i związków , jak również orientacji na aktywność zawodową . Istotnym elementem przywiązania jest poczucie zaufania oraz bezpieczeństwa i to stopień jego natężenia definiuje poszczególne rodzaje stylów przywiązania: bezpieczny, unikowy oraz lękowo-ambiwalentny . ...
... They are also more feared for rejection or abandonment. By fantasizing about or actively indulging in casual sexual encounters with another person, avoidant persons tend to reject attachment requirements (Hazan & Shaver, 1990), avoid emotional dependency, and avoid commitment in partnership (Brennan & Shaver, 1995). The rst clinical study to look at the link between adult attachment and marital satisfaction (Mondor et al., 2011) revealed that avoidant attachment style is a signicant predictor of marital dissatisfaction in a sample of 172 troubled couples. ...
Researchers are interested in marital satisfaction since it is significant for couples' psychological well-being. They have been studying the factors that lead to a happy marriage for a long time. Adult attachment styles, according to the prior study, serve an active role in forming an intimate relationship. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of adult attachment styles (Secure, Fearful, Dismissive, and Preoccupied) on marital satisfaction among Indian married couples. 304 respondents (152 females & 152 males) from various cities across India participated in the study. To assess the participants’ attachment styles and marital satisfaction, the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (Collins, 1996) and ENRICH-SF Marital Satisfaction Scale (Fowers, & Olson, 1993) were used respectively. The statistical analysis was determined using the Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis One way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results showed that the respondents with secure and dismissive attachment styles had higher marital satisfaction than the respondents with preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. The study found that male and female subjects did not differ significantly in their attachment styles and marital satisfaction. However, participants who were married for more than 20 years were more in number to have experienced a secure attachment style and they had higher marital satisfaction. Psychotherapists and counsellors in general, and couple therapists in particular, will benefit from the current research. Further study will aid in a better understanding of this finding.
KEYWORDS: Marital satisfaction; Adult attachment style; Intimate relationship; Married Couples; Couples’ psychological well-being.
... Social connectedness Structural social support Number of close friends and family members. Secure attachment Choose one: a) I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; b) I find it relatively easy to get close to others (secure); c) I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like ( Hazan and Shaver, 1990) Emotional/instrumental social support Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale-5; 5 items assessing how often each type of support is available when needed (e.g., "Someone to confide in or talk to about your problems") on 5point Likert scale: 1 = none of the time to 5 = all of the time. Higher scores reflect greater perceived social support (Sherbournce and Stewart, 1991). ...
The COVID-19 pandemic has had numerous negative effects globally, contributing to mortality, social restriction, and psychological distress. To date, however, the majority of research on the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has focused on negative psychological outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Although there is debate about the constructive vs. illusory nature of post-traumatic growth (PTG), it has been found to be prevalent in a broad range of trauma survivors, including individuals affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to identify pre- and peri-pandemic factors associated with pandemic-related PTG in a national sample of U.S. veterans.
Data were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, which surveyed a nationally representative cohort of 3078 U.S. veterans. A broad range of pre-pandemic and 1-year peri-pandemic factors associated with pandemic-related PTG were evaluated. Curve estimation and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to characterize the association between pandemic-related PTSD symptoms and PTG.
Worries about the effect of the pandemic on one's physical and mental health, PTG in response to previous traumas (i.e., new possibilities and improved interpersonal relationships), and pandemic-related avoidance symptoms were the strongest correlates of pandemic-related PTG. An inverted-U shaped relationship provided the best fit to the association between pandemic-related PTSD symptoms and endorsement of PTG, with moderate severity of PTSD symptoms optimally efficient in identifying veterans who endorsed PTG.
Results of this study suggest that psychosocial interventions that promote more deliberate and organized rumination about the pandemic and enhance PTG in response to prior traumatic events may help facilitate positive psychological changes related to the COVID-19 pandemic in U.S. military veterans. Longitudinal studies on functional correlates of PTG may help inform whether these changes are constructive vs. illusory in nature.
... Attachment theory has originally hypothesized the predisposition of humans to form and preserve strong emotional bonds with their caregivers . However, later, the likelihood of emotional bondage beyond humans has been suggested, in the forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder , compulsive work , or various types of addictions . Thus, Van Gordon et al  conclude that unhealthy attachments to objects, people, or situations may be developed. ...
Background: There is a growing interest in nomophobia, which is defined as the fear of being out of cellular phone contact, or "feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals when they are unable to use their mobile phones or utilize the affordances these devices provide". However, only limited research can be found in terms of its determinants at present. Contemporary literature suggests that the relationships among attachment styles, mindfulness, and nomophobia have not been investigated.
... Μάλιστα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας των Hazan & Shaver (1990) έδειξαν ότι η κατανομή των τριών τύπων Δεσμού ενηλίκων είναι περίπου ίδια όπως στη βρεφική ηλικία. Το σημείο τομής μεταξύ των τύπων Δεσμού ενηλίκων φαίνεται να είναι ο τρόπος που βιώνουν την ερωτική σχέση τους. ...
Η Περιβαλλοντική Εκπαίδευση (ΠΕ) λαμβάνει χώρα σε πολλά δημοτικά σχολεία. Κατά τη διάρκεια της καραντίνας και εν μέσω πανδημίας του Κορωνοϊού, έπρεπε τα περιβαλλοντικά προγράμματα που είχαν ξεκινήσει στην αρχή της σχολικής χρονιάς να αλλάξουν μορφή και να ενσωματώσουν σχέδια εργασίας εξ αποστάσεως ΠΕ. Τα οφέλη τόσο της ΠΕ, όσο και της εξ αποστάσεως ΠΕ, είναι
πολλαπλά σε ένα παιδί αλλά και στην κοινωνία γενικότερα, αφού η αλλαγή στάσεων, αντιλήψεων και συμπεριφορών των μαθητών (Ράπτης, όπως αναφέρεται στη Σκαναβή, 2004) έχει βραχυπρόθεσμα και μακροπρόθεσμα αποτελέσματα. Επίσης, προωθείται η υπεύθυνη περιβαλλοντική συμπεριφορά και αναπτύσσεται στους μαθητές η δεξιότητα να συμμετέχουν ενεργά στην λήψη αποφάσεων. Μαθητές της Ε’ τάξης Δημοτικού Σχολείου της Νίκαιας, πήραν μέρος όλη την περίοδο του εγκλεισμού στο σπίτι σε καινοτόμες δράσεις και έδειχναν υπερβάλλων ζήλο στη συμμετοχή τους.
Environmental Education (EP) takes place in many primary schools. During the quarantine and in the midst of its pandemic Covid 19, needed the environmental programs that had started at the beginning of the school year to change form and incorporate distance work plans IP. The benefitsof both EP and and distance EP, are multiple in
a child but also in society in general, since the change of attitudes, perceptions and behaviors of students (Raptis, as mentioned in Skanavi, 2004) have in short and long-term results. Responsible
environmental behavior is also promoted and the skill is developed in the students to be actively involved in decision-making. Elementary
school students of Nikaia, took part throughout his period inclusion
at home in innovative actions and showed excessive eagerness in
... Hazan and Shaver  were some of the first researchers who tried to apply attachment theory directly to a job study. They found out that, compared to insecure workers, secure workers enjoyed more of their work, had higher levels of general well-being, and also were less worried about their work relationships. ...
Introduction Multiple references to the violent and especially difficult patient have been presented by the international literature. However, there is little literature on the aggressive behaviors of health professionals in their workplaces. The aim of this research is to record and correlate aggression and attachment type data of adult health professionals. Methods The sample includes 192 individuals (43 men and 149 women) health professionals in the private and public sector, aged 20 to 60 years, who were selected by the method of random sampling. The survey was conducted from February 2018 to May 2018. The Greek version of the Aggression Questionnaire and the Greek version of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships (G-ECR-R) self-report inventory were used and the analysis was performed with the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 26) (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results The analysis shows that the dimension of avoidance has a positive correlation with hostility and physical aggression and the dimension of stress has a positive correlation with anger, physical aggression and hostility. It also seems that the stress dimension of the adult attachment contributes significantly positively to the prediction of anger and the stress dimension contributes significantly to the prediction of hostility. The dimension of avoiding adult attachment contributes significantly to the prediction of physical aggression. Conclusions To our knowledge, no studies were found in the literature to examine the relationship between the subscales of aggression and dimensions of attachment. It is important that violence in the workplace is recognized as an underlying occupational risk and not just as a matter of criminal law. Finally, more research is needed to study the phenomenon in order to make it more understandable.
... These findings are underlined by the influence of "attachment theory" in organizational research, where many scholars demonstrate the association between social relations at work and mental health, job adjustment, and job satisfaction (Yip et al., 2018;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2013;Tziner et al., 2014;Schirmer & Lopez, 2001). The attachment theory, initially developed by Bowlby (1982) and Hazan and Shaver (1990), is focused on the attachment behavioral system, a psychological program that governs the support-seeking behavior of individuals in distressed situations. The attachment behavioral system is triggered by events that result in feelings of insecurity, stress, and threat, and deactivated when receiving social support that reinstalls a sense of safety (Mikulincer et al., 2002). ...
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and synthesize research results focusing on the work environment of employees with an immigrant background in Sweden. We focus on the main conditions identified in the working environment of immigrant employees and how these conditions may affect their health and well-being. The concept of “minority stress” and the attachment theory are used to understand and interpret the findings. We systematically searched for literature published between the years of 1990 and 2020 in four databases, Web of Science, PubMed, SocIndex, and Academic Search Elite. We started the selection process by reading title and abstracts, then proceeded to read a selection of full-text studies and eliminated those that did not fulfil the inclusion criteria. We did a quality assessment on the full-text studies based on the MMAT-tool, and then performed a narrative synthesis of the results. The results show that immigrants experience several stressors in their work environment, including physical, psychological, and social risks. These risks are, among other things, associated with the nature of the jobs that immigrants are overrepresented in, with minority-related stressors such as discrimination, harassment, and threats on the basis of ethnic background, and with the lack of social support from managers and colleagues. Results also highlight beneficial factors in the immigrants’ working environment and show the importance of a supportive, inclusive, and empowering management. Our main conclusion is that Swedish workplaces need to introduce more active measures to raise awareness of and combat workplace discrimination, work harder to promote inclusion at the workplace, and eliminate physical, psychological, and social health hazards specific to immigrant employees. The leadership and management have an important role to play here, as does the employees’ trade unions and its special functions.
... The rejection of a monotropic view of attachment has opened awareness that we attach to more than just the mother. Research has demonstrated that we attach to other significant figures, groups (Murphy & Coats, 1999) and organisations (Frazier et al., 2015;Hazan & Shaver, 1990;Yip et al., 2018). While a step in the right direction, these attempts are insufficient. ...
Bowlby's Attachment Theory (AT) remains a popular way to understand infant, child, adolescent, and even adult and family dysfunction. However, attachment theory, which has not changed significantly since its inception, is a reductive theory that ignores a wider range of human needs and has caused significant hardship and trauma. The limitations of this model, particularly when applied outside the Eurocentric and ethnocentric frames of mainstream psychology, are well known. In this article, we suggest it is time to replace the reductive theory of needs that underpins AT with a comprehensive theory, one that could help us develop a less ideological, healthier, and more empirically informed approach to socialization and social care; one that might help us answer Abraham Maslow's Eupsychian question which is how to build a society capable of actuating the full potential of all its citizens.
... It refers to an inborn motivation system that leads individuals to establish and maintain relationships with significant figures in their lives (Bifulco & Thomas, 2012), from the cradle to the grave (Bowlby, 1988). Attachment theory was first proposed by John Bowlby (1969Bowlby ( /82, 1973Bowlby ( , 1980Bowlby ( , 1988 to describe emotional bonds between children and their primary caregiver; the theory was later extended to include close and intimate relationships in adolescence and adulthood (Hazan & Shaver, 1990;Mikulincer & Shaver, 2008). ...
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to summarize research that examined the associations between problematic social networking sites use (PSNSU) and attachment-related phenomena among adolescents and adults. Records were included in the systematic review if they presented original data, assessed attachment and PSNSU, were published in peer-reviewed journals between 2004 and 2021 and were written in English. After duplicates removal, 373 studies were found eligible for scrutiny. Among the screened full texts, 32 articles met the eligibility criteria. The selected studies included a total of 16,938 participants. Findings from these studies highlighted that PSNSU is negatively associated with indicators of secure attachment and positively associated with indicators of attachment anxiety, whereas results regarding indicators of attachment avoidance were mixed. Furthermore, an analysis of mediators showed that the relationship between PSNU and attachment- related phenomena is affected by individual, interpersonal, and SNS-related variables. Future directions for re- search as well as implications for clinical practice are discussed.
... According to attachment theory, infants' bonds with caregivers and their early experiences become internal working models that shape individuals' initial self-perceptions and their expectations of others' sensitivity in future relationships (4,5). It has been suggested that mental representations, or internal working models, form the framework of interpersonal expectations in adulthood and guide the individual's emotions, attitudes, and behaviors in interpersonal relationships, especially close relationships, and influence self-development (5)(6)(7)(8)(9). ...
... The avoidance represents the degree of comfort with interpersonal closeness, whereas anxiety refers to the fear of interpersonal rejection (Lopez, 2003). These internal working models influence almost all areas of a person's life, including his career development (Blustein et al., 1995;Hazan & Shaver, 1990). ...
Support at work has been linked to a wide range of positive individual and organizational outcomes. However, research to date has overlooked its influence on career-related outcomes. Drawing on attachment theory, we examined the relationship between instrumental support and two aspects of subjective career success—job satisfaction and career satisfaction—and the mediating and moderating roles of relational attachment and personal support, respectively. Results from survey data collected from employees working in Poland provide support for our hypothesized relationships. The findings contribute to a richer understanding of how and when employee subjective career success is influenced by social support and positive relationships in work life. Our findings have theoretical implications for social support, positive workplace relationships, and career success literatures.
... People you feel at ease with and can talk to about what is on your mind," and required a numeric response; (2) attachment style, specifically, secure adult attachment (Hazan and The following characteristics were assessed: sex (dichotomous: male, female), age (continuous), marital status (dichotomous: unmarried, married or living with partner), race/ethnicity (dichotomous: non-White or Hispanic; White and non-Hispanic), education (dichotomous: high school diploma or less, more than high school), income (dichotomous: less than $60,000, $60,000 or more), employment status, combat status (dichotomous: combat veteran, non-combat veteran), and length of time in military (greater or less than/equal to 10 years). Shaver, 1990), and inquired into veterans' relative comfort with relationship intimacy and giving/receiving support from others; and (3) perceived social support using a 5-item version of the Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Scale ( Sherbourne and Stewart, 1991). Veterans rated their availability of social support (e.g., "someone to confide in or talk to about your problems") on a scale from 1 ("none of the time") to 5 ("all of the time"). ...
Suicide is a major public health problem in U.S. military veterans, but little is known about factors associated with remission from suicide attempts in this population. We aimed to identify risk and protective correlates of remission from suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB) in U.S. veterans with a prior suicide attempt. Data were analyzed from the 2019-2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study survey. A broad range of sociodemographic, military, physical and mental health, and psychosocial variable were assessed. Purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness emerged as independent correlates of STB remission (24.3%-40.3% of explained variance), even after accounting for other relevant risk and protective factors. While the cross-sectional nature of the study precludes the ability to determine whether the identified protective factors are causally related to STB remission, results suggest three potentially modifiable targets for suicide prevention efforts in veterans. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness in promoting remission from STBs in veterans and other populations at risk for suicide.
... Secure attachment Endorsement of secure attachment (response a) to the following question: 'Please select the statement below that best describes your feelings and attitudes in relationships (Hazan and Shaver, 1990): (a) feeling that it is easy to get close to others and feeling comfortable with them (secure); (b) feeling uncomfortable being close to others (avoidant); or (c) feeling that others are reluctant to get close (anxious/ambivalent). ...
Homelessness is a major public health problem among U.S. military veterans. However, contemporary, population-based data on the prevalence, correlates, and mental health burden of homelessness among veterans are lacking.
Data were analyzed from the 2019–2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, a nationally representative survey of veterans (n = 4069). Analyses examined the prevalence and correlates of homelessness, as well as the independent associations between homelessness and current probable psychiatric conditions, suicidality, and functioning.
The lifetime prevalence of homelessness was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 9.3–11.2). More than 8-of-10 veterans reported experiencing their first episode of homelessness following military service, with a mean of 10.6 years post-discharge until onset (S.D. = 12.6). Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), cumulative trauma burden, current household income, younger age, and drug use disorder emerged as the strongest correlates of homelessness (49% of total explained variance). Veterans with a history of homelessness had elevated odds of lifetime suicide attempt, attempting suicide two or more times, and past-year suicide ideation [odd ratios (ORs) 1.3–3.1]. They also had higher rates of current probable posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive, generalized anxiety, and drug use disorders (ORs 1.7–2.4); and scored lower on measures of mental, physical, cognitive, psychosocial functioning (d = 0.11–0.15).
One in ten U.S. veterans has experienced homelessness, and these veterans represent a subpopulation at substantially heightened risk for poor mental health and suicide. ACEs were the strongest factor associated with homelessness, thus underscoring the importance of targeting early childhood adversities and their mental health consequences in prevention efforts for homelessness in this population.
... (Belsey, 1985: 45-64;Lenker, 2006). Στόχο αποτέλεσε το να βιώσει το αναγνωστικό κοινό τις προσωπικές ιστορίες, τις συμπεριφορές, τις συγκρούσεις και τις αμφιθυμίες των θηλυκών προσώπων των κειμένων (Arbuthnot & Sutherland, 1972: 25;Hazan & Shaver, 1987;Hazan & Shaver, 1990;Luckens, 1990: 103). ...
culture - Journal of Culture in Tourism, Αrt and Education - Vol.2, Issue 2: 33-48. ISSN 2732-8511
Η μητρότητα αποτελεί διαχρονικό και στερεότυπο στοιχείο της έμφυλης γυναικείας ταυτότητας, της οποίας η
ιδεολογική κατασκευή ενισχύεται στο πλαίσιο της σχέσης μητέρας – κόρης: Μιας σχέσης που οι ψυχαναλυτικές
θεωρίες προσπάθησαν να ερμηνεύσουν και δια της εξέτασης του τρόπου με τον οποίο εγγράφεται αυτή σε
πολιτισμικές αποτυπώσεις. Στην παρούσα εργασία θα εξεταστεί ο τρόπος με τον οποίο η Μαργαρίτα Φρανέλη
και η Μαρία Παπαγιάννη αποτύπωσαν τις έννοιες μητρότητα και θυγατρότητα στα βιβλία τους, ισορροπώντας
μεταξύ πραγματικότητας και μυθοπλασίας και εξωστρέφειας και αυτοπαρατήρησης. Θα ερευνηθεί αν στα
μυθιστορήματά τους κατόρθωσαν να αποδομήσουν τα κοινωνικά κατασκευασμένα καθήκοντα των γυναικών
μέσα από διαφορετικές υποκειμενικές αναπαραστάσεις. Μέσα από τη συγκριτική ανάλυση των έργων και των
γυναικείων προσώπων που δρουν σε αυτά, θα γίνει προσπάθεια να καταδειχθεί κατά πόσον η σύγχρονη
Λογοτεχνία για παιδιά δύναται να συνεισφέρει στην επιβεβαίωση ή διάψευση απόψεων ειδικών από
διαφορετικούς κλάδους σχετικά με τη μητρική πρακτική: αν, δηλαδή, η συμπεριφορά της μητέρας επηρεάζει
την ψυχοσύνθεση της θυγατέρας και, κατ’ επέκταση, τη διαμόρφωση της ταυτότητάς της.
Λέξεις-κλειδιά: Νεανικό μυθιστόρημα, αυτοβιογραφικός λόγος, επιστολικός λόγος, μητρότητα, θυγατρότητα.
... Our finding that avoidantly attached parents engaged in fewer social and leisure activities is consistent with previous research. For example, Hazan and Shaver (1990) found that avoidantly attached adults are likely to use work as a means to avoid social activities and are less likely than others to engage in enjoyable leisure activities (e.g., vacations). Given that decreased leisure engagement has been linked to depression in adults (Luo, 2010), and avoidantly attached parents exhibited heightened depression in our study, leisure engagement may be a useful target to support functioning and wellbeing in avoidantly attached parents of children with persistent pain. ...
Clinicians and researchers have increasingly identified that individuals often co-present with sensory processing and attachment difficulties. To understand and support clients with difficulties related to sensory processing and/or attachment, more research is needed to understand how and why these two constructs are related, particularly in the context of contemporary research on psychophysiology and childhood adversity. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the ways in which sensory processing and attachment patterns are related, the reasons they may be related, and to examine the implications of this relationship for areas of functioning and wellbeing.
A scoping review was undertaken to examine evidence for a relationship between sensory processing and attachment patterns across the lifespan. There is emerging evidence in children that attachment security is related to better sensory modulation (i.e., self-regulation in response to sensations). In adults, there is also evidence that having a low sensory threshold (i.e., easily noticing and/or becoming overwhelmed by sensory stimuli) is related to attachment anxiety and, to a lesser extent, attachment avoidance. Findings from this review highlighted a need for further research in this area, including research: (1) examining the impact of childhood experiences on the relationship between sensory processing and attachment patterns; (2) investigating the psychophysiological underpinnings of sensory processing; and (3) exploring the implications for sensory processing and attachment on functioning and wellbeing. Based on the findings of this scoping review and a broader review of relevant research and theories, three cross-sectional studies were designed to address these gaps in the literature and lay the foundation for the proposition of a new model to understand the complex interactions between these factors.
The first study was a laboratory-based study with a non-clinical young adult sample. This study aimed to determine whether different sensory processing patterns were associated with differences in autonomic functioning before, during and after a physical stressor. In the study, a low sensory threshold was related to unique patterns of autonomic activity and reactivity, which varied by gender. Previous studies have found that autonomic arousal may underpin patterns of attachment insecurity and explain the behavioural patterns of people who have experience childhood adversity. This study therefore indicates that autonomic arousal may be a potential psychophysiological factor that underpins the relationship between these constructs.
The second study was an online survey with a non-clinical adult sample designed to investigate the links between sensory processing patterns, attachment patterns, and childhood experiences. In this study, it was found that childhood adversity predicted more attachment anxiety in adulthood for highly sensitive individuals. However, childhood adversity predicted more attachment avoidance for individuals with low levels of sensitivity. These findings indicate that sensory processing sensitivity interacts with childhood adversity to shape the type of attachment pattern an individual experiences in adulthood. The second study also produced a second paper that investigated the interaction effect between childhood adversity and sensory processing sensitivity on meaningful activity engagement in adulthood. Sensory processing sensitivity was not related to meaningful activity engagement and did not moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and meaningful activity engagement. Childhood adversity did, however, directly affect an individual’s level of meaningful activity engagement in adulthood. This finding supports the involvement of early intervention occupational therapists for individuals who experience childhood adversity as they are more likely to have long-term difficulties with meaningful activity engagement, which has important implications for their health and wellbeing.
The third study investigated the implications of sensory processing and attachment patterns for functioning in families of children with persistent pain. Pain is a sensory experience that can trigger an individual’s threat response and activate their attachment system. Children with persistent pain often co-present with sensory processing and attachment difficulties, which impact their wellbeing and functioning. Because it was theorised that a child’s sensory processing and attachment patterns impact the child-caregiver relationship, it was expected that the child’s sensory processing and attachment patterns may also affect caregiver functioning in this context. However, it was found that the children’s sensory processing patterns were not related to parent functioning. Child and parent attachment avoidance were, however, significantly related to poorer parent functioning in a range of domains. Because the study did not investigate parent sensory processing patterns, further research is needed to understand how the interaction between child and caregiver sensory processing patterns may affect the attachment relationship and family functioning.
When considering the findings of these studies alongside the contemporary literature, there is growing evidence that sensory processing, attachment patterns, and childhood experiences are interrelated factors that may be underpinned by autonomic arousal. However, it is evident that there is a need for an integrative model that conceptualises sensory processing in the context of attachment, childhood experiences, and autonomic functioning. The Dyadic Model of Sensory Modulation is therefore proposed in the fourth and final section of this thesis. Clinical implications and future areas of study are discussed that may help to further understand this emerging area of research and practice.
... For instance, the literature reveals that customers transmit information for a variety of reasons, including a sense of obligation, a desire to help others/altruism, and so on (Mazzarol T. et al., 2007). Additionally, it is critical to understand individuals' intrinsic tendencies for relationship formation (Hazan C. & Shaver P. R., 1990). ...
Big data analytics have altered the corporate landscape in the last several years, presenting firms with both opportunities and obstacles. On one side, employing big data ability to enhance creating, growing, and encouraging deeper consumer connection, which has become a crucial field of business and study. On the other side, the zakat institution is also accountable for zakat collecting activities and is obligated to consistently improve them. Understanding the strategic relevance of data and the actions that may be taken because of data analysis is vital for zakat institutions. Thus, this study objectives are to provide different data kinds to suit the requirements of big data analytics. The research employed an exploratory approach, which comprised secondary research approaches, which required compiling data from previously published primary research. Several sources of information were employed to create this research, including web research and book reviews. As a result, this research proposes four sorts of data namely identification data, quantitative data, descriptive data, and qualitative data, as a preliminary concept of muzakki data requirements for big data analytics with the purpose of enhancing zakat collection by zakat organizations.
... Children with such relationships internalize insecure behaviors and consequently have difficulty developing positive self-concept (e.g., self-efficacy, self-esteem) and social relationships (e.g., lack of trust, support, or openness in relationships) into adulthood (Bartholomew, 1990;1997;Hazan & Shaver, 1990;Yip et al., 2015). Poor self-concept and the inability to develop supportive, secure relationships then create opportunities for additional stressor exposure (Pearlin, 2010;Repetti et al., 2002). ...
This study uses a life course stress and attachment framework to examine the relationship between childhood psychological maltreatment and adulthood work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW). We analyze longitudinal survey data across 20 years collected in the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study (N = 307). We suggest childhood psychological maltreatment is associated with reduced perceptions of control (decreases in mastery, increases in perceived constraints) and social support (reduced supervisor and spouse support), which are then positively associated with WIF and FIW levels and increases over 20 years. Consistent with attachment theory, psychological maltreatment is associated with increased levels of WIF and FIW in adulthood through increased levels of perceived constraints and reduced levels of supervisor and spouse support. Results do not show support for life course stress proliferation ideas that suggest psychological maltreatment should be indirectly associated with escalating WIF and FIW over time. Our study illuminates novel developmental mechanisms that link childhood experiences with chronic WIF and FIW in adulthood. Our findings extend the known implications of psychological maltreatment to managing two central adulthood roles: work and family. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... 399). In a seminal paper, Hazan and Shaver (1990) linked secure attachment with the ability to find a balance between love and work. ...
Table of Contents
-Editorial: The Patient’s Change: Understanding the Complexity of the Dynamics of Change and Its Precursors in Psychotherapy
Giulio de Felice, Melissa M. De Smet, Reitske Meganck and Guenter Schiepek
-The Role of Entrapment in Crisis-Focused Psychotherapy Delivered in Psychiatric Emergency Settings: A Comparative Study
Dana Tzur Bitan, Adi Otmazgin, Mirit Shani Sela and Aviv Segev
-Love, Work, and Striving for the Self in Balance: Anaclitic and Introjective Patients’ Experiences of Change in Psychoanalysis
Andrzej Werbart, Annelie Bergstedt and Sonja Levander
-The Action of Verbal and Non-verbal Communication in the Therapeutic Alliance Construction: A Mixed Methods Approach to Assess the Initial Interactions With Depressed Patients
Luca Del Giacco, M. Teresa Anguera and Silvia Salcuni
-Roles of Trait Mindfulness in Behavioral Activation Mechanism for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder
Koki Takagaki, Masaya Ito, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Shun Nakajima and Masaru Horikoshi
-What Differentiates Poor- and Good-Outcome Psychotherapy? A Statistical-Mechanics-Inspired Approach to Psychotherapy Research, Part Two: Network Analyses
Giulio de Felice, Alessandro Giuliani, Omar C. G. Gelo, Erhard Mergenthaler,
Melissa M. De Smet, Reitske Meganck, Giulia Paoloni, Silvia Andreassi,
Guenter K. Schiepek, Andrea Scozzari and Franco F. Orsucci
-A Mixed Methods Framework for Psychoanalytic Group Therapy: From Qualitative Records to a Quantitative Approach Using T-Pattern, Lag Sequential, and Polar Coordinate Analyses
Eulàlia Arias-Pujol and M. Teresa Anguera
-A Phase Transition of the Unconscious: Automated Text Analysis of Dreams in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
Alessandro Gennaro, Sylvia Kipp, Kathrin Viol, Giulio de Felice,
Silvia Andreassi, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Sergio Salvatore and Günter Schiepek
-Convergent Validation of Methods for the Identification of Psychotherapeutic Phase Transitions in Time Series of Empirical and Model Systems
Günter Schiepek, Helmut Schöller, Giulio de Felice, Sune Vork Steffensen,
Marie Skaalum Bloch, Clemens Fartacek, Wolfgang Aichhorn and Kathrin Viol
-Long-Term Effects of Home-Based Family Therapy for Non-responding Adolescents With Psychiatric Disorders. A 3-Year Follow-Up
Egon Bachler, Benjamin Aas, Herbert Bachler, Kathrin Viol, Helmut Johannes Schöller, Marius Nickel and Günter Schiepek
The aim of this study was to examine the role of attachment styles, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on the prediction of attitudes toward substance abuse among male adolescents. Participants were 199 male adolescents from Najafabad City, Isfahan province, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and the Attitude toward Substance Use Scale (ASUS) were used in this study. Analysis showed that avoidance and ambivalent attachment patterns and impulsiveness were significantly positively correlated with attitudes toward substance use. On the other hand, secure attachment style and self-efficacy were significantly negatively associated with attitudes toward substance use. Findings showed that attachment styles, self-efficacy, and impulsiveness account for 58% of the variance in attitudes toward substance use among these adolescents. This study confirmed the predictive role of attachment styles, self-efficacy, and impulsivity in the prediction of the attitudes toward substance use in male adolescents.
Social stratification is an issue worth analyzing not only in the context of current civilization changes, but also because of the opportunity to deepen our knowledge of historical times. In the case of old populations, where there are no written sources that unambiguously specify the place of a given group in the social hierarchy, physical anthropology analyzes may be particularly valuable. A comprehensive examination of determinants of health (including body height, past diseases or skeletal injuries) allows
indirectly to conclude on socio-economic status.
The purpose of the work is to compare the number and structure of injuries in skeletal series representing two social strata of the historic Brześć Kujawski (16 th -18 th century). The analyzed material consisted of 623 skeletons from two archaeological sites: Fara and Holy Spirit. The burial place – at the parish church or the poor’s cemetery, respectively – allows us to conclude on a clear socio-economic stratification of these groups. All skeletons were examined macroscopically using classical methods used in physical anthropology.
The conducted research allows to conclude that the analyzed Brześć Kujawski populations differ not in type but in the frequency of recorded injuries – the percentage of individuals with traces of injuries in the population of Holy Spirit was 23.5%, while in the parish population – only 16.8%. In the series from Holy Spirit site, skeletons with more than one injury also occurred more often.
A similar pattern of injury in both series suggests that they did not differ ‚qualitatively’ in terms of activity and events leading to injury – they document the typical trauma of human populations from that period. However, the differences in the number of observed changes illustrate the level of intensity of adverse factors, which – according to the assumptions – was significantly higher in the case of the human group representing the poorer stratum of the Brześć Kujawski society.
Liebeskummer, die emotionale Reaktion auf romantische Zurückweisung, ist ein normaler Bestandteil des Lebens und wird üblicherweise nicht als psychische Erkrankung verstanden. Dennoch kann er zu viel Leid führen und ist ein wichtiger Risikofaktor für Suizid bei Jugendlichen und im jungen Erwachsenenalter. In diesem Artikel wird der Liebeskummer genauer unter die psychiatrische Lupe genommen. Dabei werden seine Psychologie, Neurobiologie und Therapie dargestellt, die Frage gestellt, ob er mehr als eine Anpassungsstörung sein kann und sein soziologischer Kontext und seine Zukunft untersucht. Dem Liebeskummer, so das Fazit, sollte in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie mehr Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt werden. Zudem kann er der psychiatrischen Forschung als Modell dienen, um Aspekte stressbezogener Erkrankungen wie Anpassungsstörungen, anhaltende Trauer, posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen, Depressionen und Sucht besser untersuchen und verstehen zu können.
In the course of the Covid-19 crisis, teachers and students experienced a prolonged separation from vital social needs, such as social interaction, and therefore many of them felt a sense of loneliness. However, while some teachers may perceive school as a place that provides comfort and support, others may be suspicious of it and feel neglected. The paper suggests a theoretical systematic perspective on the teachers’ sense of loneliness during the Covid-19 crisis and argues that understanding the nature of the teacher-school attachment can help us to identify support that is specifically tailored to the teacher.
The study of the factors causing changes in eating attitude and those that may result in eating disorders are frequently studied in clinical psychology. Besides the role of the formed attachment during an early age and their effects during adulthood period, the capability of defining emotions and obsessive compulsive symptoms are shown to be connected with disordered eating attitudes. The purpose of this study is to facilitate the understanding of the predictive role of alexithymia and attachment styles on eating attitude and their relation with obsessive compulsive symptoms. Also, the effects of sociodemographic and other factors on attachment styles, alexithymia, obsessive compulsive symptoms and on eating attitude were investigated. In this study, the data were obtained from 248 participants (131 women, 117 men) between ages of 18 and 45, without psychological diagnosis. Data were obtained through an online survey form including the Sociodemographic and Other Information Form, Three Dimensional Attachment Style Scale (TDASS), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Descriptive analysis was used to determine the sociodemographic and other variables, non-parametric tests were used to test the effects of those variables on dependent and independent variables, correlation analysis were caried out to test the relation with obsessive compulsive symptoms and simple linear and multiple regression analysis were used to test predictiveness of attachment styles and alexithymia on disordered eating attitude. According to the findings, alexithymia is the most powerful positive predictor of disordered eating attitude. Additionally, the avoidant attachment style also predicts eating attitude in a positive direction. Finally, there is a positive relation between obsessive compulsive symptoms and disordered eating attitude. Being able to reveal such relationships in healthy subjects at a preclinical stage is not only important in order to define factors contributing to the pathology of eating disorders but helps to raise awareness, which is crucial to develop preventive strategies in the treatment of eating disorders and allows prognosis in the long-term.
Social attachment can explain well the bond between users and social media, but existing research lacks measures of social attachment scales. To this end, this study takes attachment theory as the basis for scale development. On the basis of the development of multidimensional scales for adult, brand, and local attachment, it combines existing relevant studies on social attachment, selects three representative social media such as TikTok, WeChat, and MicroBlog as theoretical samples, explores the concept and structure of social attachment, and develops a social attachment scale through qualitative interviews and open-ended questionnaires. This study applied SPSS 24.0 and Mplus 7.0 to test the social attachment scale. The findings reveal that social attachment consists of three constructs: social connection, social dependence and social identity, and the scale possesses high reliability and validity. This study has developed and validated a social attachment scale in the context of social software use, realizing a quantitative study of social attachment and providing a basis for future empirical research related to social attachment.
Objective. Attachment theory contributes to understanding of organizational behaviour. This study explores relationships between adult attachment and attachment towards colleagues and predictive power of adult attachment on attachment towards colleagues.
Methods. The research sample was consisted of 412 participants (68.2% women) with mean age 40.72 (SD=11), based on available and convenience sampling. Online questionnaire included few socio-demographic questions and two tools- Experience in Close relationships (to tap adult attachment with avoidance and anxiety dimensions) and Adult Attachment in the Workplace (to tap attachment towards colleagues with
three dimensions- safety, avoidance, anxiety).
Results. We found positive relationships between anxiety and avoidance in adult attachment and anxiety and avoidance in attachment towards colleagues. We also found negative relationships of anxiety and avoidance in adult attachment with safety in attachment towards colleagues. Via multiple linear regression with two predictors (anxiety and avoidance from adult attachment) several significant models were shown. Anxiety and / or avoidance in adult attachment can explain from 7 up to 21 % of variability in attachment towards colleagues.
Conclusion. The results confirmed overlapping of studied concepts. Knowledge of adult attachment helps us to understand relationships in the workplace and some aspects of organizational behaviour.
Limitations. Used tools, participants´ selection and data collection are the main limitations of the study.
Die Bindungstheorie und daraus resultierende Annahmen und Diagnostika haben aufgrund ihrer breiten empirischen Absicherung auch weit über die Tradition der Psychoanalyse hinaus ihren Platz in Theorie und Praxis gefunden. Im Bereich der Bindungsdiagnostik sind gegenwärtig vermehrt projektive Verfahren, Interviewverfahren oder Fragebogenverfahren im Einsatz, die entweder zeit- und kostenintensiv in der Durchführung sind oder den Gegenstand Bindung nur unzureichend abbilden. Die hier vorgestellte Untersuchung begegnet dem Forschungsfeld der Bindungsdiagnostik durch die Nutzung impliziter Verfahren. An 15 Kindern aus dem Förderschwerpunkt Lernen und 70 einer Regelgrundschule wurden implizite Einstellungen zu Mutter und Vater, sowie zur Präferenz von Nähe und Spiel erhoben und in Zusammenhang zur Bindungsorganisation gesetzt. Dabei wird aufgezeigt, dass implizite Einstellungen, gemessen durch den Impliziten Assoziationstest (IAT), in einem engen Zusammenhang mit der Bindungsorganisation stehen und deshalb auch für bindungsdiagnostische Prozesse von Relevanz sein können.
This paper aims to examine the mechanisms and boundary conditions that underlie the relationship between perceived environment specific servant leadership (ESSL) and perceived organizational environmental citizenship behavior (OECB). By drawing on the social exchange and social identity theories, we explore corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a mediator and attachment anxiety as a moderator of the ESSL–OECB relationship. The proposed relationships were examined by collecting data in two-waves through a survey of 359 employees and their supervisors working in various manufacturing-sector organizations. The data were analyzed through a bootstrapping test in structural equation modeling and the empirical results confirmed that CSR mediates the relationship between ESSL and OECB. However, attachment anxiety was found to moderate the indirect effects of ESSL on OECB via CSR such that the relationships were stronger for employees with high attachment anxiety in comparison to those with low attachment anxiety. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this study’s results for management theory and practice.
Given the role leaders play in organizational effectiveness, there is growing interest in understanding the antecedents of leader emergence. The authors consider parental influence by examining how witnessing interparental violence during adolescence indirectly affects adult leader role occupancy. Drawing on the work–home resources (W-HR) model, the authors hypothesize that witnessing interparental violence serves as a distal, chronic contextual demand that hinders leader role occupancy through its effects on constructive personal resources, operationalized as insecure attachment. Based on role congruity theory, the authors also predict that the relationship between attachment style and leader role occupancy will differ for women and men.
To test the hypotheses, the authors used data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) ( n = 1,665 full-time employees).
After controlling for age, education, childhood socioeconomic status and experienced violence, results showed that the negative indirect effects of witnessing interparental violence on leader role occupancy through avoidant attachment was significant for females only, while the negative effects of anxious attachment hindered leader role occupancy across sexes.
Results identify novel distal (interparental violence) and proximal (attachment style) barriers to leader role occupancy, showing empirical support for the life-span approach to leadership and the persistent effects of home demands on work.
Emerging adulthood as a distinct developmental stage emphasizes on the age range of 18 to 29 years. According to Arnett (2000), this developmental stage only occurs in industrialized countries, but accomplished researches have shown that emerging adulthood also exists in other cultures. According to importance of identity and personal agency and lack of sufficient knowledge of the aspects of this stage in Iran, the purpose of present study is to determine the mediating role of personal agency on the relationship between parental attachment and ego identity in emerging adulthood. In this study, the participants (N=540) were students from one of the universities of Tehran, between 18 to 29. They completed a survey consisted of: IDEA (The Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood), ECR-RS (The Experience in Close Relationships-Relational Structures), Personal Agency and EIPQ (Ego Identity Process Questionnaire). The results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that attachment to parents has a direct and significant effect on personal agency and personal agency has a direct effect on ego
identity, and also attachment to parents has indirect effect on ego identity. Consequently,
the mediating role of personal agency in relationship between parental attachment and
ego identity was confirmed. The model of father and mother has analyzed separately; the
results showed that the father attachment had a greater effect on emerging adults’ personal agency.
This study identifies tourist-to-tourist interaction as a significant antecedent of responsible tourist behaviour. The mechanism by which two types of tourist-to-tourist interaction (tourism information sharing and self-disclosure) influence two types of responsible tourist behaviour (basic responsible behaviour and extra responsible behaviour) was proposed and empirically tested. The results indicate that tourism information sharing and self-disclosure positively impact tourists’ perceived group norms. Nevertheless, perceived group norms can only increase basic responsible tourist behaviour. While destination attachment can be improved by tourism information sharing but not self-disclosure, it positively relates to both basic and extra responsible tourist behaviour. In terms of generational differences, Chinese Generation Y tourists are engaged in a higher level of tourism information sharing than Chinese Generation X tourists. Moreover, the relationship between self-disclosure and perceived group norms is significant for Generation X tourists but not for Generation Y tourists.
Developmentalists have often conceptualized infant-adult ties in terms of an implicit trait construct evolved from the study of dependency. The major dimension of individual differences has been conceptualized in terms of quantitative differences in the "strength" of attachments, and a variety of discrete behaviors (touch, look, smile, approach, cling, cry) have been assumed to be valid "indices" of this dimension. These behaviors have been assumed to be significantly intercorrelated and stable across situations and over time. Critics have argued strongly that these assumptions cannot be defended empirically. It has further been argued that the study of individual differences in infant-adult ties is unlikely to he a productive research strategy and that attachment (as implying anything more than infant-adult interaction) has outlived its usefulness as a developmental construct. When, however, trait models are abandoned and greater attention is paid to the functions, outcomes, and context sensitivity of attachment behavior and to the underlying behavioral control systems that organize it, the apparent conflict between situational influences and stable individual differences can be resolved. The study of changes in the organization of behavior during development provides a framework for productive individual differences research. When greater emphasis is placed on the organization of behavior, both the stability and the flexibility of attachment behavior can be comprehended, and the attachment construct can continue to play an important integrative role in developmental theory.
Questionnaire measures of attachment style, attachment history, beliefs about relationships, self-esteem, limerence, loving, love addiction, and love styles were administered to 374 undergraduates. Attachment style was related in theoretically expected ways to attachment history and to beliefs about relationships. Securely attached Ss reported relatively positive perceptions of their early family relationships. Avoidant Ss were most likely to report childhood separation from their mother and to express mistrust of others. Anxious-ambivalent subjects were less likely than avoidant Ss to see their father as supportive, and they reported a lack of independence and a desire for deep commitment in relationships. The self-esteem measure and each of the scales measuring forms of love were factor analyzed separately. Analyses based on scale scores derived from the resulting factors indicated that attachment style was also strongly related to self-esteem and to the various forms of love discussed in other theoretical frameworks. The results suggest that attachment theory offers a useful perspective on adult love relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
As suggested by R. Weiss (1973; see also PA, Vol 75:26577), attachment theory (J. Bowlby; 1969, 1973, 1980) is seen as a useful framework for integrating research findings concerning both loneliness (especially chronic or trait loneliness) and romantic love. The present paper summarizes attachment theory, examines similarities between infant–caregiver attachment and adult romantic love, and provides an overview of 3 recent studies that examined trait loneliness and romantic love from an attachment-theoretical perspective. Parallels of 3 infant–caregiver attachment styles identified by M. D. Ainsworth et al (1978)—avoidant, secure, and anxious/ambivalent—can be found among adolescent and adult lovers. These styles are related to patterns of feelings in love relationships, beliefs about romantic love, remembered relationships with parents, and current vulnerability to loneliness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The relation between attachment styles and fear of personal death was assessed. We classified a sample of Israeli undergraduate students into secure, ambivalent, and avoidant attachment groups and assessed the extent of, and the meaning attached to, overt fear of personal death as well as the extent of fear at a low level of awareness. Ambivalent subjects exhibited stronger overt fear of death than did secure and avoidant subjects, and both ambivalent and avoidant subjects showed stronger fear of death at a low level of awareness than secure subjects. Ambivalent subjects were also more likely to fear the loss of their social identity in death, and avoidant subjects were more likely to fear the unknown nature of their death. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of attachment styles on affect regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
All basic psychological processes have proved remarkably difficult to define, but perhaps none has been as resistant as the concept of emotion. It has at times been considered synonymous with certain classes of stimulation, with patterns of facial expression, with autonomic reactivity, with the disruption of behavior, with perception of peripheral autonomic and muscular feedback, with rather special states of consciousness, and with thalamic, hypothalamic, or limbic activity. None of these definitions has proved adequate, and the time has come to attempt a different approach in characterizing the inclusion and exclusion criteria of emotion. In this chapter, we do not presume to solve the recurrent problem of definition. However, we will propose a new working defiition of emotion. it differs from others in rejecting the possibility of an ostensive definition of emotion. That is, no emotional state is ever specified by a single, unambiguous behavioral measure, or even by a pattern or set of behaviors. Emotions can sometimes be inferred from facial or vocal expressions, sometimes from observing the person's train of thought, at times by noting what the person chooses to do, and on occasion, even from what the person does NOT do; to attempt to determine the pattern of behavior that specifies an emotional state seems doomed to imprecision because at any given time, totally dissimilar behaviors can be produced by the same emotional process. Emotions are such protean and abstruse phenomena that we feel the first step in describing the nature of emotions involves specifying what emotions do, rather than cataloging their physical attributes. What permits classification of these diverse manifestations into a single unitary category is, thus, the common functions served by the diverse expressions and instrumental activities.
The field of relationship research is currently witnessing an explosion of interest in romantic love. Several theories have been proposed to explain various features of love. This article summarizes some of these and argues that they can be integrated within an attachment-theoretical framework. In the course of the argument, love is conceptualized in terms of emotion theory and as a complex of behavioral systems, involving attachment, caregiving and sex. Although a great deal of research remains to be done, the attachment-theoretical approach to love already offers several advantages over rival approaches.
Two studies were conducted to investigate the relative ability of Hendrick & Hendrick's (1986) measure of Lee's (1973) lovestyles and the Hazan & Shaver (1987) measure of attachment styles to predict concurrent relationship characteristics among unmarried dating couples. Relationship characteristics were assessed by the Davis & Todd (1985) Relationship Rating Form (RRF). Sternberg's (1987) Triangular Love Scale (STLS), and an adaptation of Rahim's (1983) Organizational Conflict Inventory. The RRF and STLS showed substantial convergence, suggesting that the Passion and Commitment scales are equivalent but that the RRF Intimacy and STLS Intimacy are not. Three of the lovestyles - Eros, Agape and Ludus - were consistently related to the couple's reports of relationship characteristics. Eros and Agape were associated with Intimacy, Passion, Commitment and Satisfaction and the use of constructive approaches to conflict. Ludus was negatively associated with the same variables. Mania was positively correlated with Passion and an Obliging approach to conflict, but not with high levels of Conflict/Ambivalence nor dissatisfaction. Neither Storge nor Pragma showed expected relationships. The three attachment styles correlated largely as expected, with the Secure style predicting positive relationship characteristics and constructive approaches to conflict and both the Avoidant and Anxious/Ambivalent styles predicting negative relationship characteristics. A factor analysis of the lovestyle and attachment style scores yielded four factors - Factor 1 being defined by the contrast between the Secure versus Avoidant style with Eros also loading positively, Factor 2 being defined by the contrast between Agape and Ludus with Storge and Eros loading positively, Factor 3 being defined by positive loadings of Mania and Anxious/Ambivalent with Storge loading negatively, and Factor 4 defined primarily by Pragma. Our preliminary interpretation is that neither theory of personal styles is complete and that by combining both along the lines suggested by the factor analysis we shall have a more adequate account of the personal styles that contribute to relationship development and satisfaction.
Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
Three studies were conducted to examine the correlates of adult attachment. In Study 1, an 18-item scale to measure adult attachment style dimensions was developed based on Hazan and Shaver's (1987) categorical measure. Factor analyses revealed three dimensions underlying this measure: the extent to which an individual is comfortable with closeness, feels he or she can depend on others, and is anxious or fearful about such things as being abandoned or unloved. Study 2 explored the relation between these attachment dimensions and working models of self and others. Attachment dimensions were found to be related to self-esteem, expressiveness, instrumentality, trust in others, beliefs about human nature, and styles of loving. Study 3 explored the role of attachment style dimensions in three aspects of ongoing dating relationships: partner matching on attachment dimensions; similarity between the attachment of one's partner and caregiving style of one's parents; and relationship quality, including communication, trust, and satisfaction. Evidence was obtained for partner matching and for similarity between one's partner and one's parents, particularly for one's opposite-sex parent. Dimensions of attachment style were strongly related to how each partner perceived the relationship, although the dimension of attachment that best predicted quality differed for men and women. For women, the extent to which their partner was comfortable with closeness was the best predictor of relationship quality, whereas the best predictor for men was the extent to which their partner was anxious about being abandoned or unloved.
The central issue of this paper is whether men's adult occupational experiences affect or only reflect their psychological functioning. Our analysis isolates a small set of occupational conditions, twelve in all, which defines the structural imperatives of the job. These occupational conditions are found to be substantially related to men's psychological functioning, off as well as on the job. We argue that the relationships between occupational conditions and psychological functioning result from a continuing interplay between job and man, in which the effects of job on man are far from trivial. This argument is borne out by an assessment of the reciprocal effects of the substantive complexity of the work (a critically important occupational condition, for which we have the requisite longitudinal data) and several facets of psychological functioning. Substantive complexity has a decidedly greater impact on psychological functioning than the reverse.
Forty infant-mother dyads participated in a short-term longitudinal study relating security of attachment at 12 months of age to exploratory behavior, social behavior, cognitive development, and language at 21 months. Bayley Mental Scale performance favored the securely attached toddlers. Securely-attached toddlers had a larger observed vocabulary than insecurely-attached toddlers, and many more of the securely-attached toddlers issued spontaneous verbal self-directions. Securely-attached toddlers were more playful with both the adult playmate and the Bayley examiner, while insecure toddlers tended to actively avoid the playmate. Secure toddlers took more spontaneous pleasure in their play with objects, and paid more attention to the features of a puzzle toy. During free play securely-attached toddlers were more intensely involved in their bouts of exploration and play than were insecurely-attached toddlers. Insecurely-attached toddlers had shorter attention spans.
As part of a large longitudinal study, assessments of attachment relationships in high-risk mother-infant pairs were conducted at 12 and 18 months. With data collected prenatally and during the infant's first 2 years of life, this study attempted to discriminate among 3 major attachment classifications and to account for qualitative changes in attachment relationships. The data included maternal and infant characteristics, mother-infant interactions, life-stress events, and family living arrangements. Several patterns seemed to emerge. Mothers of securely attached infants were consistently more cooperative and sensitive with their infants as observed in a feeding and play situation than mothers of anxiously attached infants. Anxious/resistant infants tended to lag behind their counterparts developmentally and were less likely to solicit responsive caretaking. Anxious/avoidant infants, although robust, tended to have mothers who had negative feelings about motherhood, were tense and irritable, and treated their infants in a perfunctory manner. Male babies were somewhat more vulnerable to qualitative differences in caretaking, while, for girls, maternal personality showed a stronger relationship to security of attachment. Changes from secure to anxious attachments were characterized by initially adequate caretaking skills but prolonged interaction with an aggressive and suspicious mother. Changes toward secure attachments tend to reflect growth and increasing competence among young mothers.
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