First records of hooded seals ( Cystophora cristata) in the Mediterranean Sea
Marine Biodiversity Records 01/2008; 1. DOI: 10.1017/S1755267207007804
Between the years 1996 and 2006 the Threatened Marine Species Recovery Centre (CREMA) detected 14 strandings and sightings of hooded seals in the coasts surrounding the Strait of Gibraltar. Five strandings and the only three sightings occurred on the Spanish coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. CREMA or its stranding report network did not deal directly with the stranded or sighted individuals but there were good descriptions and photographs to confirm identification. The frequency of stranding and sighting of hooded seal individuals on the southern coast of Spain indicate that the migratory movements of this species are performed by groups of young animals less than one year old.
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- "The presence of seals on the Spanish coasts is mainly restricted to the appearance of a few individuals of species whose main distribution areas are found in more northern waters, namely the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), walrus (Odobenus rosmarus ), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), Greenland seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) (e.g. Delibes & Azcárate, 1984; Avellá et al., 1993; van Bree, 2000; López et al., 2002; Alonso et al., 2004; Bellido et al., 2007; Gonzalez-Melcon, 2008; Alonso-Farréet al., 2011; Gutiérrez-Expósito et al., 2012). There are also records of occasional occurrences on Mediterranean monk seals in Spanish waters (e.g. "
ABSTRACT: The Marine Strategy Framework Directive has become the key instrument for marine conservation in European seas. We review its implementation, focusing on cetacean biodiversity, using the examples of Spain and the Regional Seas Convention, OSPAR. The MSFD has been widely criticised for legal vagueness, lack of coordination, uncertainty about funding, and poor governance; its future role within EU Integrated Maritime Policy remains unclear. Nevertheless, the first stages of the process have run broadly to schedule: current status, environmental objectives and indicators have been described and the design of monitoring programmes is in progress, drawing on experience with other environmental legislation. The MSFD is now entering its critical phase, with lack of funding for monitoring, limited scope for management interventions, and uncertainty about how conservation objectives will be reconciled with the needs of other marine and maritime sectors, being among the main concerns. Clarity in governance, about the roles of the EU, Member States, Regional Seas Conventions and stakeholders, is needed to ensure success. However, even if (as seems likely) good environmental status cannot be achieved by 2020, significant steps will have been taken to place environmental sustainability centre-stage in the development of Integrated Maritime Policy for EU seas.